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Environmental Toxicology

Pornsuda Maraming, Sompong Klaynongsruang, Patcharee Boonsiri, Surachai Maijaroen, Sakda Daduang, Jing-Gung Chung, Jureerut Daduang
RT2, derived from the leukocyte peptide of Crocodylus siamensis, can kill human cervical cancer cells via apoptosis induction, but no evidence has shown in vivo. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of RT2 on human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. Twenty-four mice were injected subcutaneously with human colon cancer HCT 116 cells. Eleven days after cancer cell implantation, the mice were treated with intratumoral injections of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or RT2 (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mouse) once every 2 days for a total of 5 times...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Pu Huang, Sha Wang, Dengpo Weng, Lihong Xu
Our previous studies indicated that α4 was involved in the toxicity of MC-LR on the cytoskeleton via the change of PP2A activity in HEK 293. To explore the role of α4 in MC-LR toxicity via PP2A regulation in different cell lines, the HL7702 cell overexpressing α4 protein was exposed to MC-LR, and the change of PP2A, cytoskeletal structure, and cytoskeleton-related proteins were investigated. The results showed that PP2A activity was decreased, PP2A/C subunit expression and phosphorylation (Tyr307) increased significantly, but methylation (Leu 309)clearly decreased...
July 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Woong Kim, Yoon Cho, Mi-Kyung Song, Jung-Hee Lim, Jin Young Kim, Myung Chan Gye, Jae-Chun Ryu
Particulate matter the environmental toxicant, with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is a common cause of several respiratory diseases. In recent years, several studies have suggested that PM2.5 can influence diverse diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, dementia, and female reproductive disorders, and unhealthy birth outcomes. In addition, several epidemiological studies have reported that adverse health effects of PM2.5 can differ depending on regional variations...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Jui-Ting Chiang, Khan Farheen Badrealam, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang, Bih-Cheng Chen, Yueh-Min Lin, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Eriobotrya japonica (EJ) is a traditional Chinese plant with high medicinal value. EJ extracts are reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biological attributes. The current study aims to evaluate the prospective efficacy of E. japonica leave extract (EJLE) against Angiotensin-II induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblast and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). For the in vitro studies, Angiotensin-II pretreated H9c2 cells were treated with EJLE and analyzed through Western blotting and rhodamine phalloidin staining for their cardio-protective attributes...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
I-Lun Hsin, Jen-Chieh Hsu, Wen-Jun Wu, Hsueh-Ju Lu, Ming-Fang Wu, Jiunn-Liang Ko
β-catenin is important in development of lung cancer. In our previous study, GMI, a fungal immunomodulatory protein, inhibits lung cancer cell survival. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of GMI on β-catenin inhibition and apoptosis induction. GMI induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells bearing wild-type and mutated EGFR. GMI did not reduce the β-catenin mRNA expression but suppressed the protein expressions of β-catenin that resulted in the transcriptional downregulation of its target genes: survivin and cyclin-D1...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Yi-Shih Ma, Jen-Jyh Lin, Chin-Chung Lin, Jin-Cherng Lien, Shu-Fen Peng, Ming-Jen Fan, Fei-Ting Hsu, Jing-Gung Chung
Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a member of isothiocyanates (ITCs), has been shown to induce cell death in many human cancer cells, but there is no further report to show BITC suppresses glioblastoma multiforme cells in vivo. In the present study, we investigate the effects of BITC on the inhibition of GBM 8401/luc2 cell generated tumor on athymic nude mice. We established a luciferase expressing stable clone named as GBM 8401/luc2. Thirty male mice were inoculated subcutaneously with GBM 8401/luc2 cells to generate xenograft tumor mice model...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Ankita Bhattacharjee, Shilpi Kumari Prasad, Oly Banerjee, Siddhartha Singh, Arnab Banerjee, Ananya Bose, Swagata Pal, Bithin Kumar Maji, Sandip Mukherjee
Nicotine, one of the well-known highly toxic components of cigarette smoke, causes a number of adverse health effects and diseases. Our previous study has shown that nicotine induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in islet cell and disrupts islet cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). However, supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 were found effective against nicotine induced changes in pancreatic islet cells. But the toxicological effects and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is still unknown...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Saba Shahin, Surya Pal Singh, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Deleterious effects of MW radiation on the male reproduction are well studied. Previous reports although suggest that 2.45 GHz MW irradiation induced oxidative and nitrosative stress adversely affects the male reproductive function but the detailed molecular mechanism occurring behind it has yet to be elucidated. The aim of present study was to investigate the underlying detailed pathway of the testicular apoptosis induced by free radical load and redox imbalance due to 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure and the degree of severity along with the increased exposure duration...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Hui-Wen Lin, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Chao-Bin Yeh, Kuan-Chun Hsueh, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang
Coronarin D, a diterpene derived from the rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium, has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. Coronarin D can exert strong anticancer effects through cell growth prevention and cell cycle arrest in many cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism through which coronarin D suppresses cell proliferation and triggers cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Treatment of Huh7 and Sk-hep-1 cells with coronarin D resulted in a significantly increased loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to the cleavage and activation of caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3 and changes in Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL protein levels...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
George Eli Howell, Erin McDevitt, Lucie Henein, Charlee Mulligan, Darian Young
Recent epidemiological studies have revealed significant positive associations between exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides and occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and there are a growing number of animal-based studies to support causality. However, the cellular mechanisms linking OC compound exposure and metabolic dysfunction remain elusive. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine if direct exposure to three highly implicated OC compounds promoted hepatic steatosis, the hepatic ramification of the metabolic syndrome...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Chenqing Ning, Xiaoguang Gao, Changyuan Wang, Xiaokui Huo, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaobo Yang, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Qiang Meng, Kexin Liu
Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are well known to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury. This study was performed to examine the hepatoprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) against CCl4 -induced acute liver injury, and further to elucidate the involvement of Nrf2 signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Mice were orally administered Rg1 (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or sulforaphane (SFN) once daily for 1 week prior to 750 μL/kg CCl4 injection. The results showed that Rg1 markedly altered relative liver weights, promoted liver repair, increased the serum level of TP and decreased the serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Chien-Hsun Huang, Jui-Ming Yeh, Wen-Hsiung Chan
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are antibacterial materials widely used in numerous products and medical supplies. Previously, we showed that AgNPs trigger apoptotic processes in mouse blastocysts, leading to a decrease in cell viability and impairment of preimplantation and postimplantation embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated the hazardous effects of AgNPs on mouse oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and subsequent preimplantation and postimplantation development in vitro and in vivo...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Tsu-Shing Wang, Cheng-Ping Lin, Yu-Pong Chen, Mu-Rong Chao, Chien-Chun Li, Kai-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: IARC has classified the betel nut as a human environmental carcinogen. Previous studies have found that arecoline (AR) is the major alkaloid present in the saliva of betel quid chewers. Saliva contains a large content of AR which has been further shown to cause mutation of oral mucosa cells, resulting in oral cancer. Whereas, to date, there are only few studies reported the hepatotoxicity associated with arecoline and betel nut chewing. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the toxic effects of AR and its oxidative metabolite, arecoline N-oxide (ARNO), in normal liver cell lines...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Miao-Yu Liao, Chun-Yi Chuang, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Ying-Erh Chou, Chiao-Wen Lin, Wen-Rong Chen, Chih-Ting Lai, Mu-Kuan Chen, Shun-Fa Yang
Eclipta prostrata, a traditional Chinese medication, has been used for the treatment of several diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of Eclipta prostrata extracts (EPE) on human oral cancer cell metastasis remains unclear. We thus examined the effects of EPE on metastasis promoting proteins in oral cancer. Our results revealed that the EPE attenuated SCC-9, HSC-3, and TW2.6 cell migration and invasiveness by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 enzyme activities. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that EPE significantly reduced the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) but not those of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and p38...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Kuan-Chun Hsueh, Chia-Liang Lin, Jai-Nien Tung, Shun-Fa Yang, Yi-Hsien Hsieh
Nimbolide is one of the major compounds from the leaves and flowers of the neem tree and exhibits antitumor properties on various cancer cells. However, no report has shown that nimbolide induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that it inhibited cell growth in Huh-7 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. We also found that nimbolide induced cell death through the induction of G2/M phase arrest and mitochondrial dysfunction, accompanied by the increased expression of cleaved caspase-7, caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-PARP, and Bax and decreased expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Y R Shahin, N M Elguindy, A Abdel Bary, M Balbaa
A wide variety of natural products have powerful chemopreventive effects due to their antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities that enable them to arrest cell proliferation in several cancer models. In the present study, we shed light on the protective mechanism of Nigella sativa extract against diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced preneoplastic stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. We studied the extract effect on EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway as one of the major signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation during hepatocarcinogenesis as well as the investigation of its antioxidant activity...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Rachel E Ellsworth, Paul J Kostyniak, Lai-Har Chi, Craig D Shriver, Nicholas S Costantino, Darrell L Ellsworth
Agricultural pesticides are abundant environmental contaminants worldwide, prompting interest in studying their possible detrimental health effects. We examined organochlorine residues by quadrant (n = 245) in breast adipose tissues from 51 women with various stages of breast health to determine patterns of bioaccumulation within the breast and to assess relationships with patient clinical characteristics. Three organochlorine residues-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex-assayed by high resolution gas chromatography were abundant in breast tissue...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Jr-Di Yang, Shing-Hwa Liu, Mei-Hsiu Liao, Ruei-Ming Chen, Pei-Yu Liu, Tzuu-Huei Ueng
The major objective of the present study was to determine the ability of a triazole fungicide tebuconazole to induce cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, oxidative stress, and endocrine-disrupting activity using male rats treated with tebuconazole at 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 28 days. In liver, tebuconazole dose-dependently increased microsomal contents of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 and the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and erythromycin N-demethylase...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Hongliang Liu, Lingzhi Wang, Qiang Zeng, Liang Zhao, Yushan Cui, Changchun Hou, Bin Zhang, Zushan Zhang, Shun Zhang, Xuemin Chen, Aiguo Wang
Excessive iodide could induce intellectual damage in children, which has attracted broad attention. To investigate the neurotoxic effect of iodide and its mechanism, a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was treated with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI). The results showed that excessive iodide could decrease cell viability, reduce glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase the degree of autophagy (by changing the cellular ultrastructure and raising the autophagy-related mRNA and protein expression of LC3, Beclin1, and p62), which were correlated with the immunofluorescence labeling...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Aram Minas, Gholamreza Najafi, Ali Shalizar Jalali, Mazdak Razi
Foeniculum vulgare (FVE; fennel) is an aromatic plant belonging to Umbelliferae family, which is widely used in traditional societies because of its different pharmaceutical properties. To uncover the fennel-derived essential oil (FVEO)-induced effects on male reproductive potential, 24 mature male albino mice were divided into, control, 0.37, 0.75, and 1.5 mg kg-1 FVEO-received groups. Following 35 days, the animals were euthanized and the testicular tissue and sperm samples were collected. The histological alterations, tubular differentiation (TDI), spermiogenesis (SPI) indices, apoptosis ratio, and RNA damage of germinal cells were analyzed...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
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