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Infant and Child Development

Arya Ansari
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 (ECLS-K: 2011; n = 11,000), this study examined the developmental outcomes of 5-year-old children in multi-grade classrooms (combined pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classrooms serving 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) compared with 5-year-olds attending kindergarten-only classrooms serving primarily 5-year-olds. Results from regression and propensity score analyses revealed that 5-year-old children who attended multi-grade classrooms with pre-kindergarteners made smaller gains in math and literacy skills and demonstrated less optimal executive function at the end of the school year as compared with children who attended kindergarten-only classrooms...
November 2017: Infant and Child Development
Katarina Guttmannova, Karl G Hill, Jennifer A Bailey, Lacey Hartigan, Candice M Small, J David Hawkins
This study examined whether parental alcohol use in adolescence, adulthood, and, for mothers, during pregnancy was related to their young children's functioning in terms of their on-time development as indicated by the number of developmental areas in which children experienced delay. Observed parenting practices and family socioeconomic status were tested as potential explanatory mechanisms of these links. Data came from the surveys and videotaped observations of a community sample of 123 biological parents and their 1-5 year old children followed longitudinally...
September 2017: Infant and Child Development
Esther Leerkes, Jin Qu
The purpose of this paper was to examine the reliability, stability, and convergent and predictive validity of the newly developed Maternal Responsiveness Questionnaire (MRQ). Participants were 224 first-time mothers. Mothers completed the MRQ when their infants were 6 and 14 months old. Convergent validity was examined in relation to mother-reported personality, depressive symptoms, and emotion socialization practices and observed maternal sensitivity. Predictive validity was examined in relation to mother-reported child behavior problems and social competence, infant attachment security assessed via the Strange Situation, and observed child dysregulation...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
Jaccoline E van 't Noordende, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number-space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory-motor interaction with the environment. In line with this assumption, it was investigated if counting and adding/subtracting direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance. Forty-eight 3.5-year-old children completed a block adding, subtracting and counting task...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
Heqing Huang, Yanjie Su, Jian Jin
The critical role of the second year of life in the development of empathy is well accepted by psychologists. However, the developmental trends of the different components of empathy and the potential factors underlying these components during this critical period remain unclear. Eighty-four Chinese toddlers in the second year of life participated in the present study. Empathy-related responses were observed during three simulated procedures performed by each child's primary caregiver, the experimenter and a baby doll...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
Rebecca P Newland, Keith A Crnic
Despite the compelling nature of goodness of fit, empirical support has lagged for this construct. The present study examined an interactional approach to measuring goodness of fit and prospectively explored associations with mother-child relationship quality, child behavior problems, and parenting stress across the preschool period. In addition, as goodness of fit might be particularly important for children at developmental risk, the presence of early developmental delay was considered as a moderator of goodness of fit processes...
March 2017: Infant and Child Development
Erika Lunkenheimer, Christine J Kemp, Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Pamela M Cole, Erin C Albrecht
Researchers have argued for more dynamic and contextually relevant measures of regulatory processes in interpersonal interactions. In response, we introduce and examine the effectiveness of a new task, the Parent-Child Challenge Task, designed to assess the self-regulation and coregulation of affect, goal-directed behavior, and physiology in parents and their preschoolers in response to an experimental perturbation. Concurrent and predictive validity was examined via relations with children's externalizing behaviors...
January 2017: Infant and Child Development
Kristin M Johnson, Rebecca J Woods
The development of object individuation, a fundamental ability that supports identification and discrimination of objects across discrete encounters, has been examined extensively by researchers. There are significant advancements in infants' ability to individuate objects during the first year-and-a-half. Experimental work has established a timeline of object individuation abilities and revealed some mechanisms underlying this ability, however, the influence of adult assistance during object exploration has not yet been explored...
September 2016: Infant and Child Development
Emily C Merz, Susan H Landry, Tricia A Zucker, Marcia A Barnes, Michael Assel, Heather B Taylor, Christopher J Lonigan, Beth M Phillips, Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti, Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy L Spinrad, Carlos Valiente, Jill de Villiers, The School Readiness Research Consortium
This study examined longitudinal associations between specific parenting factors and delay inhibition in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. At Time 1, parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N = 247) participated in a videotaped parent-child free play session, and children completed delay inhibition tasks (gift delay-wrap, gift delay-bow, and snack delay tasks). Three months later, at Time 2, children completed the same set of tasks. Parental responsiveness was coded from the parent-child free play sessions, and parental directive language was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions...
September 2016: Infant and Child Development
Stuart Marcovitch, Melissa W Clearfield, Margaret Swingler, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
In the first year of life, the ability to search for hidden objects is an indicator of object permanence and, when multiple locations are involved, executive function (i.e. inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory). The current study was designed to examine attentional predictors of search in 5-month-old infants (as measured by the looking A-not-B task), and whether levels of maternal education moderated the effect of the predictors. Specifically, in a separate task, the infants were shown a unique puppet, and we measured the percentage of time attending to the puppet, as well as the length of the longest look (i...
July 2016: Infant and Child Development
Arianna M Gard, Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
We examined the longitudinal associations between prenatal tobacco smoke exposure (PSE) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom domains in adolescence and young adulthood. A sample of girls with ADHD combined presentation (N=93), ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation (N=47), and matched comparisons (N= 88) was assessed prospectively. Symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), inattention (IA), and oppositionality (oppositional defiant disorder) were measured via multiple informants 5 (M age =14 years; retention rate =92%) and 10 years (M age =20 years; retention rate =95%) following childhood ascertainment...
July 2016: Infant and Child Development
Haiko Ballieux, Przemyslaw Tomalski, Elena Kushnerneko, Mark H Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Derek G Moore
Recent work suggests that differences in functional brain development are already identifiable in 6- to 9-month-old infants from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. Investigation of early SES-related differences in neuro-cognitive functioning requires the recruitment of large and diverse samples of infants, yet it is often difficult to persuade low-SES parents to come to a university setting. One solution is to recruit infants through early intervention children's centres (CCs). These are often located in areas of high relative deprivation to support young children...
January 1, 2016: Infant and Child Development
Cynthia A Stifter, Michael Rovine
The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at two and six months of age, used hidden Markov modeling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a 4-state model for the dyadic responses to a two-month inoculation whereas a 6-state model best described the dyadic process at six months. Two of the states at two months and three of the states at six months suggested a progression from high intensity crying to no crying with parents using vestibular and auditory soothing methods...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
Anne Martin, Rachel A Razza, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
We report on a new measure of maternal affect from an ongoing multi-site birth cohort study with primarily low-income families, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. At child age of 5 years, mothers were asked to describe their child in a short, semi-structured home interview. One innovation of this measure - called the Maternal Description of Child (MDoC) - is that it captured maternal affect via audiotape rather than videotape. Based on mothers' talk about their child, coders scored mothers on Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Detachment...
May 1, 2015: Infant and Child Development
Yuqing Guo, Szu-Yun Leu, Kathryn E Barnard, Elaine A Thompson, Susan J Spieker
The present study applied State Space Grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion co-regulation across the two Strange Situation episodes was examined with linear mixed models for groups with secure and insecure classifications. The groups did not differ at baseline...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
Erika S Lunkenheimer, Esther M Leerkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
Bharathi J Zvara, W Roger Mills-Koonce, Nicole Heilbron, Amanda Clincy, Martha J Cox
The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent-parent interaction quality and parent-child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and European American couples that are independent of other socio-demographic factors to further clarify how interparental relationships may be related to parenting in a rural, low-income sample...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
Caroline K P Roben, Ginger A Moore, Pamela M Cole, Peter Molenaar, Leslie D Leve, Daniel S Shaw, David Reiss, Jenae M Neiderhiser
Transactional models of analysis can examine both moment-to-moment interactions within a dyad and dyadic patterns of influence across time. This study used data from a prospective adoption study to test a transactional model of parental depressive symptoms and mutual negativity between mother and child over time, utilizing contingency analysis of second-by-second behavioral data. To consider both genetic and environmental influences on mutual negativity, depressive symptoms were examined in both adoptive and birth mothers...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Ronald D Rogge, Jack S Peltz, Jennifer H Suor, Michael A Skibo
Parenting scholars have long been interested in understanding the prevalence, determinants, and child outcomes associated with the use of physical discipline. To date, much of the empirical research in this area has utilized self-report measures to assess this construct. However, the subjective nature of participants' explicit reports presents an important confound to studying this issue. Thus, the overarching aim of this study was to provide the first test of an implicit assessment of physical discipline through using a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT)...
April 1, 2015: Infant and Child Development
Vanessa L Castro, Amy G Halberstadt, Fantasy T Lozada, Ashley B Craig
Children who are able to recognize others' emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents' own emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and skills. We examined parents' beliefs about the value of emotion and guidance of children's emotion, parents' emotion labeling and teaching behaviors, and parents' skill in recognizing children's emotions in relation to their school-aged children's emotion recognition skills...
January 2015: Infant and Child Development
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