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Chang-Lin Zhai, Guan-Min Tang, Gang Qian, Hui-Lin Hu, Shi-Jun Wang, Dong Yin, Song Zhang
Cardiovascular ischemic disease is a large class of diseases that are harmful to human health. The significant role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in terms of controlling cardiac injury has been reported in latest studies. MiR-98 is very important in regulating the apoptosis, the differentiation, the growth as well as the metastasis of cells. Nevertheless, the effect of miR-98 in the cardiac ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury has rarely been investigated. In the current research, we found that the miR-98 expression was down-regulated in the cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and in the myocardium of the I/R rats...
November 12, 2018: IUBMB Life
Viraj Muthye, Dennis V Lavrov
Mitochondria require ~1,500 proteins for their maintenance and proper functionality, which constitute the mitochondrial proteome (mt-proteome). Although a few of these proteins, mostly subunits of the electron transport chain complexes, are encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the vast majority are encoded in the nuclear genome and imported to the organelle. Previous studies have shown a continuous and complex evolution of mt-proteome among eukaryotes. However, there was less attention paid to mt-proteome evolution within Metazoa, presumably because animal mtDNA and, by extension, animal mitochondria are often considered to be uniform...
November 12, 2018: IUBMB Life
Qiang Zhang, Yongshun Ai, Huiqiu Dong, Junsong Wang, Li Xu
This study aimed to detect the circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels of controls and patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP), unstable angina pectoris (UAP), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and also to investigate the correlation with the severity of coronary heart disease (CHD). Plasma levels of circulating ox-LDL-4E6, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoprotein A, apoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were measured in 99 participants who underwent coronary angiography...
November 10, 2018: IUBMB Life
Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Rosália Maria Torres de Lima, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Antonielly Campinho Dos Reis, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, José Williams Gomes de Oliveira Filho, Gilberto Santos Cerqueira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Mohammad S Mubarak, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Phytol (PHY) (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol) exhibits various pharmacological properties including toxicity and cytotoxicity, and exerts antitumor activity. Owing to the urgent need of new pharmaceutical formulations for breast cancer therapy, this study aimed at the evaluation of antitumor activity of PHY in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-cancer-induced animal model. Comet assay was employed to evaluate the cytogenetics, DNA repair, and antigenotoxic activities of PHY in neoplastic (breast) and non-neoplastic rodent cells (bone marrow, lymphocytes, and liver)...
November 5, 2018: IUBMB Life
David M Rand, Jim A Mossman, Lei Zhu, Leann M Biancani, Jennifer Y Ge
Mitochondrial function requires the coordinated expression of dozens of gene products from the mitochondrial genome and hundreds from the nuclear genomes. The systems that emerge from these interactions convert the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe into energy for life, while regulating a wide range of other cellular processes. These facts beg the question of whether the gene-by-gene interactions (G x G) that enable mitochondrial function are distinct from the gene-by-environment interactions (G x E) that fuel mitochondrial activity...
November 5, 2018: IUBMB Life
Padmakrishnan C Jayakrishnan, Easwer H Venkat, Girish M Ramachandran, Krishna K Kesavapisharady, Suresh N Nair, Bhavya Bharathan, Neelima Radhakrishnan, Srinivas Gopala
Sphere formation is an indicator of tumor aggressiveness independent of the tumor grade; however, its relation to progression-free survival (PFS) is less known. This study was designed to assess the neurosphere forming ability among low grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG), its stem cell marker expression, and correlation to PFS. Tumor samples of 140 patients, including (LGG; n = 67) and (HGG; n = 73) were analyzed. We used sphere forming assay, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry to characterize the tumors...
November 4, 2018: IUBMB Life
Ushio Kikkawa
Protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by 1,2-diacylglycerol as a second messenger in the signaling mechanism coupled with the hydrolysis of membrane inositol phospholipids, although it was not found by screening for a 1,2-diacylglycerol-dependent enzyme. PKC is also a receptor for the tumor-promoting phorbol esters, but it was not identified by its property of binding phorbol esters, either. Instead, the discovery and characterization of PKC, now known to comprise a family with multiple isoforms, was through a circuitous voyage filled with unexpected twists and turns...
November 4, 2018: IUBMB Life
Tianxin Yang, Xing Jin, Jianping Lan, Wensong Wang
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the deadly forms of childhood cancers in the world. In the present study, we used both in vitro and in vivo models to evaluate the functional mechanisms of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) in ALL. SNHG16 gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in both in vitro ALL cell lines and in vivo human samples of T lymphocytes. Lentivirus-mediated SNHG16 downregulation was performed in MOLT3 and SUP-B15 cells, to evaluate its functional effects on ALL cell proliferation, migration in vitro, and ALL transplant in vivo...
October 31, 2018: IUBMB Life
Tongqian Xiao, Zhongjuan Xu, Yuanshuai Zhou, Hai Zhang, Junsa Geng, Yu Liang, Hong Qiao, Guangli Suo
Extracellular matrix (ECM)-independent survival is an essential prerequisite for tumor metastasis, and a hallmark of epithelial cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we found that loss of TP53I11 enhanced, and overexpression of TP53I11 suppressed the ECM-independent survival, EMT, and migration in MCF10A cells. TP53I11 has long been considered as a transcriptional target of TP53. However, we found that TP53I11 regulated the ECM-independent survival by a TP53-independent way. As a metabolic sensor, AMPK promoted anoikis resistance by inhibiting AKT/m-TOR/p70S6K signaling pathway...
October 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
Wentao Hu, Xi Liu, Shang Wang, Guifang Sun, Ran Zhao, Hong Lu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, adult-onset, neurodegenerative disease. The transactivating response region DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) p.Q331K mutation (TDP-43 Q331K) has previously been identified in ALS as a disease-causing mutation with neurotoxicity. SecinH3, a cytohesin inhibitor, has neuroprotective effects against mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) toxicity. However, whether SecinH3 protects against mutant TDP-43 p.Q331K protein toxicity and its potential molecular mechanisms have not yet been investigated...
October 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
Yinian Zhang, Huateng Dong, Lei Duan, Guoqiang Yuan, Wentao Liang, Qiao Li, Xinding Zhang, Yawen Pan
This study aimed to identify the genes related to epilepsy and their effects on epilepsy, as well as the underlying mechanism. Using microarray analysis, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out and then used to build weighted gene coexpression networks using WGCNA. Module membership and evaluation of gene significance (GS) were adopted to detect hub genes. The DAVID online tool was used to understand the function of modules and target genes. The Licl-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model was used to simulate mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with an initial precipitating injury...
October 25, 2018: IUBMB Life
Zdeněk Paris, Juan D Alfonzo
Organisms have evolved different strategies to seclude certain molecules to specific locations of the cell. This is most pronounced in eukaryotes with their extensive intracellular membrane systems. Intracellular compartmentalization is particularly critical in genome containing organelles, which because of their bacterial evolutionary ancestry still maintain protein-synthesis machinery that resembles more their evolutionary origin than the extant eukaryotic cell they once joined as an endosymbiont. Despite this, it is clear that genome-containing organelles such as the mitochondria are not in isolation and many molecules make it across the mitochondrial membranes from the cytoplasm...
October 25, 2018: IUBMB Life
Toni Gabaldón
The origin of eukaryotes stands as a major open question in biology. Central to this question is the nature and timing of the origin of the mitochondrion, an ubiquitous eukaryotic organelle originated by the endosymbiosis of an alphaproteobacterial ancestor. Different hypotheses disagree, among other aspects, on whether mitochondria were acquired early or late during eukaryogenesis. Similarly, the nature and complexity of the receiving host is debated, with models ranging from a simple prokaryotic host to an already complex proto-eukaryote...
October 25, 2018: IUBMB Life
Michael W Gray, Vamsi K Mootha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: IUBMB Life
Yihui Ma, Jingjing Xu, Pei Huang, Xue Bai, Hanqing Gao
The oncogene KRAS not only promotes the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancers but also is required for the malignant progression and metastasis of these cancers. Many methods have been explored to influence the malignant biological behavior of these cancers by targeting mutant KRAS. The ornithine decarboxylase/antizyme (ODC/AZ) system is another protein degradation pathway that exists in nature. The formation of an ODC and protein substrate complex through direct combination can promote its degradation by the 26S proteasome without ubiquitination, and this process can be catalyzed by AZ...
October 22, 2018: IUBMB Life
Baimei He, Qiong Chen, Dongbo Zhou, Lijing Wang, Zhaoqian Liu
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis of airway epithelial cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, autophagy is closely related to ERS under apoptosis. Here, this study aimed to investigate the role of the reciprocal interaction between autophagy and ERS in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression was examined by Western blot...
October 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
Lei Ren, Yapei Xu, Guijun Qin, Cong Liu, Yushan Yan, Huijuan Zhang
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is one of the most fatal malignant endocrine tumors, and the prognosis remains poor because of the lack of effective therapeutic targets. In this study, we demonstrated that the level of miR-199b-5p was markedly downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma. The ectopic expression level of miR-199b-5p in papillary thyroid carcinoma cell B-CPAP could inhibit growth, migration, and invasion as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and decreased cell metastasis in vivo, but silencing miR-199b-5p caused a contradictory outcome...
October 16, 2018: IUBMB Life
Ling Wang, Zili Zhang, Mengmeng Li, Feixia Wang, Yan Jia, Feng Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Ferroptosis is recently reported as a new mode of regulated cell death. Its essential characteristics are disturbed redox homeostasis, overloaded iron, and increased lipid peroxidation. However, the role of ferroptosis in liver fibrosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of artemether (ART) on ferroptosis in hepatic fibrosis and to further clarify the possible mechanisms. Our data showed that ART treatment markedly attenuated liver injury and reduced fibrotic scar formation in the mouse model of liver fibrosis...
October 15, 2018: IUBMB Life
Jun Dan Jiang, Xiao Chun Zheng, Feng Yi Huang, Fei Gao, Mei Zhen You, Ting Zheng
Ketamine, though widely used in pediatric anesthesia, may induce cortical neurotoxicity in young patients. This study focused on an in vitro model of rat brain embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived neurons to investigate the effects of microRNA-107 (miR-107) on ketamine-induced neural injury. Rat brain ESCs were proliferated in vitro and differentiated toward neuronal fate. Ketamine induced neural injury in ESC-derived neurons was inspected by TUNEL and neurite growth assays. Ketamine-induce aberrant miR-107 expression was examined by qRT-PCR...
October 11, 2018: IUBMB Life
Muhammad T Islam, Abul B R Khalipha, Rajat Bagchi, Milon Mondal, Shanita Z Smrity, Shaikh J Uddin, Jamil A Shilpi, Razina Rouf
This review aims to summarize the anticancer effects of the natural monoterpene phenol derivative of cymenethymol and its derivatives as well as further molecular docking study to correlate the interaction of thymol and biomacromolecules that involved in cancer cell growth. For this, an up-to-date (till July 2018) literature study were made through using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, The American Chemical Society,, and Google Scholar databases. Literature study demonstrated that thymol, melasolv (3,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamate thymol ester), and Mannich bases of thymol have potential anticancer effects in various test systems, including mice, rats and cultured cancer cells through various anticancer pathways such as antioxidant/oxidative stress induction, apoptosis, anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory, anti-genotoxicity, chemo-, and radiopreventive ways...
October 11, 2018: IUBMB Life
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