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Environmental Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328239/2038-when-microbes-rule-the-earth
#1
LETTER
Terry J McGenity
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325092/intensive-allochthonous-inputs-along-the-ganges-river-and-their-effect-on-microbial-community-composition-and-dynamics
#2
Si-Yu Zhang, Despina Tsementzi, Janet K Hatt, Aaron Bivins, Nikunj Khelurkar, Joe Brown, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
Little is known about microbial communities in the Ganges River, India and how they respond to intensive anthropogenic inputs. Here we applied shotgun metagenomics sequencing to study microbial community dynamics and function in planktonic samples collected along a ~700 km river transect, including urban cities and rural settings in upstream waters, before and after the monsoon rainy season. Our results showed that 11-32% of the microbes represented terrestrial, sewage and human inputs (allochthonous). Sewage inputs significantly contributed to the higher abundance, by 13-fold of human gut microbiome (HG) associated sequences and 2-fold of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Ganges relative to other riverine ecosystems in Europe, North and South America...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318817/rapidly-mitigating-antibiotic-resistant-risks-in-chicken-manure-by-hermetia-illucens-bioconversion-with-intestinal-microflora
#3
Minmin Cai, Shiteng Ma, Ruiqi Hu, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Linda S Thomashow, Longyu Zheng, Wu Li, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are an environmental concern due to naturally occurring bacteria being exposed to these wastes and developing multidrug resistance. The bioconversion of manure with fly larvae is a promising alternative for recycling these wastes while attenuating ARGs. We investigated the impact of black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens) larval bioconversion of chicken manure on the persistence of associated ARGs. Compared to traditional composting or sterile larval treatments (by 48...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318768/nitrogen-chlorosis-in-unicellular-cyanobacteria-a-developmental-program-for-surviving-nitrogen-deprivation
#4
REVIEW
Karl Forchhammer, Rakefet Schwarz
Cyanobacteria evolved sophisticated mechanisms allowing them to cope with environmental depletion of combined nitrogen. Here, we describe progress in understanding the processes involved in acclimation of non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria to nitrogen shortage, known as nitrogen chlorosis. The process includes immediate metabolic changes and degradation of light harvesting complexes as well as long-term acclimation responses. Consequently, quiescent cells substantially differing from vegetative cells are obtained...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318710/does-quorum-sensing-interference-affect-the-fitness-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-the-real-world
#5
REVIEW
Yiying Liu, Qiwei Qin, Tom Defoirdt
Many bacterial pathogens rely on quorum sensing to control virulence gene expression. Based on numerous experiments conducted under well-defined conditions, quorum sensing interference is considered as a promising strategy to tackle infections and thus might have the potential to (partially) replace antibiotics. Despite the promising results in well-defined (artificial) laboratory experiments, there still is a lack of knowledge with respect to the impact of quorum sensing interference on the fitness of pathogens in more realistic scenarios, including interactions with a host, the external environment and complex microbial communities...
October 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307107/first-evidences-that-the-ectomycorrhizal-fungus-paxillus-involutus-mobilizes-nitrogen-and-carbon-from-saprotrophic-fungus-necromass
#6
Emila Akroume, François Maillard, Cyrille Bach, Christian Hossann, Claude Brechet, Nicolas Angeli, Bernhard Zeller, Laurent Saint-André, Marc Buée
Fungal succession in rotting wood shows a surprising abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi during the late decomposition stages. To better understand the links between EM fungi and saprotrophic fungi, we investigated the potential capacities of the EM fungus Paxillus involutus to mobilize nutrients from necromass of Postia placenta, a wood rot fungus, and to transfer these elements to its host tree. In this aim, we used pure cultures of P. involutus in the presence of labelled Postia necromass (15 N/13 C) as nutrient source, and a monoxenic mycorrhized pine experiment also, composed of labelled Postia necromass and P...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307105/sexual-specific-functions-of-tub1-beta-tubulins-require-stage-specific-rna-processing-and-expression-in-fusarium-graminearum
#7
Daipeng Chen, Chunlan Wu, Chaofeng Hao, Panpan Huang, Huiquan Liu, Zhuyun Bian, Jin-Rong Xu
The wheat head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum has two highly similar beta-tubulin genes with overlapping functions during vegetative growth but only TUB1 is important for sexual reproduction. To better understand their functional divergence during ascosporogenesis, in this study we characterized the sequence elements important for stage-specific functions of TUB1. Deletion of TUB1 blocked the late but not initial stages of perithecium formation. Perithecia formed by tub1 mutant had limited ascogenous hyphae and failed to develop asci...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307104/insight-into-the-sulfur-metabolism-of-desulfurella-amilsii-by-differential-proteomics
#8
Anna P Florentino, Inês A C Pereira, Sjef Boeren, Michael van den Born, Alfons J M Stams, Irene Sánchez-Andrea
Many questions regarding proteins involved in microbial sulfur metabolism remain unsolved. For sulfur respiration at low pH, the terminal electron acceptor is still unclear. Desulfurella amilsii is a sulfur-reducing bacterium that respires elemental sulfur (S0 ) or thiosulfate, and grows by S0 disproportionation. Due to its versatility, comparative studies on D. amilsii may shed light on microbial sulfur metabolism. Requirement of physical contact between cells and S0 was analyzed. Sulfide production decreased by around 50% when S0 was trapped in dialysis membranes, suggesting that contact between cells and S0 is beneficial, but not strictly needed...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307102/nacl-promotes-antibiotic-resistance-by-reducing-redox-states-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#9
Jun Yang, Zao-Hai Zeng, Man-Jun Yang, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Xuan-Xian Peng, Hui Li
The development of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio alginolyticus represents a threat to human health and fish farming. Environmental NaCl regulation of bacterial physiology is well documented, but whether the regulation contributes to antibiotic resistance remains unknown. To explore this, we compared minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of V. alginolyticus cultured in different media with 0.5% to 10% NaCl, and found that the MIC increased as the NaCl concentration increased, especially for aminoglycoside antibiotics...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307099/where-in-the-world-do-bacteria-experience-oxidative-stress
#10
REVIEW
James A Imlay
Reactive oxygen species-superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals-have long been suspected of constraining bacterial growth in important microbial habitats, and indeed of shaping microbial communities. Over recent decades, studies of paradigmatic organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have pinpointed the biomolecules that oxidants can damage and the strategies by which microbes minimize their injuries. What is lacking is a good sense of the circumstances under which oxidative stress actually occurs...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307098/a-novel-citrate-synthase-isoform-contributes-infection-and-stress-resistance-of-the-stripe-rust-fungus
#11
Dan Li, Lijing Pang, Pu Yuan, Peijing Zheng, Baoyu Huai, Mohan Yao, Zhensheng Kang, Jie Liu
The early development of a rust fungus is dependent on the endogenous lipids stored in the urediniospores. After it establishes a parasitic relationship with the host, sugars absorbed from the host cells by haustoria become the primary nutrients. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is essential to oxidize these nutrients. However, few studies have addressed the role of citrate synthase (CS), a rate-limiting enzyme of the TCA cycle, during the infection process of rust fungi. In this study, a CS gene from Puccinia striiformis f...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289197/iron-and-aluminum-induced-depletion-of-molybdenum-in-acidic-environments-impedes-the-nitrogen-cycle
#12
Xiaoxuan Ge, Brian J Vaccaro, Michael P Thorgersen, Farris L Poole, Erica L Majumder, Grant M Zane, Kara B De León, W Andrew Lancaster, Ji Won Moon, Charles J Paradis, Frederick von Netzer, David A Stahl, Paul D Adams, Adam P Arkin, Judy D Wall, Terry C Hazen, Michael W W Adams
Anthropogenic nitrate contamination is a serious problem in many natural environments. Nitrate removal by microbial action is dependent on the metal molybdenum (Mo), which is required by nitrate reductase for denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. The soluble form of Mo, molybdate (MoO4 2- ), is incorporated into and adsorbed by iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) (oxy)hydroxide minerals. Herein we used Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) as a model nitrate-contaminated acidic environment to investigate whether the formation of Fe- and Al- precipitates could impede microbial nitrate removal by depleting Mo...
October 5, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289193/mycoviruses-mediate-mycotoxin-regulation-in-aspergillus-ochraceus
#13
L Nerva, W Chitarra, I Siciliano, F Gaiotti, M Ciuffo, M Forgia, G C Varese, M Turina
To date, no demonstration of a direct correlation between the presence of mycoviruses and the quantitative or qualitative modulation of mycotoxins has been shown. In our study, we transfected a virus-free ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing isolate of Aspergillus ochraceus with purified mycoviruses from a different A. ochraceus isolate and from Penicillium aurantiogriseum. Among the mycoviruses tested, only Aspergillus ochraceus virus (AoV), a partitivirus widespread in A. ochraceus, caused a specific interaction that led to an overproduction of OTA, which is regulated by the European Commission and is the second most important contaminant of food and feed commodities...
October 5, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289191/neutral-mechanisms-and-niche-differentiation-in-steady-state-insular-microbial-communities-revealed-by-single-cell-analysis
#14
Zishu Liu, Nicolas Cichocki, Thomas Hübschmann, Christine Süring, Irina Dana Ofiţeru, William T Sloan, Volker Grimm, Susann Müller
In completely insular microbial communities, evolution of community structure cannot be shaped by the immigration of new members. Also, when those communities are run in steady-state, the influence of environmental factors on their assembly is reduced. Therefore, one would expect similar community structures under steady-state conditions. Yet, in parallel setups variability does occur. To reveal ecological mechanisms behind this phenomenon, five parallel reactors were studied at the single-cell level for about 100 generations and community structure variations were quantified by ecological measures...
October 5, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277308/novel-t4-bacteriophages-associated-with-black-band-disease-in-corals
#15
P Buerger, K D Weynberg, E M Wood-Charlson, Y Sato, B L Willis, M J H van Oppen
Research into causative agents underlying coral disease have focused primarily on bacteria, whereas potential roles of viruses have been largely unaddressed. Bacteriophages may contribute to diseases through the lysogenic introduction of virulence genes into bacteria, or prevent diseases through lysis of bacterial pathogens. To identify candidate phages that may influence the pathogenicity of black band disease (BBD), communities of bacteria (16S rRNA) and T4-bacteriophages (gp23) were simultaneously profiled with amplicon sequencing among BBD-lesions and healthy-coral-tissue of Montipora hispida, as well as seawater (study site: the central Great Barrier Reef)...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277305/kleptoplastidic-benthic-foraminifera-from-aphotic-habitats-insights-into-assimilation-of-inorganic-c-n-and-s-studied-with-sub-cellular-resolution
#16
Thierry Jauffrais, Charlotte LeKieffre, Magali Schweizer, Emmanuelle Geslin, Edouard Metzger, Joan M Bernhard, Bruno Jesus, Helena L Filipsson, Olivier Maire, Anders Meibom
The assimilation of inorganic compounds in foraminiferal metabolism compared to predation or organic matter assimilation is unknown. Here we investigate possible inorganic-compound assimilation in Nonionellina labradorica, a common kleptoplastidic benthic foraminifer from Arctic and North Atlantic sublittoral regions. The objectives were to identify the source of the foraminiferal kleptoplasts, assess their photosynthetic functionality in light and darkness, and investigate inorganic nitrogen and sulfate assimilation...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277299/high-single-cell-diversity-in-carbon-and-nitrogen-assimilation-by-a-chain-forming-diatom-across-a-century
#17
Malin Olofsson, Olga Kourtchenko, Eva-Maria Zetsche, Hannah K Marchant, Martin J Whitehouse, Anna Godhe, Helle Ploug
Almost a century ago Redfield discovered a relatively constant ratio between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulate organic matter, and nitrogen and phosphorus of dissolved nutrients in seawater. Since then, the riverine export of nitrogen to the ocean has increased 20-fold. High abundance of resting stages in sediment layers dated more than a century back, indicate that the common planktonic diatom Skeletonema marinoi has endured this eutrophication. We germinated unique genotypes from resting stages originating from isotope-dated sediment layers (15 and 80 y old) in a eutrophied fjord...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255564/functional-ctr-type-cu-i-transporters-in-an-oceanic-diatom
#18
Liangliang Kong, Neil M Price
Copper concentration is so low in some remote parts of the sea it limits phytoplankton growth, but may be high enough in coastal and estuarine regions to be toxic. Acclimation to variations in Cu concentration thus requires a tightly regulated Cu transport system to help maintain Cu homeostasis. In marine species, the molecular mechanisms of Cu transport are not known. We studied Cu-responsive genes and uptake in Thalassiosira oceanica at environmentally relevant Cu concentrations varying between 0.012 and 12 900 pmol Cu' L-1 ...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255541/ucyn-a3-a-newly-characterized-open-ocean-sublineage-of-the-symbiotic-n-2-fixing-cyanobacterium-candidatus-atelocyanobacterium-thalassa
#19
Francisco M Cornejo-Castillo, Maria Del Carmen Muñoz-Marin, Kendra A Turk-Kubo, Marta Royo-Llonch, Hanna Farnelid, Silvia G Acinas, Jonathan P Zehr
The symbiotic unicellular cyanobacterium Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A) is one of the most abundant and widespread nitrogen (N2 )-fixing cyanobacteria in the ocean. Although it remains uncultivated, multiple sublineages have been detected based on partial nitrogenase (nifH) gene sequences, including the four most commonly detected sublineages UCYN-A1, UCYN-A2, UCYN-A3 and UCYN-A4. However, very little is known about UCYN-A3 beyond the nifH sequences from nifH gene diversity surveys. In this study, single cell sorting, DNA sequencing, qPCR and CARD-FISH assays revealed discrepancies involving the identification of sublineages, which led to new information on the diversity of the UCYN-A symbiosis...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253028/diatom-populations-in-an-upwelling-environment-decrease-silica-content-to-avoid-growth-limitation
#20
Heather M McNair, Mark A Brzezinski, Jeffrey W Krause
A mix of adaptive strategies enable diatoms to sustain rapid growth in dynamic ocean regions, making diatoms one of the most productive primary producers in the world. We illustrate one such strategy off coastal California that facilitates continued, high, cell division rates despite silicic acid stress. Using a fluorescent dye to measure single-cell diatom silica production rates, silicification (silica per unit area) and growth rates we show diatoms decrease silicification and maintain growth rate when silicon concentration limits silica production rates...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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