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Angelo Russo, Desireé Bartolini, Emanuela Mensà, Pierangelo Torquato, Maria Cristina Albertini, Fabiola Olivieri, Roberto Testa, Sara Rossi, Marta Piroddi, Gabriele Cruciani, Pierpaolo De Feo, Francesco Galli
Specific microRNAs (miRs), including the "angio-miR-126" and the "inflamma-miR-146a-5p," have been proposed as biomarkers and even therapeutic targets of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Physical activity, a key measure of prevention for obesity and its complications, is reported to influence the expression of these miRs. In this study, we investigate whether a physical activity program proven to improve metabolic parameters in obese patients can correct the circulating levels of these miRs...
September 13, 2018: IUBMB Life
Lingang Cui, Qingjun Meng, Jianguo Wen, Zhan Gao, Zechen Yan, Yudong Tian, Pengchao Xu, Xianfei He, Haizhou Yu, Pengchao Lian
This study investigated the effect of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and their differences in a rat model. MDSCs and ADSC were isolated from rats (n = 10), examined for their properties, and labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene. Rats received bladder-neck and transurethral sphincter injection of EGFP-labeled MDSCs and β-gal gene-labeled ADSC and injection of D-Hanks as a control (n = 24 each group)...
September 13, 2018: IUBMB Life
Haiyang Zhang, Bin Liang, Tao Li, Yi Zhou, Deya Shang, Zhongjun Du
Orexin A is a multifaceted peptide produced in hypothalamus. We examined the effect of orexin A on vascular endothelial cells. Our study showed that orexin A had a profound inhibitory effect against endothelial inflammation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in endothelial cells. Orexin A partially suppressed ox-LDL-induced monocytes THP-1 cells attachment to endothelial cells by limiting expression of vascular molecules including VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin. Mechanistically, orexin A ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by reducing MAP kinase p38 and NF-κB activation via its receptor-OX1R...
September 12, 2018: IUBMB Life
Ting Zhang, Lixia Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Yanan Yang
NOTCH1 is the prototype of the NOTCH family of single-pass transmembrane receptors and regulates many basic processes during embryonic development and human pathogenesis. In core to NOTCH1 activation are proteolytic cleavages that release its intracellular domain (NICD1), which in turn translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription. Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) has been shown to promote the degradation of NOTCH1, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that autophagy promotes the degradation of NOTCH1 by p62-dependent binding between NICD1 and LC3, a component of the autophagosomes that execute autophagy...
September 12, 2018: IUBMB Life
Zhibin Lin, Yao Chen, Zhaoxian Lin, Chunshan Chen, Yangyang Dong
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most malign human cancers, with its underlying molecular mechanisms largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the mechanistic role of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) gene in PC. Expression of PRMT1 in immortal PC cell lines and clinical human PC tumors was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. In PANC-1 and SW1990 cells, PRMT1 was either downregulated by lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or upregulated by overexpression plasmid...
September 8, 2018: IUBMB Life
Audrey Walker, Erwin Nissen, Adolf Geiger
Fibrocytes are bloodborne mesenchymal progenitor cells that are recruited to injured tissue sites and contribute to the repair process by acquiring a myofibroblast-like phenotype and producing extracellular matrix components and growth factors. Treatment with normal fibrocytes or their exosomes restores the ability of genetically diabetic mice to heal skin wounds, suggesting the existence of dysfunctional alterations in diabetic fibrocytes. This study compared the migratory, metabolic and functional characteristics of fibrocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DPs) and healthy controls (HCs)...
September 5, 2018: IUBMB Life
Romuald Loutre, Anne-Marie Heckel, Anna Smirnova, Nina Entelis, Ivan Tarassov
Mitochondria represent a chimera of macromolecules encoded either in the organellar genome, mtDNA, or in the nuclear one. If the pathway of protein targeting to different sub-compartments of mitochondria was relatively well studied, import of small noncoding RNAs into mammalian mitochondria still awaits mechanistic explanations and its functional issues are often not understood thus raising polemics. At the same time, RNA mitochondrial import pathway has an obvious attractiveness as it appears as a unique natural mechanism permitting to address nucleic acids into the organelles...
September 5, 2018: IUBMB Life
Tingting Zhang, Jiao He, Shuaina Zhang, Guangying Wang, Enbo Ma, Jianbing Wang, Xihua Yang, Yaowu Zheng, Jianzhen Zhang
Purified Brazilin from Sappan wood extract has been reported with significant antitumor effect, especially on human T24 cells and bladder cancer mouse models. Brazilin can significantly induce expression of c-Fos and GADD45β and transfection expression of c-Fos and GADD45β in T24 cells can induce significant cell morphology changes, reduced viability and cell death, while transfection of siRNA-c-Fos and siRNA-GADD45β can reverse the induced cell death. Co-transfection of both c-Fos and GADD45β into T24 cells resulted in a significantly additive effect when compared to single transfection with only c-Fos or GADD45β...
September 5, 2018: IUBMB Life
Muhammad Torequl Islam, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, Swati Tripathi, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Razina Rouf, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Mohammad Suleiman Mubarak, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Mitochondria are the powerhouse of cells, which upon dysfunctions may lead to several diseases. Mycotoxins are the toxic secondary metabolites from fungi which are capable of causing diseases and death in humans and animals. They have a versatile mechanism of action in biological systems and can be used as lead compounds to treat some diseases including cancer. The present work encompasses analysis on the effects of mycotoxins on mitochondrial dysfunction. Electronic databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were thoroughly searched for up-to-date published information associated with those mycotoxins and their effect on mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 4, 2018: IUBMB Life
Shreya Pal, Keerthiga Ganesan, Sambasivan Eswaran
Chemical crosslinking-mass spectrometry (CXL-MS) has emerged as a powerful tool in structural biology to elucidate protein-protein interactions. This review throws light on the advent of these technologies incorporating chemical crosslinking in proteomics, structural biology and extended to studies and applications of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). Monoclonal ASCs are known to target their specific receptors, where the drug could be released for vastly improved therapeutic effect. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is being referred to as the "revolution of the century" as it can help attain almost atomic resolution, while preserving the biological samples at near-native state and has been recognized by the Nobel award 2017...
September 3, 2018: IUBMB Life
Azam Bolhassani, Sepideh Shahbazi, Alireza Milani, Seyed Alireza Nadji
Therapeutic human papillomaviruse (HPV) vaccines have the potential to inhibit the tumor growth by targeting HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Among different vaccine strategies, DNA and protein-based approaches are the most effective candidates for stimulation of the immune responses against HPV infections. Our study was designed to assess the efficacy of small heat shock proteins B1 (Hsp27) and B6 (Hsp20) as an adjuvant accompanied by HPV16 E7 and hPP10-E7 antigens in tumor mouse model. A major key for successful DNA and protein transfer into cells is the development of delivery systems with high efficiency and low cytotoxicity...
September 1, 2018: IUBMB Life
Heghine Gevorgyan, Armen Trchounian, Karen Trchounian
During fermentation Escherichia coli produces di-hydrogen (H2 ) via reversible membrane-bound [Ni-Fe]-hydrogenases (Hyd). This study describes the total and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATPase activity and H2 production at various pHs in E. coli wild type and mutants encoding Hyd enzymes and formate dehydrogenases (FDH) on fermentation of glucose, glycerol, and formate. The highest total ATPase activity was detected at pH 7.5 in hyaB hybC selC (lacking large subunits of Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 and FDH, respectively) triple mutant...
August 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
Johnson Wahengbam Luwang, Ramanathan Natesh
Transcriptional activity of p53 is modulated by various posttranslational modifications. Earlier studies have reported that Aurora B phosphorylation of p53 leads to loss of its transcriptional activity, subsequently leading to its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. To decipher the fate of structural and functional stature of p53 upon phosphorylation by Aurora B, we have generated five phosphomimetic mutants of p53 core domain and characterized their biophysicochemical properties. Our biophysical studies show that the T211E, S215E, and S269E mutants are thermally unstable and show a higher propensity toward aggregation than WT with the loss of DNA binding except for S183E...
August 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
Iqra Sarfraz, Azhar Rasul, Ghulam Hussain, Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Matloob Ahmad, Bushra Nageen, Farhat Jabeen, Zeliha Selamoglu, Muhammad Ali
Reprogrammed metabolic profile is a biochemical fingerprint of cancerous cells, which represents one of the "hallmarks of cancer." The aberrant expression pattern of enzymatic machineries orchestrates metabolic activities into a platform that ultimately promotes cellular growth, survival, and proliferation. The NADP(+)-dependent mitochondrial malic enzyme 2 (ME2) has been widely appreciated due to its function as a provider of pyruvate and reducing power to the cell for biosynthesis of fatty acids and nucleotides along with maintenance of redox balance...
August 29, 2018: IUBMB Life
Kalarickal V Dileep, Chandran Remya, Ignatius Tintu, Pradeep K Mandal, Ponnuraj Karthe, Madathilkovilakathu Haridas, Chittalakkottu Sadasivan
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) is one of the rate limiting enzymes involved in the production of arachidonic acid, a potent inflammatory mediator. PLA2 is widely distributed all over the animal kingdom. It is also seen in inflammatory exudation and venoms of different organisms. The studies demonstrated that PLA2 inhibitors have broad spectrum activities that they can either be used against inflammation or envenomation. In this study, the inhibitory activity of 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) against porcine pancreatic PLA2 has been explained through isothermal titration calorimetry and enzyme kinetics studies...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Cleetus Cherupanakkal, Daisy Mariya Samadanam, Krishna Raja Muthuraman, Surya Ramesh, Amrit Venkatesan, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna Pillai, Soundravally Rajendiran
Interplay between the apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress as a host response to dengue viral infections remains unclear. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 60 dengue infected patients, 20 patients with febrile illness other than dengue (OFI) and 10 non-febrile illness (NFI) patients. DNA damage in the PBMCs was assessed using single cell gel electrophoresis and stages of apoptosis underwent by the PBMCs were studied by Annexin-PI staining using flow cytometry. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde levels were estimated using thiobarbituric acid assay...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Jitong Zhang, Chaojie Ju, Wei Zhang, Li Xie
SNHG20 is a novel lncRNA which has been showed to be overexpressed and functions as oncogenic lncRNA in several types of human cancer. The role of SNHG20 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to identify the clinical value and biological function of SNHG20 in osteosarcoma. Our results indicated SNHG20 was overexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines compared with paired non-tumor tissues and normal human osteoblast cell line, respectively. Moreover, we observed high-expression of SNHG20 was obviously associated with Enneking stage, distant metastasis, and histological grade...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Alysia Mandato, Yuh-Cherng Chai
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of many strains of tuberculosis, as it is composed of an impenetrable, complex cell wall. The proteins active in the synthesis of the cell wall are mycolyl transferase antigens 85A, 85B, and 85C, encoded by genes fbpA, fbpB, and fbpC. Antigen 85C contains one cysteine residue. S-Glutathionylation is the formation of a mixed disulfide between a protein cysteine residue and glutathione (GSH), an abundant antioxidant molecule. It is a post-translational modification of cysteine residues which can occur under oxidative stress or physiological conditions...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Shuna Wang, Jianwei Liu, Yang Yang, Fengqin Hao, Laixia Zhang
PlncRNA-1 has been suggested to function as an oncogenic role in prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and gastric cancer. The expression pattern of PlncRNA-1 in retinoblastoma remained unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the clinical significance of PlncRNA-1 in retinoblastoma patient and the biological function and molecular mechanism of PlncRNA-1 in regulating retinoblastoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The results showed the level of PlncRNA-1 expression was obviously increased in retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines compared with compared with normal retina tissues and retina cell lines, respectively...
August 10, 2018: IUBMB Life
Qianru Bai, Baohua Peng, Xue Wu, Yunfeng Cao, Xiaoyu Sun, Mo Hong, Rongmei Na, Baiting Liu, Qianxiao Li, Zhu Li, Weiyi Fang, Ning Zhu, Chengguo Zong, Qin Yu
Hypertension is an increasingly serious public-health challenge worldwide. The traditional blood pressure measurement method could easily and reliably detect blood pressure. However, the delayed symptom onset may influence the screening of essential hypertension (EH). In addition, EH is significantly associated to cardiovascular disease, stroke and kidney disease. Hence, it is urgent to define associated biomarkers with early diagnosis potential for EH. A dried blood spot method integrated with direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic analysis was applied for the detection of metabolites toward 87 EH patients and 91 healthy controls (HC)...
August 9, 2018: IUBMB Life
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