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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

Thais Almeida de Menezes, Aline Simoes da Rocha Bispo, Maria Gabriela Bello Koblitz, Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Helio Mitoshi Kamida, Aristoteles Goes-Neto
Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom with different forms of bioactivity that has been used in popular medicine for centuries. This study aimed to test the application of agricultural wastes (fruit shells, leaves, and bracts) from the endemic Brazilian palm tree Syagrus coronata (licuri) as substrates for the production of G. lucidum basidiomata and ligninolytic enzymes via solid-state fermentation. The best culture conditions were the same for all substrates (pH 6.5, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio = 40, and temperature 30°C) and were established from preliminary assays...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Chaohui Zhang, Tao Huang, Chaohui Shen, Xiaoting Wang, Yuancheng Qi, Jinwen Shen, Andong Song, Liyou Qiu, Yuncan Ai
Ethylene biosynthesis and function in Agaricus bisporus (the button mushroom) remain uncertain. The enzyme activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) were detectable in A. bisporus AS2796 and inhibited by α-aminooxyacetic acid and Co2+. We cloned and sequenced 2 ACS genes (Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2) and 1 ACO gene (Ab-ACO) from the mushroom strain. Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2 demonstrated low amino acid sequence similarity. Ab-ACO demonstrated an amino acid sequence completely identical to that of ACO1_AGABI from A...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Sapan Kumar Sharma, Nandini Gautam, Narender Singh Atri, Subhash Dhancholia
During a frequent survey in the northwest Indian Himalayan region, a new species-Cordyceps macleodganensis-was encountered. This species is described on the basis of its macromorphological features, microscopic details, and internal transcribed spacer sequencing. This species showed only 90% resemblance to Cordyceps gracilis. The chemical composition of the mycelium showed protein (14.95 ± 0.2%) and carbohydrates (59.21 ± 3.8%) as the major nutrients. This species showed appreciable amounts of P-carotene, lycopene, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and flavonoids...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Anna Goyal, Anu Kalia, Harpreet Singh Sodhi
Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a source of potent nutraceutical products. This study was planned to identify and characterize the role of ergosterol in the developmental process of G. lucidum. Four strains of G. lucidum (GL-I-IV) showed a gradual increase in biomass (from 25.52 to 31.72 g) after 3 weeks of growth in mushroom complete medium broth, with maximum biomass observed for strain GL-III. Upon cultivation of G. lucidum strains on wheat straw supplemented with 5% wheat bran, maximum biological efficiency was recorded for the GL-I strain (31...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Shu-Chi Wang, Chih-Hui Yang, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Yu-Mei Lin, Keng-Shiang Huang, Wei-Ting Wang, Hsin-Yi Su, Cing-Yan Jhang, Ruo-Yun Chung, Jiun-Hua Chou
Taiwanofungus camphoratus has been widely used in Taiwan as a folk medicine to prevent and treat liver diseases, diarrhea, abdominal pain, itchy skin, and hypertension. Recent studies have shown that T. camphoratus mycelia extracts exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on some types of renal disease, but the effect of T. camphoratus mycelia on chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. In this study we used the Bioresource Collection and Research Center (BCRC) medium and modified media (e.g., BCRC+A, HKS1, and HKS1+A media) to incubate T...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Kar Lin Nyam, Chia Yoong Chang, Chon Seng Tan, Szu Ting Ng
The aim of this study was to determine the antiulcer activity of Lignosus rhinocerotis in rats. A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in ethanol-induced, aspirin-induced, and water immersion-restraint stress-induced ulcer models. Rats were equally divided into 4 groups for each model and orally administered 5 mL/kg distilled water, 20 mg/kg omeprazole, as well as 250 and 500 mg/kg of L. rhinocerotis powder. L. rhinocerotis powder at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) protection against gastric ulceration in all the induced ulcer models...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Yan-Feng Xu
Cordyceps militaris is the one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, widely used in East Asian countries. Polysaccharide is considered to be the principal active component in C. militaris and has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of polysaccharide from C. militaris (PCM) on physical fatigue induced in animals through a forced swimming test. The mice were divided into 4 groups receiving 28 days' treatment with drinking water (exercise control) or low-, medium-, and high-dose PCM (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day, respectively)...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jianjun Zhang, Zheng Gao, Shangshang Li, Shanglong Gao, Zhenzhen Ren, Huijuan Jing, Le Jia
Exopolysaccharides (ExPSs) and endopolysaccharides (EnPSs) were isolated from mycelia and culture medium of Agaricus brasiliensis. Four polysaccharide fractions (ExPS-1-2, ExPS-2, EnPS-1, and EnPS-2) were puri¬fied from ExPSs and EnPSs using diethylaminoethyl anion exchange and a Sephadex G-100 gel filtration column, respectively, and their physicochemical properties were analyzed and evaluated to determine antioxidant activity. The results showed that rhamnose and mannose were the main monosaccharides of the polysaccharide fractions...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jasmina Cilerdzic, Mirjana Stajic, Lada Zivkovic, Jelena Vukojevic, Vladan Bajic, Biljana Spremo-Potparevic
Ganoderma lucidum is traditionally used in Eastern medicine to preserve vitality, promote longevity, and treat disease. It possesses immunomodulatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiaging activities, among others, but one of the most important is its antioxidant property, which is the basis for other effects, because free radicals trigger many diseases. The substrate commonly used for commercial cultivation of G. lucidum is not environmentally friendly nor economically justified, so there is a need to find new alternative substrates...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Qi An, Mei-Ling Han, Xue-Jun Wu, Jing Si, Bao-Kai Cui, Yu-Cheng Dai, Bing Wu
The laccase activities of 13 strains of medicinal and edible mushrooms from the Flammulina genus (F. velutipes, F. rossica, and F. fennae) were studied. The effects of both fungal isolates and culture media were investigated. The laccase activities indicated significant differences among Flammulina strains (P < 0.001), and the cultural media significantly affected the laccase activities in Flammulina spp. (P < 0.001). The morphological characteristics of the 3 Flammulina species were similar, but differences in phylogenetic analysis and laccase activity existed among different species...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jorge Suarez-Medellin, Thuluz Meza-Menchaca, Joaquin Antonio Quiroz Carranza, Angel Trigos, Abraham M Vidal-Limon
The metabolism of vitamin D is a very important pathway involved in the regulation of sterols and maintenance of cell health. The physiological activity of the human hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or calcitriol, is mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an endocrine member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that inhibits cell growth and stimulates cell differentiation, suggesting a potential application in cancer chemoprevention. Since nonpolar extracts obtained from Ganoderma mushrooms have also been shown to exert an antiproliferative effect on several cancer cell lines, it was suggested that at least part of its activity might be mediated by VDR...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Lina Smolskaite, Thierry Talou, Petras Rimantas Venskutonis
Numerous mushroom species are used as food and for medicinal purposes; however, many species that may contain bioactive compounds remain underinvestigated. In this study, the antioxidant properties of extracts sequentially isolated with cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and methanol from 25 costal dune mushroom species collected in the southwestern region of France were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and Folin-Ciocalteu-determined total phenolic content...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Kyung Hoan Im, Trung Kien Nguyen, Jae Kwang Kim, Jae-Hyuk Choi, Tae Soo Lee
Phellinus pini, a medicinal mushroom, has been used as folk medicine in Asian countries for treating ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. In this study we evaluated in vitro the antidementia and anti-inflammatory activities of Ph. Pini fruiting bodies. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of a methanol extract and a hot water extract were moderate and comparable with those of galanthamine, the standard drug used to treat the early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Rao-Chi Chien, Lan-Min Lin, Yuan-Hua Chang, Yu-Chieh Lin, Pei-Hsuan Wu, Mikheil D Asatiani, Sophie-Gabrielle Wasser, Maxim Krakhmalnyi, Abed Agbarya, Solomon P Wasser, Jeng-Leun Mau
This research shows the phenolic composition and anti-inflammation properties of fruiting bodies and mycelia of 15 strains of 12 species of higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushrooms. In this research, 15 extracts were prepared and their effects on inflammation-related mediators in RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In the extracts, amounts of total phenols ranged from 8.47 to 70.32 gallic acid equivalents mg/g and amounts of flavonoids ranged from 0.13 to 15.21 rutin equivalents mg/g. The production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 was decreased at different levels by these extracts, whereas the production of interleukin-10 was increased by 6 of the extracts...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Ranjeet Singh, Gurpaul Singh Dhingra, Richa Shri
The genus Ganoderma consists of widespread polypore mushrooms that have traditionally been used to reduce stress and anxiety. However, scientific evidence for this is not adequate. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic potential of G. applanatum, G. brownii, G. lucidum, and G. philippii collected from Uttarakhand, India. Various extracts of dried, powdered basidiocarps were prepared using different solvents-namely, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and distilled water-by successive Soxhlet extraction...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Haiping Li, Pei Zhao, Fengling Wang, Lihua Huai, Ruixuan Zhu, Guoliang Li, Yufeng Xu
A polysaccharide purified from Pholiota nameko (PNPS-1) was found to have anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. This study investigated the effect of PNPS-1 on the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway of TLR2 small interfering RNA-silenced murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and relevant mechanisms. The expression of messenger RNA of 4 NF-κB-related genes, including MyD88, IKBKB, RelA(p65), and CCL2, was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction; the expression of the phenotype molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by flow cytometry; the protein expression of IKKβ and p65 by Western blot; the production of p65 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and the expression of p65 by immunocytochemistry...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jure Pohleven, Janko Kos, Jerica Sabotic
Current knowledge of the medicinal properties of Basidiomycetes mushroom species of the genus Clitocybe and of the biological activity of C. nebularis fruiting bodies is reviewed. The main focus is the therapeutic potential of lectins from C. nebularis. Species of the genus Clitocybe, including C. nebularis, have not been traditionally considered as medicinal mushrooms; however, recent studies have demonstrated their antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antioxidative properties, their antimicrobial (antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal) activities against various bacteria and fungi, as well as their potential use in therapy for alcoholism and as psychotropic agents...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Elena Vetchinkina, Alexandr Shirokov, Alla Bucharskaya, Nikita Navolokin, Artur Prilepskii, Andrey Burov, Galina Maslyakova, Valentina E Nikitina
Aqueous extracts from the vegetative submerged mycelia of cultivated Basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, and Grifola frondosa, as well as from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, were found to have antitumor activity. The antitumor effect of the mycelial extracts from all 3 fungal species was ascertained in vivo in rats with implanted kidney cancer. Dystrophic changes in tumor cells and tumor necrosis (up to 90%) were noted. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line and HEp-2 human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells showed that the extracts from the G...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Solomon P Wasser, Sophie-Gabrielle Wasser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jie Gang, Han Liu, Yanhong Liu
Cordyceps militaris is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom. In this study, the mycelium of C. militaris was cultured using liquid fermentation technology and the culture medium components were optimized by the orthogonal test method. Our results showed that the optimal medium combination for the mycelium growth is 3% glucose, 3% peptone, 0.1% MgSO4, and 0.2% KH2PO4 The international general nutritional assessment method was applied to the overall evaluation of the protein nutrition value of submerged cultivated mycelium and fruit body of C...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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