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Akshay Vishwanatha, Cletus Joseph Michael D'Souza
Glycolytic inhibitors are of interest therapeutically as they are effective against cancers that display increased glycolytic rate and mitochondrial defects. 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG) is one such glycolytic inhibitor and was identified to be a competitive inhibitor of glucose. Studies from past few decades have shown that the mechanism of action of 2-DG is complex involving several metabolic and signaling pathways. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are two important models for studying metabolism, cell cycle and cell signaling...
January 17, 2017: IUBMB Life
Laura Bordoni, Francesca Marchegiani, Marco Piangerelli, Valerio Napolioni, Rosita Gabbianelli
Pediatric obesity develops when a complex biological predisposition collides with an obesogenic environment. To further elucidate the role of genetics in obesity onset, we performed a candidate-gene association study in a young and sportive Italian population by testing the association of functional polymorphisms in ACE (rs4646994), FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and PPARG (rs1801282) genes with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). We also tested the combinations of identified risk genotypes and epistatic interactions among them to determine the existence of cumulative effects in predicting the predisposition to gain weight...
January 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
Nabil A Soliman, Somia H Abd-Allah, Samia Hussein, Muhammad Alaa Eldeen
Doxorubicin is an effective anti-neoplastic drug but its use is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the management of cardiotoxicity was with poor myocardial homing capacity. With the aim of developing novel techniques to improve the migration of MSCs, we tested whether valproate and electric fields (EFs) direct the migration of MSCs towards the damaged myocardium. The study included five groups of female albino rats. The first group included 10 healthy rats as normal control group...
January 12, 2017: IUBMB Life
Yuanyuan Li, Wenzhuo Ran, Jiaqiang Zhang, Shi Chen, Yihang Li, Deng Luo, Chen Wang, Weiping Jia
Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured...
January 9, 2017: IUBMB Life
Mona Radwan, Rebecca J Wood, Xiaojing Sui, Danny M Hatters
Protein aggregation is a hallmark of the major neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and motor neuron and is a symptom of a breakdown in the management of proteome foldedness. Indeed, it is remarkable that under normal conditions cells can keep their proteome in a highly crowded and confined space without uncontrollable aggregation. Proteins pose a particular challenge relative to other classes of biomolecules because upon synthesis they must typically follow a complex folding pathway to reach their functional conformation (native state)...
January 9, 2017: IUBMB Life
Giuseppe Inesi
Copper has a wide and important role in biological systems, determining conformation and activity of many metalloproteins and enzymes, such as cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase . Furthermore, due to its possible reactivity with nonspecific proteins and toxic effects, elaborate systems of absorption, concentration buffering, delivery to specific protein sites and elimination, require a complex system including small carriers, chaperones and active transporters. The P-type copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B provide an important system for acquisition, active transport, distribution and elimination of copper...
November 28, 2016: IUBMB Life
K V Abhinav, Kaushal Sharma, Avadhesha Surolia, Mamannamana Vijayan
The crystal structures of jacalin complexed with Gal α-(1,4) Gal and Gal α-(1,3) Gal β-(1,4) Gal have been determined with the primary objective of exploring the effect of linkage on the location of reducing and non-reducing sugars in the extended binding site of the lectin, an issue which has not been studied thoroughly. Contrary to the earlier surmise based on simple steric considerations, the two structures demonstrate that α-linked sugars can bind to jacalin with nonreducing sugar at the primary binding site...
November 3, 2016: IUBMB Life
Hector Vega, Luis B Agellon, Marek Michalak
Molecular chaperones are specialized proteins essential for facilitating the correct folding, assembly, and disassembly of many cellular proteins and for assuring proteostasis. Genetic mutations or metabolic extremes that cause long-term alteration of cellular homeostasis compromise protein folding efficiency. To maintain proteostasis, cells mobilized stress coping responses that include the unfolded protein response in order to prevent accumulation of improperly folded proteins that forms the basis of many diseases...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Xueling Kang, Xiangxiang Wei, Li Jiang, Cong Niu, Jianyi Zhang, Sifeng Chen, Dan Meng
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis have a pivotal role in the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency and in stem cell self-renewal; however, the mechanisms by which ROS regulate the self-renewal of stem cells have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we evaluated the role of the ROS produced by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in the self-renewal and stemness of murine induced-pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs). Targeted silencing of Nox2 or Nox4 reduced both NADPH oxidase activity and intracellular ROS levels, as well as alkaline phosphatase activity, the total number of miPSCs, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Weihai Chen, Xiaqing Wang, Minmin Yan, Yan Wang, Shixue Xie, Hong Li, Ming Li
5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C ) receptor agonists have been suggested to possess an antipsychotic activity in several acute preclinical tests of antipsychotic drugs with low extra-pyramidal side effect liability. However, little is known about the long-term effect associated with chronic use of 5-HT2C receptor agonists. The present study examined whether repeated activation of 5-HT2C receptor with a highly selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK212 would induce a long-term change in its antipsychotic-like activity (either a sensitization or tolerance) in the conditioned avoidance response and MK801-induced hyperlocomotion tests...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
Katarzyna Switon, Katarzyna Kotulska, Aleksandra Janusz-Kaminska, Justyna Zmorzynska, Jacek Jaworski
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system disorder, primary manifestations of which are benign tumors and lesions in various organs of the body, including the brain. TSC patients often suffer from epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, TSC serves as a model of epilepsy, ASD, and tumorigenesis. TSC is caused by the lack of functional Tsc1-Tsc2 complex, which serves as a major cellular inhibitor of mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 is a kinase controlling most of anabolic processes in eukaryotic cells...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
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January 2017: IUBMB Life
Jinghua Shan, Lixia Chen, Keliang Lu
Age-related osteoblast dysfunction is the main cause of age-related bone loss. Trans-caryophyllene (TC) is an important constituent of the essential oils derived from several species of medicinal plants. In this study, we investigated the effects of TC on osteoblast function in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicate that TC caused a significant elevation in collagen content, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin production, and mineralization, which are the four markers that account for the various stages of osteoblastic differentiation...
January 2017: IUBMB Life
Nicolás González Bardeci, Juan Francisco Angiolini, María Cecilia De Rossi, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
Fluorescence fluctuation-based methods are non-invasive microscopy tools especially suited for the study of dynamical aspects of biological processes. These methods examine spontaneous intensity fluctuations produced by fluorescent molecules moving through the small, femtoliter-sized observation volume defined in confocal and multiphoton microscopes. The quantitative analysis of the intensity trace provides information on the processes producing the fluctuations that include diffusion, binding interactions, chemical reactions and photophysical phenomena...
January 2017: IUBMB Life
Lidia P Sashchenko, Elena A Romanova, Olga K Ivanova, Tatiana N Sharapova, Denis V Yashin
Tag7 (PGRP-S or PGLYRP1), while possessing an antimicrobial activity, also exhibits an antitumor effect when in complex with the major heat shock protein Hsp70. The cytotoxic Tag7-Hsp70 complex is secreted by lymphocytes after interaction with the HLA-negative tumors. Previously, we have shown that IL-2 induces formation of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) cytotoxic subpopulations of human lymphocytes, which kill tumor cells through the FasL-Fas interaction. Here, we show that only the CD8(+) T cells are able to secrete the Tag7-Hsp70 complex...
January 2017: IUBMB Life
Yanan Sun, Xiaopeng Jia, Qiang Gao, Xing Liu, Lianguo Hou
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important prerequisite for metastasis to secondary organs. Interleukin-like EMT inducer (ILEI) protein has been shown to translationally upregulated during EMT and metastatic progression as a consequence of aberrant TGF-β signaling. Our initial evaluation of FAM3C (encoding ILEI) and ILEI expression in normal prostate (PCS-440-010) and prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3) revealed detectable protein expression in only LNCaP cell line even though all cell lines tested had comparable FAM3C expression...
January 2017: IUBMB Life
Lu Hu, Yu Gao, Yunfeng Cao, Yinxu Zhang, Minghao Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yu Jing, Shengnan Guo, Fangyu Jing, Xiaodan Hu, Zhitu Zhu
Arginine is one of the human nonessential amino acids critical for the growth of human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of arginine between breast cancer (BC) patients and benign mammary gland disease (control) patients to determine its value in predicting the risk of BC. We also explore the associations between arginine levels and breast cancer subtypes. Preoperative blood samples were obtained from 267 patients (102 BC and 165 controls) in 2015. Plasma arginine values were determined for all preoperative blood samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyse differences in arginine levels between BC patients and control patients and the correlations between arginine and clinicopathologic parameters in BC...
December 2016: IUBMB Life
Christoph Heier, Hao Xie, Robert Zimmermann
Ethanol is a widely used psychoactive drug whose chronic abuse is associated with organ dysfunction and disease. Although the prevalent metabolic fate of ethanol in the human body is oxidation a smaller fraction undergoes nonoxidative metabolism yielding ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites persist in tissues and body fluids for much longer than ethanol itself and represent biomarkers for the assessment of ethanol intake in clinical and forensic settings...
December 2016: IUBMB Life
Jiekai Chen, Duanqing Pei
Cells all share essentially the same genome, which is shaped by the developmental program to bring about various outcomes. It is well known that epigenetic regulation is a key process in determining the different cell functional output from the genetic information. Somatic reprogramming is a dramatic demonstration of this effect, and has opened the gate to the investigation of cell fate determination as cells reverse the developmental program. These studies have revealed which epigenetic marks set during normal development are important for cell specification...
November 2016: IUBMB Life
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