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Neuro-oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419308/brain-invasion-in-meningiomas-clinical-considerations-and-impact-of-neuropathological-evaluation-a-systematic-review
#1
Benjamin Brokinkel, Katharina Hess, Christian Mawrin
With the release of the 2016 edition of the WHO Classification of Central Nervous System tumors, brain invasion in meningiomas has been added as a stand-alone criterion for atypia and can therefore impact grading and indirectly adjuvant therapy. Regarding this rising clinical importance, we have reviewed the current knowledge about brain invasion with emphasis on its implications on current and future clinical practice. We found various definitions of brain invasion and approaches for evaluation in surgically obtained specimen described over the past decades...
April 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419303/tumor-microtubes-convey-resistance-to-surgical-lesions-and-chemotherapy-in-gliomas
#2
Sophie Weil, Matthias Osswald, Gergely Solecki, Julia Grosch, Erik Jung, Dieter Lemke, Miriam Ratliff, Daniel Hänggi, Wolfgang Wick, Frank Winkler
Background: Primary and adaptive resistance against chemo- and radiotherapy, and local recurrence after surgery limit the benefits from these standard treatments in glioma patients. Recently we found that glioma cells can extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, "tumor microtubes" (TMs), for brain invasion, proliferation, and interconnection of single cells to a syncytium that is resistant to radiotherapy. We wondered whether TMs also convey resistance to the other two standard treatment modalities...
April 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398584/genomic-profiles-of-low-grade-murine-gliomas-evolve-during-progression-to-glioblastoma
#3
Mark Vitucci, David M Irvin, Robert S McNeill, Ralf S Schmid, Jeremy M Simon, Harshil D Dhruv, Marni B Siegel, Andrea M Werneke, Ryan E Bash, Seungchan Kim, Michael E Berens, C Ryan Miller
Background: Gliomas are diverse neoplasms with multiple molecular subtypes. How tumor-initiating mutations relate to molecular subtypes as these tumors evolve during malignant progression remains unclear. Methods: We used genetically engineered mouse models, histopathology, genetic lineage tracing, expression profiling, and copy number analyses to examine how genomic tumor diversity evolves during the course of malignant progression from low- to high-grade disease...
April 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387849/toca-511-gene-transfer-and-treatment-with-the-prodrug-5-fluorocytosine-promotes-durable-antitumor-immunity-in-a-mouse-glioma-model
#4
Leah A Mitchell, Fernando Lopez Espinoza, Daniel Mendoza, Yuki Kato, Akihito Inagaki, Kei Hiraoka, Noriyuki Kasahara, Harry E Gruber, Douglas J Jolly, Joan M Robbins
Background.: Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) is a retroviral replicating vector encoding an optimized yeast cytosine deaminase (CD). Tumor-selective expression of CD converts the prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), into the active chemotherapeutic, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). This therapeutic approach is being tested in a randomized phase II/III trial in recurrent glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma (NCT0241416). The aim of this study was to identify the immune cell subsets contributing to antitumor immune responses following treatment with 5-FC in Toca 511-expressing gliomas in a syngeneic mouse model...
April 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387831/retroviral-replicating-vector-mediated-gene-therapy-achieves-long-term-control-of-tumor-recurrence-and-leads-to-durable-anticancer-immunity
#5
Kei Hiraoka, Akihito Inagaki, Yuki Kato, Tiffany T Huang, Leah A Mitchell, Shuichi Kamijima, Masamichi Takahashi, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Katrin Hacke, Carol A Kruse, Derek Ostertag, Joan M Robbins, Harry E Gruber, Douglas J Jolly, Noriyuki Kasahara
Background.: Prodrug-activator gene therapy with Toca 511, a tumor-selective retroviral replicating vector (RRV) encoding yeast cytosine deaminase, is being evaluated in recurrent high-grade glioma patients. Nonlytic retroviral infection leads to permanent integration of RRV into the cancer cell genome, converting infected cancer cell and progeny into stable vector producer cells, enabling ongoing transduction and viral persistence within tumors. Cytosine deaminase in infected tumor cells converts the antifungal prodrug 5-fluorocytosine into the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil, mediating local tumor destruction without significant systemic adverse effects...
April 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379574/the-role-of-angiogenesis-in-group-3-medulloblastoma-pathogenesis-and-survival
#6
Eric M Thompson, Stephen T Keir, Talaignair Venkatraman, Christopher Lascola, Kristen W Yeom, Andrew B Nixon, Yingmiao Liu, Daniel Picard, Marc Remke, Darell D Bigner, Vijay Ramaswamy, Michael D Taylor
Background: Of the 4 medulloblastoma subgroups, Group 3 is the most aggressive but the importance of angiogenesis is unknown. This study sought to determine the role of angiogenesis and identify clinically relevant biomarkers of tumor vascularity and survival in Group 3 medulloblastoma. Methods: VEGFA mRNA expression and survival from several patient cohorts were analyzed. Group 3 xenografts were implanted intracranially in nude rats. Dynamic susceptibility weighted (DSC) MRI and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) were obtained...
April 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379471/reappraising-the-2016-who-classification-for-diffuse-glioma
#7
Andrew L Lin, Lisa M DeAngelis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379477/strong-fgfr3-staining-is-a-marker-for-fgfr3-fusions-in-diffuse-gliomas
#8
Kirsi J Granberg, Matti Annala, Birgitta Lehtinen, Juha Kesseli, Joonas Haapasalo, Pekka Ruusuvuori, Olli Yli-Harja, Tapio Visakorpi, Hannu Haapasalo, Matti Nykter, Wei Zhang
Background.: Inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have recently arisen as a promising treatment option for patients with FGFR alterations. Gene fusions involving FGFR3 and transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3) have been detected in diffuse gliomas and other malignancies, and fusion-positive cases have responded well to FGFR inhibition. As high FGFR3 expression has been detected in fusion-positive tumors, we sought to determine the clinical significance of FGFR3 protein expression level as well as its potential for indicating FGFR3 fusions...
April 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379437/sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-response-to-temozolomide
#9
Luke Russell, Chelsea Bolyard, Yeshavanth Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Alex Weiss, Jianying Zhang, Reena Shakya, Kimerly Powell, Balveen Kaur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379582/the-radiosensitivity-of-brain-metastases-based-upon-primary-histology-utilizing-a-multigene-index-of-tumor-radiosensitivity
#10
Kamran A Ahmed, Anders E Berglund, Eric A Welsh, Arash O Naghavi, Youngchul Kim, Michael Yu, Timothy J Robinson, Steven A Eschrich, Peter A S Johnstone, Javier F Torres-Roca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379518/response-assessment-in-high-grade-glioma-tumor-volume-as-endpoint
#11
Raymond Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379448/mek-and-raf-inhibitors-time-for-a-paradigm-shift-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-low-grade-gliomas
#12
Maryam Fouladi, Stefan M Pfister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379443/differences-in-genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-between-von-hippel-lindau-disease-related-and-sporadic-hemangioblastomas-of-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Shunsaku Takayanagi, Akitake Mukasa, Shota Tanaka, Masashi Nomura, Mayu Omata, Shunsuke Yanagisawa, Shogo Yamamoto, Koichi Ichimura, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Keisuke Ueki, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Nobuhito Saito
Background.: Although inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL), located on chromosome 3p25, is considered to be a major cause of hemangioblastomas (HBs), the incidence of biallelic inactivation of VHL is reportedly low. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of VHL alterations in HBs, as well as to identify additional molecular aberrations. Methods.: Genetic and epigenetic alterations were comprehensively and comparatively analyzed in 11 VHL-related and 21 sporadic HBs...
March 30, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379424/combination-therapy-with-potent-pi3k-and-mapk-inhibitors-overcomes-adaptive-kinome-resistance-to-single-agents-in-preclinical-models-of-glioblastoma
#14
Robert S McNeill, Demitra A Canoutas, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Harshil D Dhruv, David M Irvin, Ryan E Bash, Steven P Angus, Laura E Herring, Jeremy M Simon, Kasey R Skinner, Juanita C Limas, Xin Chen, Ralf S Schmid, Marni B Siegel, Amanda E D Van Swearingen, Michael J Hadler, Erik P Sulman, Jann N Sarkaria, Carey K Anders, Lee M Graves, Michael E Berens, Gary L Johnson, C Ryan Miller
Background.: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Prognosis remains poor despite multimodal therapy. Developing alternative treatments is essential. Drugs targeting kinases within the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) effectors of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling represent promising candidates. Methods.: We previously developed a non-germline genetically engineered mouse model of GBM in which PI3K and MAPK are activated via Pten deletion and KrasG12D in immortalized astrocytes...
March 30, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371920/diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-current-management-and-new-biologic-insights-is-there-a-glimmer-of-hope
#15
Kenneth J Cohen, Nada Jabado, Jacques Grill
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) has proven to be one of the most challenging of all pediatric cancers. Owing to a historical reticence to obtain tumor tissue for study, and based on an erroneous assumption that the biology of DIPG would mirror that of supratentorial high-grade astrocytomas, innumerable studies have been undertaken-all of which have had a negligible impact on the natural history of this disease. More recently, improvements in neurosurgical techniques have allowed for the safe upfront biopsy of DIPG, which, together with a wider use of autopsy tissue, has led to an evolving understanding of the biology of this tumor...
March 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371907/is-more-better-the-impact-of-extended-adjuvant-temozolomide-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-a-secondary-analysis-of-eortc-and-nrg-oncology-rtog
#16
Deborah T Blumenthal, Thierry Gorlia, Mark R Gilbert, Michelle M Kim, L Burt Nabors, Warren P Mason, Monika E Hegi, Peixin Zhang, Vassilis Golfinopoulos, James R Perry, Do Hyun Nam, Sara C Erridge, Benjamin W Corn, René O Mirimanoff, Paul D Brown, Brigitta G Baumert, Minesh P Mehta, Martin J van den Bent, David A Reardon, Michael Weller, Roger Stupp
Background: Radiation with concurrent and adjuvant (6 cycles) temozolomide (TMZ) is the established standard of postsurgical care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). This regimen has been adopted with variations, including extending TMZ beyond 6 cycles. The optimal duration of maintenance therapy remains controversial. Methods: We performed pooled analysis of individual patient data from 4 randomized trials for newly diagnosed GBM. All patients who were progression free 28 days after cycle 6 were included...
March 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371892/blocking-mir155hg-mir-155-axis-inhibits-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioma
#17
Xuechao Wu, Yingyi Wang, Tianfu Yu, Er Nie, Qi Hu, Weining Wu, Tongle Zhi, Kuan Jiang, Xiefeng Wang, Xiaojie Lu, Hailin Li, Ning Liu, Junxia Zhang, Yongping You
Background.: MIR155 host gene (MIR155HG) is a long noncoding RNA that has been considered as the primary micro (mi)RNA of miR-155. MIR155HG plays an essential role in hematopoiesis, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Our study investigated the clinical significance, biological function, mechanisms, and small-molecule inhibitors of the MIR155HG/miR-155 axis in glioma. Methods.: We analyzed the expression of the MIR155HG/miR-155 axis and the correlation with glioma grade and patient survival using 2 different glioma gene expression datasets...
March 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371851/overall-survival-benefit-associated-with-adjuvant-radiotherapy-in-who-grade-ii-meningioma
#18
Chenyang Wang, Tania B Kaprealian, John H Suh, Charlotte D Kubicky, Jeremy N Ciporen, Yiyi Chen, Jerry J Jaboin
Background.: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II meningioma, also known as atypical meningioma (AM), is a topic of controversy. The purpose of this study is to compare overall survival (OS) with or without adjuvant RT after subtotal resection (STR) or gross total resection (GTR) in AM patients diagnosed according to the 2007 WHO classification. Methods.: The National Cancer Database was used to identify 2515 patients who were diagnosed with AM between 2009 and 2012 and underwent STR or GTR with or without adjuvant RT...
March 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371827/mutational-burden-immune-checkpoint-expression-and-mismatch-repair-in-glioma-implications-for-immune-checkpoint-immunotherapy
#19
Tiffany R Hodges, Martina Ott, Joanne Xiu, Zoran Gatalica, Jeff Swensen, Shouhao Zhou, Jason T Huse, John de Groot, Shulin Li, Willem W Overwijk, David Spetzler, Amy B Heimberger
Background.: Despite a multiplicity of clinical trials testing immune checkpoint inhibitors, the frequency of expression of potential predictive biomarkers is unknown in glioma. Methods.: In this study, we profiled the frequency of shared biomarker phenotypes. To clarify the relationships among tumor mutational load (TML), mismatch repair (MMR), and immune checkpoint expression, we profiled patients with glioma (n = 327), including glioblastoma (GBM) (n = 198), whose samples had been submitted for analysis from 2009 to 2016...
March 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371821/telomerase-activation-in-posterior-fossa-group-a-ependymomas-is-associated-with-dismal-prognosis-and-chromosome-1q-gain
#20
Johannes Gojo, Daniela Lötsch, Sabine Spiegl-Kreinecker, Kristian W Pajtler, Katharina Neumayer, Pia Korbel, Asuka Araki, Anita Brandstetter, Thomas Mohr, Volker Hovestadt, Lukas Chavez, Dominik Kirchhofer, Gerda Ricken, Harald Stefanits, Andrey Korshunov, Stefan M Pfister, Karin Dieckmann, Amedeo A Azizi, Thomas Czech, Martin Filipits, Marcel Kool, Andreas Peyrl, Irene Slavc, Walter Berger, Christine Haberler
Background.: Ependymomas account for up to 10% of childhood CNS tumors and have a high rate of tumor recurrence despite gross total resection. Recently, classification into molecular ependymoma subgroups has been established, but the mechanisms underlying the aggressiveness of certain subtypes remain widely enigmatic. The aim of this study was to dissect the clinical and biological role of telomerase reactivation, a frequent mechanism of cancer cells to evade cellular senescence, in pediatric ependymoma...
March 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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