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Environmental Microbiology

Jasper R L Depotter, Michael F Seidl, Grardy C M van den Berg, Bart P H J Thomma, Thomas A Wood
Population genetic structures illustrate evolutionary trajectories of organisms adapting to differential environmental conditions. Verticillium stem striping disease on oilseed rape was mainly observed in continental Europe, but has recently emerged in the United Kingdom. The disease is caused by the hybrid fungal species Verticillium longisporum that originates from at least three separate hybridization events, yet hybrids between Verticillium progenitor species A1 and D1 are mainly responsible for Verticillium stem striping...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Xiaofeng Yue, Yawei Que, Shuzhen Deng, Lin Xu, Miriam Oses-Ruiz, Nicholas J Talbot, Youliang Peng, Zhengyi Wang
Cell cycle regulation is pivotal for proper cell division and cellular differentiation in eukaryotic cells. The central regulators that govern eukaryotic cell cycle progression are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their partners. Here, we report that Magnaporthe oryzae CKS1 encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase subunit, which plays a significant role in regulation of plant infection. We demonstrate that CKS1 is a functional homolog of CKS1/SUC1 and can physically interact with the CDK protein Cdc28, and Som1, a downstream regulator of the cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase A pathway...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Shengpei Zhang, Xiu Liu, Lianwei Li, Rui Yu, Jialiang He, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
The ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) and the coat protein complex I (COPI) are both involved in vesicle transport. Together with GTPase-activating proteins (ArfGAPs) and guanine exchange factors (ArfGEFs) that regulate the activity of Arf, they govern vesicle formation, COPI trafficking, and the maintenance of the Golgi complex. In an ongoing effort to study the role of membrane trafficking in pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we identified MoGlo3 as an ArfGAP protein that is homologous to Glo3p of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Gavin Lear, Kelvin Lau, Anne-Marie Perchec, Hannah L Buckley, Bradley S Case, Martin Neale, Noah Fierer, Jonathan W Leff, Kim M Handley, Gillian Lewis
We sought to test whether stream bacterial communities conform to Rapoport's Rule, a pattern commonly observed for plants and animals whereby taxa exhibit decreased latitudinal range sizes closer to the equator. Using a DNA sequencing approach, we explored the biogeography of biofilm bacterial communities in 204 streams across a ∼1,000km latitudinal gradient. The range sizes of bacterial taxa were strongly correlated with latitude, decreasing closer to the equator, which coincided with a greater than five-fold increase in bacterial taxonomic richness...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Hang-Wei Hu, Pankaj Trivedi, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Globally, drylands represent the largest terrestrial biome and are projected to expand by 23% by the end of this century. Drylands are characterized by extremely low levels of water and nutrients and exhibit highly heterogeneous distribution in plants and biocrusts which make microbial processes shaping the dryland functioning rather unique compared with other terrestrial ecosystems. Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas with ozone depletion potential. Despite of the pivotal influences of microbial communities on the production and consumption of N2 O, we have limited knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms underpinning N2 O emissions from drylands, which are estimated to account for 30% of total gaseous nitrogen emissions on Earth...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Aurélien Saghaï, Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado, Philippe Deschamps, David Moreira, Paola Bertolino, Marie Ragon, Purificación López-García
Modern phototrophic microbial mats are complex communities often used as analogs of major Precambrian ecosystems. Characterizing biotic, notably metabolic, interactions among different microbial mat members is essential to gain insights into the ecology and biogeochemistry of these systems. We applied 16S/18S rRNA metabarcoding approaches to characterize the structure of archaea, bacteria and protist communities from microbial mats collected along strong physicochemical (oxygen, salinity, temperature, depth) gradients in a shallow pond at the salar de Llamara (Chile)...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Marta Kinnunen, Arda Gülay, Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen, Arnaud Dechesne, Barth F Smets
Community assembly is a central topic in microbial ecology: how do assembly processes interact and what is the relative contribution of stochasticity and determinism? Here, we exposed replicate flow-through biofilm systems, fed with nitrite-supplemented tap water, to continuous immigration from a source community, present in the tap water, to determine the extent of selection and neutral processes in newly assembled biofilm communities at both the community and the functional guild (of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB) levels...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Stilianos Louca, Saulo M S Jacques, Aliny P F Pires, Juliana S Leal, Angélica L González, Michael Doebeli, Vinicius F Farjalla
Phytotelmata in tank-forming Bromeliaceae plants are regarded as potential miniature models for aquatic ecology, but detailed investigations of their microbial communities are rare. Hence, the biogeochemistry in bromeliad tanks remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the detritus within the tanks of two bromeliad species, Aechmea nudicaulis and Neoregelia cruenta, from a Brazilian sand dune forest. We used metagenomic sequencing for functional community profiling and 16S sequencing for taxonomic profiling...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Simon Devos, Wouter Van Putte, Jolien Vitse, Gonzalez Van Driessche, Stephan Stremersch, Wim Van Den Broek, Koen Raemdonck, Kevin Braeckmans, Henning Stahlberg, Misha Kudryashev, Savvas N Savvides, Bart Devreese
Several bacterial species produce membrane vesicles (MVs) in response to antibiotic stress. However, the biogenesis and role of MVs in bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms have remained unclear. Here we studied the effect of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin on MV secretion by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using a combination of electron microscopy and proteomic approaches. We found that in addition to the classical outer membrane vesicles (OMV), ciprofloxacin-stimulated cultures produced larger vesicles containing both outer and inner membranes termed outer-inner membrane vesicles (OIMV), and that such MVs are enriched with cytosolic proteins...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Yanxia Zhao, Jianing Ding, Weihua Yuan, Jinjin Huang, Wenxiu Huang, Yan Wang, Weifa Zheng
The formation of sexual fruiting bodies and production of polyketides are believed to be the most important strategies for fungal survival in environmental insults. In Neurospora crassa, the backbone gene of polyketide synthase gene cluster 6 (pks-6), which is expressed at lower level under vegetative growth, is highly expressed during perithecia development. Intriguingly, deletion of pks-6 does not affect perithecia maturation. How the expression of pks-6 correlates with fungal sexual development remains to be established...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Rosa León-Zayas, Logan Peoples, Jennifer F Biddle, Sheila Podell, Mark Novotny, James Cameron, Roger S Lasken, Douglas H Bartlett
Candidate phyla (CP) are broad phylogenetic clusters of organisms that lack cultured representatives. Included in this fraction is the candidate Parcubacteria superphylum. Specific characteristics that have been ascribed to the Parcubacteria include reduced genome size, limited metabolic potential, and exclusive reliance on fermentation for energy acquisition. The study of new environmental niches, such as the marine versus terrestrial subsurface, often expands the understanding of the genetic potential of taxonomic groups...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Albin Alfreider, Andreas Baumer, Teresa Bogensperger, Thomas Posch, Michaela M Salcher, Monika Summerer
While mechanisms of different carbon dioxide (CO2 ) assimilation pathways in chemolithoautotrohic prokaryotes are well understood for many isolates under laboratory conditions, the ecological significance of diverse CO2 fixation strategies in the environment is mostly unexplored. Six stratified freshwater lakes were chosen to study the distribution and diversity of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle, the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and the recently discovered archaeal 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (HP/HB) pathway...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Dpr Herlemann, M Manecki, T Dittmar, K Jürgens
In response to global warming, increasing quantities of tDOM are transported through estuaries from land to the sea. In this study we investigated microbial responses to increased tDOM concentrations in three salinity regimes (salinity: 32, 7 and 3) characteristic of the Baltic Sea. Mesocosm experiments performed in May and November revealed low (0-6%) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization. Molecular DOM analyses using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry identified the terrigenous signal in the tDOM manipulation, but the molecular changes in DOM levels over the course of the experiment were subtle...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Shamima Sultana, Shafiqul A Sarker, Harald Brüssow
In 1890 Robert Koch has formulated postulates describing what criteria a parasite has to fulfill to qualify as an etiological agent for an infectious disease. Since then Koch's postulates have experienced reformulations by nearly every generation of microbiologists reflecting new discoveries changing the understanding of infectious diseases pathogenesis. The latest addition to this discussion is the role of the host commensal microbiota in turning infections into disease. After an overview of the historical developments of the postulates, we analyzed data on diarrhea etiology from Bangladesh with respect to Koch's postulates...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Nicholas A Barber, Karley M Chantos-Davidson, Rene Amel Peralta, Jared P Sherwood, Wesley D Swingley
Restoration and management of natural ecosystems is a critical strategy in mitigating global biodiversity loss. This is exemplified in the American Midwest by efforts aimed at reclaiming historical grasslands lost to high-yield agriculture. While restorations traditionally take the form of plant reintroduction and management, advances in microbial analyses suggest that soil communities could be indicators of restoration success. However, current understanding of key microbial taxa and functional activities in both natural and restored ecosystems is limited...
May 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Katyanne M Shoemaker, Pia H Moisander
Characterization of marine copepod gut microbiome composition and its variability provides information on function of marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles, and copepod health. Copepod gut microbiomes were investigated quarterly over two years at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, while assessing seasonal shifts in stable and transient communities. Microbial communities were analyzed using amplicon sequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 region and the cyanobacterial ntcA gene...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Andreas Rogge, Angela Vogts, Maren Voss, Klaus Jürgens, Günter Jost, Matthias Labrenz
Chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing and denitrifying Gamma- (particularly the SUP05 cluster) and Epsilonproteobacteria (predominantly Sulfurimonas subgroup GD17) are assumed to compete for substrates (electron donors and acceptors) in marine pelagic redox gradients. In order to elucidate their ecological niche separation we performed (34) S(0) , (15) NO3(-) , and H(13) CO3(-) stable-isotope incubations with water samples from Baltic Sea suboxic, chemocline and sulfidic zones followed by combined phylogenetic staining and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry of single cells...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Scott A Lawrence, Sheri A Floge, Joanne E Davy, Simon K Davy, William H Wilson
Coral reefs are in decline worldwide. Much of this decline is attributable to mass coral bleaching events and disease outbreaks, both of which are linked to anthropogenic climate change. Despite increased research effort, much remains unknown about these phenomena, especially the causative agents of many coral diseases. In particular, coral-associated viruses have received little attention, and their potential roles in coral diseases are largely unknown. Previous microscopy studies have produced evidence of viral infections in Symbiodinium, the endosymbiotic algae critical for coral survival, and more recently molecular evidence of Symbiodinium-infecting viruses has emerged from metagenomic studies of corals...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Yonghong Wu, Fengwu Wang, Xi Xiao, Junzhuo Liu, Chenxi Wu, Hong Chen, Philip Kerr, Jonathan Shurin
Interactions among microbes determine the prevalence of harmful algal blooms that threaten water quality. These interactions can be indirectly mediated by shared resources or consumers, or through interference by the production of allelochemicals. Allelopathic interactions and resource competition have been shown to occur among algae and associated microbes. However, little work has considered seasonal influences on ecosystem structure and function. Here, we report results of our investigations on seasonal changes in the interactions between benthic microbial assemblies and the bloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Guohong Zeng, Xiaoxuan Chen, Xing Zhang, Qiangqiang Zhang, Chuan Xu, Wubin Mi, Na Guo, Hong Zhao, Yue You, Farah-Jade Dryburgh, Michael J Bidochka, Raymond J St Leger, Lei Zhang, Weiguo Fang
Metarhizium robertsii occupies a wide array of ecological niches and has diverse lifestyle options (saprophyte, insect pathogen and plant symbiont), that renders it an unusually effective model for studying genetic mechanisms for fungal adaptation. Here we screened over 20,000 M. robertsii T-DNA mutants in order to elucidate genetic mechanism by which M. robertsii replicates and persists in diverse niches. We identified 287 conidiation, colony sectorization or pathogenicity loci, many of which have not been reported in other fungi...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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