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Environmental Toxicology

Shih-Chung Wang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Ming-Hsien Chien, Chiao-Wen Lin, Hui-Yu Chen, Pei-Ching Hsiao, Shun-Fa Yang
Cantharidin, a natural toxin from blister beetles, has shown potent anticancer activities on many solid tumor cells. Recently, cantharidin and its analogue, norcantharidin, were also shown to suppress nonsolid tumors such as chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and leukemic stem cells. However, there is no available information to address the effects of cantharidic acid (CAC), a hydrolysis product of cantharidin, on human AML cells. The present study showed that CAC, at a range of concentrations (0-20 μM), concentration-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in the HL-60 AML cell line...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Muneeb U Rehman, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir, Adil Farooq, Shahzada Mudasir Rashid, Bilal Ahmad, Sheikh Bilal Ahmad, Rayeesa Ali, Ishraq Hussain, Mubashir Masoodi, Showkeen Muzamil, Hassan Madkhali, Majid Ahmad Ganaie
Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and one of the most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. Naringenin (4, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone) is one of the major flavone glycoside present in citrus fruits. Naringenin has long been used in Chinese's traditional medicine because of its exceptional pharmacological properties and non-toxic nature. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of Naringenin against 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH)-induced precancerous lesions, that is, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin depleted foci (MDF), and its role in regulating the oxidative stress, inflammation and hyperproliferation, in the colon of Wistar rats...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Hui-Wen Yang, Ming-Yi Lu, Yu-Wei Chiu, Yi-Wen Liao, Yu-Feng Huang, Pin Ju Chueh, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Cheng-Chia Yu
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition with symptoms of limited mouth opening and areca nut chewing habit has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Hinokitiol, a natural tropolone derived from Chamacyparis taiwanensis, has been reported to improve oral lichen planus and inhibit various cancer cells. Here, we showed that hinokitiol reduced the myofibroblast activities in fBMFs and prevented the arecoline-induced transdifferentiation. Treatment of hinokitiol dose-dependently downregulated the myofibroblast markers as well as various EMT transcriptional factors...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Pei-Ying Liu, Dun-Cheng Chang, Yu-Sheng Lo, Yi-Ting Hsi, Chia-Chieh Lin, Yi-Ching Chuang, Shu-Hui Lin, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Mu-Kuan Chen
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern China and Southeast Asia. The present study investigated the activity of osthole in suppressing NPC along with the underlying mechanism. Cell growth inhibition was measured using the MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected through 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to identify the signaling pathway. Osthole markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the NPC cell line. Western blotting results revealed the increased activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Butyl paraben (BP) has antimicrobial effects and is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals. It is also absorbed into various tissues of the human body. It is known that BP is measurable in maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy, but the effects of BP on placental development, essential for maintaining normal pregnancy, are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BP on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness of human trophoblast cells, using an HTR8/SVneo cell line...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Md Saydur Rahman, Peter Thomas
Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Bhanuramya Mangalampalli, Naresh Dumala, Rekhadevi Perumalla Venkata, Paramjit Grover
Increased utilization and exposure levels of Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) to humans and environment may raise unexpected consequences. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicological implications of MgO NPs and MPs after 28 day repeated oral administration in Wistar rats with three different doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg). The MgO particles were characterised systematically in order to get more insights of the toxicological behaviour. MgO NPs induced significant DNA damage and aberrations in chromosomes...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Toraj Zamir-Nasta, Mazdak Razi, Hasanzadeh Shapour, Hassan Malekinejad
This study was done in order to investigate time-dependent effect of AFB1 on expression of genes involving in cell cycle check point machinery at G, S, and M phases. For this purpose, 24 mature male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into control and test groups. The animals in test group subdivided into three groups, which received the AFB1 at a daily dose of 20 µg/kg body weight, through intraperitoneal (i.p.) route, for 7, 14, and 21 days. The p21, p53, cyclin D1, CDK4, and ERα expressions at both mRNA and protein level were analyzed by using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Ching Yan Chu, Kwok Pui Fung, Chi Chiu Wang
Despite the previous reports on melamine contamination in high concentrations some years ago, there were not many studies on low-level exposure in daily life, particularly in pregnancy. We investigated the effect of low-dose melamine on the kidneys of the pregnant rats and their developing embryos/fetuses during various gestational stages namely implantation, gastrulation, organogenesis, maturation and whole pregnancy. Our results showed that the repeated low level of melamine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg bw/d) during pregnancy did not cause obstruction of renal tubules although more precipitating crystals were found in the early gestational periods...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Sheikh Bilal Ahmad, Muneeb U Rehman, Bilques Fatima, Bilal Ahmad, Ishraq Hussain, Sheikh Pervaiz Ahmad, Adil Farooq, Showkeen Muzamil, Rahil Razzaq, Shahzada Mudasir Rashid, Showkat Ahmad Bhat, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir
This study was designed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of D-Limonene-a component of volatile oils extracted from citrus plants. D-limonene is reported to have numerous therapeutic properties. CCl4 -intduced model of liver fibrosis in Wistar rats is most widely used model to study chemopreventive studies. CCl4 -intoxication significantly increased serum aminotransferases and total cholesterol these effects were prevented by cotreatment with D-Limonene. Also, CCl4 -intoxication caused depletion of glutathione and other antioxidant enzymes while D-Limonene preserved them within normal values...
December 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Huajian Tian, Shaomin Chen, Yang Leng, Teng Li, Zengli Li, Hongxia Chen, Qihao Zhang
Toxic effects of maternal exposure to Cadmium (Cd) on Leydig cells of male offspring arises much concern recently, but its toxic effects on the development of Leydig cells and androgen synthesis have not been elucidated. In this study, female rats were exposed to Cd during gestation and lactation, and the development of Leydig cells in the first filial-generation (F1) male rats was investigated. The steroidogenic signaling pathway and biomarkers related to the development of Leydig cells were detected to disclose how maternal Cd-exposure caused reproductive damage...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Enrique Bosch-Panadero, Sebastian Mas, Esther Civantos, Pedro Abaigar, Vanesa Camarero, Alberto Ruiz-Priego, Alberto Ortiz, Jesus Egido, Emilio González-Parra
BACKGROUND: Uremic toxins that accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) contribute to CKD complications, such as CKD progression. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxin, structurally related with p-cresol, that accumulates in CKD. Our aim was to characterize the nephrotoxic potential of BPA. Specifically, we addressed BPA toxicity over energy-demanding proximal tubular cells. METHODS: Cell death and oxidative stress were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in HK-2 human proximal tubular epithelial cells...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Poonam Malhotra, Darshana Singh, Raj Kumar
Radiation-induced manifestations like free radical burst, oxidative damage and apoptosis leading to cell death. In present study, N-acetyl tryptophan glucopyranoside (NATG) was assessed for its immune-radioprotective activities using J774A.1 cells. Clonogenic cell survival, cell cycle progression and cytokines i.e. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-17A expression were evaluated in irradiated and NATG pretreated cells using clonogenic formation ability, flow cytometry and ELISA assay. Results indicated that 0...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Chang Liu, Dong-Ying Yan, Xuan Tan, Zhuo Ma, Can Wang, Yu Deng, Wei Liu, Tian-Yao Yang, Zhao-Fa Xu, Bin Xu
Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) oligomerization, which is degraded mainly depending on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and autophagy pathways. However, little data reported the cross-talk between ER stress and autophagy on Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization. To explore the relationship between ER stress and autophagy, we used 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, the ER stress inhibitor), rapamycin (Rap, autophagy activator) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) in mice model of manganism...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Kelly R Smith, Molley Granberry, Marcus C B Tan, Casey L Daniel, Natalie R Gassman
The active ingredient in sunless tanning products (STPs) is a simple sugar, dihydroxyacetone (DHA). Several studies have demonstrated that DHA is absorbed within the viable layers of skin and not fully contained within the stratum corneum. Additionally, spray tanning and other aerosolized application methods have increased the risk of internal exposure through mucous membranes and inhalation. Beyond its presence in STPs, DHA also occurs as an endogenous by-product of fructose metabolism, and an excess of DHA in cells can induce advanced glycation end (AGE) products and oxidative stress...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Andy Wei-Ge Chen, Yen-Shuo Tseng, Chia-Chieh Lin, Yi-Ting Hsi, Yu-Sheng Lo, Yi-Ching Chuang, Shu-Hui Lin, Chia-Yun Yu, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Mu-Kuan Chen
While Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon in western countries, it is endemic in Southeast Asia and Southern China. Previous study of norcantharidin (NCTD), isolated from blister beetles, has proved its anticancer effect on various tumors. However, the effect of NCTD in NPC has never been studied. The purpose of this study is to inspect the suppression activity of NCTD on NPC, along with the underlying mechanism. NPC cell line NPC-BM was treated with NCTD. NCTD remarkably inhibited proliferation and induce apoptosis in NPC-BM cell...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Chien-Hsun Huang, Zi-Wei Huang, Feng-Ming Ho, Wen-Hsiung Chan
Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several traditional Chinese herbal medicines, has been shown to suppress growth and induce apoptosis in some tumor cell lines. However, berberine has also been reported to attenuate H2 O2 -induced oxidative injury and apoptosis. The basis for these ambiguous effects of berberine-triggering or preventing apoptosis-has not been well characterized to date. In the current investigation, we examined whether berberine exerts cytotoxic effects on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage and affects subsequent embryonic development in vitro and in vivo...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Jen-Yang Tang, Hurng-Wern Huang, Hui-Ru Wang, Ya-Ching Chan, Jo-Wen Haung, Chih-Wen Shu, Yang-Chang Wu, Hsueh-Wei Chang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction had been previously reported in 4β-hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE)-induced selective killing of oral cancer cells, but the mechanism involving ROS and the DNA damage effect remain unclear. This study explores the role of ROS and oxidative DNA damage of 4βHWE in the selective killing of oral cancer cells. Changes in cell viability, morphology, ROS, DNA double strand break (DSB) signaling (γH2AX foci in immunofluorescence and DSB signaling in western blotting), and oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]) were detected in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer (Ca9-22) and/or normal (HGF-1) cells...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Hung-Chih Lin, Shih-Li Su, Wan-Chun Lin, Ai-Hsuan Lin, Ya-Chen Yang, Chong-Kuei Lii, Haw-Wen Chen
Andrographolide is a potent anti-inflammatory agent found in Andrographis paniculata. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor with pro-inflammatory properties secreted in response to hypoxia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 (MKP-5) is a dual-specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates threonine and tyrosine residues of MAPKs. We showed previously that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression and ET-1 secretion are dependent on p38 MAPK in EA.hy926 cells. Here, we investigate what role MKP-5 plays in andrographolide's inhibition of hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and ET-1...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
I-Che Feng, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Hsin-Yu Ho, Shun-Fa Yang, Chao-Bin Yeh
Cantharidin analogs exhibit anticancer activities, including apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of cantharidic acid (CA), a cantharidin analog, on apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are unclear. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the anticancer activities of CA by investigating its ability to trigger apoptosis in SK-Hep-1 cells. Our data demonstrated that CA effectively inhibited the proliferation of SK-Hep-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CA effectively triggered cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometric analysis...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
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