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Environmental Toxicology

Deepak Kumar, Rajdeep Roy, Abhinav Parashar, Ashok M Raichur, Natarajan Chandrasekaran, Anita Mukherjee, Amitava Mukherjee
The present study deals with the toxicity assessment of two differently synthesized zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI, chemical and biological) as well as Fe(2+) ions on Artemia salina at three different initial concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of these particles. The assessment was done till 96 h at time intervals of 24 h. EC50 value was calculated to evaluate the 50% mortality of Artemia salina at all exposure time durations. Between chemically and biologically synthesized nZVI nanoparticles, insignificant differences in the level of mortality were demonstrated...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Seung-Chan Jeong, Yoon Cho, Mi-Kyung Song, Eunil Lee, Jae-Chun Ryu
Airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of diverse pulmonary diseases. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5, a PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm, enhances inflammation-related toxicity in the human respiratory system through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Through cytokine antibody array analysis of two extracts of PM2.5 [water (W-PM2.5 ) and organic (O-PM2.5 ) soluble extracts] exposed to A549 (human alveolar epithelial cell), we identified eight cytokines changed their expression with W-PM2...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Fashui Hong, Li Ji, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Chronic inhalation bioassays in rodents are used to assess pulmonary carcinogenicity for purposes of hazard identification and potentially for risk characterization. Numerous studies have been confirmed that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) may result in chronic pulmonary inflammation in both mice and rats. However, very few studies have focused on the pulmonary tumorigenesis. In this study, to examine whether chronic TiO2 NP exposure induce tumorigenesis in the lung, forty mice (each group) were nasally exposed to 1...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Hariz Islas-Flores, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Esmeralda Michelle Sánchez-Ocampo, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Mariana Ortíz-Reynoso, Octavio Dublán-García
Thirty million people worldwide consume each day nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a heterogeneous group of pharmaceuticals used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies report high NSAID concentrations in wastewater treatment plant effluents, in surface, ground, and drinking water, and in sediments. NSAIDs are also known to induce toxicity on aquatic organisms. However, toxicity in natural ecosystems is not usually the result of exposure to a single substance but to a mixture of toxic agents, yet only a few studies have evaluated the toxicity of mixtures...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3 ) is a widely used nonselective herbicide. It is also generated as a by-product during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of NaClO3 on rat intestine. Adult male rats were randomly divided into five groups: control and remaining four groups were administered orally different doses of NaClO3 and sacrificed 24 h after the treatment. The administration of NaClO3 produced acute oxidative stress in the intestine, which manifested in the form of markedly enhanced malondialdehyde levels and carbonyl content and lowered total sulfhydryl groups and glutathione levels...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Jieqing Bao, Yuchen Liu, Lisha Li, Minjie Chen, Jiyan Liu, Yumin Niu, Jingfu Liu, Yong Liang
Aluminum methylcyclohexylphosphinate (AMHP), calcium methylcyclohexylphosphinate (CMHP), aluminum diethylphosphinate (ADEP), and aluminum methylethylphosphinate (AMEP) are organic dialkyl phosphinates (DPs) and emerging phosphorus-based flame retardants. The broad-spectrum DPs flame retardants occupy high-end industrial markets, but their ecologic risk has been reported rarely. By exposing male BALB/c mice to DPs and dialkyl phosphinic acids, we studied the toxic effects of these chemicals, and measured AMHP and methylcyclohexylphosphinic acid (MHPA) in blood and feces...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Ayaz Shahid, Rashid Ali, Nemat Ali, Syed Kazim Hasan, Preeti Barnwal, Shekh Mohammad Afzal, Abul Vafa, Sarwat Sultana
Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is a well-known carcinogen present in the environment. In this study, we evaluated the protective potential of methanolic bark extract of Acacia catechu Willd. (MEBA) against the lung toxicity induced by B(a)P in Swiss albino mice. To determine the protective efficacy of MEBA, it was orally administered to the mice at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 7 days. Mice were also exposed (orally) to B(a)P at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight on 7th day. Administration of B(a)P increased the activities of toxicity markers such as LDH, LPO, and XO with a subsequent decrease in the activities of tissue anti-oxidant armory (CAT, SOD, GST, GPx, GR, QR, and GSH)...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Kai Su, Zilong Sun, Ruiyan Niu, Ying Lei, Jing Cheng, Jundong Wang
Exposure to fluoride results in low reproductive capacity; however, the mechanism underlying the impact of fluoride on male productive system still remains obscure. To assess the potential toxicity in testis of mice administrated with fluoride, global genome microarray and real-time PCR were performed to detect and identify the altered transcriptions. The results revealed that 763 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 330 up-regulated and 433 down-regulated genes, which were involved in spermatogenesis, apoptosis, DNA damage, DNA replication, and cell differentiation...
November 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hung-Sheng Shang, Jia-You Liu, Hsu-Feng Lu, Han-Sun Chiang, Chia-Hain Lin, Ann Chen, Yuh-Feng Lin, Jing-Gung Chung
Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, derived from natural plant Fructus Viticis exhibits biological activities including anti-cancer characteristics. The anti-cancer and alter gene expression of casticin on human colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure viable cell, cell cycle and sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) productions, level of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and caspase activity. Western blotting assay was used to detect expression of protein level associated with cell death...
November 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Pin-Yu Chang, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Jia-Sin Yang, Fang-Cheng Lo, Shun-Fa Yang, Ko-Hsiu Lu
Tricetin, a dietary flavonoid, has cytostatic properties and anti-metastasis activities in various cancer cells. However, the detailed impacts and underlying mechanisms of tricetin on human osteosarcoma cell metastasis are still unclear. Here, the hypothesis that tricetin possesses the anti-metastatic effects on human osteosarcoma cells was tested. The effects of tricetin on cell viability, motility, migration, and invasion in human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells were investigated. Gelatin zymography, western blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the luciferase assay were used to further explore the underlying mechanisms involved in anti-metastatic effects in U2OS cells...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Wei-Wen Kuo, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Shin-Yi Li, Sheng-Huang Chang, Hui-Nung Shih, Ray-Jade Chen, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Taiwanin E is a natural compound which is structurally analogous to estrogen II and is abundantly found in Taiwania cryptomerioides. It has been previously reported for its anticancer effects; however, the pharmaceutical effect of Taiwanin E on Human LoVo colon cancer cells is not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Taiwanin E on metastasis and the associated mechanism of action on Human LoVo colon cancer cells with respect to the modulations in their cell migration and signaling pathways associated with migration...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Tsung-Cheng Chueh, Li-Sung Hsu, Chin-Ming Kao, Tung-Wei Hsu, Hung-Yu Liao, Kuan-Yi Wang, Ssu Ching Chen
Deltamethrin (DTM), a type II pyrethroid, is one of the most commonly used insecticides. The increased use of pyrethroid leads to potential adverse effects, particularly in sensitive populations such as children and pregnant women. None of the related studies was focused on the transcriptome responses in zebrafish embryos after treatment with DTM; therefore, RNA-seq, a high-throughput method, was performed to analyze the global expression of differential expressed genes (DEGs) in zebrafish embryos treated with DTM (40 and 80 μg/L) from fertilization to 48 h postfertilization (hpf) as compared with that in the control group (without DTM treatment)...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Chengzhi Chen, Xuejun Jiang, Shiyan Gu, Yanhao Lai, Yuan Liu, Zunzhen Zhang
Arsenite has been shown to induce a variety of oxidative damage in mammalian cells. However, the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to its adverse effects remain unknown. We previously showed that the level of Nrf2, a nuclear transcription factor significantly increased in arsenite-treated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells suggesting that Nrf2 is involved in responding to arsenite-induced oxidative damage. To explore how Nrf2 can impact arsenite-induced oxidative damage, in this study, we examined Nrf2 activation and its regulation upon cellular arsenite exposure as well as its effects on arsenite-induced oxidative damage in HBE cells...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Shubhankar Das, Ajanta Paul, Kamalesh D Mumbrekar, Satish B S Rao
Mangiferin (MGN), a C-glucosylxanthone abundantly found in mango plants, was studied for its potential to ameliorate methylmercury (MeHg) induced mitochondrial damage in HepG2 (human hepatocarcinoma) cell line. Cell viability experiments performed using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) showed protective property of MGN in annulling MeHg-induced cytotoxicity. Conditioning the cells with optimal dose of MGN (50 µM) lowered MeHg-induced oxidative stress, calcium influx/efflux, depletion of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential and prevented mitochondrial fission as observed by decrease in Mitotracker red fluorescence, expression of pDRP1 (serine 616), and DRP1 levels...
February 2017: Environmental Toxicology
M Pacurari, I May, P B Tchounwou
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to induce lung fibrosis in animal models, however the underlying molecular factors/mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), MWCNT, and the combination of LPS and MWCNT on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-9, MMP-12), collagen 3A1 (Col3A1), and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. MMPs are proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix and play a role in lung fibrosis...
February 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Jinik Hwang, Sung-Suk Suh, Mirye Park, So Yun Park, Sukchan Lee, Taek-Kyun Lee
Triclosan (TCS; 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent used in common industrial, personal care and household products which are eventually rinsed down the drain and discharged with wastewater effluent. It is therefore commonly found in the aquatic environment, leading to the continual exposure of aquatic organisms to TCS and the accumulation of the antimicrobial and its harmful degradation products in their bodies. Toxic effects of TCS on reproductive and developmental progression of some aquatic organisms have been suggested but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been defined...
February 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Yoon Cho, Jung-Hee Lim, Mi-Kyung Song, Seung-Chan Jeong, Kyuhong Lee, Yongju Heo, Tae Sung Kim, Jae-Chun Ryu
Hexanal is a major component of indoor air pollutants and is a kind of aldehydes; it has adverse effects on human health. We performed an in vivo inhalation study and transcriptomic analysis to determine the mode of toxic actions in response to hexanal. Fischer 344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to hexanal aerosol for 4 h day(-1) , 5 days week(-1) for 4 weeks at 0, 600, 1000, and 1500 ppm. Throughout our microarray-based genome-wide expression analysis, we identified 56 differentially expressed genes in three doses of hexanal; among these genes, 11 genes showed dose-dependent expression patterns (10 downregulated and 1 upregulated, 1...
February 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Tsui-Hwa Tseng, Ming-Hsien Chien, Wea-Lung Lin, Yu-Ching Wen, Jyh-Ming Chow, Chi-Kuan Chen, Tsang-Chih Kuo, Wei-Jiunn Lee
Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables, has anticancer properties in various malignant cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of the anticancer effect remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of cell cycle arrest by apigenin. Our results showed that apigenin at the nonapoptotic induction concentration inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line...
February 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Bingli Lei, Jie Xu, Wei Peng, Yu Wen, Xiangying Zeng, Zhiqiang Yu, Yipei Wang, Tian Chen
The potentially adverse health implications of bisphenol A (BPA) have led to increasing use of alternative bisphenols (BPs). However, little is known about the toxicity of alternative BPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, intracellular ROS formation, and Ca(2+) fluctuation effects of BPs on MCF-7 cells were evaluated. At the same time, the estrogenic and thyroidal hormone effect potentials of six BPs were also evaluated using two-hybrid yeast bioassay. The results showed that most BPs at 0.01-1 μM significantly increased cell viability in MCF-7 cells and at higher exposure concentrations of 25-100 μM, they caused a significant decrease of cell viability...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Hung-Sheng Shang, Yung-Luen Shih, Ching-Hsiao Lee, Shu-Ching Hsueh, Jia-You Liu, Nien-Chieh Liao, Yung-Liang Chen, Yi-Ping Huang, Hsu-Feng Lu, Jing-Gung Chung
Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the isothiocyanates, is a biologically active compound extracted from cruciferous vegetables, and has been shown to induce cytotoxic effects on many human cancer cells including human leukemia cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism and altered gene expression associated with apoptosis is unclear. In this study, we investigated SFN-induced cytotoxic effects and whether or not they went through cell-cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis and further examined molecular mechanism and altered gene expression in human leukemia HL-60 cells...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology
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