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Environmental Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332279/micromonas-vs-virus-new-experimental-insights-challenge-viral-impact
#1
Eliana Ruiz, Anne-Claire Baudoux, Nathalie Simon, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, T Frede Thingstad, António Pagarete
Viruses have recurrently been hypothesized as instrumental in driving microbial population diversity. Nonetheless, viral mediated co-existence of r/k-strategists, predicted in the Killing-the-Winner (KtW) hypothesis, remains controversial and demands empirical evidence. Therefore, we measured the life strategy parameters that characterize the relevant system Micromonas-Micromonas Virus (MicV). A large number of host and viral strains (37 and 17, respectively) were used in a total of 629 cross-infectivity tests...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321969/the-pangenome-of-the-genus-clostridium
#2
Zulema Udaondo, Estrella Duque, Juan Luis Ramos
We present the pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species, some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295957/the-fungal-holobiont-evidence-from-early-diverging-fungi
#3
Laila P Partida-Martínez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296081/functional-characterization-of-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenases-in-the-cereal-head-blight-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#4
Ji Young Shin, Duc-Cuong Bui, Yoonji Lee, Hyejin Nam, Soyun Jung, Miao Fang, Jin-Cheol Kim, Theresa Lee, Hun Kim, Gyung Ja Choi, Hokyoung Son, Yin-Won Lee
Fusarium graminearum is a prominent plant pathogenic fungus causing Fusarium head blight in major cereal crops worldwide. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal development and virulence, large collections of F. graminearum mutants have been constructed. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are widely distributed in organisms and are involved in a diverse array of molecular/metabolic processes; however, no systematic functional analysis of P450s has been attempted in filamentous fungi. In this study, we constructed a genome-wide deletion mutant set covering 102 P450s and analyzed these mutants for changes in 38 phenotypic categories, including fungal development, stress responses, and responses to several xenobiotics, to build a comprehensive phenotypic dataset...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276203/in-situ-electrochemical-enrichment-and-isolation-of-a-magnetite-reducing-bacterium-from-a-high-ph-serpentinizing-spring
#5
Annette R Rowe, Miho Yoshimura, Doug E LaRowe, Lina J Bird, Jan P Amend, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Kenneth H Nealson, Akihiro Okamoto
Serpentinization is a geologic process that produces highly reduced, hydrogen-rich fluids that support microbial communities under high pH conditions. We investigated the activity of microbes capable of extracellular electron transfer in a terrestrial serpentinizing system known as "The Cedars". Measuring current generation with an on-site two-electrode system, we observed daily oscillations in current with the current maxima and minima occurring during daylight hours. Distinct members of the microbial community were enriched...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276186/a-novel-highly-conserved-metallothionein-family-in-basidiomycete-fungi-and-characterization-of-two-representative-slmta-and-slmtb-genes-in-the-ectomycorrhizal-fungus-suillus-luteus
#6
Hoai Nguyen, François Rineau, Jaco Vangronsveld, Ann Cuypers, Jan V Colpaert, Joske Ruytinx
The basidiomycete Suillus luteus is an important member of the ectomycorrhizal community that thrives in heavy metal polluted soils covered with pioneer pine forests. This study aimed to identify potential heavy metal chelators in S. luteus. Two metallothionein (MT) coding genes, SlMTa and SlMTb, were identified. When heterologously expressed in yeast, both SlMTa and SlMTb can rescue the Cu sensitive mutant from Cu toxicity. In S. luteus, transcription of both SlMTa and SlMTb is induced by Cu but not Cd nor Zn...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276185/temporal-and-spatial-variations-in-the-composition-of-freshwater-photosynthetic-picoeukaryotes-revealed-by-miseq-sequencing-from-flow-cytometry-sorted-samples
#7
Shengnan Li, Gisèle Bronner, Cécile Lepère, Fanxiang Kong, Xiaoli Shi
The diversity and composition of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) in two large shallow lakes in China (Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu) were investigated from flow cytometry sorted samples using Miseq high-throughput sequencing. We collected 65 samples covering different regions of the two lakes over four seasons to unveil spatial and temporal patterns of PPEs community composition. The use of flow cytometry sorting largely improved the efficiency of detecting PPEs sequences and over 70% of the retrieved reads belonged to PPEs...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276174/sulfolobus-islandicus-meta-populations-in-yellowstone-national-park-hot-springs
#8
Kate M Campbell, Angela Kouris, Whitney England, Rika E Anderson, R Blaine McCleskey, D Kirk Nordstrom, Rachel J Whitaker
Abiotic and biotic forces shape the structure and evolution of microbial populations. We investigated forces that shape the spatial and temporal population structure of Sulfolobus islandicus by comparing geochemical and molecular analysis from seven hot springs in five regions sampled over three years in Yellowstone National Park. Through deep amplicon sequencing, we uncovered 148 unique alleles at two loci whose relative frequency provides clear evidence for independent populations in different hot springs...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276134/deterministic-influences-exceed-dispersal-effects-on-hydrologically-connected-microbiomes
#9
Emily B Graham, Alex R Crump, Charles T Resch, Sarah Fansler, Evan Arntzen, David W Kennedy, Jim K Fredrickson, James C Stegen
Subsurface groundwater-surface water mixing zones (hyporheic zones) have enhanced biogeochemical activity, but assembly processes governing subsurface microbiomes remain a critical uncertainty in understanding hyporheic biogeochemistry. To address this obstacle, we investigated (a) biogeographical patterns in attached and waterborne microbiomes across three hydrologically-connected, physicochemically-distinct zones (inland hyporheic, nearshore hyporheic, and river); (b) assembly processes that generated these patterns; (c) groups of organisms that corresponded to deterministic changes in the environment; and (d) correlations between these groups and hyporheic metabolism...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276133/plasmid-mediated-resistance-to-cephalosporins-and-quinolones-in-escherichia-coli-from-american-crows-in-the-usa
#10
Ivana Jamborova, Monika Dolejska, Ludek Zurek, Andrea K Townsend, Anne B Clark, Julie C Ellis, Ivo Papousek, Alois Cizek, Ivan Literak
American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) feces were tested for Escherichia coli with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamases. A total of 590 fecal samples were collected at four roosting sites in the USA and cultivated on selective media. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to assess clonality. Transferability of resistance genes was studied using conjugation and transformation bioassays...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276130/web-alert-microbes-and-environmental-urea
#11
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276129/niche-specialization-of-bacteria-in-permanently-ice-covered-lakes-of-the-mcmurdo-dry-valleys-antarctica
#12
Miye Kwon, Mincheol Kim, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Jaejin Lee, Soon Gyu Hong, Sang Jong Kim, John C Priscu, Ok-Sun Kim
Perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are chemically stratified with depth and have distinct biological gradients. Despite long-term research on these unique environments, data on the structure of the microbial communities in the water columns of these lakes are scarce. Here, we examined bacterial diversity in five ice-covered Antarctic lakes by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Distinct communities were present in each lake, reflecting the unique biogeochemical characteristics of these environments...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276126/aquatic-adaptation-of-a-laterally-acquired-pectin-degradation-pathway-in-marine-gammaproteobacteria
#13
Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, Le Van Truong, Frank Unfried, Norma Welsch, Johannes Kabisch, Stefan E Heiden, Sabryna Junker, Dörte Becher, Andrea Thürmer, Rolf Daniel, Rudolf Amann, Thomas Schweder
Mobile genomic islands distribute functional traits between microbes and habitats, yet it remains unclear how their proteins adapt to new environments. Here we used a comparative phylogenomic and proteomic approach to show that the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis ANT/505 acquired a genomic island with a functional pathway for pectin catabolism. Bioinformatics and biochemical experiments revealed that this pathway encodes a series of carbohydrate-active enzymes including two multi-modular pectate lyases, PelA and PelB...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276124/two-eisosome-proteins-play-opposite-roles-in-autophagic-control-and-sustain-cell-integrity-function-and-pathogenicity-in-beauveria-bassiana
#14
Long-Bin Zhang, Li Tang, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Pil1A and Pil1B are two core eisosome proteins that are homologous to yeast Pil1/Lsp1 or filamentous fungal Pil1A/Pil1B but have been unexplored in entomopathogenic fungi. Here we examined subcellular localization and functions of Pil1A and Pil1B in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. Either localization or co-localization experiments of the two proteins demonstrated that Pil1A and Pil1B were simultaneously localized at the periphery of hyphal cells for formation of stable, punctuate spots in B. bassiana...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263038/divide-and-conquer-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-two-component-hybrid-sags-enables-biofilm-formation-and-recalcitrance-of-biofilm-cells-to-antimicrobial-agents-via-distinct-regulatory-circuits
#15
Olga E Petrova, Kajal Gupta, Julie Liao, James S Goodwine, Karin Sauer
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms antimicrobial resistant biofilms through sequential steps requiring several two-component regulatory systems. The sensor-regulator hybrid SagS plays a central role in biofilm development by enabling the switch from the planktonic to the biofilm mode of growth, and by facilitating the transition of biofilm cells to a highly tolerant state. However, the mechanism by which SagS accomplishes both functions is unknown. SagS harbors a periplasmic sensory HmsP, and phosphorelay HisKA and Rec domains...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262000/horizontal-gene-transfer-gone-wild-promiscuity-in-a-kiwifruit-pathogen-leads-to-resistance-to-chemical-control
#16
Steven E Lindow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256064/is-chronic-rhinosinusitis-an-infectious-disease-insights-from-a-microbiota-meta-analysis
#17
Harald Brüssow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256063/methylamine-a-vital-nitrogen-and-carbon-source-for-marine-microbes
#18
Lisa Y Stein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251799/diet-affects-arctic-ground-squirrel-gut-microbial-metatranscriptome-independent-of-community-structure
#19
Jasmine J Hatton, Timothy J Stevenson, C Loren Buck, Khrystyne N Duddleston
We examined the effect of diet on pre-hibernation fattening and the gut microbiota of captive arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We measured body composition across time and gut microbiota density, diversity, and function prior to and after five-weeks on control, high-fat, low-fat (18%, 40%, and 10% energy from fat, respectively), or restricted calorie (50% of control) diets. Squirrels fattened at the same rate and to the same degree on all diets. Additionally, we found no differences in gut microbiota diversity or short chain fatty acid production across time or with diet...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251783/indole-signaling-and-micro-algal-auxins-decrease-the-virulence-of-vibrio-campbellii-a-major-pathogen-of-aquatic-organisms
#20
Qian Yang, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro Pande, Zheng Wang, Baochuan Lin, Robert A Rubin, Gary J Vora, Tom Defoirdt
Vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade are major pathogens of marine vertebrates and invertebrates, causing major losses in wild and cultured organisms. Despite their significant impact, the pathogenicity mechanisms of these bacteria are not yet completely understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of indole signaling on the virulence of Vibrio campbellii. Elevated indole levels significantly decreased motility, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide production and virulence to crustacean hosts. Indole furthermore inhibited the three-channel quorum sensing system of V...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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