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Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698778/eric-kandel-s-reductionism-in-art-and-brain-science-bridging-the-two-cultures
#1
Ed Bilsky
Reductive art is a term to describe an artistic style or an aesthetic, rather than an art movement. It is stripping down as a new way of seeing. Movements and other terms that are sometimes associated with reductive art include abstract art, minimalism, ABC art, anti-illusionism, cool art, and rejective art. Eric Kandel's fifth book focuses on reductionism as the principle guiding an ongoing dialogue between the worlds of science and art.
May 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698777/genetics-and-als-cause-for-optimism
#2
Roland Pochet
While drug development has done little to slow the devastating symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), there is some good news in the fact that scientists have identified some 100 related genes and believe that genetic research offers the best hope for treatments. More good news came on the heels of the Ice Bucket Challenge, which raised $220 million globally and has fueled renewed optimism and energy in the ALS community.
May 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698776/the-sleeping-brain
#3
Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
The role of sleep has long baffled scientists, but the latest research is providing new indicators about what it does for both the brain and body. While scientists believe that sleep re-energizes the body's cells, clears waste from the brain, and supports learning and memory, much still needs to be learned about the part it plays in regulating mood, appetite and libido. Source/Shutterstock.
May 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698775/gut-feelings-on-parkinson-s-and-depression
#4
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The gut-brain axis is one of the new frontiers of neuroscience. Microbiota (the collective bacteria, viruses, fungi and other microorganisms that live in the digestive tract), sometimes referred to as the "second genome" or the "second brain," may influence our health in ways that scientists are just now beginning to understand. Scientists now believe that the microbiota and all that it involves may be a way to treat any number of disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.
March 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698774/the-four-pillars-of-alzheimer-s-prevention
#5
Dharma Singh Khalsa, George Perry
Much is yet to be discovered about the precise biological changes that cause Alzheimer's, disease, why it progresses more quickly in some than in others, and how the disease can be prevented, slowed, or stopped. And while researchers continue to search for the magic pill that can prevent or halt the spread of amyloid in the brain, our authors believe that changing or modifying one's lifestyle and attitude can make a difference in both prevention and treatment.
March 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698773/next-generation-house-call
#6
Jamie L Adams, Christopher G Tarolli, E Ray Dorsey
Just as online shopping is supplanting visits to the mall, and distance learning is part of the new wave in higher education, so is health care coming to a computer or mobile device near you. In the next few years, telehealth will increasingly become part of psychiatric and neurological care. Still to overcome is an unwieldy health care system that will need to adapt to practices that have the potential to lower costs and improve care.
January 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698772/examining-the-causes-of-autism
#7
David G Amaral
Autism is a broad, complex, and increasingly important brain disorder. New data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that one in sixty-eight children is born with some degree of autism. Autism is also more common in males by a four to one ratio. Making it especially difficult to discuss in finite, conclusive terms is the fact that there is no biological test for autism; diagnosis is based on behavior, and the only verified treatment is intensive behavior therapy. Our author, one of the nation's foremost researchers on autism, examines the prenatal factors that contribute to the disorder...
January 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698771/finding-the-hurt-in-pain
#8
Irene Tracey
Pain is unique to every person, and difficult to quantify and treat. Whether it is delivered as a jolt or a persistent, dull ache, pain is guaranteed to affect one's quality of life. Our author examines how brain imaging is opening our eyes to the richness and complexity of the pain experience, giving us extraordinary insight into the neurochemistry, network activity, wiring, and structures relevant to producing and modulating painful experiences in all their various guises.
November 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058095/understanding-the-terrorist-mind
#9
Emile Bruneau
While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today's investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.
November 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058094/shane-o-mara-s-why-torture-doesn-t-work-the-neuroscience-of-interrogation
#10
Moheb Costandi
Waterboarding, sleep deprivation, and solitary confinement were some of the tactics outlined and authorized in a series of Bush Administration secret legal documents, known as the "torture memos," which were made public in 2009. Shane O'Mara's new book casts morality aside to examine whether torture produces reliable information. He reviews existing research in psychology and neuroscience to highlight the impact of torture methods on brain function.
November 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058093/santiago-ram%C3%A3-n-y-cajal-s-advice-for-a-young-investigator
#11
Michael Anderson
Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a mythic figure in science and recognized as the father of modern anatomy and neurobiology, was largely responsible for the modern conception of the brain. The first to publish on the nervous system, he sought to educate the novice scientist about how he thought science should be done. We asked an accomplished young investigator to take a fresh look at this recently rediscovered classic, first published in 1897.
September 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058092/the-evolving-view-of-astrocytes
#12
Philip G Haydon
Did you know that glial cells are more numerous than neurons in the brain? Scientists have found that one type of glial cell that is prevalent in the cortex-the astrocyte-communicates with its brethren, sends information to neurons, and controls blood flow to regions of brain activity. Because of all these properties, and since the cortex is believed responsible for cognition, the role of astrocytes in sleep, learning, and memory is being determined.
September 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058091/making-mental-health-a-global-priority
#13
Patricio V Marquez, Shekhar Saxena
At a conference in April in Washington, D.C., the World Bank Group (WBG), together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners kick-started a call to action to governments, international partners, health professionals, and others to find solutions to a rising global mental health problem. Our authors write that mental disorders account for 30 percent of the non-fatal disease burden worldwide and 10 percent of overall disease burden, including death and disability, and that the global cost-estimated to be approximately $2...
July 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058090/drinking-water-and-the-developing-brain
#14
Ellen K Silbergeld
While the problem of unsafe tap water in Flint, Michigan fueled outrage and better awareness in regard to the hazards of lead in tap water, the problem has existed in city after city for years in the US and in other countries. Our author, a winner of the MacArthur Foundation "genius" grant for her work in identifying preventable causes of human disease related to environmental exposures, points out that problems extend well beyond lead. Many potentially harmful contaminants have yet to be evaluated, much less regulated...
July 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408679/a-new-approach-for-epilepsy
#15
Ray Dingledine, Bjørnar Hassel
About one-third of the 65 million people worldwide affected by epilepsy are treatment-resistant, and the degree to which they suffer from seizures and convulsions can vary widely. Problems occur when nerve cells in the brain fail to communicate properly. A new study has found that inhibiting an enzyme that is critical in metabolic communication has an anti-seizure effect in epileptic mice. These findings, the authors believe, may very well initiate a shift to new therapeutic approaches.
May 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408678/the-neuro-funding-rollercoaster
#16
Harry M Tracy
Compared to the money dedicated to cancer and cardiology, funding for neuroscience research has lagged behind for decades. But things are starting to change. From the White House's Brain Initiative to the Ice Bucket Challenge for ALS to some recent sizeable gifts to universities, money for brain research appears to be on the rise. But, as our author explains, research and development funding from private and corporate lenders for cognitive neuroscience-an area that he has spent years tracking-is also vital to the quality of life for millions of people...
May 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408677/imaging-the-neural-symphony
#17
Karel Svoboda
Since the start of the new millennium, a method called two-photon microscopy has allowed scientists to peer farther into the brain than ever before. Our author, one of the pioneers in the development of this new technology, writes that "directly observing the dynamics of neural networks in an intact brain has become one of the holy grails of brain research." His article describes the advances that led to this remarkable breakthrough-one that is helping neuroscientists better understand neural networks.
March 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408676/the-malignant-protein-puzzle
#18
Lary C Walker, Mathias Jucker
When most people hear the words malignant and brain, cancer immediately comes to mind. But our authors argue that proteins can be malignant too, and can spread harmfully through the brain in neurodegenerative diseases that include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, CTE, and ALS. Studying how proteins such as PrP, amyloid beta, tau, and others aggregate and spread, and kill brain cells, represents a crucial new frontier in neuroscience.
March 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408675/david-casarett-s-stoned-a-doctor-s-case-for-medical-marijuana
#19
Bradley E Alger
With legal cannabis sales at $5.4 billion in 2015 and expected to rise by another billion this year in the United States, legalization and marijuana's impact on health is a hot topic of national debate. Casarett, a physician at the University of Pennsylvania, immerses himself in the culture, science, and smoke of medical marijuana in order to sort out the truth behind the buzz. Our reviewer, who has authored more than 120 research papers and reviews on the regulation of synaptic inhibition and endocannabinoids, tell us what the author got right, but also overlooked on his journey to learn more about a complex and controversial subject...
March 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408674/the-changing-face-of-recreational-drug-use
#20
Michael H Baumann
Our author writes that recent data from the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime indicate that 540 different drugs classified as new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been identified worldwide as of 2014, and this number is expected to rise. His article describes the complexity of the NPS problem, what is known about the molecular mechanisms of action, and the pharmacological effects of NPS. It also highlights some of the considerable challenges in dealing with this emerging issue.
January 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
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