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Titli Nargis, Partha Chakrabarti
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26 is a type II transmembrane protein that is released from the cell membrane in a nonclassical secretory mechanism. This exopeptidase selectively degrades varieties of substrates including incretin hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. A significant detectable amount of DPP4 activity can be measured in plasma as well as in different tissues such as intestinal epithelium, vascular endothelium, lymphocytes, monocytes, kidney, liver, adipose, lung, thymus, spleen, prostate, etc...
January 13, 2018: IUBMB Life
Jacek Stepniewski, Tomasz Pacholczak, Aniela Skrzypczyk, Maciej Ciesla, Agata Szade, Krzysztof Szade, Romain Bidanel, Agnieszka Langrzyk, Radoslaw Grochowski, Felix Vandermeeren, Neli Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Mateusz Jez, Grazyna Drabik, Mahito Nakanishi, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak
Cellular stress can influence efficiency of iPSCs generation and their differentiation. However, the role of intracellular cytoprotective factors in these processes is still not well known. Therefore, we investigated the effect of HO-1 (Hmox1) or Nrf2 (Nfe2l2), two major cytoprotective genes. Hmox1-/- fibroblasts demonstrated decreased reprogramming efficiency in comparison to Hmox1+/+ cells. Reversely, pharmacological enhancement of HO-1 resulted in higher number of iPSCs colonies. Importantly, elevated level of both p53 and p53-regulated miR-34a and 14-3-3σ was observed in HO-1-deficient fibroblasts whereas downregulation of p53 in these cells markedly increased their reprogramming efficiency...
January 9, 2018: IUBMB Life
R Bhagya Lakshmi, Vishnu M Nair, Tapas K Manna
Development and survival of all eukaryotic organisms depend on equal partitioning of their chromosomes between the two newly formed daughter cells during mitosis. The mitotic spindle performs the task of physically segregating the chromosomes through multiple stages of mitosis. During this process, kinetochore-microtubule attachment requires to be selectively stabilized to hold the chromosomes, but at the same time, it has to be flexible enough to allow kinetochore microtubule dynamicity and chromosome movements...
January 4, 2018: IUBMB Life
Qiong Wu, Shijun Yu, Jingde Chen, Yandong Li, Yong Gao
The serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) has been implicated in multiple human cancers. However, its expression and function are currently unclear and controversial in different tissue types. In the present study, we report that aberrant downregulation of STRAP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) facilitated tumor cell growth and metastasis in a phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results indicated that STRAP was frequently downregulated in HCC samples...
December 28, 2017: IUBMB Life
Tengfei Zhao, Yingxue Fu, Hao Sun, Xiaoquan Liu
The aim of this study was to examine the comprehensive neuroprotective mechanism of ligustrazine, which is extracted from Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort., against vascular dementia (VD) in rats and apoptosis in oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) PC12 cells. Rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) surgery and administered ligustrazine intragastrically for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the hippocampal biomarkers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and homocysteine (Hcy) were examined...
December 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
Xinxin Tian, Zhiqian Zhang
Disabled-2 (DAB2) has been shown to be downregulated in a variety of human cancer types including breast tumors. However, the role of DAB2 in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cells has not been reported. In this context, we demonstrated that DAB2 expression was significantly decreased in ER+ breast cancer cell lines and ER+ clinical specimens, compared with ER- breast cancer cell lines and ER- tissues, respectively. Depletion of estrogen significantly elevated DAB2 expression in ER+ MCF7 and T-47D cells...
December 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
Katherine E Badior, Joseph R Casey
Lacking protein synthesis machinery and organelles necessary for autophagy or apoptosis, aged red blood cells (RBCs) are marked by circulating auto-antibodies for macrophage-mediated clearance. The antigen recognized by these auto-antibodies is the major protein of the RBC membrane, Band 3. To ensure regulation and specificity in clearance, the molecular "clock" must mark senescent cells in a way that differentiates them from younger cells, to prevent premature clearance. Predominant models of Band 3 senescence signaling are reviewed, and merits are discussed in light of the recently published crystal structure of the Band 3 membrane domain...
December 14, 2017: IUBMB Life
Debajyoti Dutta, Larry Fliegel
Sodium proton antiporters (or sodium proton exchangers [NHEs]) are a critical family of membrane proteins that exchange sodium for protons across cell membranes. In yeast and plants, their primary function is to keep the sodium concentration low inside the cytoplasm. One class of NHE constitutively expressed in yeast is the plasma membrane Na+ /H+ antiporter, and another class is expressed on the endosomal/vacuolar membrane. At present, four bacterial plasma membrane antiporter structures are known and nuclear magnetic resonance structures are available for the membrane spanning transmembrane helices of mammalian and yeast NHEs...
December 8, 2017: IUBMB Life
Lindsay B Tulloch, Stefanie K Menzies, Ross P Coron, Matthew D Roberts, Gordon J Florence, Terry K Smith
Phenotypic assays are becoming increasingly more common among drug discovery practices, expanding drug target diversity as lead compounds identified through such screens are not limited to known targets. While increasing diversity is beneficial to the drug discovery process and the fight against disease, the unknown modes of action of new lead compounds can hamper drug discovery as, in most cases, the process of lead compound optimization is made difficult due to the unknown nature of the target; blindly changing substituents can prove fruitless due to the inexhaustible number of potential combinations, and it is therefore desirable to rapidly identify the targets of lead compounds developed through phenotypic screening...
December 6, 2017: IUBMB Life
Beata Kądziołka, Konrad J Dębski, Paweł Bieganowski, Wiesława Leśniak, Anna Filipek
The CacyBP/SIP protein is expressed at a particularly high level in brain, spleen, and various tumors. In this work, we have studied transcriptional regulation of the CacyBP/SIP gene and the influence of increased CacyBP/SIP level on gene expression in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. We have shown that E2F1, EGR1, and CREB transcription factors bind to the CacyBP/SIP gene promoter and stimulate transcription of CacyBP/SIP gene. The role of CREB was further confirmed by the observation that forskolin, a strong activator of CREB phosphorylation/activity, increased CacyBP/SIP gene promoter activity...
December 1, 2017: IUBMB Life
Anita Boratkó, Csilla Csortos
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibited membrane associated protein, TIMAP, is the member of the myosin phosphatase targeting protein (MYPT) family of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunits. The N-terminal part of TIMAP has a typical MYPT family structure with a sequence element called MyPhone (myosin phosphatase N-terminal element), a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal, a PP1 catalytic subunit binding motif, and five ankyrin repeats. The C-terminal half of TIMAP is intrinsically disordered, but ends with a functional CAAX box for lipid modification which allows localization of TIMAP at the plasma membrane...
November 15, 2017: IUBMB Life
Yingchi Yang, Lan Jin, Jinghui Zhang, Jin Wang, Xiaomu Zhao, Guocong Wu, Hongwei Yao, Zhongtao Zhang
Heat shock factor 4 (HSF4) is a member of the HSF family. In this study, by using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas-Colorectal Cancer (TCGA-CRC), we investigated the expression profile and the prognostic value of the HSF4 in terms of overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) in CRC patients. RNA-Seq data showed that HSF4 RNA expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues (N = 380) than in the corresponding normal tissues (N = 51) (mean ± SD: 3.56 ± 1.28 vs. 1.85 ± 0...
November 13, 2017: IUBMB Life
Deepali Sundrani, Ankita Narang, Savita Mehendale, Sadhana Joshi, Preeti Chavan-Gautam
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are crucial to the processes of normal labor and parturition. We have previously reported aberrant protein levels of MMPs in placenta of women delivering preterm as compared to term. In this study, we examine the mRNA levels of MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9) and TIMPs (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in the placenta from women delivering preterm as compared with term and further study the promoter DNA methylation of the MMP-9 gene in a sub-sample of term and preterm placentae...
November 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
Ido Nissim, Ayana Dagan-Wiener, Masha Y Niv
The role of bitter taste-one of the few basic taste modalities-is commonly assumed to signal toxicity and alert animals against consuming harmful compounds. However, it is known that some toxic compounds are not bitter and that many bitter compounds have negligible toxicity while having important health benefits. Here we apply a quantitative analysis of the chemical space to shed light on the bitterness-toxicity relationship. Using the BitterDB dataset of bitter molecules, The BitterPredict prediction tool, and datasets of toxic compounds, we quantify the identity and similarity between bitter and toxic compounds...
November 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
Tianxue Zhao, Ziwei Lin, Hui Zhu, Chen Wang, Weiping Jia
The aim of the work was to determine the effect of body fat change on risk of diabetes in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) population. A total of 1,857 NGT subjects were included and followed up for an average period of 44.57 months. Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjects were grouped based on the BF% and/or body mass index (BMI) state. Among all subjects, 28 developed diabetes after follow-up. Compared with subjects with stable normal BF% (control), subjects who became obesity at follow-up were defects in insulin secretion and had a higher risk of developing diabetes (7...
November 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
Eva-Maria Katzenmaier, Matthias Kloor, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Johannes Gebert, Juergen Kopitz
Galectins, a class of lectins with specificity for ß-galactoside containing glycoconjugates, modulate several cellular processes that are involved in the control of normal cell growth, differentiation, cell-cell, and cell matrix interactions. Pathological alterations of the galectin expression pattern have been implicated in the development and progression of cancer. We therefore analyzed epigenetic mechanisms for control of galectin expression in 9 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Our data demonstrate that expression of galectins-1, -2, -7, -8, and -9 can be regulated by histone acetylation in CRC cell lines...
November 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
Julieta Marrone, Mauro Danielli, César I Gaspari, Raúl A Marinelli
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to cause cholestasis in sepsis. There is evidence that a defective expression of canalicular aquaporin water channels contributes to bile secretory failure in LPS-induced cholestasis. Thus, we studied whether the hepatic adenovirus-mediated transfer of human aquaporin-1 gene (haqp1) can improve the cholestasis induced by LPS. Adenoviral vector encoding hAQP1 (AdhAQP1) or control vector was administered to rats by retrograde intrabiliary infusion. Hepatocyte canalicular hAQP1 expression was assessed by liver immunostaining and immunoblotting in purified plasma membranes...
October 31, 2017: IUBMB Life
Tatiana N Sharapova, Olga K Ivanova, Vladimir S Prasolov, Elena A Romanova, Lidia P Sashchenko, Denis V Yashin
The innate immunity protein Tag7 (PGRP-S, PGLYRP1) is involved in antimicrobial and antitumor defense. As shown in our previous studies, Tag7 specifically interacts with the major heat shock protein Hsp70 to form a stable Tag7-Hsp70 complex with cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. A stable complex of Tag7 with the calcium-binding protein Mts1 (S100A4) stimulates migration of lymphocytes. Moreover, Tag7 can activate cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize and kill HLA-negative tumor cells. Here, we have shown that Tag 7 treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) results in activation of different cytotoxic lymphocyte populations-natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes-that kill Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) infected SC-1 cells using different mechanisms of cell death induction...
October 30, 2017: IUBMB Life
Xiangdong Liu, Xiang Gao, Wentao Zhang, Tianyi Zhu, Wei Bi, Yanrong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in a wide range of biological processes including angiogenesis. MiR-204 was identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancer types, including lung adenocarcinoma. However, the function of miR-204 in lung tumor angiogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that the miR-204 expression was decreased in lung adenocarcinoma based on the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) analysis and gain-of-function experiment showed that miR-204 promoted cancer cell apoptosis and suppressed cell proliferation, migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo...
January 2018: IUBMB Life
Geetika Sharma, Harsha Raheja, Saumitra Das
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has infected over 170 million people world-wide. This infection causes severe liver damage that can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma leading to death of the infected patients. Development of a cell culture model system for the study of HCV infection in the recent past has helped the researchers world-wide to understand the biology of this virus. Studies over the past decade have revealed the tricks played by the virus to sustain itself, for as long as 40 years, in the host setup without being eliminated by the immune system...
January 2018: IUBMB Life
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