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Liping Sun, Chaofeng Hu, Xinzhou Zhang
This study aims to investigate the effects of TNF receptors associated factor 3 (TRAF3) on the signaling pathway and expression of downstream products of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the epithelial cells of renal ducts in individuals with polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We observe the TRAF3 genic overexpression of the epithelial cells, which form a tubular branch structure, in polycystic kidneys and to explore the protective effect of TRAF3 on the cystogenesis and progression of PKD. Western blotting analysis was conducted to examine the signaling changes of NF-κB in PKD the epithelial cells and TRAF3 transgenic PKD epithelial cells...
February 10, 2017: IUBMB Life
Wei-Jia Feng, Hui Wang, Chao Shen, Jun-Feng Zhu, Xiao-Dong Chen
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a developmental disorder that has long-term chronic pain and limited hip joint mobility as major pathological characteristics. This study aims to access the association between the development of DDH and cartilage metabolic disorders. Cartilage tissue samples were acquired from patients with DDH, osteoarthritis (OA) and femoral neck fracture. The proteoglycan level was evaluated by safranin O-fast green, toluidine blue and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of collagen-II (Col-II), collagen-X (Col-X) and metal matrix proteinase-13 (MMP-13) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting analysis...
February 10, 2017: IUBMB Life
Eman M Mohamed, Shaimaa A Abdelrahman, Samia Hussein, Sally M Shalaby, Hala Mosaad, Ahmed M B Awad
Traumatic optic neuropathy is an important cause of severe vision loss. So, many attempts were performed to transplant stem cells systemically or locally to regenerate the injured retina. In this study, we investigated the effect of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUBMSCs) on histological structure, apoptotic, antiapoptotic, oxidant and antioxidant markers in an experimental model of cryo-induced retinal damage in mice. Forty-eight mice were included with 4 major groups; group I contained 18 mice as controls...
February 5, 2017: IUBMB Life
Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni, Serena Smeazzetto
ATP7A and ATP7B are Cu(+) -transporting ATPases of subclass IB and play a fundamental role in intracellular copper homeostasis. ATP7A/B transfer Cu(+) ions across the membrane from delivery to acceptor proteins without establishing a free Cu(+) gradient. Transfer of copper across the membrane is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Current measurements on solid supported membranes (SSM) were performed to investigate the mechanism of copper-related charge transfer across ATP7A and ATP7B. SSM measurements demonstrated that electrogenic copper displacement occurs within ATP7A/B following addition of ATP and formation of the phosphorylated intermediate...
February 5, 2017: IUBMB Life
Manu Sánchez, Laura Sabio, Natividad Gálvez, Mercè Capdevila, Jose M Dominguez-Vera
Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms on Earth. It is necessary for a number of crucial processes such as hemoglobin and myoglobin transport and storage of oxygen in mammals; electron transfer support in a variety of iron-sulfur protein or cytochrome reactions; and activation and catalysis of reactions of a wide range of substrate like alkanes, olefins, and alcohols. Living organisms adopted iron as the main metal to carry out all of these functions due to the rich coordination chemistry of its two main redox states, Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) , and because of its abundance in the Earth's crust and oceans...
February 2, 2017: IUBMB Life
Akshay Vishwanatha, Cletus Joseph Michael D'Souza
Glycolytic inhibitors are of interest therapeutically as they are effective against cancers that display increased glycolytic rate and mitochondrial defects. 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG) is one such glycolytic inhibitor and was identified to be a competitive inhibitor of glucose. Studies from past few decades have shown that the mechanism of action of 2-DG is complex involving several metabolic and signaling pathways. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are two important models for studying metabolism, cell cycle and cell signaling...
January 17, 2017: IUBMB Life
Nabil A Soliman, Somia H Abd-Allah, Samia Hussein, Muhammad Alaa Eldeen
Doxorubicin is an effective anti-neoplastic drug but its use is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the management of cardiotoxicity was with poor myocardial homing capacity. With the aim of developing novel techniques to improve the migration of MSCs, we tested whether valproate and electric fields (EFs) direct the migration of MSCs towards the damaged myocardium. The study included five groups of female albino rats. The first group included 10 healthy rats as normal control group...
January 12, 2017: IUBMB Life
Giuseppe Inesi
Copper has a wide and important role in biological systems, determining conformation and activity of many metalloproteins and enzymes, such as cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase . Furthermore, due to its possible reactivity with nonspecific proteins and toxic effects, elaborate systems of absorption, concentration buffering, delivery to specific protein sites and elimination, require a complex system including small carriers, chaperones and active transporters. The P-type copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B provide an important system for acquisition, active transport, distribution and elimination of copper...
November 28, 2016: IUBMB Life
Nearmeen M Rashad, Amal S El-Shal, Rasha L Etewa, Fady M Wadea
Obesity and diabetes are increasing in epidemic proportions globally. Lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) is an inflammatory adipocytokine and obesity-related marker of low-grade inflammation. We aimed to investigate, for first time, the possible role of LCN-2 expression and serum levels in prediction of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among obese Egyptian women. This study included 188 obese women and 180 controls. Obese women were subdivided into three subgroups according to their fasting blood glucose, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IGT and T2DM...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
Shifeng Zhao, Zili Zhang, Zhen Yao, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
Accumulating evidence indicates that hedgehog signaling plays a pivotal role in pathological angiogenesis and is involved in wound-healing responses in a number of adult tissues, including the liver. We previously demonstrated that hedgehog signaling promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in hepatic stellate cells. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on hedgehog signaling and to further examine the molecular mechanisms of TMP-induced antiangiogenesic effects in liver fibrosis...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
Luz A Vega-Cabrera, Liliana Pardo-López
Membrane remodeling processes in eukaryotes, such as those involved in endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, are mediated by a large number of structural, accessory and regulatory proteins. These processes occur in all cell types, enabling the exchange of signals and/or nutrients with the external medium and with neighboring cells; likewise, they are required for the intracellular trafficking of various cargo molecules between organelles, as well as the recycling of these structures. Recent studies have demonstrated that some elements of the molecular machinery involved in regulating and mediating endocytosis in eukaryotic cells are also present in some bacteria, where they participate in processes such as cell division, sporulation and signal transduction...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
K V Abhinav, Kaushal Sharma, A Surolia, Mamannamana Vijayan
Crystal structures of jacalin in complex with GlcNAc β-(1,3) Gal-β-OMe and Gal β-(1,3) Gal-β-OMe have been determined. The binding of the ligands to jacalin is similar to that of analogous α-substituted disaccharides. However, the β-substituted β-(1,3) linked disaccharides get distorted at the anomeric center and the glycosidic linkage. The distortion results in higher internal energies of the ligands leading to lower affinity to the lectin. This confirms the possibility of using ligand distortion as a strategy for modulating binding affinity...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
Jian-Ri Li, Chih-Cheng Wu, Cheng-Yi Chang, Yen-Chuan Ou, Shih-Yi Lin, Ya-Yu Wang, Wen-Ying Chen, Shue-Ling Raung, Su-Lan Liao, Chun-Jung Chen
Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. Although JEV infects and replicates in cells with multiple tissue origins, neurons are the preferential cells for JEV infection. Currently, the identities of JEV cell tropism are largely unclear. To gain better insight into the underlying identities of JEV cell tropism, this study was designed to compare the JEV cell tropism with naïve or differentiated PC12 cells. Through nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells, we discovered that JEV efficiently replicated in differentiated PC12 cells rather than naïve cells...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
Sayeed Ur Rehman, Tarique Sarwar, Mohammed Amir Husain, Hassan Mubarak Ishqi, Mohammad Tabish
Nur77 is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that acts as a transcription factor and regulates expression of multiple genes. Subcellular localization of Nur77 protein plays an important role in the survival and cell death. In this study, we have predicted and confirmed alternatively spliced two new transcripts of Nur77 gene in mouse. The newly identified transcripts have their alternatively spliced first exon located upstream of published 5'-UTR of the gene. Transcription factor binding sites in the possible promoter regions of these transcripts were also analyzed...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
Laura Bordoni, Francesca Marchegiani, Marco Piangerelli, Valerio Napolioni, Rosita Gabbianelli
Pediatric obesity develops when a complex biological predisposition collides with an obesogenic environment. To further elucidate the role of genetics in obesity onset, we performed a candidate-gene association study in a young and sportive Italian population by testing the association of functional polymorphisms in ACE (rs4646994), FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and PPARG (rs1801282) genes with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). We also tested the combinations of identified risk genotypes and epistatic interactions among them to determine the existence of cumulative effects in predicting the predisposition to gain weight...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
Yuanyuan Li, Wenzhuo Ran, Jiaqiang Zhang, Shi Chen, Yihang Li, Deng Luo, Chen Wang, Weiping Jia
Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
Mona Radwan, Rebecca J Wood, Xiaojing Sui, Danny M Hatters
Protein aggregation is a hallmark of the major neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and motor neuron and is a symptom of a breakdown in the management of proteome foldedness. Indeed, it is remarkable that under normal conditions cells can keep their proteome in a highly crowded and confined space without uncontrollable aggregation. Proteins pose a particular challenge relative to other classes of biomolecules because upon synthesis they must typically follow a complex folding pathway to reach their functional conformation (native state)...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
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January 2017: IUBMB Life
Jinghua Shan, Lixia Chen, Keliang Lu
Age-related osteoblast dysfunction is the main cause of age-related bone loss. Trans-caryophyllene (TC) is an important constituent of the essential oils derived from several species of medicinal plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of TC on osteoblast function in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicate that TC caused a significant elevation in collagen content, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin production, and mineralization, which are the four markers that account for the various stages of osteoblastic differentiation...
January 2017: IUBMB Life
Nicolás González Bardeci, Juan Francisco Angiolini, María Cecilia De Rossi, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
Fluorescence fluctuation-based methods are non-invasive microscopy tools especially suited for the study of dynamical aspects of biological processes. These methods examine spontaneous intensity fluctuations produced by fluorescent molecules moving through the small, femtoliter-sized observation volume defined in confocal and multiphoton microscopes. The quantitative analysis of the intensity trace provides information on the processes producing the fluctuations that include diffusion, binding interactions, chemical reactions and photophysical phenomena...
January 2017: IUBMB Life
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