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Environmental Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429510/mixing-of-water-masses-caused-by-a-drifting-iceberg-affects-bacterial-activity-community-composition-and-substrate-utilization-capability-in-the-southern-ocean
#1
Julie Dinasquet, Inga Richert, Ramiro Logares, Patricia Yager, Stefan Bertilsson, Lasse Riemann
The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425677/microbial-dehalogenation-an-annotated-selection-of-world-wide-web-sites-relevant-to-the-topics-in-environmental-microbiology
#2
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418097/genome-and-epigenome-of-a-novel-marine-thaumarchaeota-strain-suggest-viral-infection-phosphorothioation-dna-modification-and-multiple-restriction-systems
#3
Nathan A Ahlgren, Yangyang Chen, David M Needham, Alma E Parada, Rohan Sachdeva, Vicki Trinh, Ting Chen, Jed A Fuhrman
Marine Thaumarchaeota are abundant ammonia-oxidizers but have few representative laboratory-cultured strains. We report the cultivation of Candidatus Nitrosomarinus catalina SPOT01, a novel strain that is less warm-temperature tolerant than other cultivated Thaumarchaeota. Using metagenomic recruitment, strain SPOT01 comprises a major portion of Thaumarchaeota (4-54%) in temperate Pacific waters. Its complete 1.36 Mbp genome possesses several distinguishing features: putative phosphorothioation (PT) DNA modification genes; a region containing probable viral genes; and putative urea utilization genes...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419782/natural-resource-landscapes-of-a-marine-bacterium-reveal-distinct-fitness-determining-genes-across-the-genome
#4
Alison F Takemura, Christopher H Corzett, Fatima Hussain, Philip Arevalo, Manoshi Datta, Xiaoqian Yu, Frederique Le Roux, Martin F Polz
Heterotrophic bacteria exploit diverse microhabitats in the ocean, from particles to transient gradients. Yet the degree to which genes and pathways can contribute to an organism's fitness on such complex and variable natural resource landscapes remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the gene-by-gene fitness of a generalist saprophytic marine bacterium (Vibrio sp. F13 9CS106) on complex resources derived from its natural habitats - copepods (Apocyclops royi) and brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) - and as reference substrates, glucose and the polysaccharide alginate, derived from brown algal cell walls...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419766/microbial-community-function-in-the-bleaching-disease-of-the-marine-macroalgae-delisea-pulchra
#5
Enrique Zozaya-Valdés, Alexandra J Roth-Schulze, Suhelen Egan, Torsten Thomas
Disease is increasingly viewed as a major factor impacting the health of both natural and cultured populations of marine organisms, including macroalgae. The red macroalga Delisea pulchra suffers from a bleaching disease resulting from host stress and infection by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. However how pathogens cause the disease and how the entire algal-associated community is involved in the process is unclear. Here we perform a metagenomic analysis of microbial communities associated with diseased and healthy D...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419728/temporal-changes-in-cutaneous-bacterial-communities-of-terrestrial-and-aquatic-phase-newts-amphibia
#6
Joana Sabino-Pinto, Pedro Galán, Silvia Rodríguez, Molly C Bletz, Sabin Bhuju, Robert Geffers, Michael Jarek, Miguel Vences
Animal-associated bacterial communities play essential roles for their host's ecology, physiology and health. Temporal dynamics of these communities are poorly understood, but might be of high relevance particularly for amphibians with a well-expressed biphasic biology of adults where the structure of their skin changes drastically between the aquatic and terrestrial phases. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of cutaneous bacterial communities of Lissotriton boscai and Triturus marmoratus by monthly sampling populations from a pond and surrounding terrestrial habitat near A Coruña, Spain...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419726/chemotaxonomic-characterization-of-the-thaumarchaeal-lipidome
#7
Felix J Elling, Martin Könneke, Graeme W Nicol, Michaela Stieglmeier, Barbara Bayer, Eva Spieck, José R de la Torre, Kevin W Becker, Michael Thomm, James I Prosser, Gerhard J Herndl, Christa Schleper, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Thaumarchaeota are globally distributed and abundant microorganisms occurring in diverse habitats and thus represent a major source of archaeal lipids. The scope of lipids as taxonomic markers in microbial ecological studies is limited by the scarcity of comparative data on the membrane lipid composition of cultivated representatives, including the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Here, we comprehensively describe the core and intact polar lipid (IPL) inventory of ten ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeal cultures representing all four characterized phylogenetic clades...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419704/robustness-of-a-model-microbial-community-emerges-from-population-structure-among-single-cells-of-a-clonal-population
#8
Anne W Thompson, Serdar Turkarslan, Christina E Arens, Adrián López García de Lomana, Arjun V Raman, David A Stahl, Nitin S Baliga
Microbial populations can withstand, overcome, and persist in the face of environmental fluctuation. Previously we demonstrated how conditional gene regulation in a fluctuating environment drives dilution of condition-specific transcripts, causing a population of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) to collapse after repeatedly transitioning from sulfate respiration to syntrophic conditions with the methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis. Failure of the DvH to successfully transition contributed to the collapse of this model community...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419691/the-low-diverse-gastric-microbiome-of-the-jellyfish-cotylorhiza-tuberculata-is-dominated-by-four-novel-taxa
#9
Tomeu Viver, Luis H Orellana, Janet K Hatt, Mercedes Urdiain, Sara Díaz, Michael Richter, Josefa Antón, Massimo Avian, Rudolf Amann, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ramon Rosselló-Móra
Cotylorhiza tuberculata is an important scyphozoan jellyfish producing population blooms in the Mediterranean probably due to pelagic ecosystem's decay. Its gastric cavity can serve as a simple model of microbial - animal digestive associations, yet poorly characterized. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic population binning and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we show that only four novel clonal phylotypes were consistently associated with multiple jellyfish adults...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419675/melanin-for-space-travel-radioprotection
#10
Radames Jb Cordero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419666/microbial-ecology-of-mountain-glacier-ecosystems-biodiversity-ecological-connections-and-implications-of-a-warming-climate
#11
REVIEW
Scott Hotaling, Eran Hood, Trinity L Hamilton
Glacier ecosystems are teeming with life on, beneath, and to a lesser degree, within their icy masses. This conclusion largely stems from polar research, with less attention paid to mountain glaciers that overlap environmentally and ecologically with their polar counterparts in some ways, but diverge in others. One difference lies in the susceptibility of mountain glaciers to the near-term threat of climate change, as they tend to be much smaller in both area and volume. Moreover, mountain glaciers are typically steeper, more dependent upon basal sliding for movement, and experience higher seasonal precipitation...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401748/the-squid-insurance-plan-female-euprymna-scolopes-add-potentially-protective-bacteria-to-the-egg-coats-of-their-clutches
#12
Seana K Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401683/a-global-survey-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-and-their-effectors
#13
Yueming Hu, He Huang, Xi Cheng, Xingsheng Shu, Aaron P White, John Stavrinides, Wolfgang Köster, Guoqiang Zhu, Zhendong Zhao, Yejun Wang
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important genetic determinant that mediates interactions between Gram-negative bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts. Our understanding of the T3SS continues to expand, yet the availability of new bacterial genomes prompts questions about its diversity, distribution, and evolution. Through a comprehensive survey of ∼20,000 bacterial genomes, we identified 174 non-redundant T3SSs from 109 genera and 5 phyla. Many of the bacteria are environmental strains that have not been reported to interact with eukaryotic hosts, while several species groups carry multiple T3SSs...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401677/embracing-the-co-operative-society-to-better-understand-assembly-of-the-gut-microbiota
#14
Gerald W Tannock, Michael W Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401641/a-conserved-%C3%AE-proteobacterial-small-rna-contributes-to-osmoadaptation-and-symbiotic-efficiency-of-rhizobia-on-legume-roots
#15
Marta Robledo, Alexandra Peregrina, Vicenta Millán, Natalia I García-Tomsig, Omar Torres-Quesada, Pedro F Mateos, Anke Becker, José I Jiménez-Zurdo
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are expected to have pivotal roles in the adaptive responses underlying symbiosis of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia with legumes. Here, we provide primary insights into the function and activity mechanism of the Sinorhizobium meliloti trans-sRNA NfeR1 (Nodule Formation Efficiency RNA). Northern blot probing and transcription tracking with fluorescent promoter-reporter fusions unveiled high nfeR1 expression in response to salt stress and throughout the symbiotic interaction. The strength and differential regulation of nfeR1 transcription are conferred by a motif, which is conserved in nfeR1 promoter regions in α-proteobacteria...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401636/contribution-of-different-bacterial-dispersal-sources-to-lakes-population-and-community-effects-in-different-seasons
#16
Jérôme Comte, Mercè Berga, Ina Severin, Jürg Brendan Logue, Eva S Lindström
The diversity and composition of lake bacterial communities are driven by the interplay between local contemporary environmental conditions and dispersal of cells from the surroundings, i.e. the metacommunity. Still, a conceptual understanding of the relative importance of the two types of factors is lacking. For instance, it is unknown which sources of dispersal are most important and under which circumstances. Here, we investigated the seasonal variation in the importance of dispersal from different sources (mixing, precipitation, surface runoff, and sediment resuspension) for lake bacterioplankton community and population dynamics...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401633/functional-soil-metagenomics-elucidation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degradation-potential-following-12-years-of-in-situ-bioremediation
#17
Márcia Duarte, Agnes Nielsen, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Thomas Bruls, Melissa L Wos-Oxley, Ruy Jauregui, Dietmar H Pieper
A culture-independent function-based screening approach was used to assess the microbial aerobic catabolome for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation of a soil subjected to 12 years of in situ bioremediation. A total of 422,750 fosmid clones were screened for key aromatic ring-cleavage activities using 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as substrate. Most of the genes encoding ring-cleavage enzymes on the 768 retrieved positive fosmids could not be identified using primer-based approaches and, thus, 205 fosmid inserts were sequenced...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371310/sequential-bioavailability-of-sedimentary-organic-matter-to-heterotrophic-bacteria
#18
Nagissa Mahmoudi, Steven R Beaupré, Andrew D Steen, Ann Pearson
Aquatic sediments harbor diverse microbial communities that mediate organic matter degradation and influence biogeochemical cycles. The pool of bioavailable carbon continuously changes as a result of abiotic processes and microbial activity. It remains unclear how microbial communities respond to heterogeneous organic matrices and how this ultimately affects heterotrophic respiration. To explore the relationships between the degradation of mixed carbon substrates and microbial activity, we incubated batches of organic-rich sediments in a novel bioreactor (IsoCaRB) that permitted continuous observations of CO2 production rates, as well as sequential sampling of isotopic signatures (δ(13) C, Δ(14) C), microbial community structure and diversity, and extracellular enzyme activity...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371143/taxonomic-variability-and-functional-stability-in-microbial-communities-infected-by-phages
#19
Stilianos Louca, Michael Doebeli
Microbial communities can display large variation in taxonomic composition, yet this variation can coincide with stable metabolic functional structure and performance. The mechanisms driving the taxonomic variation within functional groups remain largely unknown. Biotic interactions, such as predation by phages, have been suggested as potential cause of taxonomic turnover, but the conditions for this scenario have not been rigorously examined. Further, it is unknown how predation by phages affects community function, and how these effects are modulated by functional redundancy in the communities...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371065/fixation-of-co2-using-the-ethylmalonyl-coa-pathway-in-the-photoheterotrophic-marine-bacterium-dinoroseobacter-shibae
#20
Nelli Bill, Jürgen Tomasch, Alexander Riemer, Katrin Müller, Sarah Kleist, Kerstin Schmidt-Hohagen, Irene Wagner-Döbler, Dietmar Schomburg
The ability of aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs (AAPs) to gain additional energy from sunlight represents a competitive advantage, especially in conditions where light has easy access or under environmental conditions may change quickly, such as those in the world's oceans. However, the knowledge about the metabolic consequences of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is very limited. Combining transcriptome and metabolome analyses, isotopic labeling techniques, measurements of growth, oxygen uptake rates, flow cytometry, and a number of other biochemical analytical techniques we obtained a comprehensive overview on the complex adaption of the marine bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL12(T) during transition from heterotrophy to photoheterotrophy (growth on succinate)...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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