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Environmental Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206703/toxicological-evaluation-of-the-topoisomerase-inhibitor-etoposide-in-the-model-animal-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-3t3-l1-normal-murine-cells
#1
So Young Lee, Joo Yeon Kim, Yu-Jin Jung, Kyungsu Kang
Etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, has been widely used as a clinical anticancer drug to treat diverse cancer patients. Since not only rapidly dividing cancer cells but also the cells of normal human tissues and every living organism in environmental ecosystems have topoisomerases, it is crucial to study the toxicity of etoposide in other organisms in addition to cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of etoposide in both a soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and 3T3-L1 normal murine cells...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205391/influence-of-iodine-in-excess-on-seminiferous-tubular-structure-and-epididymal-sperm-character-in-male-rats
#2
Amar K Chandra, Arijit Chakraborty
Excess iodine induced public health problems are now emerging in many iodine sufficient regions for indiscriminate intake of iodine through various iodized products. It has been reported that excess iodine can disrupt overall male reproductive physiology by generating oxidative stress in the testis. However, information on the possible effect of iodine in excess on spermatozoa found less. In the present investigation flow cytometric techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the spermatozoal functional as well as structural status under the influence of excess iodine; generation of ROS in the spermatozoa as evident by DCFDA, altered acrosomal integrity as observed by fluorescence lectin staining method and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) noticed by JC-1 staining...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186385/activating-nuclear-xenobiotic-receptors-and-triggering-er-stress-and-hepatic-cytochromes-p450-systems-in-quails-coturnix-c-coturnix-during-atrazine-exposure
#3
Zheng-Hai Du, Lei Qin, Jia Lin, Yan-Chun Sun, Jun Xia, Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Jin-Long Li
Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most widely detected contaminant in the ecosystem. Nuclear xenobiotic receptors are activated by herbicides and induce the transcription of CYP450 isoforms involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. However, little is known about hepatic nuclear xenobiotic receptors in birds are responsible for ATR-induced hepatotoxicity via regulating the cytochrome P450 enzyme systems (CYP450s). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of ATR hepatotoxicity in quails...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185390/oxidative-stress-as-a-damage-mechanism-in-porcine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-exposed-to-malathion-during-in-vitro-maturation
#4
Diana Flores, Verónica Souza, Miguel Betancourt, Mario Teteltitla, Humberto González-Márquez, Eduardo Casas, Edmundo Bonilla, Patricia Ramírez-Noguera, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruíz, Yvonne Ducolomb
Malathion is one of the most commonly used insecticides. Recent findings have demonstrated that it induces oxidative stress in somatic cells, but there are not enough studies that have demonstrated this effect in germ cells. Malathion impairs porcine oocyte viability and maturation, but studies have not shown how oxidative stress damages maturation and which biochemical mechanisms are affected in this process in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The aims of the present study were to determine the amount of oxidative stress produced by malathion in porcine COCs matured in vitro, to define how biochemical mechanisms affect this process, and determine whether trolox can attenuate oxidative damage...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181416/preventive-effects-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-mycelium-on-the-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-thioacetamide
#5
Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Jung-Kai Tseng, Chung-Hsi Chou, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Yi-Ling Lin, Yi-Chen Chen
Thioacetamide (TAA), usually used as a fungicide to control the decay of citrus products, itself is not toxic to the liver, but its intermediates are able to increase oxidative stress in livers and further cause fibrosis. Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium (OSM) which contains 10% polysaccharides and 0.25% adenosine decreased (P < 0.05) the lipid accumulation and increased (P < 0.05) antioxidative capacity in livers of thioacetamide (TAA) injected rats. Meanwhile, the increased (P < 0.05) liver sizes, serum alanine transaminase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) values in thioacetamide (TAA)-injected rats were ameliorated (P < 0...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181406/endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-methylparaben-on-the-adult-gerbil-prostate
#6
Janaína R Costa, Mônica S Campos, Rodrigo F Lima, Liana S Gomes, Mara R Marques, Sebastião R Taboga, Manoel F Biancardi, Pedro V A Brito, Fernanda C A Santos
Parabens are xenoestrogens widely employed in cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceutical products. These chemicals are known to disrupt hormone-dependent organs, due to their binding affinity for hormonal receptors. Although recent studies have evaluated the endocrine-disrupting potential of parabens in several reproductive organs, few have investigated the effects of these chemicals in the prostate. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of oral exposure to methylparaben (500 mg/kg/day) for 3, 7, and 21 days on male and female adult gerbil prostate...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181402/allethrin-toxicity-causes-reproductive-dysfunction-in-male-rats
#7
Golla Madhubabu, Suresh Yenugu
Pyrethroids are widely used for domestic and agricultural purposes and their use is increasing, especially in developing countries. Uncontrolled use of these insecticides resulted in their entry into the food chain thereby causing toxicity to different organ systems. Allethrin is one of the widely used pyrethroids, but its toxicological effects are underreported when compared to other pyrethroids. Further, its effects on the male reproductive tract remain uncharacterized. In this study, its toxicity on the male reproductive tract was evaluated by administering 25-150 mg/kg body weight allethrin to adult rats for 60 days...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181396/the-aflatoxin-b1-fumonisin-b1-toxicity-in-brl-3a-hepatocytes-is-associated-to-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-activity-and-arachidonic-acid-metabolism
#8
Verónica S Mary, Silvina L Arias, Santiago N Otaiza, Pilar A Velez, Héctor R Rubinstein, Martín G Theumer
Human oral exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) is associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma. Although evidence suggested interactive AFB1 -FB1 hepatotoxicity, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly unidentified. This work was aimed at evaluating the possible AFB1 -FB1 interplay to induce genetic and cell cycle toxicities in BRL-3A rat hepatocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement, and the AFB1 metabolizing pathways cytochrome P450 (CYP) and arachidonic acid (ArAc) metabolism as ROS contributors...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181394/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-interactions-of-neuron-and-glia-like-cells-toxicity-uptake-mechanisms-and-lysosomal-tracking
#9
I-Lun Hsiao, Yi-Kong Hsieh, Chun-Yu Chuang, Chu-Fang Wang, Yuh-Jeen Huang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly used nanomaterials in consumer products. Previous studies focused on its effects on neurons; however, little is known about their effects and uptake mechanisms on glial cells under normal or activated states. Here, ALT astrocyte-like, BV-2 microglia and differentiated N2a neuroblastoma cells were directly or indirectly exposed to 10 nm AgNPs using mono- and co-culture system. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was pretreated to activate glial cells before AgNP treatment for mimicking NP exposure under brain inflammation...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181390/tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-induces-toxicity-by-stimulating-camk2-in-pc12-cells
#10
Chaonan Li, Li Li, Bencheng Lin, Yanjun Fang, Honglian Yang, Huanliang Liu, Zhuge Xi
Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is one of the widely used organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), which are regarded as suitable substitutes for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Previously, we have validated the toxicity of TDCIPP in PC12 cells owing to the induced alterations in GAP43, NF-H, CaMK2a/2b, and tubulin α/β proteins; however, limited information is currently available on the toxicity and mechanism of TDCIPP. In the present study, cytotoxicity effects were evaluated by exposing PC12 cells to different concentrations of TDCIPP (0-50 μM) for 4 days...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181387/assessment-of-the-short-term-toxicity-of-tio2-nanofiber-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#11
Worlanyo E Gato, Daniel A Hunter, Ian C Byrd, Christopher A Mays, Wilson Yau, Ji Wu
Synthetic nanomaterials have many unique chemical and physical properties, mainly due to their high specific surface area and quantum confinement effect. Specifically, titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanomaterial has high stability, anticorrosive, and photocatalytic properties. However, there are concerns over adverse biological effects resulting from bioeffects. This study was to investigate adverse effects associated with acute ingestion of TiO2 nanofiber (TDNF). TDNF was fabricated via electrospinning method, followed by dissolution in water...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181380/fisetin-induced-apoptosis-of-human-oral-cancer-scc-4-cells-through-reactive-oxygen-species-production-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-caspase-and-mitochondria-dependent-signaling-pathways
#12
Chen-Hsuan Su, Chao-Lin Kuo, Kung-Wen Lu, Fu-Shun Yu, Yi-Shih Ma, Jiun-Long Yang, Yung-Lin Chu, Fu-Shin Chueh, Kuo-Ching Liu, Jing-Gung Chung
Oral cancer is one of the cancer-related diseases in human populations and its incidence rates are rising worldwide. Fisetin, a flavonoid from natural products, has been shown to exhibit anticancer activities in many human cancer cell lines but the molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells is still unclear; thus, in this study, we investigated fisetin-induced cell death and associated signal pathways on human oral cancer SCC-4 cells in vitro. We examined cell morphological changes, total viable cells, and cell cycle distribution by phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry assays...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181379/inhibitory-effects-of-leucaena-leucocephala-on-the-metastasis-and-invasion-of-human-oral-cancer-cells
#13
Hsiao-Hang Chung, Mu-Kuan Chen, Yu-Chao Chang, Shun-Fa Yang, Chia-Chieh Lin, Chiao-Wen Lin
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and metastasis is recognized as a major factor causing its low survival rate. The inhibition of metastasis progress and the improvement of the survival rate for oral cancer are critical research objectives. Leucaena leucocephala from the mimosa branch Leucaena genus is native to Central and South America and has been used as a traditional remedy for treating various disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as anticancer properties of L...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168795/nonylphenol-increases-tumor-formation-and-growth-by-suppressing-gender-independent-lymphocyte-proliferation-and-macrophage-activation
#14
Jae-Wook Lee, Hae-Kyoung Han, Sojin Park, Eun-Yi Moon
Nonylphenol (NP) is a well-known endocrine disruptor that influences sexual and reproductive development. Here, we investigated whether NP affects immune responses that are associated with tumor initiation and progression. When spleen cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A in the presence of 10(-4) M NP, the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes was reduced compared with that in controls, in a gender-independent fashion. While 10(-4) M NP also decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), no changes in NO production were detected following treatment with 10(-5) M NP...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158927/analysis-of-the-roles-of-dietary-protein-and-calcium-in-fluoride-induced-changes-in-t-lymphocyte-subsets-in-rat
#15
Hongwei Wang, Bianhua Zhou, Ruiyan Niu, Jinming Wang, Jianhai Zhang, Jundong Wang
The roles of dietary protein (Pr) and calcium (Ca) levels on the changes in T-lymphocyte subsets induced by excessive fluoride (F) intake were assessed using rats that were malnourished for 120 days as a model. The CD(4+) and CD(8+) T-lymphocytes in the spleen tissue were determined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assay. The percentages of CD(3+) , CD(4+) , and CD(8+) T-lymphocytes were reduced in the spleen of rats exposed to excessive F, and malnutrition aggravated these changes in the T-lymphocytes...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158922/pulmonary-glass-particles-may-persist-in-the-lung-suppressing-function-of-immune-cells
#16
Eun-Jung Park, Gwang-Hee Lee, Jae-Chan Kim, Sang Jin Lee, Kyuhong Lee, Byoung-Seok Lee, Jaerak Chang, Dong-Wan Kim
The health effects of silica may depend on the inherent properties of crystalline silica or on external factors affecting the biological activity or distribution of its polymorphs. Inhaled crystalline silica is classified as a Group I carcinogen, however, information on the health effects of amorphous silica is still insufficient. Considering that alveolar macrophages play a key role in both innate and adaptive immune responses for removal of foreign bodies that enter via the respiratory system, we treated sheet-like glass particles (SGPs), a type of noncrystalline amorphous silica, to MH-S cells, an alveolar macrophage cell line...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128526/thrombospondin-1-and-microrna-1-expression-in-response-to-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#17
M Pacurari, R Kafoury, T Turner, S Taylor, P B Tchounwou
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a glycoprotein that plays a role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Previously, we have shown that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) regulate ECM components TGFβ and its target Col3A1 in alveolar epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of MWCNT on TSP-1 and microRNA-1 (miR-1) in the regulation of TGFβ in ECM remodeling using alveolar epithelial A549 cells. A549 cells were treated with MWCNT (20 or 50 µg/mL) for 6 or 24 h and the expression of TSP-1 and miR-1, and the exogenous miR-1 effect on cell morphology were analyzed...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101988/toxicity-assessment-of-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-on-artemia-salina
#18
Deepak Kumar, Rajdeep Roy, Abhinav Parashar, Ashok M Raichur, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Anita Mukherjee, Amitava Mukherjee
The present study deals with the toxicity assessment of two differently synthesized zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI, chemical and biological) as well as Fe(2+) ions on Artemia salina at three different initial concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of these particles. The assessment was done till 96 h at time intervals of 24 h. EC50 value was calculated to evaluate the 50% mortality of Artemia salina at all exposure time durations. Between chemically and biologically synthesized nZVI nanoparticles, insignificant differences in the level of mortality were demonstrated...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101945/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-mapk-nuclear-factor-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il8-a-possible-mechanism-of-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-induced-lung-toxicity
#19
Seung-Chan Jeong, Yoon Cho, Mi-Kyung Song, Eunil Lee, Jae-Chun Ryu
Airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of diverse pulmonary diseases. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5, a PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm, enhances inflammation-related toxicity in the human respiratory system through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Through cytokine antibody array analysis of two extracts of PM2.5 [water (W-PM2.5 ) and organic (O-PM2.5 ) soluble extracts] exposed to A549 (human alveolar epithelial cell), we identified eight cytokines changed their expression with W-PM2...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101940/chronic-nasal-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2-causes-pulmonary-tumorigenesis-in-male-mice
#20
Fashui Hong, Li Ji, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. Numerous studies have been confirmed that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) may result in chronic pulmonary inflammation in both mice and rats. However, very few studies have focused on the pulmonary tumorigenesis. In this study, to examine whether chronic TiO2 NP exposure induce tumorigenesis in the lung, forty mice (each group) were nasally exposed to 1...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
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