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Environmental Microbiology

Hannah Holland-Moritz, Julia Stuart, Lily R Lewis, Samantha Miller, Michelle C Mack, Stuart F McDaniel, Noah Fierer
Mosses are critical components of boreal ecosystems where they typically account for a large proportion of net primary productivity and harbor diverse bacterial communities that can be the major source of biologically-fixed nitrogen in these ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance, we have limited understanding of how microbial communities vary across boreal moss species and the extent to which local site conditions may influence the composition of these bacterial communities. We used marker gene sequencing to analyze bacterial communities associated with seven boreal moss species collected near Fairbanks, AK USA...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Yun Chen, Shiyu Zheng, Zhenzhen Ju, Chengqi Zhang, Guangfei Tang, Jing Wang, Ziyue Wen, Wei Chen, Zhonghua Ma
Peroxisomal proliferation is highly stimulated during the biosynthesis of mycotoxins and plant infection by Fusarium graminearum. Currently, the functions of the peroxisome in these cellular processes are poorly understood. In this study, we applied genetic, cell biological and biochemical analyses to investigate the functions of the peroxisomes. We constructed targeted deletion of docking machinery components, including FgPex13, FgPex14 and the filamentous fungal specific peroxin FgPex33. Our results indicated that peroxisome dysfunction resulted in a shortage of acetyl-CoA, the precursor of trichothecene biosynthesis, and subsequently decreased deoxynivalenol (DON) production...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Hogyun Seo, Kyung-Jin Kim
Cytokinin (CK)-activating enzyme, called LOG, is a phosphoribohydrolase that hydrolyzes nucleotides into nucleobases and phosphoriboses. This reaction is a fascinating target for regulation of cellular active CK. However, misannotation of LOG as a lysine decarboxylase and the lack of detailed catalytic and substrate-binding mechanisms have prevented studies of LOG at a protein-level. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of PA4923 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The overall structure of PA4923 resembles those of type-I LOGs, and it exhibited phosphoribohydrolase activity against AMP...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Lin Zhang, Ning Shi, Jiequn Fan, Fei Wang, Timothy S George, Gu Feng
The extraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) harbor and interact with a microbial community performing multiple functions. However, how the AMF-microbiome interaction influences the phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency of the mycorrhizal pathway is unclear. Here we investigated whether AMF and their hyphal microbiome play a role in promoting organic phosphorus (P) mineralizing under field conditions. We developed an AMF hyphae in-growth core system for the field by using PVC tubes sealed with membrane with different size of pores (30 or 0...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Kenneth Timmis, Joan Timmis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Fernanda Abreu, Pedro Leão, Gabriele Vargas, Jefferson Cypriano, Viviane Figueiredo, Alex Enrich-Prast, Dennis A Bazylinski, Ulysses Lins
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) comprise a group of motile microorganisms common in most mesothermal aquatic habitats with pH values around neutrality. However, during the last two decades, a number of MTB from extreme environments have been characterized including: cultured alkaliphilic strains belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria class of the Proteobacteria phylum; uncultured moderately thermophilic strains belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum; cultured and uncultured moderately halophilic or strongly halotolerant bacteria affiliated with the Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria classes and an uncultured psychrophilic species belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria class...
May 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Jon S Graf, Magdalena J Mayr, Hannah K Marchant, Daniela Tienken, Philipp F Hach, Andreas Brand, Carsten J Schubert, Marcel M M Kuypers, Jana Milucka
Methanotrophic bacteria represent an important biological filter regulating methane emissions into the atmosphere. Planktonic methanotrophic communities in freshwater lakes are typically dominated by aerobic gamma-proteobacteria, with a contribution from alpha-proteobacterial methanotrophs and the NC10 bacteria. The NC10 clade encompasses methanotrophs related to "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera", which oxidize methane using a unique pathway of denitrification that tentatively produces N2 and O2 from nitric oxide (NO)...
May 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Ya Gong, Zheng Zhang, Ya Liu, Xiu-Wen Zhou, Mian Nabeel Anwar, Ze-Shuo Li, Wei Hu, Yue-Zhong Li
The use of toxin to attack neighbours and immunity proteins to protect against toxin has been observed in bacterial conflicts, including kin discrimination. Here, we report a novel nuclease-toxin and its immunity protein function in the colony-merger incompatibility, a kind of bacterial kin discrimination, in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622. The MXAN_0049 gene was determined to be a genetic determinant for colony-merger incompatibility, and the incompatibility could be eliminated by deletion of the upstream co-transcribed MXAN_0050 gene...
May 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Yongguang Guan, Chen-Yu Tsao, David N Quan, Ying Li, Lei Mei, Yingying Song, Boce Zhang, Yi Liu, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley, Qin Wang
Quorum sensing (QS) exists widely among bacteria, enabling a transition to multicellular behavior after bacterial populations reach a particular density. The coordination of multicellularity enables biotechnological application, dissolution of biofilms, coordination of virulence, etc. Here, a method to elicit and subsequently disperse multi-cellular behavior among QS-negative cells is developed using magnetic nanoparticle assembly. We fabricated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, ∼5 nm) that electrostatically collect wild-type (WT) Escherichia coli BL21 cells and brings them into proximity of bioengineered E...
May 28, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Benjamin Jelen, Donato Giovannelli, Paul G Falkowski, Costantino Vetriani
The reduction of elemental sulfur is an important energy-conserving pathway in prokaryotes inhabiting geothermal environments, where sulfur respiration contributes to sulfur biogeochemical cycling. Despite this, the pathways through which elemental sulfur is reduced to hydrogen sulfide remain unclear in most microorganisms. We integrated growth experiments using Thermovibrio ammonificans, a deep-sea vent thermophile that conserves energy from the oxidation of hydrogen and reduction of both nitrate and elemental sulfur, with comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, coupled with scanning electron microscopy...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Kristen E Murfin, Daren R Ginete, Farrah Bashey, Heidi Goodrich-Blair
Bacterial symbionts can affect several biotic interactions of their hosts, including their competition with other species. Nematodes in the genus Steinernema utilize Xenorhabdus bacterial symbionts for insect host killing and nutritional bioconversion. Here, we establish that the Xenorhabdus bovienii bacterial symbiont (Xb-Sa-78) of Steinernema affine nematodes can impact competition between S. affine and S. feltiae by a novel mechanism, directly attacking its nematode competitor. Through co-injection and natural infection assays we demonstrate the causal role of Xb-Sa-78 in the superiority of S...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
R A Beinart, J Rotterová, I Čepička, R J Gast, V P Edgcomb
The methanogenic endosymbionts of anaerobic protists represent the only known intracellular archaea, yet, almost nothing is known about genome structure and content in these lineages. Here, an almost complete genome of an intracellular Methanobacterium species was assembled from a metagenome derived from its host ciliate, a Heterometopus species. Phylogenomic analysis showed that the endosymbiont was closely related to free-living Methanobacterium isolates, and when compared to the genomes of free-living Methanobacterium, the endosymbiont did not show significant reduction in genome size or GC content...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Tatsuya Unno, Christopher Staley, Clairessa M Brown, Dukki Han, Michael J Sadowksy, Hor-Gil Hur
In this minireview, we expand upon traditional microbial source tracking (MST) methods by discussing two recently developed, next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based MST approaches to identify sources of fecal pollution in recreational waters. One method defines operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are specific to a fecal source, e.g., humans and animals or shared among multiple fecal sources to determine the magnitude and likely source association of fecal pollution. The other method uses SourceTracker, a program using a Bayesian algorithm, to determine which OTUs have contributed to an environmental community based on the composition of microbial communities in multiple fecal sources...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Juan L Ramos, Paola Bonfante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Gianpiero Vigani, Eleonora Rolli, Ramona Marasco, Marta Dell'Orto, Grégoire Michoud, Asma Soussi, Noura Raddadi, Sara Borin, Claudia Sorlini, Graziano Zocchi, Daniele Daffonchio
It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Olga Sakwinska, Francis Foata, Shamima Sultana, Zeenat Khan, Shoheb Islam, Nadine Porta, Séverine Combremont, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Aline Charpagne, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Bernard Berger, Harald Brüssow
We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhea irrespective of etiology. Compared to 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown etiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of fecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Bonita R Lam, Annette R Rowe, Kenneth H Nealson
Extracellular electron transport (EET) is a microbial process that allows microorganisms to transport electrons to and from insoluble substrates outside of the cell. Although progress has been made in understanding how microbes transfer electrons to insoluble substrates, the process of receiving electrons has largely remained unexplored. We investigated redox potentials favorable for donating electrons to dissolved and insoluble components in Catalina Harbor marine sediment by combining electrochemical techniques with geochemistry and molecular methods...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Kenneth Timmis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Roberto Kolter, Scott Chimileski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Charles Bachy, Christina J Charlesworth, Amy M Chan, Jan F Finke, Chee-Hong Wong, Chia-Lin Wei, Sebastian Sudek, Maureen L Coleman, Curtis A Suttle, Alexandra Z Worden
Prasinophytes are widespread marine algae for which responses to nutrient limitation and viral infection are not well understood. We studied the picoprasinophyte, Micromonas pusilla, grown under phosphate-replete (0.65±0.07 d-1 ) and 10-fold lower (low)-phosphate (0.11±0.04 d-1 ) conditions, and infected by the phycodnavirus MpV-SP1. Expression of 17% of Micromonas genes in uninfected cells differed by >1.5-fold (q<0.01) between nutrient conditions, with genes for P-metabolism and the uniquely-enriched Sel1-like repeat (SLR) family having higher relative transcript abundances, while phospholipid-synthesis genes were lower in low-P than P-replete...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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