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Environmental Toxicology

Kai Su, Zilong Sun, Ruiyan Niu, Ying Lei, Jing Cheng, Jundong Wang
Exposure to fluoride results in low reproductive capacity; however, the mechanism underlying the impact of fluoride on male productive system still remains obscure. To assess the potential toxicity in testis of mice administrated with fluoride, global genome microarray and real-time PCR were performed to detect and identify the altered transcriptions. The results revealed that 763 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 330 up-regulated and 433 down-regulated genes, which were involved in spermatogenesis, apoptosis, DNA damage, DNA replication, and cell differentiation...
November 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hung-Sheng Shang, Jia-You Liu, Hsu-Feng Lu, Han-Sun Chiang, Chia-Hain Lin, Ann Chen, Yuh-Feng Lin, Jing-Gung Chung
Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, derived from natural plant Fructus Viticis exhibits biological activities including anti-cancer characteristics. The anti-cancer and alter gene expression of casticin on human colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure viable cell, cell cycle and sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) productions, level of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and caspase activity. Western blotting assay was used to detect expression of protein level associated with cell death...
November 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Pin-Yu Chang, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Jia-Sin Yang, Fang-Cheng Lo, Shun-Fa Yang, Ko-Hsiu Lu
Tricetin, a dietary flavonoid, has cytostatic properties and anti-metastasis activities in various cancer cells. However, the detailed impacts and underlying mechanisms of tricetin on human osteosarcoma cell metastasis are still unclear. Here, the hypothesis that tricetin possesses the anti-metastatic effects on human osteosarcoma cells was tested. The effects of tricetin on cell viability, motility, migration, and invasion in human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells were investigated. Gelatin zymography, western blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the luciferase assay were used to further explore the underlying mechanisms involved in anti-metastatic effects in U2OS cells...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Wei-Wen Kuo, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Shin-Yi Li, Sheng-Huang Chang, Hui-Nung Shih, Ray-Jade Chen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Taiwanin E is a natural compound which is structurally analogous to estrogen II and is abundantly found in Taiwania cryptomerioides. It has been previously reported for its anticancer effects; however, the pharmaceutical effect of Taiwanin E on Human LoVo colon cancer cells is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Taiwanin E on metastasis and the associated mechanism of action on Human LoVo colon cancer cells with respect to the modulations in their cell migration and signaling pathways associated with migration...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Tsung-Cheng Chueh, Li-Sung Hsu, Chin-Ming Kao, Tung-Wei Hsu, Hung-Yu Liao, Kuan-Yi Wang, Ssu Ching Chen
Deltamethrin (DTM), a type II pyrethroid, is one of the most commonly used insecticides. The increased use of pyrethroid leads to potential adverse effects, particularly in sensitive populations such as children and pregnant women. None of the related studies was focused on the transcriptome responses in zebrafish embryos after treatment with DTM; therefore, RNA-seq, a high-throughput method, was performed to analyze the global expression of differential expressed genes (DEGs) in zebrafish embryos treated with DTM (40 and 80 μg/L) from fertilization to 48 h postfertilization (hpf) as compared with that in the control group (without DTM treatment)...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Chengzhi Chen, Xuejun Jiang, Shiyan Gu, Yanhao Lai, Yuan Liu, Zunzhen Zhang
Arsenite has been shown to induce a variety of oxidative damage in mammalian cells. However, the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to its adverse effects remain unknown. We previously showed that the level of Nrf2, a nuclear transcription factor significantly increased in arsenite-treated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells suggesting that Nrf2 is involved in responding to arsenite-induced oxidative damage. To explore how Nrf2 can impact arsenite-induced oxidative damage, in this study, we examined Nrf2 activation and its regulation upon cellular arsenite exposure as well as its effects on arsenite-induced oxidative damage in HBE cells...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Yuan Zhou, Xiaoping Xu, Beibei Yu, Guang Yu
The intestinal epithelium is a single-cell layer that provides an important barrier against natural toxins. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyclic heptapeptide, is one of the best known toxins able to alter the functions of intestine. This study evaluated the toxic effects and the possible mechanisms of MC-LR on barrier function of the intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 μM MC-LR. Cell viability significantly decreased, while the ratio of apoptotic cells increased after exposure to 12...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Lu Kong, Xiaojie Gao, Jiaqian Zhu, Ting Zhang, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
To investigate the reproductive toxicity and underlying mechanism of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs), Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with/without 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg cm(-2) of Ni NPs or nickel microparticles (Ni MPs). Generation time, fertilized egg numbers, spermatide activation and motility were detected. Results indicated, under the same treatment doses, that Ni NPs induced higher reproductive toxicity to C. elegans than Ni MPs. Reproductive toxicities observed in C. elegans included a decrease in brood size, fertilized egg and spermatide activation, but an increase in generation time and out-of-round spermatids...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Vitor Antunes Oliveira, Gaia Favero, Alessandra Stacchiotti, Lorena Giugno, Barbara Buffoli, Claudia Sirlene de Oliveira, Antonio Lavazza, Massimo Albanese, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Maria Ester Pereira, Rita Rezzani
This work investigated the effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2 ) acute exposure on virgin, pregnant and lactating rats by determination of renal and hepatic morphological and ultrastructural parameters and the expression of oxidative stress and stress tolerance markers, due to kidney and liver are the organs that more accumulate inorganic mercury. Adult Wistar rats virgin (90 days old), pregnant (18(th) gestation day) and lactating (7(th) lactation day) were injected once with HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) or saline (controls)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Kaitlin M Johnson, Sean C Lema
Several estuaries along the Pacific Ocean coast of North America were identified recently as having elevated 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in sediments and biota, raising concerns about reproductive impacts for wildlife given 4-NP's established estrogenic activity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Here we characterize 4-NP mediated induction and recovery of estrogen-sensitive gene transcripts in the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios), an intertidal fish abundant in estuarine mud flats on the west coast of North America...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Stefanie Kasurinen, Pasi I Jalava, Mikko S Happo, Olli Sippula, Oskari Uski, Hanna Koponen, Jürgen Orasche, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen
According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hajer Ben Saad, Manel Gargouri, Fatma Kallel, Rim Chaabene, Tahia Boudawara, Kamel Jamoussi, Christian Magné, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ), an environmental pollutant, is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxic agent. Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many diseases induced by pollutants. As potent natural sources of bioactive compounds, marine algae have been demonstrated to be rich in novel secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological functions. In this study, adults male mice were orally treated for 15 days with KBrO3 (0.5 g/L) associated or not with extract of Alsidium corallinum, a red Mediterranean alga...
September 23, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Bugi Ratno Budiarto, Wen-Hsiung Chan
Ginsenoside Rb1, the major saponin component of ginseng root, has a wide range of therapeutic application. Previous studies have established that ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits the cell cycle and induces apoptosis. However, its side-effects, particularly those on embryonic development, have not been well characterized to date. In the current study, we examined whether ginsenoside Rb1 exerts a cytotoxic effect on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, and affects subsequent embryonic development in vitro and in vivo...
September 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Terje Svingen, Niels Lund Hansen, Camilla Taxvig, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Udo Jensen, Peter Have Rasmussen
Mycotoxins are fungi-born metabolites that can contaminate foods through mould-infected crops. They are a significant food/feed-safety issue across the globe and represent a substantial financial burden for the world economy. Moreover, with a changing climate and fungal biota, there is now much discussion about emerging mycotoxins that are measurable at significant levels in crops world-wide. Unfortunately, we still know very little about the bioavailability and toxic potentials of many of these less characterized mycotoxins, including the large family of enniatins...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Xun Tuo, Jun Chen, Sujuan Zhao, Ping Xie
Microcystins (MCs) are common toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, and they represent a potential health risk to aquatic organisms and animals, including humans. Specific inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A is considered the typical mechanism of MCs toxicity, but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. To further our understanding of the toxicological mechanisms induced by MCs, this study is the first to use a chemical proteomic approach to screen proteins that exhibit special interactions with MC-arginine-arginine (MC-RR) from zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Shengmin Wu, Guixiang Ji, Jining Liu, Shenghu Zhang, Yang Gong, Lili Shi
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is currently one of the most frequently used brominated flame retardants and can be considered as a high production volume chemical. In this study, zebrafish embryos and larvae served as a biological model to evaluate TBBPA-induced developmental toxicity, oxidative stress, oxidant-associated gene expression, and cell apoptosis. Abnormalities, including hyperemia and pericardial edema, were induced in zebrafish larvae. The results showed that toxicity endpoints such as hatching rate, survival rate, malformation rate, and growth rate had a significant dose-response relationship with TBBPA...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Michelle Plusquin, Katrien De Mulder, Frank Van Belleghem, Olivier DeGheselle, Nicky Pirotte, Maxime Willems, Ann Cuypers, Willi Salvenmoser, Peter Ladurner, Tom Artois, Karen Smeets
Stem cells or undifferentiated cells can cope more easily with external stresses. To evaluate the impact of toxic compounds on stem cell dynamics in vivo, in relation to other biological responses, we use the carcinogenic element cadmium and the regenerating model organism Macrostomum lignano. Through both BrdU and anti-histone H3 immunostainings, cadmium-induced effects were investigated at different stages of the stem cell cycle. A 24-h exposure to 100 and 250 μM CdCl2 significantly decreased the number of stem cells (neoblasts) in mitosis, whereas the number of cells in the S phase remained unchanged...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Sukalpa Chattopadhyay, Ritam Chatterjee, Sujata Law
According to case-control studies, long-term pesticide exposure can cause bone marrow aplasia like hematopoietic degenerative disease leading to impaired hematopoiesis and increased risk of aplastic anemia in human subjects. However, the exact mechanism of pesticide mediated hematotoxicity still remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, a crucial regulator of adult hematopoiesis, in pesticide induced bone marrow aplasia mouse model. Aplasia mouse model was developed following inhalation and dermal exposure of 5% aqueous mixture of common agriculturally used pesticides for 6 h/day for 5 days a week up to 90 days...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Yuanxiang Jin, Guanliang Chen, Zhengwei Fu
The flame retardant tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) is a frequently detected contaminant in the environment. In the cultured TM3 cells (originated from ATCC), effects of TBEP on the induction of oxidative stress and endocrine disruption were evaluated. It was observed that exposure to 100 μg/mL TBEP for 24 h significantly reduced the viability of TM3 cells. The mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress including Sod, Gpx1, Cat, and Gsta1 were changed in a dose-dependent and/or time-dependent manner after exposure to 30 and 100 μg/mL TBEP for 6, 12, or 24 h...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Chinnarasu Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi Nachiappan
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal that is hazardous to health, and its exposure showed a significant reduction in mitochondrial phospholipid function in the rat testes. Cd induction enhanced phospholipases (PLA2 s) activities, specifically the secretory PLA2 and cytosolic PLA2 . There was a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and significant decline in the respiratory complexes, which was confirmed by 2D blue native gel. The mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase and proinflammatory cytokine genes interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interferon-γ increased and that of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 reduced with Cd exposure in a time-dependent manner...
October 2016: Environmental Toxicology
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