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Neuro-oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045719/corrigendum
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045711/the-endothelial-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-is-highly-expressed-in-gliosarcoma-and-visualized-by-68ga-psma-11-pet-a-theranostic-outlook-for-brain-tumor-patients
#2
Marcus Unterrainer, Maximilian Niyazi, Viktoria Ruf, Peter Bartenstein, Nathalie L Albert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045712/hospice-utilization-in-patients-with-malignant-gliomas
#3
Deborah Forst, Eric Adams, Ryan Nipp, Allison Martin, Areej El-Jawahri, Ayal Aizer, Justin T Jordan
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations from professional organizations supporting early hospice enrollment for patients with cancer, little research exists regarding end-of-life (EOL) practices for patients with malignant gliomas (MG). We evaluated rates and correlates of hospice enrollment and hospice length-of-stay (LOS) among patients with MG. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database, we identified adult patients who were diagnosed with MG from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011 and who died before December 31, 2012...
October 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045710/radiation-induced-cognitive-toxicity-pathophysiology-and-interventions-to-reduce-toxicity-in-adults
#4
Christopher Wilke, David Grosshans, Joseph Duman, Paul Brown, Jing Li
Radiotherapy is ubiquitous in the treatment of patients with both primary brain tumors as well as disease which is metastatic to the brain. This therapy is not without cost, however, as cognitive decline is frequently associated with cranial radiation, particularly with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The precise mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced morbidity remain incompletely understood and continue to be an active area of ongoing research. In this article, we review the hypothetical means by which cranial radiation induces cognitive decline as well as potential therapeutic approaches to prevent, minimize or reverse treatment-induced cognitive deterioration...
October 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040703/evidence-and-context-of-use-for-contrast-enhancement-as-a-surrogate-of-disease-burden-and-treatment-response-in-malignant-glioma
#5
Benjamin M Ellingson, Patrick Y Wen, Timothy F Cloughesy
The use of contrast enhancement within the brain on CT or MRI has been the gold standard for diagnosis and therapeutic response assessment in malignant gliomas for decades. The use of contrast enhancing tumor size, however, remains controversial as a tool for accurately diagnosing and assessing treatment efficacy in malignant gliomas, particularly in the current, quickly evolving therapeutic landscape. The current article consolidates overwhelming evidence from hundreds of studies in the field of neuro-oncology, providing the necessary evidence base and specific contexts of use for consideration of contrast enhancing tumor size as an appropriate surrogate biomarker for disease burden and as a tool for measuring treatment response in malignant glioma, including glioblastoma...
October 12, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040782/egfr-heterogeneity-and-implications-for-therapeutic-intervention-in-glioblastoma
#6
Eskil Eskilsson, Gro V Røsland, Gergely Solecki, Qianghu Wang, Patrick N Harter, Grazia Graziani, Roel G W Verhaak, Frank Winkler, Rolf Bjerkvig, Hrvoje Miletic
Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have a universally poor prognosis and are in urgent need of effective treatment strategies. Recent advances in sequencing techniques unraveled the complete genomic landscape of GBMs and revealed profound heterogeneity of individual tumors even at the single cell level. Genomic profiling has detected epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene alterations in more than half of GBMs. Major genetic events include amplification and mutation of EGFR. Yet, treatment strategies targeting EGFR have thus far failed in clinical trials...
October 10, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040662/molecular-subtyping-of-tumors-from-patients-with-familial-glioma
#7
Vanessa Y Ruiz, Corinne E Praska, Georgina Armstrong, Thomas M Kollmeyer, Seiji Yamada, Paul A Decker, Matthew L Kosel, Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, The Gliogene Consortium, Daniel H Lachance, Matthew N Bainbridge, Beatrice S Melin, Melissa L Bondy, Robert B Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas, and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. METHODS: Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis...
October 10, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036697/the-elderly-left-behind-changes-in-survival-trends-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-over-the-past-four-decades
#8
Joe S Mendez, Quinn T Ostrom, Haley Gittleman, Carol Kruchko, Lisa M DeAngelis, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Christian Grommes
Background: There has been significant improvement in treatment outcomes of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) at specialized centers over the past several decades; however, it is unclear if these changes have translated to benefits in the general population. Methods: In this study, we utilized two national databases to examine survival trends over time for PCNSL (Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS, 2000 - 2013) and 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER, 1973 - 2013) registries)...
October 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036598/global-dna-methylation-analysis-reveals-mir-214-3p-contributes-to-cisplatin-resistance-in-pediatric-intracranial-nongerminomatous-malignant-germ-cell-tumors
#9
Tsung-Han Hsieh, Yun-Ru Liu, Ting-Yu Chang, Muh-Lii Liang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Hsei-Wei Wang, Yun Yen, Tai-Tong Wong
Background: Pediatric central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNSGCTs) are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms, and they can be divided into germinomas and nongerminomatous GCTs (NGGCTs). NGGCTs are further subdivided into mature teratomas and nongerminomatous malignant GCTs (NGMGCTs). Clinical outcomes suggest that NGMGCTs have poor prognosis and survival, and that they require more extensive radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms underlying this difference are still unclear...
October 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036345/phase-ii-study-of-cabozantinib-in-patients-with-progressive-glioblastoma-subset-analysis-of-patients-with-prior-antiangiogenic-therapy
#10
Timothy F Cloughesy, Jan Drappatz, John de Groot, Michael D Prados, David A Reardon, David Schiff, Marc Chamberlain, Tom Mikkelsen, Annick Desjardins, Jerry Ping, Jaymes Holland, Ron Weitzman, Patrick Y Wen
Background: Cabozantinib is a potent, multi-target inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2). This open-label, phase II trial evaluated cabozantinib in patients with recurrent or progressive glioblastoma (GBM; NCT00704288). Methods: Patients were initially enrolled to a starting cabozantinib dose of 140 mg/day, but the starting dose was amended to 100 mg/day because of safety concerns. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity...
October 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036412/radiomic-subtyping-improves-disease-stratification-beyond-key-molecular-clinical-and-standard-imaging-characteristics-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#11
Philipp Kickingereder, Ulf Neuberger, David Bonekamp, Paula L Piechotta, Michael Götz, Antje Wick, Martin Sill, Annekathrin Kratz, Russell T Shinohara, David T W Jones, Alexander Radbruch, John Muschelli, Andreas Unterberg, Jürgen Debus, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Christel Herold-Mende, Stefan Pfister, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, David Capper, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Martin Bendszus
Background: To analyze the potential of radiomics for disease stratification beyond key molecular, clinical and standard imaging features in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: Quantitative imaging features (n=1043) were extracted from the multiparametric MRI of 181 patients with newly-diagnosed glioblastoma prior to standard-of-care treatment (allocated to a discovery and validation set, 2:1 ratio). A subset of 386/1043 features were identified as reproducible (in an independent MRI-test-retest cohort) and selected for analysis...
September 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036500/glioma-cpg-island-methylator-phenotype-g-cimp-biological-and-clinical-implications
#12
Tathiane M Malta, Camila F de Souza, Thais S Sabedot, Tiago C Silva, Maritza Q S Mosella, Steven N Kalkanis, James Snyder, Ana Valeria B Castro, Houtan Noushmehr
Gliomas are a heterogeneous group of brain tumors with distinct biological and clinical properties. Despite advances in surgical techniques and clinical regimens, treatment of high-grade glioma remains challenging and carries dismal rates of therapeutic success and overall survival. Challenges include the molecular complexity of gliomas, as well as inconsistencies in histopathological grading, resulting in an inaccurate prediction of disease progression and failure in the use of standard therapy. The updated 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system reflects a refinement of tumor diagnostics by integrating the genotypic and phenotypic features, thereby narrowing the defined subgroups...
September 26, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036362/cux1-stimulates-ape1-enzymatic-activity-and-increases-the-resistance-of-glioblastoma-cells-to-the-mono-alkylating-agent-temozolomide
#13
Simran Kaur, Zubaidah M Ramdzan, Marie-Christine Guiot, Li Li, Lam Leduy, Dindial Ramotar, Siham Sabri, Bassam Abdulkarim, Alain Nepveu
Background: CUX1, which encodes an auxiliary factor in base excision repair, resides on 7q22.1, the most frequently and highly amplified chromosomal region in glioblastomas. The resistance of glioblastoma cells to the mono-alkylating agent temozolomide is determined to some extent by the activity of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, APE1. Methods: To monitor the effect of CUX1 and its CUT domains on APE1 activity, DNA repair assays were performed with purified proteins and cell extracts...
September 26, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036631/id-h-entifying-checkpoint-inhibitor-candidates-among-diffuse-glioma
#14
Felix Sahm, Antje Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016929/trivalent-car-t-cells-overcome-interpatient-antigenic-variability-in-glioblastoma
#15
Kevin Bielamowicz, Kristen Fousek, Tiara T Byrd, Hebatalla Samaha, Malini Mukherjee, Nikita Aware, Meng-Fen Wu, Jordan S Orange, Pavel Sumazin, Tsz-Kwong Man, Sujith K Joseph, Meenakshi Hegde, Nabil Ahmed
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain cancer, and is currently incurable. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cells have shown promise in GBM treatment. While we have shown that combinatorial targeting of two glioma antigens offsets antigen escape and enhances T-cell effector functions, the inter-patient variability in surface antigen expression between patients hinders the clinical impact of targeting two antigen pairs. This study addresses targeting 3 antigens using a single CAR T-cell product for broader application...
September 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016919/challenges-of-developing-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitors-for-brain-tumors-and-the-need-for-emphasis-on-free-drug-levels
#16
Timothy P Heffron
Despite biological rationale and significant clinical study, the pursuit of small molecule kinase inhibitors for the treatment of brain cancers has had very limited success. This Advance-in-Brief discusses the need for drugs to achieve free brain penetration to engage their targets where CNS tumors reside. This need to achieve free, as opposed to total, drug concentrations in the brain may be a contributing factor to why so many small molecule kinase inhibitors have not realized success in the neuro-oncology setting...
September 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016844/pik3cb-p110%C3%AE-is-a-selective-survival-factor-for-glioblastoma
#17
Kevin J Pridham, Lamvy Le, Sujuan Guo, Robin T Varghese, Sarah Algino, Yanping Liang, Renee Fajardin, Cara M Rodgers, Gary R Simonds, Deborah F Kelly, Zhi Sheng
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is difficult to treat. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is an attractive therapeutic target for GBM; however, targeting this pathway to effectively treat GBM is not successful because the roles of PI3K isoforms remain to be defined. The aim of this study is to determine whether PIK3CB/p110β, but not other PI3K isoforms, is a biomarker for GBM recurrence and important for cell survival. Methods: Gene expression and clinical relevance of PI3K genes in GBM patients were analyzed using online databases...
September 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016947/visual-and-semiquantitative-11c-methionine-pet-an-independent-prognostic-factor-for-survival-of-newly-diagnosed-and-treatment-naive-gliomas
#18
Nina Poetsch, Adelheid Woehrer, Johanna Gesperger, Julia Furtner, Alexander R Haug, Dorothee Wilhelm, Georg Widhalm, Georgios Karanikas, Michael Weber, Ivo Rausch, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak, Marcus Hacker, Matthias Preusser, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger
Background: Few data exist regarding the prognostic value of L-[S-methyl- 11C]methionine (MET) PET for treatment-naive gliomas. Methods: A total of 160 glioma patients (89 men, 71 women, mean age: 45, range 18 - 84 yrs) underwent a MET PET prior to any therapy. The PET scans were evaluated visually and semiquantitatively by tumor to background (T/N) ratio thresholds chosen by ROC-Analysis. Additionally, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-R132H (IDH1-R132H) immunohistochemistry was performed...
September 9, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016979/attention-mediated-neurocognitive-profiles-in-survivors-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-comparison-to-children-with-neurodevelopmental-adhd
#19
Kristina K Hardy, Victoria W Willard, Anthony Gioia, Christina Sharkey, Karin S Walsh
Background: Attention and working memory symptoms are among the most common late effects in survivors of pediatric brain tumors, and are often associated with academic and psychosocial difficulties. Diagnostic and treatment approaches derived from the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) literature have frequently been applied to survivors, yet the extent of overlap in cognitive profiles between these groups is unclear. The objective of the present study is to compare neurocognition in survivors of brain tumors and children with neurodevelopmental ADHD...
September 8, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016900/is-the-blood-brain-barrier-really-disrupted-in-all-glioblastomas-a-critical-assessment-of-existing-clinical-data
#20
Jann N Sarkaria, Leland S Hu, Ian F Parney, Deanna H Pafundi, Debra H Brinkmann, Nadia N Laack, Caterina Giannini, Terence C Burns, Sani H Kizilbash, Janice K Laramy, Kristin R Swanson, Timothy J Kaufmann, Paul D Brown, Nathalie Y R Agar, Evanthia Galanis, Jan C Buckner, William F Elmquist
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) excludes the vast majority of cancer therapeutics from normal brain. However, the importance of the BBB in limiting drug delivery and efficacy is controversial in high-grade brain tumors, such as glioblastoma (GBM). The accumulation of normally brain impenetrant radiographic contrast material in essentially all GBM has popularized a belief that the BBB is uniformly disrupted in all GBM patients so that consideration of drug distribution across the BBB is not relevant in designing therapies for GBM...
September 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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