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Environmental Toxicology

Yuan Zhou, Xiaoping Xu, Beibei Yu, Guang Yu
The intestinal epithelium is a single-cell layer that provides an important barrier against natural toxins. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyclic heptapeptide, is one of the best known toxins able to alter the functions of intestine. This study evaluated the toxic effects and the possible mechanisms of MC-LR on barrier function of the intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were exposed to 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 μM MC-LR. Cell viability significantly decreased, while the ratio of apoptotic cells increased after exposure to 12...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Lu Kong, Xiaojie Gao, Jiaqian Zhu, Ting Zhang, Yuying Xue, Meng Tang
To investigate the reproductive toxicity and underlying mechanism of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs), Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with/without 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg cm(-2) of Ni NPs or nickel microparticles (Ni MPs). Generation time, fertilized egg numbers, spermatide activation and motility were detected. Results indicated, under the same treatment doses, that Ni NPs induced higher reproductive toxicity to C. elegans than Ni MPs. Reproductive toxicities observed in C. elegans included a decrease in brood size, fertilized egg and spermatide activation, but an increase in generation time and out-of-round spermatids...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Vitor Antunes Oliveira, Gaia Favero, Alessandra Stacchiotti, Lorena Giugno, Barbara Buffoli, Claudia Sirlene de Oliveira, Antonio Lavazza, Massimo Albanese, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Maria Ester Pereira, Rita Rezzani
This work investigated the effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2 ) acute exposure on virgin, pregnant and lactating rats by determination of renal and hepatic morphological and ultrastructural parameters and the expression of oxidative stress and stress tolerance markers, due to kidney and liver are the organs that more accumulate inorganic mercury. Adult Wistar rats virgin (90 days old), pregnant (18(th) gestation day) and lactating (7(th) lactation day) were injected once with HgCl2 (5 mg/kg) or saline (controls)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Kaitlin M Johnson, Sean C Lema
Several estuaries along the Pacific Ocean coast of North America were identified recently as having elevated 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in sediments and biota, raising concerns about reproductive impacts for wildlife given 4-NP's established estrogenic activity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Here we characterize 4-NP mediated induction and recovery of estrogen-sensitive gene transcripts in the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios), an intertidal fish abundant in estuarine mud flats on the west coast of North America...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Stefanie Kasurinen, Pasi I Jalava, Mikko S Happo, Olli Sippula, Oskari Uski, Hanna Koponen, Jürgen Orasche, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen
According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hajer Ben Saad, Manel Gargouri, Fatma Kallel, Rim Chaabene, Tahia Boudawara, Kamel Jamoussi, Christian Magné, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ), an environmental pollutant, is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxic agent. Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many diseases induced by pollutants. As potent natural sources of bioactive compounds, marine algae have been demonstrated to be rich in novel secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological functions. In this study, adults male mice were orally treated for 15 days with KBrO3 (0.5 g/L) associated or not with extract of Alsidium corallinum, a red Mediterranean alga...
September 23, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Bugi Ratno Budiarto, Wen-Hsiung Chan
Ginsenoside Rb1, the major saponin component of ginseng root, has a wide range of therapeutic application. Previous studies have established that ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits the cell cycle and induces apoptosis. However, its side-effects, particularly those on embryonic development, have not been well characterized to date. In the current study, we examined whether ginsenoside Rb1 exerts a cytotoxic effect on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, and affects subsequent embryonic development in vitro and in vivo...
September 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Terje Svingen, Niels Lund Hansen, Camilla Taxvig, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Udo Jensen, Peter Have Rasmussen
Mycotoxins are fungi-born metabolites that can contaminate foods through mould-infected crops. They are a significant food/feed-safety issue across the globe and represent a substantial financial burden for the world economy. Moreover, with a changing climate and fungal biota, there is now much discussion about emerging mycotoxins that are measurable at significant levels in crops world-wide. Unfortunately, we still know very little about the bioavailability and toxic potentials of many of these less characterized mycotoxins, including the large family of enniatins...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hamdy A A Aly, Abdulrahman M Alahdal, Ayman A Nagy, Hossam M Abdallah, Essam A Abdel-Sattar, Ahmad S Azhar
Aroclor 1260 is one of the more representative polychlorinated biphenyls found in biota. This study was designed to delineate the testicular toxicity of Aroclor 1260 and to elucidate the potential protective role of Calligonum comosum (C. comosum) and lipoic acid in adult rats. Aroclor 1260 was dissolved in corn oil and given to rats by gavage at doses 0, 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day for 15 consecutive days (Groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively). Groups V and VI were pretreated with C. comosum (200 mg/kg/day) and lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day) respectively 24 h before Aroclor 1260 (40 mg/kg/day) treatment for 15 consecutive days...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Jae-Wook Lee, Sojin Park, Hye-Kyoung Han, Sung Hee Um, Eun-Yi Moon
Nonylphenol (NP) as well-known "endocrine disrupter" influences sexual and reproductive development. Here, we investigated the effect of NP on M1-/M2-type macrophages and their role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. Polarized macrophages of M1- and M2-types were obtained by the treatment with LPS and interleukin-4 (IL-4) to bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), respectively. Coincubation of M1-macrophages with NP decreased COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and TNF-α expression but no changes were detected in the production of nitric oxide (NO)...
August 29, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Shi-Yann Cheng, Yao-Chih Yang, Kuan-Lun Ting, Su-Ying Wen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Chih-Yang Huang, Wei-Wen Kuo
The Warburg effect plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, suggesting that specific agents targeting Warburg effect key proteins may be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Previous studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. However, whether the Warburg effect is involved with the apoptosis-promoting action of DATS is unclear. Here, we show that the action of DATS is associated with downregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), an essential protein of the Warburg effect whose upregulation is closely related to tumorigenesis...
August 27, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Ligia S Antonio, Pia Jeggle, Lesley J MacVinish, James C Bartram, Henry Miller, Gavin E Jarvis, Flávia M Levy, Mariana R Santesso, Aline L Leite, Rodrigo C Oliveira, Marília A R Buzalaf, J Michael Edwardson
High concentrations of fluoride in the body may cause toxic effects. Here, we investigated the effects of fluoride on the structure, function, and proteome of a cortical collecting duct epithelium in vitro. Kidney tubule cells (M-1) were chosen because the concentration of fluoride in the kidney is 4-5-fold higher than that in plasma. Mouse M-1 cell monolayers were incubated in fluoride-containing media, and the amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current and transepithelial resistance were measured. The Young's modulus of the epithelium was determined using atomic force microscopy, and the effect of fluoride on epithelial structure was assessed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence...
August 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Chao Quan, Can Wang, Peng Duan, Wenting Huang, Wei Chen, Sha Tang, Kedi Yang
Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), has been proven to cause male reproductive toxicity. However, the precise mechanisms of this effect are still unclear. Puberty is a crucial period of reproductive development, and adolescents are more susceptible to xenobiotics. This research was designed to explore the mechanism of BPA toxicity on pubertal male reproduction. Rats were exposed to 0, 2, 10, 50 mg kg(-1) bw BPA, then the levels of sex hormones, oxidative stress, and semen quality were detected...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Ryeo-Eun Go, Cho-Won Kim, So-Ye Jeon, Yong-Sub Byun, Eui-Bae Jeung, Ki-Hoan Nam, Kyung-Chul Choi
Fludioxonil is an antifungal agent used in agricultural applications that is present at measurable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effects of fludioxonil on cancer cell viability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and metastasis were examined in MCF-7 clonal variant breast cancer cell (MCF-7 CV cells) with estrogen receptors (ERs). MCF-7 CV cells were cultured with 0.1% DMSO (control), 17β-estradiol (E2; 1 ×10(-9) M, positive control), or fludioxonil (10(-5) -10(-8) M). MTT assay revealed that fludioxonil increased MCF-7 CV cell proliferation 1...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Shang-Jyh Kao, Wei-Jiunn Lee, Jer-Hwa Chang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Chi-Li Chung, Wen-Yueh Hung, Ming-Hsien Chien
Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a high mortality rate and still remains a therapeutic challenge. A strategy for targeting NSCLC is to identify agents that are effective against NSCLC cells while sparing normal cells. Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is the major flavonoid component derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata, which has a long history of use in medicine. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which DHM exerts its anticancer effects against NSCLC cells were investigated...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Ming-Wei Chao, Chin-Hua Yang, Po-Ting Lin, Yu-Hsiu Yang, Yu-Chen Chuang, Meng-Chi Chung, Chia-Yi Tseng
PM2.5 travels along the respiratory tract and enters systemic blood circulation. Studies have shown that PM2.5 increases the incidence of various diseases not only in adults but also in newborn infants. It causes chronic inflammation in pregnant women and retards fetal development. In this study, pregnant rats were exposed to PM2.5 for extended periods of time and it was found that PM2.5 exposure increased immune cells in mother rats. In addition, cytokines and free radicals rapidly accumulated in the amniotic fluid and indirectly affected the fetuses...
August 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Charlee Mulligan, Sandeep Kondakala, Eun-Ju Yang, John V Stokes, James A Stewart, Barbara L F Kaplan, George E Howell
Hepatic steatosis is recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. While obesity and type 2 diabetes are well-established risk factors in the development of hepatic steatosis, recent studies have revealed exposure to mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are environmental contaminants in various fatty foods, can promote steatosis. Thus, the present study was designed to determine if exposure to a defined mixture of prevalent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides or their metabolites promote hepatic steatosis in a genetically induced model of type 2 diabetes, the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse...
August 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Eun-Jung Park, Uiseok Jeong, Cheolho Yoon, Younghun Kim
Zinc-based nanoparticles (Zn-NPs), mainly zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, have promising application in a wide area, but their potential harmful effects on environment and human health have been continuously raised together with their high dissolution rate. In this study, we coated the surface of ZnO NPs with phosphate (ZnP NPs) and sulfide (ZnS NPs) which have very low solubility in water, administered orally (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) to mice for 28 days, and then compared their biodistribution and toxicity. As expected, ZnO NPs were rapidly ionized in an artificial gastric fluid...
August 11, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Nelly Buron, Mathieu Porceddu, Célestin Roussel, Karima Begriche, Viviane Trak-Smayra, Thomas Gicquel, Bernard Fromenty, Annie Borgne-Sanchez
Pharmaceuticals are found in the environment but the impact of this contamination on human and animal health is poorly known. The liver could be particularly targeted since a significant number of these drugs are hepatotoxic, in particular via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Notably, the latter events can also be observed in liver diseases linked to obesity, so that the obese liver might be more sensitive to drug toxicity. In this study, we determined the effects of a chronic exposure to low doses of pharmaceuticals in wild-type and obese mice, with a particular focus on mitochondrial function...
August 8, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorite (NaClO2 ) is used in the production of chlorine dioxide for bleaching and stripping of textiles, pulp, and paper. It is also used as disinfectant in municipal water treatment and as a component in therapeutic rinses and gels. The effect of NaClO2 on human erythrocytes has been studied under in vitro conditions. Incubation of 5% suspension of erythrocytes with NaClO2 (0.1-2.0 mM) at 37°C for 30 min resulted in marked cell lysis (1.2-3.8 fold) and increased their osmotic fragility. Several parameters were assayed in cell lysates prepared from NaClO2 -treated and -untreated (control) erythrocytes...
August 1, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
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