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Somia H Abd Allah, Sally M Shalaby, Amal S El-Shal, Sameh M El Nabtety, Tarek Khamis, Shimaa A Abd El Rhman, Mahmoud A Ghareb, Hesham M Kelani
Exciting advances are revealing that breast milk harbors populations of stem and progenitor cells, and much attention is now intensified on delineating their properties and functions. The aim of this study is to isolate a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population from rabbit breast milk and track their integration into the different organs of the breastfed rabbits after taken by oral route and to explore the functional role of stem cells in the breastfed newborn babies. Ten newborn rabbits 2 weeks old fed on 2 × 10(6) PKH26-labeled rabbit milk derived-MSCs suspended in 2 mL Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) and 10 newborn baby rabbits fed with 2 mL DMEM solution or with rabbit fibroblasts as a control group were used in the study...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
Lucia Mastrototaro, Gerhard Sponder, Behnam Saremi, Jörg R Aschenbach
Methionine (Met) is a neutral, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid with biological functions in the initiation and prolongation step of protein synthesis, transmethylation reactions, the synthesis of cysteine and cystine, and as a component of antioxidant systems. Its key importance is reflected by the fact that it is usually absorbed from the diet with highest efficiency among all proteinogenic amino acids but may yet not optimally support metabolism and health. As such, crystalline Met supplements are partly used in man and heavily used in production of animal species (poultry, fish, shrimps, pigs and cattle) to provide improved health and performance...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
Christoph Heier, Hao Xie, Robert Zimmermann
Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings...
October 6, 2016: IUBMB Life
Ma Chunhua, Kong Lingdong, Long Hongyan, Ma Zhangqiang
This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of umbelliferone (Umb) in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cell and its potential mechanisms underlying this action was elaborated. In vivo, a series of behavioral assays including SPT, OFT, FST, and TST suggested that Umb (20 and 40 mg/kg) could improve effectively depression-like symptoms. The serum levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α presented marked decreases after the treatment of Umb...
October 5, 2016: IUBMB Life
Jianli Tao, Xiang Zhou, Zhengfan Jiang
Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against invading pathogens. The detection of aberrant nucleic acids which represent some conserved PAMPs triggers robust type I IFN-mediated innate immune responses. Host- or pathogen-derived cytosolic DNA binds and activates the DNA sensor cGAS, which synthesizes the second messenger 2'3'-cGAMP and triggers STING-dependent downstream signaling. Here, we highlight recent progress in cGAS-cGAMP-STING, the Three Musketeers of cytosolic DNA sensing and signaling, and their essential roles in infection, autoimmune diseases, and cancer...
October 5, 2016: IUBMB Life
Ping Zhu, Guohong Li
Genomic DNA is hierarchically packaged into chromatin in eukaryotes. As a central-level chromatin structure between nucleosomal arrays and higher order organizations, 30 nm chromatin fiber, and its dynamics play a crucial role in regulating DNA accessibility for gene transcription. However, despite extensive efforts over three decades, the higher-order structure of the 30 nm chromatin fiber remains unresolved and controversial. We have recently reconstituted the 30 nm chromatin fibers from 12 nucleosomal arrays in vitro in the presence of linker histone H1, and determined their cryo-EM structures at resolution of 11 Å (Song et al...
October 5, 2016: IUBMB Life
Yu-Hang Xing, Zhiqiang Bai, Chu-Xiao Liu, Shi-Bin Hu, Meihua Ruan, Ling-Ling Chen
RNA is essential for all kingdoms of life and exerts important functions beyond transferring genetic information from DNA to protein. With the advent of the state-of-the-art deep sequencing technology, a large portion of noncoding transcripts in eukaryotic genomes has been broadly identified. Among them, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been emerged as a new class of RNA molecules that have regulatory potential in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Here we summarize recent research progresses that have been made by scientists in China on lncRNAs, including their biogenesis, functional implication and the underlying mechanism of action at the current stage...
October 3, 2016: IUBMB Life
Zengyi Chang
The DegP (or HtrA) is a highly conserved family of proteins functioning in all living organisms. It was initially identified as a protease functioning in the periplasmic space of the Gram-negative bacterial cells. It was later reported to also exhibit chaperone activity and thus has been designated as a bifunctional protein. However, recent studies demonstrated that in living cells it more likely functions only as a protease with hardly detectable chaperone activities. In this review, I will summarize the evidences clarifying that DegP more likely only functions as a protease rather than as a chaperone in cells...
September 26, 2016: IUBMB Life
Yi Yang, Haiping Song, Peng R Chen
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play pivotal roles in regulation of many biological processes. Conventional methods are capable of investigating stable and strong interactions within protein complexes, but remain difficult for studying dynamic, transient, and weak PPIs. Herein we review photo-affinity unnatural amino acids that can be site-specifically incorporated into a protein of interest to covalently trap noncovalent PPIs under living conditions. A newly developed cleavable photocrosslinker from our group will also be introduced, which facilitated the prey-bait separation for better enrichment and identification of photocrosslinked PPI complexes...
September 26, 2016: IUBMB Life
Li Xu, Hao Ren, Guangang Gao, Linkang Zhou, Muhammad Arshad Malik, Peng Li
Metabolism refers to a chain of chemical reactions converting food/fuel into energy to conduct cellular processes, including the synthesis of the building blocks of the body, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Metabolic chain reactions are catalyzed by various enzymes that are orchestrated in specific pathways. Metabolic pathways are important for organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments...
September 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
Vitalia V Kulikova, Natalya V Anufrieva, Svetlana V Revtovich, Alexander S Chernov, Georgii B Telegin, Elena A Morozova, Tatyana V Demidkina
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to thiosulfinates, which possess antimicrobial activity. Partial inactivation of the enzyme in the course of the reaction occurs due to oxidation of active site cysteine 115 conserved in bacterial MGLs. In this work, the C115H mutant form of Clostridium sporogenes MGL was prepared and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. The substitution results in an increase in the catalytic efficiency of the mutant form towards S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides compared to the wild type enzyme...
October 2016: IUBMB Life
Lu Hu, Yu Gao, Yunfeng Cao, Yinxu Zhang, Minghao Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yu Jing, Shengnan Guo, Fangyu Jing, Xiaodan Hu, Zhitu Zhu
Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Arginine is a semiessential amino acid in humans and is essential for several biological pathways in malignant and normal cells, such as ornithine and N1, N12-diacetylspermine (DiAcSpm). This study aimed to determine the role of arginine and these downstream molecules in BC. Plasma arginine, ornithine, and arginine-to-ornithine ratio (AOR) were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Urine samples were measured by the colloid gold aggregation to test determination of urinary diAcSpm...
October 2016: IUBMB Life
Dan Shang, Zuping Zhang, Qian Wang, Yali Ran, Tanner S Shaw, John N Van, Yuandong Peng
Platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex is affixed to the membrane skeleton through interaction with actin binding protein 280 (ABP-280). We find that removal of the ABP-280 binding sites in GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail has little impact on the complex clustering induced by antibody crosslinking. However, large truncation of the GP Ibα cytoplasmic tail allows the formation of larger patches of the complex, suggesting that an ABP-280 independent force may exist. Besides, we observe that the signaling upon GP Ib-IX clustering is elicited in both membrane lipid domain dependent and independent manner, a choice that relies on how the membrane skeleton interacts with the complex...
October 2016: IUBMB Life
Deniz Kirac, Ozgur Kasimay Cakir, Tuba Avcilar, Oguzhan Deyneli, Hizir Kurtel, Dilek Yazici, Elif Cigdem Kaspar, Nurgul Celik, Ahmet Ilter Guney
Obesity is a major contributory factor of morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that biological systems may be involved in the tendency to be and to remain physically inactive also behaviors such as food and beverage preferences and nutrient intake may at least partially genetically determined. Consequently, besides environment, genetic factors may also contribute to the level of physical activity and eating behaviors thus effect obesity. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various gene mutations on obesity, physical activity levels and eating behavior phenotypes...
October 2016: IUBMB Life
Lianpan Dai, Qihui Wang, Jianxun Qi, Yi Shi, Jinghua Yan, George F Gao
Antibody-mediated humoral immunity plays a pivotal role in flavivirus control. Neutralizing antibodies targeting viral envelope (E) protein, provide protection against flaviviruses in vivo but can also promote virus infection by antibody-dependent enhancement when antibodies are weakly neutralizing or in subneutralizing concentrations. The molecular basis for antibody-mediated virus neutralization can be revealed by structural studies of monoclonal antibodies complexed with the E protein or virion. In addition, the flavivirus non-structural protein NS1 can also induce host antibody production, and some of these antibodies can provide protection against virus challenge...
October 2016: IUBMB Life
Ghodratolah Naseh, Mahyar Mohammadifard, Mahtab Mohammadifard
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14) and CDK7 in gastric cancer (GC) tissues. Upregulation of MMP14 mRNA level was observed in GC tissues when compared with the matched normal tissues (mean ± SD: 3.92 ± 1.15 vs. 1.35 ± 0.81, P < 0.001). This study indicated that mRNA levels of CDK7 were statistically overexpressed in GC when compared with matched normal tissues (4.12 ± 0.84 vs. 1.43 ± 0.71, P < 0...
October 2016: IUBMB Life
Yubao Cui, Feixiang Teng, LiLi Yu, Ying Zhou, Nan Wang, Chengbo Zhang, Li Yang
House dust mites produce over 30 proteins proposed to induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody production in patients. Continued identification of IgE-binding epitopes of these allergens is critical to advancing diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. To identify possible sequential IgE-binding epitopes of the major- and mid-potency allergens from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae by peptide microarray-based immunoassay, nucleotide sequences of D. farinae allergens (Der f) 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7 were used to generate overlapping peptides covering the full protein sequences minus signal peptides...
October 2016: IUBMB Life
Elise Duval, Mouloud Bouyoucef, Sylvain Leclercq, Catherine Baugé, Karim Boumédiene
Cartilage engineering is one challenging issue in regenerative medicine. Low oxygen tension or hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) gene therapy are promising strategies in the field of cartilage repair. Previously, we showed that hypoxia and its mediator HIF-1 regulate matrix genes expression (collagens and aggrecan). Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of type I collagen (COL1A1) by HIF-1 in human articular chondrocytes. We show that HIF-1α reduces COL1A1 transcription, through a distal promoter (-2300 to -1816 bp upstream transcription initiation site), containing two GC boxes that bind Sp transcription factors (Sp1/Sp3)...
September 2016: IUBMB Life
Nana Li, Yuejian Liu, Yuan Miao, Lifen Zhao, Huimin Zhou, Li Jia
It is demonstrated that the maladjustment of microRNA (miRNA) plays significant roles in the occurrence and development of tumors. MicroRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b), a carcinogenic miRNA, is identified as a dysregulated miRNA in human breast cancer. In this article, the expression levels of miR-106b were discovered to be particularly higher in breast cancer tissues than that in the corresponding adjacent tissues. Accordingly, miR-106b was higher expressed in the breast cancer cell lines compared with that in the normal breast cell lines...
September 2016: IUBMB Life
Dan Wang, Jie Zhang, Yapeng Lu, Qianqian Luo, Li Zhu
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. Under hypoxia, the active HIF1-α subunits are mainly regulated through increased protein stabilization. Little is known concerning HIF-1α transcriptional regulation. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) is a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we showed that NRF-1was a repressor of HIF-1α. The cellular depletion of NRF-1 by siRNA targeting leads to increased HIF-1αtranscriptional activity...
September 2016: IUBMB Life
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