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Environmental Toxicology

Antonietta Arcella, Maria Antonietta Oliva, Sabrina Staffieri, Massimo Sanchez, Michele Madonna, Barbara Riozzi, Vincenzo Esposito, Felice Giangaspero, Luigi Frati
Glioblastoma, the most aggressive and malignant form of glioma, appears to be resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence other approaches have been investigated to target more pathways involved in glioblastoma development and progression. Here we investigate the anticancer effect of Aloe-Emodin (AE), an anthraquinone compound presents in the leaves of Aloe arborescens, on human glioblastoma cell line U87MG. U87MG were treated with various concentrations of AE (20 and 40 μM) for different times (24, 48, and 72 hr)...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Julia Huei-Mei Chang, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Yung-Chen Chou, Jer-Yuh Liu, Yen-Hong Chou, Chia-Yao Shen, Yu-Lan Yeh, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Chih-Yang Huang
Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the second most common cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in Taiwan. Previous reports show that the expression of (E-type prostaglandin 2) EP2 and (E-type prostaglandin 4) EP4 are elevated in HCC and further demonstrate that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces HA22T cell proliferation and metastasis through EP2 and EP4 receptor. Danshen (root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) is a very important and popular traditional Chinese herbal medicine which is widely and successfully used against breast cancer, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and head and neck squamous carcinoma cells...
September 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Mei-Chin Lu, Tsung-Yuan Li, Yu-Chun Hsieh, Pao-Chuan Hsieh, Yung-Lin Chu
Clinacanthus nutans has been used as herbal medicine with antidiabetic, blood pressure lowering, and diuretic properties in Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia. The in vitro cellular study showed the chloroform extract possessed significant cytotoxicity against leukemia K562 and lymphoma Raji cells. The clinical study reported that administration of plant could treat or prevent relapse in 12 cancer patients. However, detailed mechanism of the anticancer effects and chemical profiles are not thoroughly studied...
September 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Min-Hua Wu, Yi-Fang Chiu, Wen-Jun Wu, Pei-Lien Wu, Ching-Yi Lin, Chia-Liang Lin, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Chung-Jung Liu
To improve the clinical outcome of tumor chemotherapy, more effective combination treatments against tumor metastasis and recurrence are required. Licochalcone A (LicA) is the root of Glycyrrhiza inflata and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumor effects. Sorafenib (Sor), a multikinase inhibitor, is used to treat patients with solid tumors such as advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the synergistic effects of LicA and Sor on the metastasis of human HCC cells have not been reported...
September 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Hung-Sheng Shang, Hsu-Feng Lu, Ching-Hsiao Lee, Han-Sun Chiang, Yung-Lin Chu, Ann Chen, Yuh-Feng Lin, Jing-Gung Chung
Quercetin is one of the natural components from natural plant and it induces cell apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, no available reports show that quercetin induces apoptosis and altered associated gene expressions in human gastric cancer cells, thus, we investigated the effect of quercetin on the apoptotic cell death and associated gene expression in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Results indicated that quercetin induced cell morphological changes and reduced total viability via apoptotic cell death in AGS cells...
August 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Hussain Arif, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3 ) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. Humans can be exposed to NaClO3 through contaminated drinking water due to its improper and unchecked usage in industries and as herbicide. NaClO3 is also present as a major stable by-product in drinking water that has been disinfected with chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the effect of a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 on rat kidney. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into one control and four NaClO3 treated groups that were orally given different doses of NaClO3 and euthanized 24 hr after the treatment...
August 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Jiunn-Liang Ko, Ching-Hsiung Lin, Heng-Chung Chen, Wei-Heng Hung, Peng-Ju Chien, Hui-Yi Chang, Bing-Yen Wang
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have been identified in approximately 55% of lung cancer patients in Taiwan. Gefitinib (Iressa) and Erlotinib (Tarceva) are the first-generation targeting drugs to patients with EGFR gene mutants a work by inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity. However, resistance in EGFR-mutated patients to first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy after 8-11 months of treatment has occurred. Betulinic acid (BetA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid natural product derived from widespread plants...
August 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Soo-Jin Kim, Thu-Huyen Pham, Yesol Bak, Hyung-Won Ryu, Sei-Ryang Oh, Do-Young Yoon
7-Methoxy-luteolin-8-C-β-6-deoxy-xylo-pyranos-3-uloside (mLU8C-PU) is a glycosylflavone of luteolin isolated from Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.). Luteolin is known to exert anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects on tumor cells. However, there are no reports on the effects of mLU8C-PU on tumor invasiveness and associated signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects of mLU8C-PU in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We also investigated the effect of mLU8C-PU on invasion- related signal transducers, including protein kinase Cα (PKCα), c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB)...
August 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Karthikeyan Rajamani, Somasundaram S Thirugnanasambandan
In our previous work, we assessed the ameliorative effect of crude extract from Padina boergesenii. In this report, we have extended these study by fractionating the methanol extract with methanol:ethylacetate (1:3,v/v) (MME-F) and assessed the cytotoxic effect of MME-F fraction in human renal carcinoma cell lines (A498 and ACHN). The fraction had time-and dose-dependent inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration with deceleration of cancer growth at EC50 -22.73 μg in A498 and 26.43 μg in ACHN cells...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Can Zeng, Yuqin Feng, Wuxiang Wang, Furong Zhou, Fen Liao, Yuanfeng Liu, Shaolong Feng
Concerns over the health risk of the widely distributed, commonly used titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) are increasing worldwide. Yet, up-to-now, our understanding in their potential effects on the cardiovascular system is very limited and the toxicological mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, the CCK-8 assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of four sizes (10, 30, 50, and 100 nm) of anatase nano-TiO2 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in culture, and the flow cytometry was employed to investigate the potential of these nano-TiO2 to induce the apoptosis of HUVECs...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Malekzadeh Yasin, Razi Mazdak, Ilkhanipour Mino
The present experimental study was carried out to investigate the crosslink between aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in testicles. For this purpose, 24 mature male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into control and test groups. The AFB1 was dissolved in corn oil and ethanol (95:5, v/v) vehicle. The animals in test group subdivided into three groups, which received the AFB1 at a daily dose of 20 μg/kg body weight, through intraperitoneal (i.p.) route, for 7, 14, and 21 days...
August 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Hong Su, Zhou Li, Lissy Lazar, Yasmin Alhamoud, Xin Song, Juan Li, Yafei Wang, Samuel Selorm Fiati Kenston, Muhammad Zubair Lqbal, Aiguo Wu, Zhen Li, Qihang Hua, Min Ding, Jinshun Zhao
Recent studies show that Janus Fe3 O4 -TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have potential applications as a multifunctional agent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. However, little work has been done on their biological effects. To evaluate the toxicity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Janus Fe3 O4 -TiO2 nanoparticles, an in vitro study using a human liver cell line HL-7702 cells was conducted. For comparison, the Janus Fe3 O4 -TiO2 NPs parent material TiO2 NPs was also evaluated...
August 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Shijin Wu, Mei Wu, Mengting Qi, Li Zhong, Lequan Qiu
The cellular toxicity response of human airway epithelial cells (A549) to tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) was assessed in vitro. Cell viability, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (MDA), and caspase-3 activity were determined after A549 treated with varying concentrations of TBBPA. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed in cells treated with different concentrations of TBBPA (0, 10, and 40 μg/mL). Two-way anova analysis showed that cell viability was significantly decreased after treatment by TBBPA with a concentration of 16 μg/mL for 48 hr, however, the caspase-3 activities, ROS generation, and MDA content increased...
August 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Eun-Joo Shin, Yeong Gwang Hwang, Duc Toan Pham, Ji Won Lee, Yu Jeung Lee, Dongjin Pyo, Ji Hoon Jeong, Xin Gen Lei, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Although it has been well-recognized that microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR), the most common form of microcystins, induces neurotoxicity, little is currently known about the underlying mechanism for this neurotoxicity. Here, we found that MCLR (10 ng/μL/mouse, i.c.v.) induces significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus of mice. MCLR-induced neurotoxicity was accompanied by oxidative stress, as shown by a significant increase in the level of 4-hydroxynonenal, protein carbonyl, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
August 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Min-Te Chang, Shiao-Pieng Lee, Chih-Yuan Fang, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Yi-Wen Liao, Ming-Yi Lu, Lo-Lin Tsai, Cheng-Chia Yu, Chia-Ming Liu
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with poor prognosis. Numerous studies have attempted to explore alternative regimens aimed at reducing cancer stem cells (CSCs) without compromising the efficacy of conventional chemoradiotherapy. The present study sought to assess the effect of a natural compound honokiol on the reduction of elevated cancer stemness, metastatic capacity, and chemoresistance of oral carcinoma stem cells (OCSCs). Our results demonstrated that honokiol attenuated the cell survival and self-renewal of OCSCs in a dose-dependent manner...
August 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Woong Kim, Yoon Cho, Mi-Kyung Song, Jung-Hee Lim, Jin Young Kim, Myung Chan Gye, Jae-Chun Ryu
Particulate matter the environmental toxicant, with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is a common cause of several respiratory diseases. In recent years, several studies have suggested that PM2.5 can influence diverse diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, dementia, and female reproductive disorders, and unhealthy birth outcomes. In addition, several epidemiological studies have reported that adverse health effects of PM2.5 can differ depending on regional variations...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Jui-Ting Chiang, Khan Farheen Badrealam, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang, Bih-Cheng Chen, Yueh-Min Lin, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Eriobotrya japonica (EJ) is a traditional Chinese plant with high medicinal value. EJ extracts are reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biological attributes. The current study aims to evaluate the prospective efficacy of E. japonica leave extract (EJLE) against Angiotensin-II induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblast and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). For the in vitro studies, Angiotensin-II pretreated H9c2 cells were treated with EJLE and analyzed through Western blotting and rhodamine phalloidin staining for their cardio-protective attributes...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Yi-Shih Ma, Jen-Jyh Lin, Chin-Chung Lin, Jin-Cherng Lien, Shu-Fen Peng, Ming-Jen Fan, Fei-Ting Hsu, Jing-Gung Chung
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a member of isothiocyanates (ITCs), has been shown to induce cell death in many human cancer cells, but there is no further report to show BITC suppresses glioblastoma multiforme cells in vivo. In the present study, we investigate the effects of BITC on the inhibition of GBM 8401/luc2 cell generated tumor on athymic nude mice. We established a luciferase expressing stable clone named as GBM 8401/luc2. Thirty male mice were inoculated subcutaneously with GBM 8401/luc2 cells to generate xenograft tumor mice model...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Chenqing Ning, Xiaoguang Gao, Changyuan Wang, Xiaokui Huo, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaobo Yang, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Qiang Meng, Kexin Liu
Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are well known to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury. This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against CCl4 -induced acute liver injury, and further to elucidate the involvement of Nrf2 signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Mice were orally administered Rg1 (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or sulforaphane (SFN) once daily for 1 week prior to 750 μL/kg CCl4 injection. The results showed that Rg1 markedly altered relative liver weights, promoted liver repair, increased the serum level of TP and decreased the serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Chien-Hsun Huang, Jui-Ming Yeh, Wen-Hsiung Chan
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are antibacterial materials widely used in numerous products and medical supplies. Previously, we showed that AgNPs trigger apoptotic processes in mouse blastocysts, leading to a decrease in cell viability and impairment of preimplantation and postimplantation embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated the hazardous effects of AgNPs on mouse oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and subsequent preimplantation and postimplantation development in vitro and in vivo...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
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