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IUBMB Life

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524360/lamc1-mrna-promotes-malignancy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-competing-for-microrna-124-binding-with-cd151
#1
Zhan-Po Yang, Hong-Shun Ma, Shu-Sen Wang, Le Wang, Tao Liu
Specific RNAs can function as sinks for endogenous miRNAs, known as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). Here, we confirm a miR-124 mediated ceRNA crosstalk between LAMC1 and CD151 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-124 negatively regulates LAMC1 expression through two miRNA binding sites within its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and suppresses migration and invasion of HCC cells through regulating LAMC1. The wild type LAMC1 miRNA response elements (MREs) facilitate expression of CD151, and this regulation is miR-124 dependent...
May 19, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517363/cleave-but-not-leave-astrotactin-proteins-in-development-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Hao Chang
Over the years, animal studies have identified astrotactins as important membrane proteins for glial-guided neuronal migration during central nervous system development and hair follicle polarity control during skin development. Biochemical studies have revealed intramembrane proteolysis as an important feature of astrotactins. The two fragments of astrotactins remain linked together by a disulfide bond after the proteolytic cleavage. In humans, mutations in astrotactin genes have also been linked to a wide range of diseases, including several developmental brain disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer...
May 18, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500689/blockade-of-hedgehog-pathway-is-required-for-the-protective-effects-of-magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-against-ethanol-induced-hepatocyte-steatosis-and-apoptosis
#3
Chunfeng Lu, Wenxuan Xu, Jiangjuan Shao, Feng Zhang, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD), characterized by excessive deposition of lipids in hepatocytes, causes heavy health burden personally and socially. Mechanistically, hedgehog signaling was activated during the development of ALD, and exerted compelling role in regulating lipometabolism. The current promising intervention strategy is inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) has been widely used in various liver diseases for its good hepatoprotective activities...
May 12, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497559/macromolecular-structures-quality-assessment-and-biological-interpretation
#4
REVIEW
Dinakar M Salunke, Deepak T Nair
Structure determination using X-ray crystallography involves collection of diffraction data, determination of initial phases followed by iterative rounds of model building and crystallographic refinement to improve the phases and minimize the differences between calculated and observed structure factors. At each of these stages, a variety of statistical filters exist to ensure appropriate validation. Biologically important observations often come from interpretations of signals that need to be carefully deciphered from noise, and therefore human intervention is as important as the automated methods and filters...
May 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480557/molecular-regulation-of-cellular-iron-balance
#5
REVIEW
Stefania Recalcati, Elena Gammella, Paolo Buratti, Gaetano Cairo
Handling a life-supporting yet redox-active metal like iron represents a significant challenge to cells and organisms that must not only tightly balance intra- and extracellular iron concentrations but also chaperone it during its journey from its point of entry to final destinations, to prevent inappropriate generation of damaging reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, regulatory mechanisms have been developed to maintain appropriate cellular and body iron levels. In intracellular compartments, about 95% of iron is protein-bound and the expression of the major proteins of iron metabolism is controlled by an integrated and dynamic system involving multilayered levels of regulation...
May 7, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474494/a-putative-association-of-interleukin-10-promoter-polymorphisms-with-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Shams Tabrez, Murtaza Ali, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Chelapram K Firoz, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Salwa Hindawi, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohammed Nabil Alama
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti inflammatory cytokine involved in the ongoing coronary inflammation and related patho-physiological processes. The piece of work presented herein is aimed at investigating possible association of polymorphisms in IL-10 promoter with Saudi cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. The study included 80 confirmed CVD patients with diabetes and 75 healthy control individuals both men and women. Concentration of IL-10 in the serum samples were measured by ELISA method. For single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, Sanger method of DNA sequencing was followed...
May 5, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474474/iron-metabolism-and-the-inflammatory-response
#7
Ana C Martins, Joana I Almeida, Illyane S Lima, Antonino S Kapitão, Raffaella Gozzelino
Iron (Fe) is essential to almost all organisms, as required by cells to satisfy metabolic needs and accomplish specialized functions. Its ability to exchange electrons between different substrates, however, renders it potentially toxic. Fine tune-mechanisms are necessary to maintain Fe homeostasis and, as such, to prevent its participation into the Fenton reaction and generation of oxidative stress. These are particularly important in the context of inflammation/infection, where restricting Fe availability to invading pathogens is one, if not, the main host defense strategy against microbial growth...
May 5, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470848/iron-catalysis-at-the-origin-of-life
#8
Eloi Camprubi, Sean F Jordan, Rafaela Vasiliadou, Nick Lane
Iron-sulphur proteins are ancient and drive fundamental processes in cells, notably electron transfer and CO2 fixation. Iron-sulphur minerals with equivalent structures could have played a key role in the origin of life. However, the 'iron-sulphur world' hypothesis has had a mixed reception, with questions raised especially about the feasibility of a pyrites-pulled reverse Krebs cycle. Phylogenetics suggests that the earliest cells drove carbon and energy metabolism via the acetyl CoA pathway, which is also replete in Fe(Ni)S proteins...
May 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464461/neural-circuits-involved-in-the-renewal-of-extinguished-fear
#9
REVIEW
Weihai Chen, Yan Wang, Xiaqing Wang, Hong Li
The last 10 years have witnessed a substantial progress in understanding the neural mechanisms for the renewal of the extinguished fear memory. Based on the theory of fear extinction, exposure therapy has been developed as a typical cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Although the fear memory can be extinguished by repeated presentation of conditioned stimulus without unconditioned stimulus, the fear memory is not erased and tends to relapse outside of extinction context, which is referred to as renewal...
May 2, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444942/combined-inhibition-of-autophagy-protein-5-and-galectin-1-by-thiodigalactoside-reduces-diet-induced-obesity-through-induction-of-white-fat-browning
#10
Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jong Won Yun
Our previous study demonstrated that thiodigalactoside (TDG) ameliorates obesity by targeted inhibition of galectin-1 (GAL1). Here, for the first time, we report the unexpected role of GAL1 and ATG5 inhibition by TDG in lipid metabolism. Core thermogenic marker proteins and genes were highly induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) and TDG, resulting in the significant development of brown fat-like adipocytes in inguinal WAT. TDG treatment reduced weight gain and fat mass as well as activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in HFD-fed rats...
April 26, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444922/regulation-of-organelle-function-by-metformin
#11
REVIEW
Jeongho Kim, Young-Jai You
Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without the side effects of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia. Metformin lowers the blood glucose level by decreasing hepatic glucose production in the liver and by increasing glucose uptake in the muscle. Recent studies show that metformin induces cell death in certain cancer cell lines by interfering with the metabolism of the cancer cells. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of action for metformin will provide insights into how to better treat diabetes and other metabolic disorders and also into the development of new therapeutic drugs...
April 26, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419719/spectroscopic-evidences-of-toxic-trans-crotonaldehyde-trapped-and-transformed-by-resveratrol-to-prevent-the-damage-of-mitochondrial-dna
#12
Yanwen Su, Lei Chen, Yanbin Su, Zhengqiang Li, Chuang Zhang, Tongxing Mu
The purpose of this study is to probe the spectroscopic evidences of toxic trans-crotonaldehyde (TCA) trapped and transformed by resveratrol (Res) to prevent the damage of mitochondrial DNA. In aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) at the different pH or mitochondria, the spectroscopic characteristics of TCA trapped and transformed by Res were observed by means of both UV-vis and Raman spectra. When Res interacted with TCA, TCA peak at 316 nm immediately disappeared while Res main peak at 305 nm and shoulder peak at 320 nm were dramatically changed, Raman peaks of TCA at 1,688 cm(-1) assigned to CHO and 1,641 cm(-1) affiliated to CC were strikingly shifted, Raman peaks of Res itself were significantly displaced or disappeared, especially in mitochondria and ALDH at different pH...
April 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394017/multidomain-truncated-hemoglobins-new-members-of-the-globin-family-exhibiting-tandem-repeats-of-globin-units-and-domain-fusion
#13
Mangesh Dattu Hade, Jagdeep Kaur, Pradip K Chakraborti, Kanak L Dikshit
Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) are considered the most primitive members of globin superfamily and traditionally exist as a single domain heme protein in three distinct structural organizations, type I (trHb1_N), type II (trHb2_O) and type III (trHb3_P). Our search of microbial and lower eukaryotic genomes revealed a broad array of multidomain organization, representing multiunit and chimeric forms of trHbs, where multiple units of trHbs are joined together and/or integrated with distinct functional domains...
April 10, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387022/systemic-iron-homeostasis-and-erythropoiesis
#14
REVIEW
George Papanikolaou, Kostas Pantopoulos
Iron is an essential nutrient that is potentially toxic due to its redox reactivity. Insufficient iron supply to erythroid cells, the major iron consumers in the body, leads to various forms of anemia. On the other hand, iron overload (hemochromatosis) is associated with tissue damage and diseases of liver, pancreas, and heart. Physiological iron balance is tightly controlled at the cellular and systemic level by iron regulatory proteins (IRP1, IRP2) and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, respectively. Underlying mechanisms often intersect to achieve optimal iron utilization, to control immune responses, and to prevent iron toxicity...
April 6, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374903/rna-sensors-of-the-innate-immune-system-and-their-detection-of-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
Nanhua Chen, Pengpeng Xia, Shuangjie Li, Tangjie Zhang, Tony T Wang, Jianzhong Zhu
The innate immune system plays a critical role in pathogen recognition and initiation of protective immune response through the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by its pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Nucleic acids including RNA and DNA have been recognized as very important PAMPs of pathogens especially for viruses. RNA are the major PAMPs of RNA viruses, to which most severe disease causing viruses belong thus posing a tougher challenge to human and animal health. Therefore, the understanding of the immune biology of RNA PRRs is critical for control of pathogen infections especially for RNA virus infections...
April 4, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371235/insulin-regulates-bbs4-during-adipogenesis
#16
Netta Nahum, Efrat Forti, Olga Aksanov, Ruth Birk
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder associated with marked obesity, increased susceptibility to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is unknown whether the link between BBS and diabetes is indirect or direct. Adipogenesis and adipocyte function are regulated by hormonal stimuli, with insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF) playing an important role both in normal and impaired conditions. We have previously shown augmented transcript levels of BBS genes upon induction of adipogenesis...
April 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371201/ketone-bodies-mimic-the-life-span-extending-properties-of-caloric-restriction
#17
REVIEW
Richard L Veech, Patrick C Bradshaw, Kieran Clarke, William Curtis, Robert Pawlosky, M Todd King
The extension of life span by caloric restriction has been studied across species from yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans to primates. No generally accepted theory has been proposed to explain these observations. Here, we propose that the life span extension produced by caloric restriction can be duplicated by the metabolic changes induced by ketosis. From nematodes to mice, extension of life span results from decreased signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling (IIS) pathway...
April 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349628/ferritin-cellular-iron-storage-and-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Paolo Arosio, Leonardo Elia, Maura Poli
Ferritin is considered the major iron storage protein which maintains a large iron core in its cavity and has ferroxidase activity. There are many types of ferritin particularly in prokaryotes that include the canonical 24-mer FTN molecules, the heme-containing BFR, the smaller 12-mer DPS and the newly recognized EncFtn of encapsulin that forms a very large iron storage compartment. Recent studies show that ferritin function is more dynamic than previous depicted and new mechanisms of ferritin iron recycling are emerging...
March 27, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337841/yeast-aquaporin-regulation-by-4-hydroxynonenal-is-implicated-in-oxidative-stress-response
#19
Claudia Rodrigues, Ivana Tartaro Bujak, Branka Mihaljević, Graça Soveral, Ana Cipak Gasparovic
Reactive oxygen species, especially hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), contribute to functional molecular impairment and cellular damage, but also are necessary in normal cellular metabolism, and in low doses play stimulatory role in cell proliferation and stress resistance. In parallel, reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), are lipid peroxidation breakdown products which also contribute to regulation of numerous cellular processes. Recently, channeling of H2 O2 by some mammalian aquaporin isoforms has been reported and suggested to contribute to aquaporin involvement in cancer malignancies, although the mechanism by which these membrane water channels are implicated in oxidative stress is not clear...
March 24, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337836/plant-transcription-factors-from-the-homeodomain-leucine-zipper-family-i-role-in-development-and-stress-responses
#20
REVIEW
María Florencia Perotti, Pamela Anahí Ribone, Raquel Lía Chan
In front of stressful conditions plants display adaptation mechanisms leading to changes in their morphology, physiology, development and molecular composition. Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in these complex adaptation processes. This work is focused in the homeodomain-leucine zipper I (HD-Zip I) family of TFs, unique to plants. First discovered in 1991, they were identified and isolated from monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants showing high structural similarity and diversified functions...
March 24, 2017: IUBMB Life
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