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Infant and Child Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701903/an-embodiment-perspective-on-number-space-mapping-in-3-5-year-old-dutch-children
#1
Jaccoline E van 't Noordende, M Chiel J M Volman, Paul P M Leseman, Evelyn H Kroesbergen
Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number-space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory-motor interaction with the environment. In line with this assumption, it was investigated if counting and adding/subtracting direction in young children is related to the hand they use during task performance. Forty-eight 3.5-year-old children completed a block adding, subtracting and counting task...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701902/empathy-related-responding-in-chinese-toddlers-factorial-structure-and-cognitive-contributors
#2
Heqing Huang, Yanjie Su, Jian Jin
The critical role of the second year of life in the development of empathy is well accepted by psychologists. However, the developmental trends of the different components of empathy and the potential factors underlying these components during this critical period remain unclear. Eighty-four Chinese toddlers in the second year of life participated in the present study. Empathy-related responses were observed during three simulated procedures performed by each child's primary caregiver, the experimenter and a baby doll...
May 2017: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458616/assessing-biobehavioural-self-regulation-and-coregulation-in-early-childhood-the-parent-child-challenge-task
#3
Erika Lunkenheimer, Christine J Kemp, Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Pamela M Cole, Erin C Albrecht
Researchers have argued for more dynamic and contextually relevant measures of regulatory processes in interpersonal interactions. In response, we introduce and examine the effectiveness of a new task, the Parent-Child Challenge Task, designed to assess the self-regulation and coregulation of affect, goal-directed behavior, and physiology in parents and their preschoolers in response to an experimental perturbation. Concurrent and predictive validity was examined via relations with children's externalizing behaviors...
January 2017: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082834/give-me-a-hand-adult-involvement-during-object-exploration-affects-object-individuation-in-infancy
#4
Kristin M Johnson, Rebecca J Woods
The development of object individuation, a fundamental ability that supports identification and discrimination of objects across discrete encounters, has been examined extensively by researchers. There are significant advancements in infants' ability to individuate objects during the first year-and-a-half. Experimental work has established a timeline of object individuation abilities and revealed some mechanisms underlying this ability, however, the influence of adult assistance during object exploration has not yet been explored...
September 2016: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833461/parenting-predictors-of-delay-inhibition-in-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-preschoolers
#5
Emily C Merz, Susan H Landry, Tricia A Zucker, Marcia A Barnes, Michael Assel, Heather B Taylor, Christopher J Lonigan, Beth M Phillips, Jeanine Clancy-Menchetti, Nancy Eisenberg, Tracy L Spinrad, Carlos Valiente, Jill de Villiers, The School Readiness Research Consortium
This study examined longitudinal associations between specific parenting factors and delay inhibition in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. At Time 1, parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N = 247) participated in a videotaped parent-child free play session, and children completed delay inhibition tasks (gift delay-wrap, gift delay-bow, and snack delay tasks). Three months later, at Time 2, children completed the same set of tasks. Parental responsiveness was coded from the parent-child free play sessions, and parental directive language was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions...
September 2016: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642263/attentional-predictors-of-5-month-olds-performance-on-a-looking-a-not-b-task
#6
Stuart Marcovitch, Melissa W Clearfield, Margaret Swingler, Susan D Calkins, Martha Ann Bell
In the first year of life, the ability to search for hidden objects is an indicator of object permanence and, when multiple locations are involved, executive function (i.e. inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory). The current study was designed to examine attentional predictors of search in 5-month-old infants (as measured by the looking A-not-B task), and whether levels of maternal education moderated the effect of the predictors. Specifically, in a separate task, the infants were shown a unique puppet, and we measured the percentage of time attending to the puppet, as well as the length of the longest look (i...
July 2016: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516728/prenatal-smoke-exposure-predicts-hyperactive-impulsive-but-not-inattentive-adhd-symptoms-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-girls
#7
Arianna M Gard, Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
We examined the longitudinal associations between prenatal tobacco smoke exposure (PSE) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom domains in adolescence and young adulthood. A sample of girls with ADHD combined presentation (N=93), ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation (N=47), and matched comparisons (N= 88) was assessed prospectively. Symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), inattention (IA), and oppositionality (oppositional defiant disorder) were measured via multiple informants 5 (M age =14 years; retention rate =92%) and 10 years (M age =20 years; retention rate =95%) following childhood ascertainment...
July 2016: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869855/feasibility-of-undertaking-off-site-infant-eye-tracking-assessments-of-neuro-cognitive-functioning-in-early-intervention-centres
#8
Haiko Ballieux, Przemyslaw Tomalski, Elena Kushnerneko, Mark H Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Derek G Moore
Recent work suggests that differences in functional brain development are already identifiable in 6- to 9-month-old infants from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. Investigation of early SES-related differences in neuro-cognitive functioning requires the recruitment of large and diverse samples of infants, yet it is often difficult to persuade low-SES parents to come to a university setting. One solution is to recruit infants through early intervention children's centres (CCs). These are often located in areas of high relative deprivation to support young children...
January 1, 2016: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284272/modeling-dyadic-processes-using-hidden-markov-models-a-time-series-approach-to-mother-infant-interactions-during-infant-immunization
#9
Cynthia A Stifter, Michael Rovine
The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at two and six months of age, used hidden Markov modeling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a 4-state model for the dyadic responses to a two-month inoculation whereas a 6-state model best described the dyadic process at six months. Two of the states at two months and three of the states at six months suggested a progression from high intensity crying to no crying with parents using vestibular and auditory soothing methods...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042164/the-maternal-description-of-child-mdoc-a-new-audiotaped-measure-of-maternal-affect
#10
Anne Martin, Rachel A Razza, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
We report on a new measure of maternal affect from an ongoing multi-site birth cohort study with primarily low-income families, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. At child age of 5 years, mothers were asked to describe their child in a short, semi-structured home interview. One innovation of this measure - called the Maternal Description of Child (MDoC) - is that it captured maternal affect via audiotape rather than videotape. Based on mothers' talk about their child, coders scored mothers on Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Detachment...
May 1, 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26726296/an-examination-of-changes-in-emotion-co-regulation-among-mother-and-child-dyads-during-the-strange-situation
#11
Yuqing Guo, Szu-Yun Leu, Kathryn E Barnard, Elaine A Thompson, Susan J Spieker
The present study applied State Space Grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion co-regulation across the two Strange Situation episodes was examined with linear mixed models for groups with secure and insecure classifications. The groups did not differ at baseline...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617470/innovative-methods-in-the-science-of-parent-child-relations
#12
Erika S Lunkenheimer, Esther M Leerkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26430390/the-interdependence-of-adult-relationship-quality-and-parenting-behaviours-among-african-american-and-european-couples-in-rural-low-income-communities
#13
Bharathi J Zvara, W Roger Mills-Koonce, Nicole Heilbron, Amanda Clincy, Martha J Cox
The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent-parent interaction quality and parent-child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and European American couples that are independent of other socio-demographic factors to further clarify how interparental relationships may be related to parenting in a rural, low-income sample...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26170764/transactional-patterns-of-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-mother-child-mutual-negativity-in-an-adoption-sample
#14
Caroline K P Roben, Ginger A Moore, Pamela M Cole, Peter Molenaar, Leslie D Leve, Daniel S Shaw, David Reiss, Jenae M Neiderhiser
Transactional models of analysis can examine both moment-to-moment interactions within a dyad and dyadic patterns of influence across time. This study used data from a prospective adoption study to test a transactional model of parental depressive symptoms and mutual negativity between mother and child over time, utilizing contingency analysis of second-by-second behavioral data. To consider both genetic and environmental influences on mutual negativity, depressive symptoms were examined in both adoptive and birth mothers...
May 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26195917/delving-beyond-conscious-attitudes-validation-of-an-innovative-tool-for-assessing-parental-implicit-attitudes-toward-physical-punishment
#15
Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Ronald D Rogge, Jack S Peltz, Jennifer H Suor, Michael A Skibo
Parenting scholars have long been interested in understanding the prevalence, determinants, and child outcomes associated with the use of physical discipline. To date, much of the empirical research in this area has utilized self-report measures to assess this construct. However, the subjective nature of participants' explicit reports presents an important confound to studying this issue. Thus, the overarching aim of this study was to provide the first test of an implicit assessment of physical discipline through using a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT)...
April 1, 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26005393/parents-emotion-related-beliefs-behaviors-and-skills-predict-children-s-recognition-of-emotion
#16
Vanessa L Castro, Amy G Halberstadt, Fantasy T Lozada, Ashley B Craig
Children who are able to recognize others' emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents' own emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and skills. We examined parents' beliefs about the value of emotion and guidance of children's emotion, parents' emotion labeling and teaching behaviors, and parents' skill in recognizing children's emotions in relation to their school-aged children's emotion recognition skills...
January 2015: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25685093/children-with-imaginary-companions-focus-on-mental-characteristics-when-describing-their-real-life-friends
#17
Paige E Davis, Elizabeth Meins, Charles Fernyhough
Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (Nā€‰=ā€‰159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best friends with reference to their mental characteristics, but IC status was unrelated to children's theory of mind performance and reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties...
November 2014: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25642148/assessment-of-working-memory-capacity-in-preschool-children-using-the-missing-scan-task
#18
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and validity of a modified version of Buschke's missing scan methodology, the Missing Scan Task (MST), to assess working memory capacity (WMC) and cognitive control processes in preschool children 3-6 years in age. Forty typically developing monolingual English-speaking children between 36 and 84 months in age participated in the study. The children were tested on measures of WMC (MST), verbal and nonverbal memory (NEPSY Narrative Memory and Memory for Designs subtests), and language skills (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, fourth edition)...
November 2014: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25598710/exploring-socioeconomic-differences-in-bedtime-behaviours-and-sleep-duration-in-english-preschool-children
#19
Caroline H D Jones, Helen Ball
Children's sleep is critical for optimal health and development; yet sleep duration has decreased in recent decades, and many children do not have adequate sleep. Certain sleep behaviours ('sleep hygiene') are commonly recommended, and there is some evidence that they are associated with longer nighttime sleep. Parents of 84 British 3-year-old children were interviewed about their children's sleep and completed five-night/four-day sleep diaries documenting their children's sleep, from which daily sleep duration was estimated...
September 2014: Infant and Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25705132/cognitive-conflict-links-behavioral-inhibition-and-social-problem-solving-during-social-exclusion-in-childhood
#20
Ayelet Lahat, Olga L Walker, Connie Lamm, Kathryn A Degnan, Heather A Henderson, Nathan A Fox
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by heightened negative affect and social reticence to unfamiliar peers. In a longitudinal study, 291 infants were assessed for BI at 24 and 36 months of age. At age 7, N2 amplitude was measured during a Flanker task. Also at age 7, children experienced social exclusion in the lab during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer and an experimenter. Our findings indicate that children characterized as high in BI, relative to those low in BI, had larger (i...
May 2014: Infant and Child Development
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