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Environmental Microbiology

Jose G Maciá-Vicente, Yan-Ni Shi, Zakaria Cheikh-Ali, Peter Grün, Kyriaki Glynou, Sevda Haghi Kia, Meike Piepenbring, Helge B Bode
Fungi are prolific producers of natural products routinely screened for biotechnological applications, and those living endophytically within plants attract particular attention because of their purported chemical diversity. However, the harnessing of their biosynthetic potential is hampered by a large and often cryptic phylogenetic and ecological diversity, coupled with a lack of large-scale natural products' dereplication studies. To guide efforts to discover new chemistries among root-endophytic fungi, we analyzed the natural products produced by 822 strains using an untargeted UPLC-ESI-MS/MS-based approach and linked the patterns of chemical features to fungal lineages...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Javier Espinosa, José I Labella, Raquel Cantos, Asunción Contreras
Cyanobacteria, phototrophic organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis, must adapt their metabolic processes to the challenges imposed by the succession of days and nights. Two conserved cyanobacterial proteins, PII and PipX, function as hubs of the nitrogen interaction network, forming complexes with a variety of diverse targets. While PII proteins are found in all three domains of life as integrators of signals of the nitrogen and carbon balance, PipX proteins are unique to cyanobacteria, where they provide a mechanistic link between PII signalling and the control of gene expression by the global nitrogen regulator NtcA...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Caroline Souffreau, Pieter Busschaert, Carla Denis, Jeroen Van Wichelen, Bart Lievens, Wim Vyverman, Luc De Meester
It is unknown whether bacterioplankton and biofilm communities are structured by the same ecological processes, and whether they influence each other through continuous dispersal (known as mass effects). Using a hierarchical sampling approach we compared the relative importance of ecological processes structuring the dominant fraction (relative abundance ≥0.1%) of bacterioplankton and biofilm communities from three microhabitats (open water, Nuphar and Phragmites sites) at within- and among-pond scale in a set of 14 interconnected shallow ponds...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Mari Pent, Markus Hiltunen, Kadri Põldmaa, Brendan Furneaux, Falk Hildebrand, Hanna Johannesson, Martin Ryberg, Mohammad Bahram
Despite increasing knowledge on host-associated microbiomes, little is known about mechanisms underlying fungus-microbiome interactions. This study aimed to examine the relative importance of host genetic, geographic and environmental distance in structuring fungus-associated microbiomes. We analyzed the taxonomic composition and function of microbiomes inhabiting fungal fruiting-bodies in relation to host genetic variation, soil pH and geographic distance between samples. For this, we sequenced the metagenomes of 40 fruiting-bodies collected from six fairy rings (i...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Qing Cai, Juan-Juan Wang, Bo Fu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Gcn5 is a core histone acetyltransferase that catalyzes histone H3 acetylation on N-terminal lysine residues in yeasts and was reported to catalyze H3K9/K14 acetylation required for activating asexual development in Aspergillus. Here, we report a localization of Gcn5 ortholog in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of gcn5 led to hypoacetylated H3 at K9/14/18/27 and 97% reduction in conidiation capacity as well as severe defects in colony growth and conidial thermotolerance...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
T J Heger, Ian J W Giesbrecht, Julia Gustavsen, Javier Del Campo, Colleen T E Kellogg, Kira M Hoffman, Ken Lertzman, William W Mohn, Patrick J Keeling
Although previous studies, mostly based on microscopy analyses of a few groups of protists, have suggested that protists are abundant and diverse in litter and moss habitats, the overall diversity of moss and litter associated protists remains elusive. Here, high-throughput environmental sequencing was used to characterize the diversity and community structure of litter and moss-associated protists along a gradient of soil drainage and forest primary productivity in a temperate rainforest in British Columbia...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Jianyun Yao, Yunxue Guo, Pengxia Wang, Zhenshun Zeng, Baiyuan Li, Kaihao Tang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Xiaoxue Wang
Toxin/antitoxin (TA) loci are commonly found in mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and prophages. However, the physiological functions of these TA loci in prophages and cross-regulation among these TA loci remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterized a newly discovered type II TA pair, ParESO /CopASO , in the CP4So prophage in Shewanella oneidensis. We demonstrated that ParESO /CopASO plays a critical role in the maintenance of CP4So in host cells after its excision. The toxin ParESO inhibited cell growth, resulting in filamentous growth and eventually cell death...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Jan-Michael Blum, Qingxian Su, Yunjie Ma, Borja Valverde-Pérez, Carlos Domingo-Félez, Marlene Mark Jensen, Barth F Smets
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is emitted during microbiological nitrogen (N) conversion processes, when N2 O production exceeds N2 O consumption. The magnitude of N2 O production vs consumption varies with pH and controlling net-N2 O production might be feasible by choice of system pH. This article reviews how pH affects enzymes, pathways and microorganisms that are involved in N-conversions in water engineering applications. At a molecular level, pH affects activity of co-factors and structural elements of relevant enzymes, by protonation or deprotonation of amino acid residues or solvent ligands causing steric changes in catalytic sites or proton/electron transfer routes that alter catalytic activity...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Haoxin Lv, Nurettin Sahin, Akio Tani
Recently it has been found that two types of methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs) exist in Gram-negative bacterial methylotrophs, calcium-dependent MxaFI-MDH and lanthanide-dependent XoxF-MDH, and the latter is more widespread in bacterial genomes. We aimed to isolate and characterize lanthanide dependent methylotrophs. The growth of strain La2-4T on methanol, which was isolated from rice rhizosphere soil, was strictly lanthanide dependent. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence showed only 93.4% identity to that of Methylophilus luteus MimT , and the name Novimethylophilus kurashikiensis gen...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Juan Manuel Arjona-Lopez, Paul Telengech, Atif Jamal, Sakae Hisano, Hideki Kondo, Mery Dafny Yelin, María Isabel Arjona-Girona, Satoko Kanematsu, Carlos Lopez-Herrera, Nobuhiro Suzuki
To reveal mycovirus diversity, we conducted a search of as-yet-unexplored Mediterranean isolates of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Rosellinia necatrix for virus infections. Of seventy-nine, eleven fungal isolates tested RNA virus-positive, with many showing coinfections, indicating a virus incidence of 14%, which is slightly lower than that (approximately 20%) previously reported for extensive surveys of over 1000 Japanese R. necatrix isolates. All viral sequences were fully or partially characterized by Sanger and next-generation sequencing...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Xing Zhang, Raymond J St Leger, Weiguo Fang
It is commonly observed that microorganisms subjected to a mild stress develop tolerance not only to higher doses of the same stress, but also to other stresses-a phenomenon called cross protection. The mechanisms for cross protection have not been fully revealed. Here we report that heat shock induced cross protection against UV, oxidative and osmotic/salt stress conditions in the cosmopolitan fungus Metarhizium robertsii. Likewise, oxidative and osmotic/salt stresses also induced cross protection against multiple other stresses...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Ember M Morrissey, Rebecca L Mau, Egbert Schwartz, Benjamin J Koch, Michaela Hayer, Bruce A Hungate
Nitrogen (N) is frequently a limiting nutrient in soil; its availability can govern ecosystem functions such as primary production and decomposition. Assimilation of N by microorganisms impacts the availability of N in soil. Despite its established ecological significance, the contributions of microbial taxa to N assimilation are unknown. Here we measure N uptake and use by microbial phylotypes and taxonomic groups within a diverse assemblage of soil microbes through quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP) with 15 N...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Lei Zhu, Venkata G Poosarla, Sooyeon Song, Thammajun L Wood, Daniel S Miller, Bei Yin, Thomas K Wood
Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce H2 S, which contributes to corrosion. Although bacterial cells in biofilms are cemented together, they often dissolve their own biofilm to allow the cells to disperse. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model SRB, we sought polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that disperse its biofilm. Using a whole-genome approach, we identified eight enzymes as putative extracellular glycoside hydrolases including DisH (DVU2239, dispersal hexosaminidase), an enzyme that we demonstrated here, by utilizing various p-nitrooligosaccharide substrates, to be an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Gurcharn S Brar, Sajid Ali, Dinah Qutob, Stephen Ambrose, Kun Lou, Ron Maclachlan, Curtis J Pozniak, Yong-Bi Fu, Andrew G Sharpe, Hadley R Kutcher
Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important disease in Canada. The worldwide genetic structure of Pst populations have been characterized, excluding Canada. Here, we elucidated the genetic structure of the western Canadian Pst population using molecular markers, revealing the presence of four divergent lineages with predominantly clonal structure. In the worldwide context, two previously reported lineages were identified: PstS0 (22%), representing an old northwestern-European, and PstS1 (35%), an invasive warm-temperature adapted...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Bing Li, Xin Dong, Xinrui Li, Huaigu Chen, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
The signals by which eukaryotic cells communicate with the environment are usually mediated by vesicle trafficking to be attenuated or terminated. However, vesicle trafficking-mediated signal transmission during interactions between pathogens and host plants is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized the vacuole sorting protein FgVps41, which is the yeast HOPS tethering complex subunit Vps41 homolog in Fusarium graminearum. Targeted gene deletion demonstrated that FgVps41 is important for vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, conidial morphology, plant infection, and deoxynivalenol production...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Dandan Shen, Klaus Jürgens, Sara Beier
The response of local communities to marine-freshwater transitions and the processes that underlie community assembly are unclear, particularly with respect to bacteria that differ in their life strategies. Here, we implemented a transplant experiment where bacterioplankton from three regions of the Baltic Sea with differing salinities (∼3, 7, and 28 psu) were exposed to each other's environmental conditions. We found that habitat specialists were more abundant than generalists after exposure to salinity changes, irrespective of their origins...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Xiaoguo Zhu, Min Jiao, Jia Guo, Peng Liu, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Yang Zhang, Ralf Thomas Voegele, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
In many eukaryotes, transcription factor MCM1 gene plays crucial roles in regulating mating processes and pathogenesis by interacting with other co-factors. However, little is known about the role of MCM1 in rust fungi. Here, we identified two MCM1 orthologs, PstMCM1-1 and PstMCM1-2, in the stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Sequence analysis indicated that both PstMCM1-1 and PstMCM1-2 contain conserved MADS domains and that PstMCM1-1 belongs to a group of SRF-like proteins that are evolutionarily specific to rust fungi...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Anna Michalik, Frederik Schulz, Katarzyna Michalik, Florian Wascher, Matthias Horn, Teresa Szklarzewicz
Scale insects are commonly associated with obligate, intracellular microorganisms which play important roles in complementing their hosts with essential nutrients. Here we characterized the symbiotic system of Greenisca brachypodii, a member of the family Eriococcidae. Histological and ultrastructural analyses have indicated that G. brachypodii is stably associated with coccoid and rod-shaped bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that the coccoid bacteria represent a sister group to the secondary symbiont of the mealybug Melanococcus albizziae, whereas the rod-shaped symbionts are close relatives of Arsenophonus symbionts in insects - to our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of Arsenophonus bacterium in scale insects...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Massimo Turina, Stefano Ghignone, Nausicaa Astolfi, Alessandro Silvestri, Paola Bonfante, Luisa Lanfranco
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are key components of the plant microbiota. AMF genetic complexity is increased by the presence of endobacteria, which live inside many species. A further component of such complexity is the virome associated to AMF, whose knowledge is still very limited. Here, by exploiting transcriptomic data we describe the virome of Gigaspora margarita. A BLAST search for viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases sequences allowed the identification of four mitoviruses, one Ourmia-like narnavirus, one Giardia-like virus, and two sequences related to Fusarium graminearum mycoviruses...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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