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Lei Zhong, Changjun Zheng, Hongjuan Fang, Meng Xu, Bingpeng Chen, Chen Li
In this work, we explored the aberrant expression pattern, clinical association, and functional regulations of microRNA-1270 (miR-1270) in osteosarcoma. Among in vitro osteosarcoma cell lines and in situ tissues of osteosarcoma patients, quantitative real time-PCR was used to examine their endogenous miR-1270 expression. Clinical correlation between endogenous miR-1270 expression and clinicopathological features of osteosarcoma patients, as well as cancer patients' overall survival, was statistically examined...
May 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Amogh Kulkarni, Ajay Kumar Sharma, Harinath Chakrapani
The emergence of drug resistance has posed a major challenge to treatment of tuberculosis worldwide. The new drug candidates in the pipeline are few and therefore there is an urgent need to develop antimycobacterials with novel mechanisms of action. Maintenance of redox homeostasis is integral to mycobacterial survival and growth. Therefore, perturbation of this equilibrium can result in irreversible stress induction and inhibition of growth. Herein, we review a number of small molecules that have either been designed to induce redox stress or were found to do so after their discovery...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
Rohan Dhiman, Ramandeep Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity with an estimated 1.7 billion people latently infected with the pathogen worldwide. Clinically, TB infection presents itself as an asymptomatic infection, which gradually manifests to life threatening disease. The emergence of various drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lengthy duration of chemotherapy are major challenges in the field of TB drug development. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop scaffolds that possess a novel mechanism of action, can shorten the duration of therapy, and are active against both drug resistant and susceptible strains...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
Nisha Singh, Zeeshan Ahmad, Navin Baid, Ashwani Kumar
Infectious diseases are a major challenge in management of human health worldwide. Recent literature suggests that host immune system could be modulated to ameliorate the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Heme oxygenase (HMOX1) is a key regulator of cellular signaling and it could be modulated using pharmacological reagents. HMOX1 is a cytoprotective enzyme that degrades heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and molecular iron. CO and biliverdin (or bilirubin derived from it) can restrict the growth of a few pathogens...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
Anuradha Kumari, Dulal Panda
The centrosome executes diverse functions including the nucleation and organization of microtubules. A subset of centrosomal proteins is found to be involved in regulating the nucleation, stability, and dynamics of microtubules. Literature is flooded with reports of centrosomal proteins regulating microtubule nucleation. However, the centrosomal proteins that regulate microtubule stability are underexplored. Here, we review the centrosomal proteins, which either enhance or reduce the stability of microtubules and thereby regulate microtubule dynamics...
May 7, 2018: IUBMB Life
Hong-Ling Jia, Xiao-Qin Zeng, Feng Huang, Ya-Meng Liu, Bi-Shuang Gong, Kai-Zhao Zhang, Jiang-Hui Zeng, Dong-Guang Guo, Zhuo-Ya Wang, Yu-Gu Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the regulation of gene expression during multiple physiological processes, including early development, differentiation, and ageing. However, their involvement in age-related thymic involution is not clear. In this study, we profiled the global transcriptome and miRNAome of thymic epithelial cells in 1- and 3-month-old male and female mice, and predicted the possible transcription factors and target genes of the four most significantly differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) (miR-183-5p, miR-199b-5p, miR-205-5p, and miR-200b-3p) by performing bioinformatics analyses...
May 4, 2018: IUBMB Life
Christopher S Ealand, Edith E Machowski, Bavesh D Kana
Disruption of peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis in the bacterial cell wall by β-lactam antibiotics has transformed therapeutic options for bacterial infections. These antibiotics target the transpeptidase domains in penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), which can be classified into high and low molecular weight (LMW) counterparts. While the essentiality of the former has been extensively demonstrated, the physiological roles of LMW PBPs remain poorly understood. Herein, we review the function of LMW PBPs, β-lactamases and ld-transpeptidases (Ldts) in pathogens associated with respiratory tract infections...
May 2, 2018: IUBMB Life
Chao Liu, Zuozhang Yang, Zhiyong Deng, Youjun Zhou, Quan Gong, Ruilian Zhao, Ting Chen
In this study, we aimed at investigating effects of lncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 on lung cancer progression through regulating miR-223-3p and TGFBR3 expressions. Expressions of ADAMTS9-AS2 in lung cancer tissues and cell lines were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TargetScan and miRcode were used to predict the targeting relationships, respectively. The luciferase reporter system was used to verify that the relationship among ADAMTS9-AS2, TGFBR3 and miR-223-3p. Western blot assay tested the protein level changes in TGFBR3...
April 29, 2018: IUBMB Life
Xiangting Qiu, Yucui Song, Yanxiang Cui, Yan Liu
Inflammation plays an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is widely used to evaluate global inflammation in various tumor types. However, the prognostic role of NLR in non-metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients was poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore the association between pre-treatment NLR and survival in TNBC patients. Data were collected for patients with stages I-III TNBC from 2006 to 2013 at Linyi Central Hospital to analyze pre-treatment NLR and survival...
April 29, 2018: IUBMB Life
Robert B Abramovitch
Reporter strains have proven to be powerful tools to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) physiology. Transcriptional and translational reporter strains are engineered by fusing a readout gene, encoding a fluorescent, luminescent or enzymatic protein, downstream of a promoter or in-frame with a gene of interest. When the reporter is expressed, it generates a signal that acts as a synthetic phenotype, enabling the study of physiologies that might have otherwise been hidden. This review will discuss approaches for generating reporter strains in Mtb and how they can be used as tools for high-throughput genetic and small molecule screening and as biomarkers for examining Mtb responses to drug or immune stresses during animal infections...
April 29, 2018: IUBMB Life
Yanfeng Shen, Feng Xi, Haibin Li, Yin Luo, Cheng Chen, Lei Wang
We aimed to investigate the role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) cells. R software was used for differential expressed gene analysis. Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, were used to detect protein expression and mRNA level of TERT in tumor cell lines. Real-time quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, MTT assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry (FCM) assay were used to analyze the telomerase activity, viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of HCC cells...
April 29, 2018: IUBMB Life
Hua Wang, Pan Hao, Hu Zhang, Cuiping Xu, Junyan Zhao
This study was aimed to research the effect of miR-223 on the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of rat intervertebral disc. Isolated rat NP cells were induced by LPS. Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect gene expression. To detect protein expression, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments were applied. The putative targeting relationship between miR-223 and Irak1 was determined using dual-luciferase reporter gene assay...
April 29, 2018: IUBMB Life
Mashkoor Alam, Abhishek Srivastava, Ankita Dutta, Apurba Kumar Sau
Despite importance of arginine decarboxylase (ADC: EC of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) 26695 pathogenic strain for acid adaptation in host, the enzyme has not yet been studied at a molecular level. Using combined approaches that include kinetic assays, site-directed mutagenesis, circular dichroism, heat-induced denaturation, analytical gel-filtration, and homology modeling, we report here a detailed investigation of H. pylori ADC. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme exhibits higher catalytic activity in the presence of Mg2+ ions at pH ∼8...
April 23, 2018: IUBMB Life
Amrita Saha, Moumita Basu, Anindita Ukil
Invasion of host cell by pathogens induce various intracellular signalling pathways. The host cell through the initiation of these signalling circuits desperately wants to get rid of the pathogen, whereas the pathogen tries to subvert these defence strategies to create an environment for their successful survival. Leishmania spp. is not an exception. Leishmania have to evolve a range of strategic mechanisms to neutralize macrophage defensive arsenals which enable the parasite to replicate within the phagolysosome of infected host...
April 23, 2018: IUBMB Life
Yingliang Ou, Jiafa He, Yubin Liu
The miR-490-3p was transfected into HepG2 cells to explore the correlation between miR-490-3p and hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy and its downstream target gene ATG7. Then we could possibly provide a mechanism for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. MiR-490-3p was screened out by fold change > 4 and P < 0.01 using gene microarray data. The expression level of miR-490-3p was tested by qRT-PCR and the prognosis analysis was achieved by using TCGA data...
April 20, 2018: IUBMB Life
Ming Zhong, Qi Jiang, Ronghui Jin
Ubiquitin specific protease 4 (USP4) is a member of the USPs family, which catalyzes the cleavage of ubiquitin from a series of protein substrates, thereby modulating a number of cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we aimed to explore the expression profile of USP4 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) using large patient cohorts in the Cancer Genome Atlas and the International Cancer Genome Consortium and to investigate its prognostic value and the possible mechanisms of its dysregulation. Results showed that USP4 was significantly downregulated in LUAD tissues (N = 514) compared with the normal controls (N = 59)...
April 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
Anand Kumar Bachhawat, Shambhu Yadav
Glutathione was discovered in 1888, over 125 years ago. Since then, our understanding of various functions and metabolism of this important molecule has grown over these years. But it is only now, in the last decade, that a somewhat complete picture of its metabolism has emerged. Glutathione metabolism has till now been largely depicted and understood by the γ-glutamyl cycle that was proposed in 1970. However, new findings and knowledge particularly on the transport and degradation of glutathione have revealed that many aspects of the γ-glutamyl cycle are incorrect...
April 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
Aliah R Alshanwani, Kirsten Riches-Suman, David J O'Regan, Ian C Wood, Neil A Turner, Karen E Porter
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) comprising the vascular wall can switch phenotypes from contractile to synthetic, which can promote the development of aberrant remodelling and intimal hyperplasia (IH). MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a short, non-coding RNA that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases including proliferative vascular disease and ischaemic heart disease. However, its involvement in the complex development of atherosclerosis has yet to be ascertained...
April 16, 2018: IUBMB Life
Minji Choi, Sulagna Mukherjee, Nam Hyeon Kang, Jameel Lone Barkat, Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jong Won Yun
Induction of the brown adipocyte-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) is considered as a novel strategy to fight obesity due to the ability of brown adipocytes to increase energy expenditure. Here, we report that L-rhamnose induced browning by elevating expression levels of beige-specific marker genes, including Cd137, Cited1, Tbx1, Prdm16, Tmem26, and Ucp1, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, L-rhamnose markedly elevated expression levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis both in 3T3-L1 white and HIB1B brown adipocytes...
April 11, 2018: IUBMB Life
Ju-Min Chen, Jun-Yun Bai, Kun-Xian Yang
In the study, we probed into the effect of Resveratrol (RES) on Doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast neoplasm cell line MCF-7/DOX as well as the mechanism of RES underlying the DOX-resistant breast cancer. CCK-8 assay was utilized to assess the survival rates and sensitivity of breast neoplasm cell lines MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 to DOX and RES. DOX-resistant MCF-7 cell line was successfully cultivated with DOX dose increasing and was named MCF-7/DOX. Afterwards, wound healing and Transwell assays were performed to measure the migration and invasion capabilities of MCF-7/DOX cells, while cell propagation and apoptosis were determined by colony formation assay and flow cytometry analysis...
April 10, 2018: IUBMB Life
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