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Neuro-oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216385/de-novo-and-secondary-anaplastic-meningiomas-a-study-of-clinical-and-histomolecular-prognostic-factors
#1
Matthieu Peyre, Guillaume Gauchotte, Marine Giry, Sébastien Froehlich, Johan Pallud, Thomas Graillon, Franck Bielle, Dominique Cazals-Hatem, Pascale Varlet, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Hugues Loiseau, Michel Kalamarides
Background: Following recent studies underlining the differences between de novo and secondary anaplastic meningiomas and the prognostic value of TERT promoter mutation, we decided to conduct a multicenter retrospective study to address these questions and determine specific prognostic factors in each of these two anaplastic meningioma subgroups. Methods: Among the 68 meningioma cases initially selected, only 57 were confirmed as anaplastic meningiomas after centralized pathological review...
December 5, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216380/recent-advances-in-intradural-spinal-tumors
#2
Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Kevin T Huang, Ziev B Moses, J Bryan Iorgulescu, John H Chi
Intradural spinal tumors are rare tumors of the central nervous system. Due to the eloquence of the spinal cord and its tracts, compact architecture of the cord and nerves and the infiltrative nature of some of these tumors, surgical resection is difficult to achieve without causing neurological deficits. Likewise, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are utilized more cautiously in the treatment of intradural spinal tumors than their cranial counterparts. Targeted therapies aimed at the genetic alterations and molecular biology tailored to these tumors would be helpful, but are lacking...
December 5, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194500/eano-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ependymal-tumors
#3
Roberta Rudà, Guido Reifenberger, Didier Frappaz, Stefan M Pfister, Anne Laprie, Thomas Santarius, Patrick Roth, Joerg Christian Tonn, Riccardo Soffietti, Michael Weller, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal
Ependymal tumors are rare CNS tumors and may occur at any age, but their proportion among primary brain tumors is highest in children and young adults. Thus, the level of evidence of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is higher in the pediatric compared with the adult patient population.The diagnosis and disease staging is performed by craniospinal MRI. Tumor classification is achieved by histological and molecular diagnostic assessment of tissue specimens according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification 2016...
November 29, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186568/germline-sufu-mutation-carriers-and-medulloblastoma-clinical-characteristics-cancer-risk-and-prognosis
#4
Léa Guerrini-Rousseau, Christelle Dufour, Pascale Varlet, Julien Masliah-Planchon, Franck Bourdeaut, Marine Guillaud-Bataille, Rachid Abbas, Anne-Isabelle Bertozzi, Fanny Fouyssac, Sophie Huybrechts, Stéphanie Puget, Brigitte Bressac-De Paillerets, Olivier Caron, Nicolas Sevenet, Marina Dimaria, Sophie Villebasse, Olivier Delattre, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Jacques Grill, Laurence Brugières
Background: Germline SUFU mutations predispose to SHH medulloblastoma. Germline SUFU mutations have been reported in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), but little is known about the cancer risk and clinical spectrum. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with medulloblastoma and a germline SUFU mutation in France. Results: Twenty-two patients from 17 families were identified with a medulloblastoma and a germline SUFU mutation (median age at diagnosis: 16...
November 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165638/feasibility-of-real-time-molecular-profiling-for-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-without-mgmt-promoter-hypermethylation-the-nct-neuro-master-match-n2m2-pilot-study
#5
Elke Pfaff, Tobias Kessler, Gnana Prakash Balasubramanian, Anne Berberich, Daniel Schrimpf, Antje Wick, Jürgen Debus, Andreas Unterberg, Martin Bendszus, Christel Herold-Mende, David Capper, Irini Schenkel, Andreas Eisenmenger, Susan Dettmer, Benedikt Brors, Michael Platten, Stefan M Pfister, Andreas von Deimling, David T W Jones, Wolfgang Wick, Felix Sahm
Introduction: O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status is a predictive biomarker in glioblastoma patients. Glioblastoma without hypermethylated MGMT promoter are largely resistant to treatment with temozolomide. These patients are in particular need of new treatment approaches, which are offered by biomarker-driven clinical trials with targeted drugs based on molecular characterization of individual tumors. Methods: In preparation for an upcoming clinical study, a comprehensive molecular profiling approach was undertaken on tissues from 43 glioblastoma patients harboring an unmethylated MGMT promoter at diagnosis...
November 18, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156054/hospice-care-cancer-directed-therapy-and-medicare-expenditures-among-older-patients-dying-with-malignant-brain-tumors
#6
Laura L Dover, Caleb R Dulaney, Courtney P Williams, John B Fiveash, Bradford E Jackson, Paula P Warren, Elizabeth A Kvale, D Hunter Boggs, Gabrielle B Rocque
Background: End-of-life care for older adults with malignant brain tumors is poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to quantify end-of-life utilization of hospice care, cancer-directed therapy, and associated Medicare expenditures among older adults with malignant brain tumors. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included deceased Medicare beneficiaries age ≥65 with primary (PMBT) or secondary (SMBT) malignant brain tumor receiving care within a Southeastern cancer community network including academic and community hospitals from 2012-2015...
November 15, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156007/desmoplastic-nodular-medulloblastoma-in-young-children-a-management-dilemma
#7
Mohamed S AbdelBaki, Daniel R Boué, Jonathan L Finlay, Mark W Kieran
Background: Children with desmoplastic nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) have excellent survival, leading multiple groups globally to attempt reduction of treatment-related morbidity. In 2013, the Children's Oncology Group began a clinical trial (ACNS1221) eliminating both radiation therapy (RT) and intraventricular methotrexate for children under 3 years of age with localized DNMB, aiming to build upon the excellent outcomes of the German (HIT) trials. ACNS1221 has recently closed due to increased incidence of recurrences noted at the 2-year interim analysis, raising important questions regarding optimal therapy for DNMB...
November 15, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145623/transition-message-from-the-editor-in-chief
#8
Patrick Y Wen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140514/idh-mutation-testing-in-gliomas-where-do-we-draw-the-line
#9
Farshad Nassiri, Gelareh Zadeh, Kenneth Aldape
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136244/a-molecular-cascade-modulates-map1b-and-confers-resistance-to-mtor-inhibition-in-human-glioblastoma
#10
Dan R Laks, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Alvaro G Alvarado, Jonathan Nakashima, Shreya Chand, Daniel B Azzam, Ankur A Gholkar, Jantzen Sperry, Kirsten Ludwig, Michael C Condro, Serli Nazarian, Anjelica Cardenas, Michelle Y S Shih, Robert Damoiseaux, Bryan France, Nicholas Orozco, Koppany Visnyei, Thomas J Crisman, Fuying Gao, Jorge Z Torres, Giovanni Coppola, Alma L Burlingame, Harley I Kornblum
Background: Clinical trials of therapies directed against nodes of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in Glioblastoma (GBM) have had disappointing results. Resistance to mTOR inhibitors limits their efficacy. Methods: To determine mechanisms of resistance to chronic mTOR inhibition, we performed tandem screens on patient-derived GBM cultures. Results: An unbiased phosphoproteomic screen quantified phosphorylation changes associated with chronic exposure to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and our analysis implicated a role for GSK3B attenuation in mediating resistance that was confirmed by functional studies...
November 9, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121274/quality-of-life-in-the-glarius-trial-randomizing-bevacizumab-irinotecan-versus-temozolomide-in-newly-diagnosed-mgmt-nonmethylated-glioblastoma
#11
Niklas Schäfer, Martin Proescholdt, Joachim P Steinbach, Astrid Weyerbrock, Peter Hau, Oliver Grauer, Roland Goldbrunner, Franziska Friedrich, Veit Rohde, Florian Ringel, Uwe Schlegel, Michael Sabel, Michael W Ronellenfitsch, Martin Uhl, Stefan Grau, Mathias Hänel, Oliver Schnell, Dietmar Krex, Peter Vajkoczy, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Frederic Mack, Christina Schaub, Theophilos Tzaridis, Michael Nießen, Sied Kebir, Barbara Leutgeb, Horst Urbach, Claus Belka, Walter Stummer, Martin Glas, Ulrich Herrlinger
Background: The GLARIUS trial which investigated the efficacy of bevacizumab (BEV)/irinotecan (IRI) as compared to standard temozolomide (TMZ) in the first-line therapy of MGMT-nonmethylated glioblastoma showed that progression-free survival was significantly prolonged by BEV/IRI while overall survival was similar in both arms. The present report focusses on quality of life (QoL) and Karnofsky performance score (KPS) during the whole course of the disease. Patients and methods: Patients (n=170) received standard radiotherapy and were randomized (2:1) for BEV/IRI or standard TMZ...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#12
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126327/control-versus-cognition-the-changing-paradigm-of-adjuvant-therapy-for-resected-brain-metastasis
#13
Vinai Gondi, Minesh P Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126203/a-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-everolimus-in-combination-with-chemoradiation-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-results-of-nrg-oncology-rtog-0913
#14
Prakash Chinnaiyan, Minhee Won, Patrick Y Wen, Amyn M Rojiani, Maria Werner-Wasik, Helen A Shih, Lynn S Ashby, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael Yu, Volker W Stieber, Shawn C Malone, John B Fiveash, Nimish A Mohile, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Merideth M Wendland, Philip J Stella, Andrew Y Kee, Minesh P Mehta
Background: This Phase II study was designed to determine the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus administered daily with conventional radiation therapy and chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods: Patients were randomized to radiation therapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide with or without daily everolimus (10 mg). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and treatment-related toxicities...
November 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126125/highly-specific-determination-of-idh-status-using-edited-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#15
Francesca Branzoli, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, Laurent Capelle, Chris Ottolenghi, Romain Valabrègue, Dinesh K Deelchand, Franck Bielle, Chiara Villa, Bertrand Baussart, Stéphane Lehéricy, Marc Sanson, Malgorzata Marjanska
Background: Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzyme affects 40% of gliomas and represent a major diagnostic and prognostic marker. The goals of this study were to evaluate the performance of noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods to determine the IDH status of patients with brain gliomas through detection of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), and to compare performance of these methods with DNA sequencing and tissue 2HG analysis. Methods: Twenty-four subjects with suspected diagnosis of low grade glioma were included prospectively in the study...
November 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126252/monoamines-in-glioblastoma-complex-biology-with-therapeutic-potential
#16
Seamus Patrick Caragher, Robert Raymond Hall, Riasat Ahsan, Atique U Ahmed
Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by extremely poor prognoses, despite the use of gross surgical resection, alkylating chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy. Evidence increasingly highlights the role of the tumor microenvironment in enabling this aggressive phenotype. Despite this interest, the role of neurotransmitters, brain-specific messengers underlying synaptic transmission, remains murky. These signaling molecules influence a complex network of molecular pathways and cellular behaviors in many CNS-resident cells including neural stem cells and progenitor cells, neurons, and glia cells...
November 4, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112734/memantine-prevents-acute-radiation-induced-toxicities-at-hippocampal-excitatory-synapses
#17
Joseph G Duman, Jeffrey Dinh, Wei Zhou, Henry Cham, Vasilis C Mavratsas, Matea Paveškovic, Shalaka Mulherkar, Susan L McGovern, Kimberley F Tolias, David R Grosshans
Background: Memantine has shown clinical utility in preventing radiation-induced cognitive impairment, but the mechanisms underlying its protective effects remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal glutamate signaling causes radiation-induced abnormalities in neuronal structure and that memantine prevents synaptic toxicity. Methods: Hippocampal cultures expressing eGFP were irradiated or sham-treated and their dendritic spine morphology assessed at acute (minutes) and later (days) times using high-resolution confocal microscopy...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106645/targeting-different-domains-of-gap-junction-protein-to-control-malignant-glioma
#18
Jun Wang, Ze-Yu Yang, Yu-Feng Guo, Jing-Ya Kuang, Xiu-Wu Bian, Shi-Cang Yu
A rational treatment strategy for glioma, the most common primary central nervous system tumor, should focus on early invasive growth and resistance to current therapeutics. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, plays important roles not only in the development of the central nervous system and but also in the progression of glioma. The different structural domains of Cx43, including extracellular loops, transmembrane domains, and an intracellular carboxyl terminal, have distinct functions in the invasion and proliferation of gliomas...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106602/prmt5-as-a-druggable-target-for-glioblastoma-therapy
#19
Yeshavanth Kumar Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Alessandra M Welker, Min An, Xiaozhi Yang, Wei Zhou, Guqin Shi, Jaime Imitola, Chenglong Li, Sigmund Hsu, Jiang Wang, Mitch Phelps, Jianying Zhang, Christine E Beattie, Robert Baiocchi, Balveen Kaur
Background: In spite of standard multi modal therapy consisting of surgical resection followed by radiation and concurrent chemotherapy prognosis for GBM patients remains poor. The identification of both differentiated and undifferentiated "stem cell like" populations in the tumor highlights the significance of finding novel targets that affect the heterogenous tumor cell population. Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT5) is one such candidate gene whose nuclear expression correlates with poor survival and has been reported to be required for survival of differentiated GBM cells and self-renewal of undifferentiated GBM cells...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099956/recycling-drug-screen-repurposes-hydroxyurea-as-a-sensitizer-of-glioblastomas-to-temozolomide-targeting-de-novo-dna-synthesis-irrespective-of-molecular-subtype
#20
Jian Teng, Seyedali Hejazi, Lotte Hiddingh, Litia Carvalho, Mark de Gooijer, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Marco Barazas, Marie Tannous, Andrew S Chi, David P Noske, Pieter Wesseling, Thomas Wurdinger, Tracy T Batchelor, Bakhos A Tannous
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary malignant brain tumor. Standard-of-care treatment involves maximal surgical resection of the tumor followed by radiation and chemotherapy (temozolomide; TMZ). The five-year survival rate of patients with GBM is <10%, a colossal failure that has been partially attributed to intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to TMZ through MGMT (O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase) promoter methylation status in the tumor...
November 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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