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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419719/spectroscopic-evidences-of-toxic-trans-crotonaldehyde-trapped-and-transformed-by-resveratrol-to-prevent-the-damage-of-mitochondrial-dna
#1
Yanwen Su, Lei Chen, Yanbin Su, Zhengqiang Li, Chuang Zhang, Tongxing Mu
The purpose of this study is to probe the spectroscopic evidences of toxic trans-crotonaldehyde (TCA) trapped and transformed by resveratrol (Res) to prevent the damage of mitochondrial DNA. In aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) at the different pH or mitochondria, the spectroscopic characteristics of TCA trapped and transformed by Res were observed by means of both UV-vis and Raman spectra. When Res interacted with TCA, TCA peak at 316 nm immediately disappeared while Res main peak at 305 nm and shoulder peak at 320 nm were dramatically changed, Raman peaks of TCA at 1,688 cm(-1) assigned to CHO and 1,641 cm(-1) affiliated to CC were strikingly shifted, Raman peaks of Res itself were significantly displaced or disappeared, especially in mitochondria and ALDH at different pH...
April 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394017/multidomain-truncated-hemoglobins-new-members-of-the-globin-family-exhibiting-tandem-repeats-of-globin-units-and-domain-fusion
#2
Mangesh Dattu Hade, Jagdeep Kaur, Pradip K Chakraborti, Kanak L Dikshit
Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) are considered the most primitive members of globin superfamily and traditionally exist as a single domain heme protein in three distinct structural organizations, type I (trHb1_N), type II (trHb2_O) and type III (trHb3_P). Our search of microbial and lower eukaryotic genomes revealed a broad array of multidomain organization, representing multiunit and chimeric forms of trHbs, where multiple units of trHbs are joined together and/or integrated with distinct functional domains...
April 10, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387022/systemic-iron-homeostasis-and-erythropoiesis
#3
REVIEW
George Papanikolaou, Kostas Pantopoulos
Iron is an essential nutrient that is potentially toxic due to its redox reactivity. Insufficient iron supply to erythroid cells, the major iron consumers in the body, leads to various forms of anemia. On the other hand, iron overload (hemochromatosis) is associated with tissue damage and diseases of liver, pancreas, and heart. Physiological iron balance is tightly controlled at the cellular and systemic level by iron regulatory proteins (IRP1, IRP2) and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, respectively. Underlying mechanisms often intersect to achieve optimal iron utilization, to control immune responses, and to prevent iron toxicity...
April 6, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374903/rna-sensors-of-the-innate-immune-system-and-their-detection-of-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Nanhua Chen, Pengpeng Xia, Shuangjie Li, Tangjie Zhang, Tony T Wang, Jianzhong Zhu
The innate immune system plays a critical role in pathogen recognition and initiation of protective immune response through the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by its pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Nucleic acids including RNA and DNA have been recognized as very important PAMPs of pathogens especially for viruses. RNA are the major PAMPs of RNA viruses, to which most severe disease causing viruses belong thus posing a tougher challenge to human and animal health. Therefore, the understanding of the immune biology of RNA PRRs is critical for control of pathogen infections especially for RNA virus infections...
April 4, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371235/insulin-regulates-bbs4-during-adipogenesis
#5
Netta Nahum, Efrat Forti, Olga Aksanov, Ruth Birk
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder associated with marked obesity, increased susceptibility to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is unknown whether the link between BBS and diabetes is indirect or direct. Adipogenesis and adipocyte function are regulated by hormonal stimuli, with insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF) playing an important role both in normal and impaired conditions. We have previously shown augmented transcript levels of BBS genes upon induction of adipogenesis...
April 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371201/ketone-bodies-mimic-the-life-span-extending-properties-of-caloric-restriction
#6
REVIEW
Richard L Veech, Patrick C Bradshaw, Kieran Clarke, William Curtis, Robert Pawlosky, M Todd King
The extension of life span by caloric restriction has been studied across species from yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans to primates. No generally accepted theory has been proposed to explain these observations. Here, we propose that the life span extension produced by caloric restriction can be duplicated by the metabolic changes induced by ketosis. From nematodes to mice, extension of life span results from decreased signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling (IIS) pathway...
April 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371008/the-epithelial-barrier-and-beyond-claudins-as-amplifiers-of-physiological-organ-functions
#7
REVIEW
Alexander G Markov, Jörg R Aschenbach, Salah Amasheh
Epithelial cell layers are interconnected by a meshwork of tight junction (TJ) protein strands, which are localized within apicolateral membranes. The proteins that form TJs are regarded to provide a static barrier, determining epithelial properties. However, recent findings in the field of barriology suggest that TJs contribute to more physiological aspects than indicated by the sum of the qualities of the single TJ proteins. Generally, TJs exhibit four major functions: (i) a "gate function," defining transepithelial permeability (i...
March 29, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349628/ferritin-cellular-iron-storage-and-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Paolo Arosio, Leonardo Elia, Maura Poli
Ferritin is considered the major iron storage protein which maintains a large iron core in its cavity and has ferroxidase activity. There are many types of ferritin particularly in prokaryotes that include the canonical 24-mer FTN molecules, the heme-containing BFR, the smaller 12-mer DPS and the newly recognized EncFtn of encapsulin that forms a very large iron storage compartment. Recent studies show that ferritin function is more dynamic than previous depicted and new mechanisms of ferritin iron recycling are emerging...
March 27, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337841/yeast-aquaporin-regulation-by-4-hydroxynonenal-is-implicated-in-oxidative-stress-response
#9
Claudia Rodrigues, Ivana Tartaro Bujak, Branka Mihaljević, Graça Soveral, Ana Cipak Gasparovic
Reactive oxygen species, especially hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), contribute to functional molecular impairment and cellular damage, but also are necessary in normal cellular metabolism, and in low doses play stimulatory role in cell proliferation and stress resistance. In parallel, reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), are lipid peroxidation breakdown products which also contribute to regulation of numerous cellular processes. Recently, channeling of H2 O2 by some mammalian aquaporin isoforms has been reported and suggested to contribute to aquaporin involvement in cancer malignancies, although the mechanism by which these membrane water channels are implicated in oxidative stress is not clear...
March 24, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337836/plant-transcription-factors-from-the-homeodomain-leucine-zipper-family-i-role-in-development-and-stress-responses
#10
REVIEW
María Florencia Perotti, Pamela Anahí Ribone, Raquel Lía Chan
In front of stressful conditions plants display adaptation mechanisms leading to changes in their morphology, physiology, development and molecular composition. Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in these complex adaptation processes. This work is focused in the homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip I) family of TFs, unique to plants. First discovered in 1991, they were identified and isolated from monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants showing high structural similarity and diversified functions...
March 24, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322027/rapid-differentiating-colorectal-cancer-and-colorectal-polyp-using-dried-blood-spot-mass-spectrometry-metabolomic-approach
#11
Yu Jing, Xue Wu, Peng Gao, Zhongze Fang, Jingjing Wu, Qingjun Wang, Chen Li, Zhitu Zhu, Yunfeng Cao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading causes of cancer mortality, and the early-stage detection could significantly enhance survival rates. Cancer influences the important metabolic pathways and the changes in metabolite levels had been used in many studies as the potential biomarkers. This study is aimed at screening metabolite biomarkers with CRC diagnosis potentials. The direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analysis based on dried blood spot was used to distinguish CRC from polyp. The target metabolites were composed of 23 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines...
March 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322010/cholesterol-can-modulate-mitochondrial-aquaporin-8-expression-in-human-hepatic-cells
#12
Mauro Danielli, Alejo M Capiglioni, Julieta Marrone, Giuseppe Calamita, Raúl A Marinelli
Hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 (mtAQP8) works as a multifunctional membrane channel protein that facilitates the uptake of ammonia for its detoxification to urea as well as the mitochondrial release of hydrogen peroxide. Since early oligonucleotide microarray studies in liver of cholesterol-fed mice showed an AQP8 downregulation, we tested whether alterations of cholesterol content per se modulate mtAQP8 expression in human hepatocyte-derived Huh-7 cells. Cholesterol loading with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD):cholesterol complexes downregulated the proteolytic activation of cholesterol-responsive sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcriptions factors 1 and 2, and the expression of the target gene 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR)...
March 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294521/thiol-based-copper-handling-by-the-copper-chaperone-atox1
#13
REVIEW
Yuta Hatori, Sachiye Inouye, Reiko Akagi
Human antioxidant protein 1 (Atox1) plays a crucial role in cellular copper homeostasis. Atox1 captures cytosolic copper for subsequent transfer to copper pumps in trans Golgi network, thereby facilitating copper supply to various copper-dependent oxidereductases matured within the secretory vesicles. Atox1 and other copper chaperones handle cytosolic copper using Cys thiols which are ideal ligands for coordinating Cu(I). Recent studies demonstrated reversible oxidation of these Cys residues in copper chaperones, linking cellular redox state to copper homeostasis...
March 15, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295919/interplay-between-siderophores-and-colibactin-genotoxin-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Patricia Martin, Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Eric Oswald
Highly pathogenic Escherichia coli strains that belong to the phylogenetic group B2 have developed a greater ability to acquire iron (heme receptor and numerous siderophores), to produce the genotoxin colibactin and to synthesize antimicrobial siderophore-microcins. There is an increased prevalence of these E. coli strains over the last 30 years in the intestinal microbiota in industrialized countries. Integrating the regulation of fitness/virulence factors, such as siderophores, colibactin and siderophore-microcins into networks that respond to specific environmental signals, such as the local iron concentration, could result in an accurate production of specific fitness/virulence factors, so that the E...
March 14, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296007/copper-metallothioneins
#15
REVIEW
Jenifer Calvo, Hunmin Jung, Gabriele Meloni
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of low molecular weight and cysteine-rich metal binding proteins present in all the branches of the tree of life. MTs efficiently bind with high affinity several essential and toxic divalent and monovalent transition metals by forming characteristic polynuclear metal-thiolate clusters within their structure. MTs fulfil multiple biological functions related to their metal binding properties, with essential roles in both Zn(II) and Cu(I) homeostasis as well as metal detoxification...
March 13, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276155/dissecting-copper-homeostasis-in-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer Lowe, Rosilane Taveira-da-Silva, Elaine Hilário-Souza
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). It can occur due to impaired secretion or action of the hormone insulin, which is produced by pancreatic beta-cells to promote the entry of glucose into the cells. It is known that hyperglycemia has an important role in the production of reactive oxygen species in all types of DM and that an imbalance of transition metal as Cu and Fe plays a pivotal role in stimulating the oxidative stress. Different levels of some transition metals, as Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn has been reported comparing diabetic animal models with the control group...
March 9, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276141/iron-and-ferroptosis-a-still-ill-defined-liaison
#17
REVIEW
Sebastian Doll, Marcus Conrad
Ferroptosis is a recently described form of regulated necrotic cell death, which appears to contribute to a number of diseases, such as tissue ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute renal failure, and neurodegeneration. A hallmark of ferroptosis is iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, which can be inhibited by the key ferroptosis regulator glutathione peroxidase 4(Gpx4), radical trapping antioxidants and ferroptosis-specific inhibitors, such as ferrostatins and liproxstatins, as well as iron chelation. Although great strides have been made towards a better understanding of the proximate signals of distinctive lipid peroxides in ferroptosis, still little is known about the mechanistic implication of iron in the ferroptotic process...
March 9, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271598/dynamics-of-the-metal-binding-domains-and-regulation-of-the-human-copper-transporters-atp7b-and-atp7a
#18
REVIEW
Corey H Yu, Natalia V Dolgova, Oleg Y Dmitriev
Copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B regulate copper levels in the human cells and deliver copper to the biosynthetic pathways. ATP7A and ATP7B belong to the P-type ATPases and share much of the domain architecture and the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis with the other, well-studied, enzymes of this type. A unique structural feature of the copper ATPases is the chain of six cytosolic metal-binding domains (MBDs), which are believed to be involved in copper-dependent regulation of the activity and intracellular localization of these enzymes...
March 8, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261953/prognostic-significance-of-cd133-and-ezrin-expression-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#19
Anan Fathi, Hala Mosaad, Samia Hussein, Mona Roshdy, Eman I Ismail
Despite the improvement in the diagnostic and the therapeutic modalities, colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality remain high in both the developed and the developing countries. So, we are in a need to recognize new efficient diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of CRC. That may help in providing individualized targeted therapy for this lethal malignancy. In this study, we investigated the expression and the prognostic significance of CD133 and ezrin mRNA and protein by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis in primary CRC cases and the surrounding normal colonic mucosa...
March 5, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261909/angiotensin-ii-degrades-myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#20
Wenlong Zhang, Ruyan Yang, Yaorong Feng, Bin Hu, Jun Zhang, Qian Zhang, Ningning Rong
Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a central role in cardiovascular diseases by causing endothelial apoptosis and dysfunction. Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins. It has been reported that Mcl-1 plays a pivotal role in protecting cells against apoptosis. Presently, the effects of Ang II on the expression of Mcl-1 remain unknown. In this study, we report, for the first time, that the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 is degraded by the proteasome during Ang II-induced apoptosis in HUVECs...
March 5, 2017: IUBMB Life
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