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Environmental Toxicology

Su Eun Choi, Yun Sun Park, Hyun Chul Koh
Inflammation generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which inflammatory responses contribute to apoptosis in PC12 cells treated with diquat. We found that diquat induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity, and decreased ATP level in PC12 cells. Diquat also reduced the dopamine level, indicating that cell death induced by diquat is due to cytotoxicity of dopaminergic neuronal components in these cells...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Ming-Hsien Chien, Yung-Chuan Ho, Shun-Fa Yang, Yi-Chieh Yang, Szu-Yu Lai, Wan-Shen Chen, Ming-Jenn Chen, Chao-Bin Yeh
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world, especially, in eastern Asia, and its prognosis is poor once metastasis occurs. Niclosamide, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved antihelmintic drug, was shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers including HCC, but the effect of niclosamide on cell motility and the underlying mechanism have not yet been completely defined. The present study demonstrated that niclosamide, at 0-40 nM, concentration-dependently inhibited wound closure and the migratory/invasive capacities of human Huh7 and SK-Hep-1 HCC cells without exhibiting cytotoxicity...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Xue Wang, Jiachun Gong, Zongxiang Gui, Tingting Hu, Xiaolong Xu
Halloysite (Al2 Si2 O5 (OH)4 ·nH2 O) nanotubes (HNTs) are natural clay materials and widely applied in many fields due to their natural hollow tubular structures. Many in vitro studies indicate that HNTs exhibit a high level of biocompatibility, however the in vivo toxicity of HNTs remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the hepatic toxicity of the purified HNTs in mice via oral route. The purified HNTs were orally administered to mice at 5, 50, and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW) every day for 30 days...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Gaochun Zhu, Zhenying Chen, Bo Dai, Chaoran Zheng, Huaide Jiang, Yurong Xu, Xuan Sheng, Jingjing Guo, Yu Dan, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Cuiyuan Jin, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Imazalil (IMZ), which is a widely used fungicide, can accumulate in the body and threaten an animal's health. However, this fungicide has adverse effects on aquatic organisms and ultimately affects human health when it leaches into the environment. Our research tried to determine that if IMZ might cause liver damage and its potential to cause-related diseases. In this study, male adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg body weight IMZ in drinking water for 15 weeks. Then, we evaluated the liver damage at the physiological, biochemical, and transcriptome levels in mice after chronic IMZ exposure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Hae-Mi Kang, Bong-Soo Park, Hyun-Kyung Kang, Hae-Ryoun Park, Su-Bin Yu, In-Ryoung Kim
Delphinidin is major anthocyanidin that is extracted from many pigmented fruits and vegetables. This substance has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. In addition, delphinidin strongly suppresses the migration and invasion of various cancer cells during tumorigenesis. Although delphinidin has anti-cancer effects, little is known about its functional roles in osteosarcoma (OS). For these reasons, we have demonstrated the effects of delphinidin on OS cell lines. The effects of delphinidin on cell viability and growth of OS cells were assessed using the MTT assay and colony formation assays...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Tapasree Basu, Sourav Panja, Anil Khushalrao Shendge, Abhishek Das, Nripendranath Mandal
Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Cuiling Li, Kai Zhao, Huiping Zhang, Lili Liu, Fei Xiong, Kunyu Wang, Biao Chen
Toxicity of lead on male reproductive functions has raised wide public concern as environmental lead contamination remains common worldwide. Conflicting and controversial data are available regarding effects of lead on male fertility. More importantly, our knowledge on effects of lead on sperm DNA integrity is significantly limited. Thus, further studies should focus on this issue. In the current study, adult male mice were exposed to a series of lead acetate concentrations in drinking water for six weeks. Following administration, lead levels in blood, testicles, and epididymis were measured, and potential changes in morphology of testis and epididymis due to lead exposure were identified...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Ming-Cheng Chen, Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Yuan-Yuan Chu, Sue-Fei Cheng, Chia-Yao Shen, Yi-Jiun Lin, Ray-Jade Chen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Yueh-Min Lin, Chih-Yang Huang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and causes of cancer-related death. There are several first-line chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat CRC. Oxaliplatin (OXA) is an alkylating cytotoxic agent that is usually combined with other chemotherapeutic drugs to treat stage II and stage III CRC. However, cancer cells commonly acquire multidrug resistance (MDR), which is a major obstruction to cancer treatment. Recent studies have shown that natural components from traditional Chinese medicine or foods that have many biological functions may be new adjuvant therapies in clinical trials...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Heng-Dao Lin, Li-Sung Hsu, Chih-Ching Chien, Ssu-Ching Chen
Ametrym (AMT) is the most widely used herbicide and frequently detected in the aquatic environment. AMT also represent a potential health risk to aquatic organisms and animals, including humans. However, little data are available on their toxicity to zebrafish (Danio rerio). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of AMT exposure on zebrafish embryos. In the acute toxicity test, 6 hpf embryos were exposed to various concentrations of AMT for 24 or 48 h. The results indicated that AMT induced malformation in larvae...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Otakuye Conroy-Ben, Isabel Garcia, Sondra S Teske
Bisphenols, anthropogenic pollutants, leach from consumer products and have potential to be ingested and are excreted in waste. The endocrine disrupting effects of highly manufactured bisphenols (BPA, BPS, and BPF) are known, however the activities of others are not. Here, the estrogenic and androgenic activities of a series of 4,4'-bisphenols that vary at the inter-connecting bisphenol bridge were determined (BPA, BPB, BPBP, BPC2, BPE, BPF, BPS, and BPZ) and compared to in silico binding to estrogen receptor-alpha and the androgen receptor...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Doris K Powe, Asok K Dasmahapatra, Joseph L Russell, Paul B Tchounwou
We investigated the potential toxic effects of Oxyfluorfen (OXY), an herbicide used in agriculture, on the embryo-larval development of Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Embryos (1-day postfertilization) and larvae (2-day posthatch) were exposed to OXY (0.5-8 mg/L) for 96 h and evaluated for mortality and hatching on embryos, and the mortality and growth on larvae during depuration. It was observed that the embryo-mortality was inconsistently altered by OXY; only the 2 mg/L group showed significant reduction on embryo survivability...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Jin Liu, Wenxiang Wang, Jianlin Zhu, Yuchen Li, Lingfeng Luo, Yuanyuan Huang, Wenchang Zhang
Although studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) can disrupt ovarian function, few reports have focused on follicular development in mice between the weaning period and maturity, especially with respect to microRNA (miRNA) expression. In this study, 21-day-old ICR mice were administered DEHP at doses of 0, 100, 400, and 1600 mg/(kg d) for 6 weeks by gavage. After DEHP administration, a significant decrease in the expression of follicle development-related factors (including c-kit, kitl, gdf9, and atm) was observed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), but no significant difference in the proteins encoded by these genes was observed by Western blot...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Chih-Yuan Fang, Ching-Zong Wu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yu-Chao Chang, Chun-Yi Chuang, Chih-Ting Lai, Shun-Fa Yang, Lo-Lin Tsai
The metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most important causes of cancer-related deaths. Thus, various therapeutic strategies have been developed to prevent the metastasis of OSCC. Salvianolic acid A (SAA), a traditional Chinese medicine, has antithrombosis, antiplatelet, anti-inflammation, and antitumor activities. Here, we provide molecular evidence indicating that SAA exerts its antimetastatic effects by markedly inhibiting the invasion and migration of oral squamous SCC-9 and SCC-25 cells...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Kai Wang, Dan-Ning Hu, Hui-Wen Lin, Wei-En Yang, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Hsiang-Wen Chien, Shun-Fa Yang
Fisetin, a diatery flavonoid, been reported that possess anticancer effects in various cancers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antitumor effects of fisetin in cultured uveal melanoma cell lines and compared with normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. MTT assay was used for evaluating cytotoxic effects of fisetin. Flow cytometry study was used for the determination of apoptosis. JC-1 fluorescent reader was used to determine mitochondrial transmembrane potential changes. The results shown that fisetin dose-dependently decreased the cell viability of uveal melanoma cells but not influenced the cell viability of RPE cells...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Tung-Sheng Chen, Chia-Hua Kuo, Sarnai Battsengel, Lung-Fa Pan, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Chia-Yao Shen, Li-Chin Chung, V Vijaya Padma, Chen-Kai Yao, Yueh-Min Lin, Chih-Yang Huang
Heart failure is one of the complications related to periodontal disease. In addition to drugs or herbal medicines, stem cell therapy shows potential in the treatment of cardiomyopathy. This study investigates if stem cells exhibit beneficial effects on cardiomyocyte damage induced by porphyromonas gingivalis endotoxin (Pg-LPS). From the experimental results we find that Pg-LPS reduce cardiomyocyte viability via the activation of apoptosis, hypertrophy, fibrosis and MAPK signaling. Pg-LPS damaged cardiomyocytes co-cultured with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) increases cardiomyocyte viability through suppressing the pathological markers described above...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Guan Xuan Wu, Han Hsiang Huang, Huoy Rou Chang, Shyh Ming Kuo
Farnesol, a natural 15-carbon organic compound, has various microbiological and cellular activities. It has been found to exert apoptosis-inducing effects against carcinoma cells as well as antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In the current study, a series of formulations composed of various concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with the addition of hyaluronan (HA) and xanthan gum (XG) was designed to evaluate the UVB-screening and H2 O2 -eliminating effects of farnesol in normal fibroblasts...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Daiani Rodrigues Moreira, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis Gigliolli, José Ricardo Penteado Falco, Alison Henrique Ferreira Julio, Eduardo Azzolini Volnistem, Francieli das Chagas, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo, Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki
The neonicotinoid thiamethoxam is widely used in different agricultural crops, and it has a spectrum of action against insects, affecting both pests and pollinators, such as bees. In this study, the effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on stingless bees Scaptotrigona bipunctata were evaluated. Foragers bees were exposed to the insecticide and subjected to genetic biochemical, histochemical, and morphological analyses after 24, 48, and 72 h of ingestion. Analysis of isoenzyme esterases revealed significant alterations in the relative activity of EST-4, a type II cholinesterase...
January 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Renata Alleva, Nicola Manzella, Simona Gaetani, Tiziana Bacchetti, Massimo Bracci, Veronica Ciarapica, Federica Monaco, Battista Borghi, Monica Amati, Gianna Ferretti, Marco Tomasetti
Pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, are widely used in intensive agriculture. Recently, the long-term effects of pesticide exposure were found to be associated with many diseases. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effect of low-level exposure to a mixture of pesticides on DNA damage response (DDR) in relation to individual detoxifying variability. A residential population chronically exposed to pesticides was enrolled, biological/environmental pesticide levels; paroxonase 1 (PON-1) activity and 192 Q/R polymorphism and DDR were evaluated at three different periods of pesticide exposure...
January 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Shih-Chung Wang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Ming-Hsien Chien, Chiao-Wen Lin, Hui-Yu Chen, Pei-Ching Hsiao, Shun-Fa Yang
Cantharidin, a natural toxin from blister beetles, has shown potent anticancer activities on many solid tumor cells. Recently, cantharidin and its analogue, norcantharidin, were also shown to suppress nonsolid tumors such as chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and leukemic stem cells. However, there is no available information to address the effects of cantharidic acid (CAC), a hydrolysis product of cantharidin, on human AML cells. The present study showed that CAC, at a range of concentrations (0-20 μM), concentration-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in the HL-60 AML cell line...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
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