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Environmental Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303633/cobalt-chloride-exposure-dose-dependently-induced-hepatotoxicity-through-enhancement-of-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-b-cell-associated-protein-x-bax-signaling-and-genotoxicity-in-wistar-rats
#1
Omolola Victoria Awoyemi, Ufuoma Jowafe Okotie, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, Olufunke Eunice Ola-Davies, Blessing Seun Ogunpolu
Cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) is one of the many environmental contaminants, used in numerous industrial sectors. It is a pollutant with deadly toxicological consequences both in developing and developed countries. We investigated toxicological impact of CoCl2 on hepatic antioxidant status, apoptosis, and genotoxicity. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups, 10 rats per group: Group 1 served as control and received clean tap water orally; Group 2 received CoCl2 solution (150 mg/L); Group 3 received CoCl2 solution (300 mg/L); and Group 4 received CoCl2 (600 mg/L) in drinking water for 7 days, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296077/cadmium-and-chlorpyrifos-inhibit-cellular-immune-response-in-spleen-of-rats
#2
Pan Wang, Jin Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Lin Yang, Yi-Jun Wu
Cadmium (Cd) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are common pollutants coexisting in the environment, and both of them have been reported to have immunotoxicity to organisms. However, the joint effects of these two chemicals on the immune system are still unknown. In this study, we used CdCl2 and CPF to study their combined effects on immune functions in the spleen of rats. In in vivo experiments, SD rats were exposed to different doses of CdCl2 (0.7 and 6 mg kg(-1) body weight/day) and CPF (1.7 and 15 mg kg(-1) body weight/day) or their combinations for consecutive 28 days...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296042/nickel-sulfate-induced-apoptosis-via-activating-ros-dependent-mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathways-in-rat-leydig-cells
#3
Lingyue Zou, Li Su, Yifan Sun, Aijie Han, Xuhong Chang, An Zhu, Fangfang Liu, Jin Li, Yingbiao Sun
Nickel can induce apoptosis of testicular Leydig cells in mice, whereas the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of nickel-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediated apoptosis pathways in rat Leydig cells. Fluorescent DCF and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining were performed to measure the production of ROS and apoptosis in Leydig cells. RT-qPCR and Western blot were conducted to analyze the key genes and proteins involved in mitochondria and ERS apoptotic pathways...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295950/sulforaphane-attenuates-di-n-butylphthalate-induced-reproductive-damage-in-pubertal-mice-involvement-of-the-nrf2-antioxidant-system
#4
Xu-Ping Jiang, Jing-Yuan Tang, Zhen Xu, Peng Han, Zhi-Qiang Qin, Cheng-di Yang, Shang-Qian Wang, Min Tang, Wei Wang, Chao Qin, Yang Xu, Bai-Xin Shen, Wei-Min Zhou, Wei Zhang
di-N-butylphthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used for plastic coating and in the cosmetics industry. It has toxic effects on body health, especially the male reproductive system. Here, we investigated the effects of DBP on the male reproductive system of pubertal mice and explored the protective role of sulforaphane (SFN). The results showed that DBP significantly reduced the anogenital distance, testicular weight, sperm count and motility, and plasma and testicular testosterone levels and significantly increased the oxidative stress, sperm abnormalities, and testicular cell apoptosis...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258635/cinnamomum-cassia-extracts-reverses-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-and-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#5
Chin-Yin Lin, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Shun-Fa Yang, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh
Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in patients, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis and antidrug resistance. Cinnamomum cassia has several antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer biological effects. However, the anti-EMT effect of C. cassia in human lung carcinoma is rarely reported. In this study, we determined whether C. cassia extracts (CCE) reduces the EMT and tumor growth of human lung adenocarcinoma cells. CCE inhibited the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced cell motility and invasiveness of A549 and H1299 cells by repressing matrix metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator as well as impaired cell adhesion to collagen...
March 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258630/everolimus-suppresses-invasion-and-migration-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-inhibiting-fak-activity-and-reversing-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Sheng-Wen Wu, Pei-Ni Chen, Chin-Yin Lin, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Horng-Rong Chang
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults and the major cause of mortality in urological cancer. Most patients with RCC are asymptomatic until the disease is advanced and unresectable. In this situation, systemic therapy with immunotherapy or molecularly targeted therapy agents play an important role in therapeutic strategy. Everolimus (EVE), an m-TOR inhibitor, has the potential to inhibit tumor progression at multiple levels and is indicated for the treatment of advanced RCC in patients whose disease has metastasis...
March 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251819/cis-bifenthrin-induces-immunotoxicity-in-adolescent-male-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Xia Wang, Xingli Gao, Bingnan He, Jiawei Zhu, Huihui Lou, Qinglian Hu, Yuanxiang Jin, Zhengwei Fu
Bifenthrin (BF) is an important synthetic pyrethroid. Previous studies have demonstrated that cis-BF exhibits toxic effects on development, the neurological, reproductive and endocrine system. In this study, we evaluated the immunotoxicity caused by cis-BF in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were exposed orally to 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d for 3 weeks. The results showed that body weight, spleen weight, and splenic cellularity decreased in mice exposed to 20 mg/kg/d cis-BF. Additionally, we found that the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and TNF-α, in peritoneal macrophages, the spleen, and the thymus were inhibited in the cis-BF-treated groups...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251797/effect-of-methomyl-on-sex-steroid-hormone-and-vitellogenin-levels-in-serum-of-male-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-and-recovery-pattern
#8
Shun-Long Meng, Li-Ping Qiu, Geng-Dong Hu, Li-Min Fan, Chao Song, Yao Zheng, Wei Wu, Jian-Hong Qu, Dan-Dan Li, Jia-Zhang Chen, Pao Xu
Tilapia were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. E2 , T, 11-KTand VTG in serum were examined. There were no significant changes in all the parameters in serum of tilapia exposed to 0.2 μg/L and 2 μg/L methomyl compared to the control. However, 20 μg/L and 200 μg/L have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of male tilapia, as shown by its ability to increase VTG and E2 and decrease T and 11-KT in serum...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251795/quercetin-simultaneously-induces-g0-g1-phase-arrest-and-caspase-mediated-crosstalk-between-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-leukemia-hl-60-cells
#9
Junn-Liang Chang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Jer-Hwa Chang, Yu-Ching Wen, Yung-Wei Lin, Shun-Fa Yang, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Ming-Hsien Chien
Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid with high anticancer activity in various tumors. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin exerts its anticancer effects against HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. Results showed that quercetin suppressed cell proliferation in the HL-60 cell line in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin-induced G0 /G1 -phase arrest occurred when expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2/4 were inhibited and the CDK inhibitors, p16 and p21, were induced...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233943/oxidative-stress-and-genetic-damage-among-workers-exposed-primarily-to-organophosphate-and-pyrethroid-pesticides
#10
Rigoberto Zepeda-Arce, Aurora Elizabeth Rojas-García, Alma Benitez-Trinidad, José Francisco Herrera-Moreno, Irma Martha Medina-Díaz, Briscia S Barrón-Vivanco, Germán Pier Villegas, Isabel Hernández-Ochoa, María de Jesús Sólis Heredia, Yael Y Bernal-Hernández
The indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture and public health campaigns has been associated with an increase of oxidative stress and DNA damage, resulting in health outcomes. Some defense mechanisms against free radical-induced oxidative damage include the antioxidant enzyme systems. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and the relationship of antioxidant enzyme levels with DNA damage among sprayers (workers) occupationally exposed to pesticides...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206703/toxicological-evaluation-of-the-topoisomerase-inhibitor-etoposide-in-the-model-animal-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-3t3-l1-normal-murine-cells
#11
So Young Lee, Joo Yeon Kim, Yu-Jin Jung, Kyungsu Kang
Etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, has been widely used as a clinical anticancer drug to treat diverse cancer patients. Since not only rapidly dividing cancer cells but also the cells of normal human tissues and every living organism in environmental ecosystems have topoisomerases, it is crucial to study the toxicity of etoposide in other organisms in addition to cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of etoposide in both a soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and 3T3-L1 normal murine cells...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205391/influence-of-iodine-in-excess-on-seminiferous-tubular-structure-and-epididymal-sperm-character-in-male-rats
#12
Amar K Chandra, Arijit Chakraborty
Excess iodine induced public health problems are now emerging in many iodine sufficient regions for indiscriminate intake of iodine through various iodized products. It has been reported that excess iodine can disrupt overall male reproductive physiology by generating oxidative stress in the testis. However, information on the possible effect of iodine in excess on spermatozoa found less. In the present investigation flow cytometric techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the spermatozoal functional as well as structural status under the influence of excess iodine; generation of ROS in the spermatozoa as evident by DCFDA, altered acrosomal integrity as observed by fluorescence lectin staining method and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) noticed by JC-1 staining...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186385/activating-nuclear-xenobiotic-receptors-and-triggering-er-stress-and-hepatic-cytochromes-p450-systems-in-quails-coturnix-c-coturnix-during-atrazine-exposure
#13
Zheng-Hai Du, Lei Qin, Jia Lin, Yan-Chun Sun, Jun Xia, Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Jin-Long Li
Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most widely detected contaminant in the ecosystem. Nuclear xenobiotic receptors are activated by herbicides and induce the transcription of CYP450 isoforms involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. However, little is known about hepatic nuclear xenobiotic receptors in birds are responsible for ATR-induced hepatotoxicity via regulating the cytochrome P450 enzyme systems (CYP450s). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of ATR hepatotoxicity in quails...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185390/oxidative-stress-as-a-damage-mechanism-in-porcine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-exposed-to-malathion-during-in-vitro-maturation
#14
Diana Flores, Verónica Souza, Miguel Betancourt, Mario Teteltitla, Humberto González-Márquez, Eduardo Casas, Edmundo Bonilla, Patricia Ramírez-Noguera, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruíz, Yvonne Ducolomb
Malathion is one of the most commonly used insecticides. Recent findings have demonstrated that it induces oxidative stress in somatic cells, but there are not enough studies that have demonstrated this effect in germ cells. Malathion impairs porcine oocyte viability and maturation, but studies have not shown how oxidative stress damages maturation and which biochemical mechanisms are affected in this process in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The aims of the present study were to determine the amount of oxidative stress produced by malathion in porcine COCs matured in vitro, to define how biochemical mechanisms affect this process, and determine whether trolox can attenuate oxidative damage...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181416/preventive-effects-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-mycelium-on-the-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-thioacetamide
#15
Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Jung-Kai Tseng, Chung-Hsi Chou, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Yi-Ling Lin, Yi-Chen Chen
Thioacetamide (TAA), usually used as a fungicide to control the decay of citrus products, itself is not toxic to the liver, but its intermediates are able to increase oxidative stress in livers and further cause fibrosis. Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium (OSM) which contains 10% polysaccharides and 0.25% adenosine decreased (P < 0.05) the lipid accumulation and increased (P < 0.05) antioxidative capacity in livers of thioacetamide (TAA) injected rats. Meanwhile, the increased (P < 0.05) liver sizes, serum alanine transaminase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) values in thioacetamide (TAA)-injected rats were ameliorated (P < 0...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181406/endocrine-disrupting-effects-of-methylparaben-on-the-adult-gerbil-prostate
#16
Janaína R Costa, Mônica S Campos, Rodrigo F Lima, Liana S Gomes, Mara R Marques, Sebastião R Taboga, Manoel F Biancardi, Pedro V A Brito, Fernanda C A Santos
Parabens are xenoestrogens widely employed in cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceutical products. These chemicals are known to disrupt hormone-dependent organs, due to their binding affinity for hormonal receptors. Although recent studies have evaluated the endocrine-disrupting potential of parabens in several reproductive organs, few have investigated the effects of these chemicals in the prostate. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of oral exposure to methylparaben (500 mg/kg/day) for 3, 7, and 21 days on male and female adult gerbil prostate...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181402/allethrin-toxicity-causes-reproductive-dysfunction-in-male-rats
#17
Golla Madhubabu, Suresh Yenugu
Pyrethroids are widely used for domestic and agricultural purposes and their use is increasing, especially in developing countries. Uncontrolled use of these insecticides resulted in their entry into the food chain thereby causing toxicity to different organ systems. Allethrin is one of the widely used pyrethroids, but its toxicological effects are underreported when compared to other pyrethroids. Further, its effects on the male reproductive tract remain uncharacterized. In this study, its toxicity on the male reproductive tract was evaluated by administering 25-150 mg/kg body weight allethrin to adult rats for 60 days...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181396/the-aflatoxin-b1-fumonisin-b1-toxicity-in-brl-3a-hepatocytes-is-associated-to-induction-of-cytochrome-p450-activity-and-arachidonic-acid-metabolism
#18
Verónica S Mary, Silvina L Arias, Santiago N Otaiza, Pilar A Velez, Héctor R Rubinstein, Martín G Theumer
Human oral exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) is associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma. Although evidence suggested interactive AFB1 -FB1 hepatotoxicity, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly unidentified. This work was aimed at evaluating the possible AFB1 -FB1 interplay to induce genetic and cell cycle toxicities in BRL-3A rat hepatocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement, and the AFB1 metabolizing pathways cytochrome P450 (CYP) and arachidonic acid (ArAc) metabolism as ROS contributors...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181394/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-interactions-of-neuron-and-glia-like-cells-toxicity-uptake-mechanisms-and-lysosomal-tracking
#19
I-Lun Hsiao, Yi-Kong Hsieh, Chun-Yu Chuang, Chu-Fang Wang, Yuh-Jeen Huang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly used nanomaterials in consumer products. Previous studies focused on its effects on neurons; however, little is known about their effects and uptake mechanisms on glial cells under normal or activated states. Here, ALT astrocyte-like, BV-2 microglia and differentiated N2a neuroblastoma cells were directly or indirectly exposed to 10 nm AgNPs using mono- and co-culture system. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was pretreated to activate glial cells before AgNP treatment for mimicking NP exposure under brain inflammation...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181390/tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-induces-toxicity-by-stimulating-camk2-in-pc12-cells
#20
Chaonan Li, Li Li, Bencheng Lin, Yanjun Fang, Honglian Yang, Huanliang Liu, Zhuge Xi
Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is one of the widely used organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), which are regarded as suitable substitutes for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Previously, we have validated the toxicity of TDCIPP in PC12 cells owing to the induced alterations in GAP43, NF-H, CaMK2a/2b, and tubulin α/β proteins; however, limited information is currently available on the toxicity and mechanism of TDCIPP. In the present study, cytotoxicity effects were evaluated by exposing PC12 cells to different concentrations of TDCIPP (0-50 μM) for 4 days...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
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