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Veterinary Ophthalmology

Tássia Moara Amorim, Nathalie Moro Bassil Dower, Matias Bassinello Stocco, Laurem Hellem Pizoni, Alexandre Pinto Ribeiro
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the intracameral injection of epinephrine and two doses of 2% lidocaine on pupil diameter (PD), intraocular pressure (IOP), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in healthy cats. METHODS: Five treatment groups were formed (10 cats/each). Animals received 0.2 mL of epinephrine, 0.2 or 0.3 mL of 2% lidocaine, or 0.2 mL of BSS. Cats were anesthetized, and all solutions were injected intracamerally. PD, IOP, HR, and MAP were assessed at baseline, following anterior chamber paracentesis (T0), and at every 5 minutes, until anesthesia was terminated (T60)...
July 5, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Edith C G M Hampson, Justine S Gibson, Mayank Barot, Frances M Shapter, Ristan M Greer
OBJECTIVE: To identify bacteria and fungi found on the conjunctival surface of normal horse eyes; to investigate potential risk factors for these microflora; and to determine their susceptibility to common topical ophthalmic antimicrobials. ANIMALS STUDIED: A total of 95 client-owned horses were studied. PROCEDURES: Horses within sub-tropical Australia (South-East Queensland) were sampled once between April 2012 and March 2013. A conjunctival swab was taken from each eye and cultured for aerobic bacteria and fungi...
July 2, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Vinícius Cardoso-Brito, Ana Cláudia S Raposo, Thaís T Pires, Melissa H Pinna, Arianne P Oriá
PURPOSE: To describe the aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora of 3 especies of free-living and under human care sea turtles and determine its antimicrobial susceptibility in vitro. METHOD: Thirty-six sea turtles (72 eyes), juveniles and adults, 7 free-living Chelonia mydas and 8 Chelonia mydas, 4 Caretta caretta, 11 Eretmochelys imbricata, and 6 Lepidochelys olivacea under human care, were evaluated. Conjunctival cultures were collected for identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxacillin, polymyxin B, tetracycline, and tobramycin using antibiotic disks...
June 28, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Michelle Samuel, Sara M Thomasy, Allison S Calderon, Philip H Kass, Keith Collins, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 5% sodium chloride ophthalmic ointment (5% NaCl) on thickness and morphology of the normal canine cornea using ultrasonic pachymetry (USP), in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). METHODS: Five healthy laboratory Beagles received ophthalmic examinations including USP, IVCM, and FD-OCT prior to and at fixed intervals following treatment. The right and left eyes were treated with 5% NaCl and artificial tears ophthalmic ointment (AT), respectively, every 2 hours for 4 treatments/d (days 2-9), and then hourly for 7 treatments/d (day 10)...
June 21, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Shai Sandalon, Anna Boykova, Maya Ross, Alexey Obolensky, Eyal Banin, Ron Ofri
PURPOSE: To establish whether there is cone contribution to retinal function and structure in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), in view of the prevailing notion that this species possesses a pure rod retina. METHODS: Photopic electroretinography (ERG) responses to high-intensity flashes (10 and 25 cd*s/m2 ) were recorded unilaterally in six pigmented chinchillas following 10 minutes of light adaptation (30 cd/m2 ). Retinas of two animals were studied histologically, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to detect the presence of short and medium/long wavelength cone photoreceptors...
June 10, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Rachel A Strauss, Ulrike Genschel, Rachel A Allbaugh, Lionel Sebbag, Gil Ben-Shlomo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination of canine plasma eye drops when used clinically and to compare the effect of two different eyedropper bottles on contamination rate. METHODS: Forty-six bottles containing plasma were randomly dispensed for use on 42 dogs with ulcerative keratitis. Of these, 23 were standard eyedropper bottles and 23 were Novelia® bottles designed to prevent contamination. After use for up to 2 weeks, samples for bacterial culture were obtained from a drop of plasma, the bottle tip, the plasma inside the bottle, and the corneal surface...
May 24, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Yael Shilo-Benjamini, Peter J Pascoe, David J Maggs, Steven R Hollingsworth, Ann R Strom, Kathryn L Good, Sara M Thomasy, Philip H Kass, Erik R Wisner
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of retrobulbar anesthesia (RBA) and peribulbar anesthesia (PBA) in dogs. ANIMAL STUDIED: Six adult mixed-breed dogs (18-24 kg). PROCEDURES: In a randomized, masked, crossover trial with a 10-day washout period, each dog was sedated with intravenously administered dexmedetomidine and administered 0.5% bupivacaine:iopamidol (4:1) as RBA (2 mL via a ventrolateral site) or PBA (5 mL divided equally between ventrolateral and dorsomedial sites)...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Natàlia Coyo, Marta Leiva, Daniel Costa, Rafael Molina, Olga Nicolás, Jose Ríos, Maria Teresa Peña
OBJECTIVE: To determine endothelial cell density (ECD) and morphology and morphometry of corneal endothelial cells in the tawny owl (Strix aluco), as well as to report the effects of aging on these parameters. ANIMAL STUDY AND PROCEDURES: Twenty tawny owls were included in the study and classified into 2 groups according to their age: fledglings (<1 year old) and adults (>1 year old). Central corneal endothelium was studied by means of noncontact specular microscopy (Specular Microscope SP-2000P; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), and results for ECD (cells/mm2 ), mean cell area ((MCA (μm2 )), polymegathism (CV), and pleomorphism (% hexagonal cells) were obtained...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Filipe Espinheira Gomes, Eric Ledbetter
OBJECTIVE: To describe an indirect funduscopy imaging technique for dogs and cats using low cost and widely available equipment: a smartphone, a three-dimensional (3D) printed indirect lens adapter, and a 40 diopters (D) indirect ophthalmoscopy lens. METHODS: Fundus videography was performed in dogs and cats using a 40D indirect ophthalmoscopy lens and a smartphone fitted with a 3D printed indirect lens adapter. All animals were pharmacologically dilated with topical tropicamide 1% solution...
May 11, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Eric C Ledbetter, Nita L Irby, Leandro B C Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: To describe the in vivo confocal microscopy features of horses with epithelial and subepithelial nonulcerative keratomycosis. ANIMALS STUDIED: Four horses with a clinical diagnosis of epithelial or subepithelial keratomycosis. PROCEDURES: Horses were examined on one or more occasions by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy of the cornea. Confocal microscopic examination characteristics were correlated with clinical, cytological, and histopathological findings for the horses...
May 2, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Ethan M Dawson-Baglien, Erica L Noland, Dodd G Sledge, Matti Kiupel, Simon M Petersen-Jones
OBJECTIVE: Cairn terriers with ocular melanosis (OM) accumulate large, heavily pigmented melanocytes in the anterior uvea. Darkly pigmented plaques develop within the sclera, leading us to hypothesize that OM uveal melanocytes may have an abnormal migratory capacity. ANIMALS STUDIED: Globes from OM-affected Cairn terriers and unaffected control eyes enucleated for reasons unrelated to this study were used for immunohistochemistry and to culture melanocytes for in vitro cell behavior assays...
April 27, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Alba Maria M Shank, Leandro B C Teixeria, Richard R Dubielzig
Corneal vascular neoplasms (hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma) are rare in all species. Reported cases are single case reports in a single species. Archived cases of corneal hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma from dogs, cats, and horses were obtained from the Comparative Ocular Pathology Lab of Wisconsin (COPLOW, Madison, WI), tabulated, and examined. This retrospective study describes the breeds, ages, tumor types, and characteristics of vascular neoplasms that appeared to be primarily corneal in location, in feline, canine, and equine patients, with gross and histologic images...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Laura Proietto, Sarah S Beatty, Caryn E Plummer
PURPOSE: To compare corneal cytology samples from three common sampling techniques: cytobrush (CB), Kimura platinum spatula (KS), and the handle edge of a scalpel blade (SB). METHODS: Equine patients presenting to the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine with ulcerative keratitis were included. Following diagnosis of corneal ulcer and sampling for microbial culture, two cytology samples per technique were collected with sterile CB, KS, and SB in a randomized order...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Kathryn A Diehl, Silvia G Pryor, Leandro B C Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentations of patients diagnosed with ocular adnexal or orbital squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which possess features similar to feline restrictive orbital myofibroblastic sarcoma (FROMS). PROCEDURES: A retrospective review of adnexal and/or orbital SCC was performed. Cases were collected from the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine and the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) (1990-2016)...
May 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Veronica Tatarinoff, Nigel H Lovell, John W Morley, Gregg J Suaning
Electrical stimulation of excitable cells provides therapeutic benefits for a variety of medical conditions, including restoration of partial vision to those blinded via some types of retinal degeneration. To improve visual percepts elicited by the current technology, researchers are conducting acute electrophysiology experiments, mainly in cats. However, the rat can provide a model of a range of retinal diseases and possesses a sufficiently large eye to be used in this field. This article presents a long-term anesthetic protocol to enable electrophysiology experiments to further the development of visual prostheses...
May 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Ronald Spatola, Brad Nadelstein, Andrew Berdoulay, Robert V English
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of twice daily aqueous 0.02% sirolimus drops on tear production in normal dogs and dogs with refractory keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). METHODS: Two groups of dogs were studied. Ten normal dogs with no signs of ocular disease were administered topical 0.02% sirolimus ophthalmic solution in right eye, and a vehicle control in the left eye twice daily for 4 weeks. Complete ophthalmic examinations, including Schirmer tear test were performed weekly...
May 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Allison Hoffman, Steve Sisler, Marie Pappania, Kimberly Hsu, Maya Ross, Ron Ofri
PURPOSE: To determine whether pre-operative electroretinography (ERG) predicts postoperative vision in dogs undergoing retinal reattachment surgery (RRS). METHODS: This 18-month prospective study recorded signalment, duration, cause, and extent of retinal detachment and pre-operative vision status. Rod and mixed rod-cone ERG responses were recorded prior to RRS. Referring veterinary ophthalmologists assessed vision 2 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Thirty dogs (40 affected eyes) aged 4 months to 12...
May 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Andrea Louise Minella, Laurence Mireille Occelli, Kristina Narfström, Simon Michael Petersen-Jones
OBJECTIVE: Children with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) due to CEP290 mutations show characteristic macular preservation. Spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a noninvasive technique to investigate retinal structural changes. Loss of integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) on OCT in people with retinal disease has been associated with loss of visual function and is a useful measure of retinal disease progression. We hypothesized that rdAc felines with Cep290 mutation would have a similar pattern of degeneration, with relative central retinal preservation associated with maintenance of the EZ...
May 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Lionel Sebbag, Danielle M Harrington, Jonathan P Mochel
OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of two ophthalmic sponges for tear collection in dogs and cats. ANIMALS STUDIED: Ten healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. PROCEDURES: A strip (4 × 10 mm) of either cellulose or polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponge was inserted into the ventral fornix of each eye for either 15, 30, or 60 s. The wetted strip was placed into a 0.2-mL tube that was first punctured at its bottom. Tears were eluted through the drainage hole into a 1...
May 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Candace R Auten, Sara M Thomasy, Philip H Kass, Kathryn L Good, Steven R Hollingsworth, David J Maggs
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) diagnosed within one referral population. ANIMALS STUDIED: 151 dogs diagnosed with SARDS. PROCEDURES: Breed, age, sex, and body weight were compared between dogs with electroretinogram-confirmed SARDS and dogs presented to the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (UCD-VMTH) from 1991 to 2014. RESULTS: SARDS was diagnosed in 151 dogs, representing 1...
May 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
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