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Environmental Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205416/ecological-implications-of-hypoxia-triggered-shifts-in-secondary-metabolism
#1
Kelley A Gallagher, Greg Wanger, Jane Henderson, Mark Llorente, Chambers C Hughes, Paul R Jensen
Members of the actinomycete genus Streptomyces are non-motile, filamentous bacteria that are well known for the production of biomedically relevant secondary metabolites. While considered obligate aerobes, little is known about how these bacteria respond to periods of reduced oxygen availability in their natural habitats, which include soils and ocean sediments. Here we provide evidence that the marine streptomycete strain CNQ-525 can reduce MnO2 via a diffusible mechanism. We investigated the effects of hypoxia on secondary metabolite production and observed a shift away from the antibiotic napyradiomycin towards 8-amino-flaviolin, an intermediate in the napyradiomycin biosynthetic pathway...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205377/culture-independent-genomics-of-a-novel-chlamydial-pathogen-of-fish-provides-new-insight-into-host-specific-adaptations-utilised-by-these-intracellular-bacteria
#2
Alyce Taylor-Brown, Trestan Pillonel, Andrew Bridle, Weihong Qi, Nathan Bachmann, Terrence L Miller, Gilbert Greub, Barbara Nowak, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Lloyd Vaughan, Adam Polkinghorne
Several Chlamydiales families are associated with epitheliocystis, a common condition of the fish gill epithelium. These families share common ancestors with the Chlamydiaceae and environmental Chlamydiae. Due to the lack of culture systems, little is known about the biology of these chlamydial fish pathogens. We investigated epitheliocystis in cultured Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) from North Queensland, Australia. Basophilic inclusions were present in the gills of 22/31 fish and the presence of the chlamydial pathogen in the cysts was confirmed by in situ hybridisation...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205371/integrating-gut-microbiota-immaturity-and-disease-discriminatory-taxa-to-diagnose-the-initiation-and-severity-of-shrimp-disease
#3
Jinbo Xiong, Jinyong Zhu, Wenfang Dai, Chunming Dong, Qiongfen Qiu, Chenghua Li
Increasing evidence has emerged a tight link among the gut microbiota, host age and health status. This osculating interplay impedes the definition of gut microbiome features associated with host health from that in developmental stages. Consequently, gut microbiota-based prediction of health status is promising yet not well established. Here we firstly tracked shrimp gut microbiota (N = 118) over an entire cycle of culture; shrimp either stayed healthy, or progressively transitioned into severe disease. The results showed that the gut microbiota were significantly distinct over shrimp developmental stages, and disease progression...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205313/genetic-analyses-unravel-the-crucial-role-of-a-horizontally-acquired-alginate-lyase-for-brown-algal-biomass-degradation-by-zobellia-galactanivorans
#4
Yongtao Zhu, François Thomas, Robert Larocque, Nan Li, Delphine Duffieux, Lionel Cladière, Florent Souchaud, Gurvan Michel, Mark J McBride
Comprehension of the degradation of macroalgal polysaccharides suffers from the lack of genetic tools for model marine bacteria, despite their importance for coastal ecosystem functions. We developed such tools for Zobellia galactanivorans, an algae-associated flavobacterium that digests many polysaccharides, including alginate. These tools were used to investigate the biological role of AlyA1, the only Z. galactanivorans alginate lyase known to be secreted in soluble form and to have a recognizable carbohydrate-binding domain...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205292/verticillium-dahliae-manipulates-plant-immunity-by-glycoside-hydrolase-12-proteins-in-conjuction-with-carbohydrate-binding-module-1
#5
Yue-Jing Gui, Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang, Nan-Yang Li, Ting-Gang Li, Wen-Qi Zhang, Xin-Yan Wang, Dylan P G Short, Lei Li, Wei Guo, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Yu-Ming Bao, Krishna V Subbarao, Xiao-Feng Dai
Glycoside hydrolase 12 (GH12) proteins act as virulence factors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in oomycetes. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of fungal GH12 proteins have not been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that two of the six GH12 proteins produced by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Vd991, VdEG1 and VdEG3 acted as PAMPs to trigger cell death and PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) independent of their enzymatic activity in Nicotiana benthamiana. A 63-amino-acid peptide of VdEG3 was sufficient for cell death-inducing activity, but this was not the case for the corresponding peptide of VdEG1...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198137/membrane-fluidity-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-heat-stress-induced-secondary-metabolism-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#6
Yong-Nan Liu, Tian-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Xiao Lu, Bao-Liang Ma, Ang Ren, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Han-Shou Yu, Ming-Wen Zhao
Ganoderma lucidum has become a potential model system for evaluating how environmental factors regulate the secondary metabolism of basidiomycetes. Heat stress (HS) is one of the most important environmental factors. It was previously reported that HS could induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA). In this study, we found that HS increased GA biosynthesis and also significantly increased cell membrane fluidity. Furthermore, our results showed that addition of the membrane rigidifier DMSO could revert the increased GA biosynthesis elicited by HS...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198090/succession-and-dynamics-of-pristionchus-nematodes-and-their-microbiome-during-decomposition-of-oryctes-borbonicus-on-la-r%C3%A3-union-island
#7
Jan M Meyer, Praveen Baskaran, Christian Quast, Vladislav Susoy, Christian Rödelsperger, Frank O Glöckner, Ralf J Sommer
Insects and nematodes represent the most species-rich animal taxa and they occur together in a variety of associations. Necromenic nematodes of the genus Pristionchus are found on scarab beetles with more than 30 species known from worldwide samplings. However, little is known about the dynamics and succession of nematodes and bacteria during the decomposition of beetle carcasses. Here, we study nematode and bacterial succession of the decomposing rhinoceros beetle Oryctes borbonicus on La Réunion Island. We show that Pristionchus pacificus exits the arrested dauer stage seven days after the beetles' deaths...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198087/meta-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-from-urbanized-and-pre-agricultural-populations
#8
REVIEW
Leonardo Mancabelli, Christian Milani, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Metagenomic studies of the human gut microbiome have only recently begun to explore the differences in taxonomic composition between subjects from diverse geographical origins. Here, we compared taxonomy, resistome and functional metabolic properties of publicly available shotgun datasets of human fecal samples collected from different geographical regions (Europe, North America, Asia and Oceania). Such datasets encompassed gut microbiota information corresponding to 13 developed/industrialized societies, as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer, pre-agricultural communities (Tanzanian and Peruvian individuals)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198085/the-alternative-sigma-factor-%C3%AF-b-plays-a-crucial-role-in-adaptive-strategies-of-clostridium-difficile-during-gut-infection
#9
Nicolas Kint, Claire Janoir, Marc Monot, Sandra Hoys, Olga Soutourina, Bruno Dupuy, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhoea associated with antibiotherapy. Exposed to stresses in the gut, C. difficile can survive by inducing protection, detoxification, and repair systems. In several firmicutes, most of these systems are controlled by the general stress response involving σ(B) . In this work, we studied the role of σ(B) in the physiopathology of C. difficile. We showed that the survival of the sigB mutant during the stationary phase was reduced. Using a transcriptome analysis, we showed that σ(B) controls the expression of ∼25% of genes including genes involved in sporulation, metabolism, cell surface biogenesis, and the management of stresses...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198083/syntrophobacteraceae-affiliated-species-are-major-propionate-degrading-sulfate-reducers-in-paddy-soil
#10
Pengfei Liu, Ralf Conrad
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and propionate is next to acetate the main intermediate (average 23%) of the carbon flow to CH4 in paddy fields. Sulfate (e.g., gypsum) application can reduce CH4 emissions up to 70%. However, the effect of gypsum application on propionate degradation and the microbial communities involved are not well understood. Therefore, we studied propionate-dependent sulfate reduction in anoxic microcosms of paddy soils from Italy and the Philippines, combining 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrB) gene profiling and co-occurrence network analysis...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195384/air-pollution-alters-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-biofilms-antibiotic-tolerance-and-colonisation
#11
S J K Hussey, J Purves, N Allcock, V E Fernandes, P S Monks, J M Ketley, P W Andrew, J A Morrissey
Air pollution is the world's largest single environmental health risk (WHO). Particulate matter such as black carbon is one of the main components of air pollution. The effects of particulate matter on human health are well established however the effects on bacteria, organisms central to ecosystems in humans and in the natural environment, are poorly understood. We report here for the first time that black carbon drastically changes the development of bacterial biofilms, key aspects of bacterial colonisation and survival...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181409/metabolic-diversity-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-lineages-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#12
Camille Blin, Virginie Passet, Marie Touchon, Eduardo P C Rocha, Sylvain Brisse
Multidrug resistant and hypervirulent clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae are emerging pathogens. To understand the association between genotypic and phenotypic diversity in this process, we combined genomic, phylogenomic, and phenotypic analysis of a diverse set of K. pneumoniae and closely related species. These species were able to use an unusually large panel of metabolic substrates for growth, many of which were shared between all strains. We analysed the substrates used by only a fraction of the strains, identified some of their genetic basis, and found that many could not be explained by the phylogeny of the strains...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181391/web-alert-microbial-environmental-stress-response
#13
Lawrence P Wackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181376/functional-outcomes-of-fungal-community-shifts-driven-by-tree-genotype-and-spatial-temporal-factors-in-mediterranean-pine-forests
#14
L Pérez-Izquierdo, M Zabal-Aguirre, D Flores-Rentería, S C González-Martínez, M Buée, A Rincón
Fungi provide relevant ecosystem services contributing to primary productivity and the cycling of nutrients in forests. These fungal inputs can be decisive for the resilience of Mediterranean forests under global change scenarios, making necessary an in-deep knowledge about how fungal communities operate in these ecosystems. By using high-throughput sequencing and enzymatic approaches, we studied the fungal communities associated with three genotypic variants of Pinus pinaster trees, in 45-yr-old common garden plantations...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168803/cryptic-biogeochemical-cycles-unravelling-hidden-redox-reactions
#15
Andreas Kappler, Casey Bryce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165657/the-role-of-glycerol-in-the-pathogenic-lifestyle-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#16
REVIEW
Andrew J Foster, Lauren S Ryder, Michael J Kershaw, Nicholas J Talbot
The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates a specialised cell called an appressorium, which is used to breach the tough outer cuticle of a rice leaf, enabling the fungus entry to host plant cells. The appressorium generates enormous turgor by accumulating glycerol to very high concentrations within the cell. Glycerol accumulation and melanisation of the appressorium cell wall collectively drive turgor-mediated penetration of the rice leaf. In this review, we discuss the potential metabolic sources of glycerol in the rice blast fungus and how appressorium turgor is focused as physical force at the base of the infection cell, leading to the formation of a rigid penetration peg...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152581/bridging-of-cryptic-borrelia-cycles-in-european-songbirds
#17
Dieter Heylen, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Isabel Lopes de Carvalho, Maria Sofia Núncio, Hein Sprong, Ana Cláudia Norte
The principal European vector for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., the causative agents of Lyme disease, is the host-generalist tick Ixodes ricinus. Almost all terrestrial host-specialist ticks have been supposed not to contribute to the terrestrial Borrelia transmission cycles. Through an experiment with blackbirds, we show successful transmission by the widespread I. frontalis, an abundant bird-specialized tick that infests a broad range of songbirds. In the first phase of the experiment, we obtained Borrelia-infected I...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152560/transcriptional-characterization-of-vibrio-fischeri-during-colonization-of-juvenile-euprymna-scolopes
#18
Luke R Thompson, Kiel Nikolakakis, Shu Pan, Jennifer Reed, Rob Knight, Edward G Ruby
The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the monospecific symbiont of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, and the establishment of this association involves a number of signaling pathways and transcriptional responses between both partners. We report here the first full RNA-Seq dataset representing host-associated V. fischeri cells from colonized juvenile E. scolopes, as well as comparative transcriptomes under both laboratory and simulated marine planktonic conditions. These data elucidate the broad transcriptional changes that these bacteria undergo during the early stages of symbiotic colonization...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142226/lipids-as-paleomarkers-to-constrain-the-marine-nitrogen-cycle
#19
Darci Rush, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
Global climate is, in part, regulated by the effect of microbial processes on biogeochemical cycling. The nitrogen cycle, in particular, is driven by microorganisms responsible for the fixation and loss of nitrogen, and the reduction-oxidation transformations of bio-available nitrogen. Within marine systems, nitrogen availability is often the limiting factor in the growth of autotrophic organisms, intrinsically linking the nitrogen and carbon cycles. In order to elucidate the state of these cycles in the past, and help envisage present and future variability, it is essential to understand the specific microbial processes responsible for transforming bio-available nitrogen species...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142225/ecotype-diversification-of-an-abundant-roseobacter-lineage
#20
Ying Sun, Yao Zhang, James T Hollibaugh, Haiwei Luo
The Roseobacter DC5-80-3 cluster (also known as the RCA clade) is among the most abundant bacterial lineages in temperate and polar oceans. Previous studies revealed two phylotypes within this cluster that are distinctly distributed in the Antarctic and other ocean provinces. Here, we report a nearly complete genome co-assembly of three closely related single cells co-occurring in the Antarctic, and compare it to the available genomes of the other phylotype from ocean regions where iron is more accessible but phosphorus and nitrogen are less...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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