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Nicolás González Bardeci, Juan Francisco Angiolini, María Cecilia De Rossi, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
Fluorescence fluctuation-based methods are non-invasive microscopy tools especially suited for the study of dynamical aspects of biological processes. These methods examine spontaneous intensity fluctuations produced by fluorescent molecules moving through the small, femtoliter-sized observation volume defined in confocal and multiphoton microscopes. The quantitative analysis of the intensity trace provides information on the processes producing the fluctuations that include diffusion, binding interactions, chemical reactions and photophysical phenomena...
November 28, 2016: IUBMB Life
Giuseppe Inesi
Copper has a wide and important role in biological systems, determining conformation and activity of many metalloproteins and enzymes, such as cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase . Furthermore, due to its possible reactivity with nonspecific proteins and toxic effects, elaborate systems of absorption, concentration buffering, delivery to specific protein sites and elimination, require a complex system including small carriers, chaperones and active transporters. The P-type copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B provide an important system for acquisition, active transport, distribution and elimination of copper...
November 28, 2016: IUBMB Life
Lidia P Sashchenko, Elena A Romanova, Olga K Ivanova, Tatiana N Sharapova, Denis V Yashin
Tag7 (PGRP-S or PGLYRP1), while possessing an antimicrobial activity, also exhibits an antitumor effect when in complex with the major heat shock protein Hsp70. The cytotoxic Tag7-Hsp70 complex is secreted by lymphocytes after interaction with the HLA-negative tumors. Previously, we have shown that IL-2 induces formation of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) cytotoxic subpopulations of human lymphocytes, which kill tumor cells through the FasL-Fas interaction. Here, we show that only the CD8(+) T cells are able to secrete the Tag7-Hsp70 complex...
November 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
Yanan Sun, Xiaopeng Jia, Qiang Gao, Xing Liu, Lianguo Hou
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important prerequisite for metastasis to secondary organs. Interleukin-like EMT inducer (ILEI) protein has been shown to translationally upregulated during EMT and metastatic progression as a consequence of aberrant TGF-β signaling. Our initial evaluation of FAM3C (encoding ILEI) and ILEI expression in normal prostate (PCS-440-010) and prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3) revealed detectable protein expression in only LNCaP cell line even though all cell lines tested had comparable FAM3C expression...
November 10, 2016: IUBMB Life
K V Abhinav, Kaushal Sharma, Avadhesha Surolia, Mamannamana Vijayan
The crystal structures of jacalin complexed with Gal α-(1,4) Gal and Gal α-(1,3) Gal β-(1,4) Gal have been determined with the primary objective of exploring the effect of linkage on the location of reducing and non-reducing sugars in the extended binding site of the lectin, an issue which has not been studied thoroughly. Contrary to the earlier surmise based on simple steric considerations, the two structures demonstrate that α-linked sugars can bind to jacalin with nonreducing sugar at the primary binding site...
November 3, 2016: IUBMB Life
Hector Vega, Luis B Agellon, Marek Michalak
Molecular chaperones are specialized proteins essential for facilitating the correct folding, assembly, and disassembly of many cellular proteins and for assuring proteostasis. Genetic mutations or metabolic extremes that cause long-term alteration of cellular homeostasis compromise protein folding efficiency. To maintain proteostasis, cells mobilized stress coping responses that include the unfolded protein response in order to prevent accumulation of improperly folded proteins that forms the basis of many diseases...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Xueling Kang, Xiangxiang Wei, Li Jiang, Cong Niu, Jianyi Zhang, Sifeng Chen, Dan Meng
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis have a pivotal role in the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency and in stem cell self-renewal; however, the mechanisms by which ROS regulate the self-renewal of stem cells have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we evaluated the role of the ROS produced by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in the self-renewal and stemness of murine induced-pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs). Targeted silencing of Nox2 or Nox4 reduced both NADPH oxidase activity and intracellular ROS levels, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, the total number of miPSCs, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Lu Hu, Yu Gao, Yunfeng Cao, Yinxu Zhang, Minghao Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yu Jing, Shengnan Guo, Fangyu Jing, Xiaodan Hu, Zhitu Zhu
Arginine is one of the human nonessential amino acids critical for the growth of human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of arginine between breast cancer (BC) patients and benign mammary gland disease (control) patients to determine its value in predicting the risk of BC. We also explore the associations between arginine levels and breast cancer subtypes. Preoperative blood samples were obtained from 267 patients (102 BC and 165 controls) in 2015. Plasma arginine values were determined for all preoperative blood samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyse differences in arginine levels between BC patients and control patients and the correlations between arginine and clinicopathologic parameters in BC...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Weihai Chen, Xiaqing Wang, Minmin Yan, Yan Wang, Shixue Xie, Hong Li, Ming Li
5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C ) receptor agonists have been suggested to possess an antipsychotic activity in several acute preclinical tests of antipsychotic drugs with low extra-pyramidal side effect liability. However, little is known about the long-term effect associated with chronic use of 5-HT2C receptor agonists. The present study examined whether repeated activation of 5-HT2C receptor with a highly selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK212 would induce a long-term change in its antipsychotic-like activity (either a sensitization or tolerance) in the conditioned avoidance response and MK801-induced hyperlocomotion tests...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system disorder, primary manifestations of which are benign tumors and lesions in various organs of the body, including the brain. TSC patients often suffer from epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, TSC serves as a model of epilepsy, ASD, and tumorigenesis. TSC is caused by the lack of functional Tsc1-Tsc2 complex, which serves as a major cellular inhibitor of mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 is a kinase controlling most of anabolic processes in eukaryotic cells...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Wei Xu, Jianyuan Zhao, Shimin Zhao
The signals of intracellular metabolites are integrated into cellular signaling networks by forming metabolite-derived posttranslational modifications or by non-covalently binding to proteins. These signals serve to coordinate cell metabolism and to regulate various aspects of cell physiology. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 2016.
October 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
Zengyi Chang, Chin-Chen Wang, Lin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
Mengjie Lu, Beili Wu
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest membrane protein family. These receptors sense a variety of signaling molecules, activate multiple intracellular signal pathways, and act as the targets of over 40% of marketed drugs. Recent progress on GPCR structural studies provides invaluable insights into the structure-function relationship of the GPCR superfamily, deepening our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of GPCR signal transduction. Here, we review recent breakthroughs on GPCR structure determination and the structural features of GPCRs, and take the structures of chemokine receptor CCR5 and purinergic receptors P2Y1 R and P2Y12 R as examples to discuss the importance of GPCR structures on functional studies and drug discovery...
October 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
Somia H Abd Allah, Sally M Shalaby, Amal S El-Shal, Sameh M El Nabtety, Tarek Khamis, Shimaa A Abd El Rhman, Mahmoud A Ghareb, Hesham M Kelani
Exciting advances are revealing that breast milk harbors populations of stem and progenitor cells, and much attention is now intensified on delineating their properties and functions. The aim of this study is to isolate a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population from rabbit breast milk and track their integration into the different organs of the breastfed rabbits after taken by oral route and to explore the functional role of stem cells in the breastfed newborn babies. Ten newborn rabbits 2 weeks old fed on 2 × 10(6) PKH26-labeled rabbit milk derived-MSCs suspended in 2 mL Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) and 10 newborn baby rabbits fed with 2 mL DMEM solution or with rabbit fibroblasts as a control group were used in the study...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
Lucia Mastrototaro, Gerhard Sponder, Behnam Saremi, Jörg R Aschenbach
Methionine (Met) is a neutral, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid with biological functions in the initiation and prolongation step of protein synthesis, transmethylation reactions, the synthesis of cysteine and cystine, and as a component of antioxidant systems. Its key importance is reflected by the fact that it is usually absorbed from the diet with highest efficiency among all proteinogenic amino acids but may yet not optimally support metabolism and health. As such, crystalline Met supplements are partly used in man and heavily used in production of animal species (poultry, fish, shrimps, pigs and cattle) to provide improved health and performance...
October 17, 2016: IUBMB Life
Ma Chunhua, Kong Lingdong, Long Hongyan, Ma Zhangqiang
This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of umbelliferone (Umb) in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cell and its potential mechanisms underlying this action was elaborated. In vivo, a series of behavioral assays including SPT, OFT, FST, and TST suggested that Umb (20 and 40 mg/kg) could improve effectively depression-like symptoms. The serum levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α presented marked decreases after the treatment of Umb...
October 5, 2016: IUBMB Life
Jianli Tao, Xiang Zhou, Zhengfan Jiang
Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against invading pathogens. The detection of aberrant nucleic acids which represent some conserved PAMPs triggers robust type I IFN-mediated innate immune responses. Host- or pathogen-derived cytosolic DNA binds and activates the DNA sensor cGAS, which synthesizes the second messenger 2'3'-cGAMP and triggers STING-dependent downstream signaling. Here, we highlight recent progress in cGAS-cGAMP-STING, the Three Musketeers of cytosolic DNA sensing and signaling, and their essential roles in infection, autoimmune diseases, and cancer...
October 5, 2016: IUBMB Life
Ping Zhu, Guohong Li
Genomic DNA is hierarchically packaged into chromatin in eukaryotes. As a central-level chromatin structure between nucleosomal arrays and higher order organizations, 30 nm chromatin fiber, and its dynamics play a crucial role in regulating DNA accessibility for gene transcription. However, despite extensive efforts over three decades, the higher-order structure of the 30 nm chromatin fiber remains unresolved and controversial. We have recently reconstituted the 30 nm chromatin fibers from 12 nucleosomal arrays in vitro in the presence of linker histone H1, and determined their cryo-EM structures at resolution of 11 Å (Song et al...
October 5, 2016: IUBMB Life
Zengyi Chang
The DegP (or HtrA) is a highly conserved family of proteins functioning in all living organisms. It was initially identified as a protease functioning in the periplasmic space of the Gram-negative bacterial cells. It was later reported to also exhibit chaperone activity and thus has been designated as a bifunctional protein. However, recent studies demonstrated that in living cells it more likely functions only as a protease with hardly detectable chaperone activities. In this review, I will summarize the evidences clarifying that DegP more likely only functions as a protease rather than as a chaperone in cells...
September 26, 2016: IUBMB Life
Yi Yang, Haiping Song, Peng R Chen
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play pivotal roles in regulation of many biological processes. Conventional methods are capable of investigating stable and strong interactions within protein complexes, but remain difficult for studying dynamic, transient, and weak PPIs. Herein we review photo-affinity unnatural amino acids that can be site-specifically incorporated into a protein of interest to covalently trap noncovalent PPIs under living conditions. A newly developed cleavable photocrosslinker from our group will also be introduced, which facilitated the prey-bait separation for better enrichment and identification of photocrosslinked PPI complexes...
September 26, 2016: IUBMB Life
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