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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207988/the-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-dengue-virus-pathogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Nilanka Perera, Joanna L Miller, Nicole Zitzmann
Symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections range from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic disease and death. Host-viral interactions play a significant role in deciding the fate of the infection. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a pro-survival cellular reaction induced in response to DENV mediated ER stress. The UPR has complex interactions with the cellular autophagy machinery, apoptosis and innate immunity. DENV has evolved to manipulate the UPR to facilitate its replication and to evade host immunity...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205319/the-plasmodium-rhoptry-associated-protein-complex-is-important-for-parasitophorous-vacuole-membrane-structure-and-intraerythrocytic-parasite-growth
#2
Sreejoyee Ghosh, Kit Kennedy, Paul Sanders, Kathryn Matthews, Stuart A Ralph, Natalie A Counihan, Tania F de Koning-Ward
Plasmodium parasites must invade erythrocytes in order to cause the disease malaria. The invasion process involves the coordinated secretion of parasite proteins from apical organelles that include the rhoptries. The rhoptry is comprised of two compartments, the neck and the bulb. Rhoptry neck proteins are involved in host cell adhesion and formation of the tight junction that forms between the invading parasite and erythrocyte, whereas the role of rhoptry bulb proteins remains ill-defined due to the lack of functional studies...
February 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186697/complement-activated-vitronectin-enhances-the-invasion-of-non-phagocytic-cells-by-bacterial-pathogens-burkholderia-and-klebsiella
#3
Yi Han Tan, Akshamal Gamage, Yunn-Hwen Gan
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a serum-resistant Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing disseminated infections with metastatic complications. However, their interaction with non-phagocytic cells is poorly understood. We observed that exposure of B. pseudomallei and the closely related yet avirulent B. thailandensis to human plasma increased epithelial cell invasion by >20 fold. Enhanced invasion was primarily driven by a plasma factor which required a functional complement cascade, but surprisingly, was downstream of C3 mediated opsonisation...
February 10, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125161/a-fibronectin-binding-protein-fbpa-of-weissella-cibaria-inhibits-colonization-and-infection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mammary-glands
#4
Liangliang Wang, Wei Si, Huping Xue, Xin Zhao
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infections in both humans and animals. Probiotics are known to inhibit colonization of pathogens on host tissues. However, mechanisms for the inhibition are still elusive due to complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Here we show that reduced abilities of S. aureus to infect mammary glands in the presence of Weissella cibaria were correlated with its poor adherence to mammary epithelial cells. Such inhibition by Weissella cibaria isolates was at least partially attributed to a fibronectin-binding protein (FbpA) on this lactic acid bacterium...
January 26, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117938/non-canonical-inflammasomes-antimicrobial-defense-that-doesn-t-play-by-the-rules
#5
REVIEW
Shauna M Crowley, Bruce A Vallance, Leigh A Knodler
While much research has focused on defining the actions of caspase-1 containing canonical inflammasomes in promoting host defense, non-canonical inflammasomes have received comparatively little attention. Exciting new concepts have recently emerged detailing their atypical mechanism of activation, importance in defending against cytosolic Gram-negative pathogens and role in innate immune defenses of non-myeloid cells, which has revamped interest in the study of non-canonical inflammmasomes. Here we will discuss these latest findings about caspase-4, -5 and -11 containing inflammasomes in the context of their role in pathogen elimination in mice and humans...
January 24, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114750/acidic-and-uncharged-polar-residues-in-the-consensus-motifs-of-the-yeast-ca-2-transporter-gdt1p-are-required-for-calcium-transport
#6
Anne-Sophie Colinet, Louise Thines, Antoine Deschamps, Gaëlle Flémal, Didier Demaegd, Pierre Morsomme
The UPF0016 family is a recently identified group of poorly characterized membrane proteins whose function is conserved through evolution and that are defined by the presence of one or two copies of the E-ϕ-G-D-[KR]-[TS] consensus motif in their transmembrane domain. We previously showed that two members of this family, the human TMEM165 and the budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and are likely to form a new group of Ca(2+) transporters. Mutations in TMEM165 have been demonstrated to cause a new type of rare human genetic diseases denominated as Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation...
January 23, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111881/helicobacter-hepaticus-cytolethal-distending-toxin-promotes-intestinal-carcinogenesis-in-129rag2-deficient-mice
#7
Zhongming Ge, Yan Feng, Lili Ge, Nicole Parry, Suresh Muthupalani, James G Fox
Multiple pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria produce the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) with activity of DNase I; CDT can induce DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells. However, the link of CDT to in vivo tumorigenesis is not fully understood. In this study, 129/SvEv Rag2(-/-) mice were gavaged with wild-type Helicobacter hepatics 3B1( Hh) and its isogenic cdtB mutant HhcdtBm7, followed by infection for 10 and 20 weeks (WPI). HhCDT-deficiency did not affect cecal colonization levels of HhcdtBm7, but attenuated severity of cecal pathology in HhcdtBm7-infected mice...
January 23, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103630/orientia-tsutsugamushi-ank9-is-a-multifunctional-effector-that-utilizes-a-novel-grip-like-golgi-localization-domain-for-golgi-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-trafficking-and-interacts-with-host-copb2
#8
Andrea R Beyer, Kyle G Rodino, Lauren VieBrock, Ryan S Green, Brittney K Tegels, Lee D Oliver, Richard T Marconi, Jason A Carlyon
Orientia tsutsugamushi causes scrub typhus, a potentially fatal infection that afflicts one million people annually. This obligate intracellular bacterium boasts one of the largest microbial arsenals of ankyrin repeat-containing protein (Ank) effectors, most of which target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by undefined mechanisms. Ank9 is the only one proven to function during infection. Here, we demonstrate that Ank9 bears a motif that mimics the GRIP domain of eukaryotic golgins and is necessary and sufficient for its Golgi localization...
January 19, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095608/esx-1-and-phthiocerol-dimycocerosates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-act-in-concert-to-cause-phagosomal-rupture-and-host-cell-apoptosis
#9
Jacques Augenstreich, Ainhoa Arbues, Roxane Simeone, Evert Haanappel, Alice Wegener, Fadel Sayes, Fabien Le Chevalier, Christian Chalut, Wladimir Malaga, Christophe Guilhot, Roland Brosch, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker
Although phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) are major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, little is known about their mechanism of action. Localized in the outer membrane of mycobacterial pathogens, DIM are predicted to interact with host cell membranes. Interaction with eukaryotic membranes is a property shared with another virulence factor of Mtb, the early secretory antigenic target EsxA (also known as ESAT-6). This small protein, which is secreted by the type VII secretion system ESX-1 (T7SS/ESX-1), is involved in phagosomal rupture and cell death induced by virulent mycobacteria inside host phagocytes...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095607/heat-shock-protein-70-promotes-coxsackievirus-b3-translation-initiation-and-elongation-via-akt-mtorc1-pathway-depending-on-activation-of-p70s6k-and-cdc2
#10
Fengping Wang, Ye Qiu, Huifang M Zhang, Paul Hanson, Xin Ye, Guangze Zhao, Ronald Xie, Lei Tong, Decheng Yang
We previously demonstrated that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection upregulated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and promoted CVB3 multiplication. Here, we report the underlying mechanism by which Hsp70 enhances viral RNA translation. By using an Hsp70-overexpressing cell line infected with CVB3, we found that Hsp70 enhanced CVB3 VP1 translation at two stages. First, Hsp70 induced upregulation of VP1 translation at the initiation stage via upregulation of internal ribosome entry site trans-acting factor lupus autoantigen protein and activation of eIF4E binding protein 1, a cap-dependent translation suppressor...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092693/pathogenic-streptococcus-strains-employ-novel-escape-strategy-to-inhibit-bacteriostatic-effect-mediated-by-mammalian-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein
#11
Jing Wang, Youjun Feng, Changjun Wang, Swaminath Srinivas, Chen Chen, Hui Liao, Elaine He, Shibo Jiang, Jiaqi Tang
Pathogenic streptococcal species are responsible for some of the most lethal and prevalent animal and human infections. Previous reports have identified a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI) in two highly virulent clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2), a causative agent of high-mortality streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). This PAI contains a Type-IVC secretion system C subgroup (Type-IVC secretion system) that is involved in the secretion of unknown pathogenic effectors that are responsible for STSS caused by highly virulent strains of SS2...
January 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078755/modulation-of-host-cell-sumoylation-facilitates-efficient-development-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-toxoplasma-gondii
#12
Mulaka Maruthi, Dipti Singh, Segireddy Rameswara Reddy, Babu S Mastan, Satish Mishra, Kota Arun Kumar
SUMOylation is a reversible post translational modification of proteins that regulates protein stabilization, nucleocytoplasmic transport and protein-protein interactions. Several viruses and bacteria modulate host SUMOylation machinery for efficient infection. Plasmodium sporozoites are infective forms of malaria parasite that infect hepatocytes and transforms into exoerythrocytic forms (EEFs). Here we show that, during EEF development, the distribution of SUMOylated proteins in host cell nuclei was significantly reduced and expression of the SUMOylation enzymes was downregulated...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076662/vps13f-links-bacterial-recognition-and-intracellular-killing-in-dictyostelium
#13
Jade Leiba, Ayman Sabra, Romain Bodinier, Anna Marchetti, Wanessa C Lima, Astrid Melotti, Jackie Perrin, Frederic Burdet, Marco Pagni, Thierry Soldati, Emmanuelle Lelong, Pierre Cosson
Bacterial sensing, ingestion and killing by phagocytic cells are essential processes to protect the human body from infectious microorganisms. The cellular mechanisms involved in intracellular killing, their relative importance, and their specificity towards different bacteria are however poorly defined. In this study, we used Dictyostelium discoideum, a phagocytic cell model amenable to genetic analysis, to identify new gene products involved in intracellular killing. A random genetic screen led us to identify the role of Vps13F in intracellular killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae...
January 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076660/influenza-a-virus-ns1-protein-induced-jnk-activation-and-apoptosis-are-not-functionally-linked
#14
Wolfgang Nacken, Viktor Wixler, Christina Ehrhardt, Stephan Ludwig
Expression of the influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein (NS1) results in the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Both NS1 and JNK are involved in apoptosis induction. To investigate their interrelationship, we stably expressed a tamoxifen inducible NS1 oestrogen receptor fusion-protein (NS1ERT) in mammalian cells. Upon tamoxifen stimulation, NS1ERT-expressing cells partially rescued the attenuated replication of NS1-deficient IAVs and also inhibited interferon up-regulation, confirming the functional competence of NS1ERT...
January 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070968/bacterial-short-chain-fatty-acid-metabolites-modulate-the-inflammatory-response-against-infectious-bacteria
#15
R O Corrêa, A Vieira, E M Sernaglia, M Lancellotti, A T Vieira, M J Avila-Campos, H G Rodrigues, M A R Vinolo
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), predominantly acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, are bacterial metabolites with an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis due to their metabolic and immunomodulatory actions. Some evidence suggests that they may also be relevant during infections. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of SCFAs in the effector functions of neutrophils to an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Using a subcutaneous model to generate a mono, isolated infection of A...
January 9, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067475/the-chaperonin-tric-forms-an-oligomeric-complex-in-the-malaria-parasite-cytosol
#16
Natalie J Spillman, Josh R Beck, Suresh M Ganesan, Jacquin C Niles, Daniel E Goldberg
The malaria parasite exports numerous proteins into its host red blood cell (RBC). The trafficking of these exported effectors is complex. Proteins are first routed through the secretory system, into the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a membranous compartment enclosing the parasite. Proteins are then translocated across the PV membrane in a process requiring ATP and unfolding. Once in the RBC compartment the exported proteins are then refolded and further trafficked to their final localizations. Chaperones are important in the unfolding and refolding processes...
January 9, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061020/a-p4-atpase-subunit-of-the-cdc50-family-plays-a-role-in-iron-acquisition-and-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#17
Guanggan Hu, Mélissa Caza, Erik Bakkeren, Matthias Kretschmer, Gaurav Bairwa, Ethan Reiner, James Kronstad
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans delivers virulence factors such as capsule polysaccharide to the cell surface to cause disease in vertebrate hosts. In this study, we screened for mutants sensitive to the secretion inhibitor brefeldin A to identify secretory pathway components that contribute to virulence. We identified an ortholog of the cell division control protein 50 (Cdc50) family of the noncatalytic subunit of type IV P-type ATPases (flippases) that establish phospholipid asymmetry in membranes and function in vesicle-mediated trafficking...
January 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054754/the-stce-metalloprotease-of-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-reduces-the-inner-mucus-layer-and-promotes-adherence-to-human-colonic-epithelium-ex-vivo
#18
Claire L Hews, Seav-Ly Tran, Udo Wegmann, Bernard Brett, Alistair D S Walsham, Devon Kavanaugh, Nicole J Ward, Nathalie Juge, Stephanie Schüller
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne pathogen and tightly adheres to human colonic epithelium by forming attaching/effacing lesions. To reach the epithelial surface, EHEC must penetrate the thick mucus layer protecting the colonic epithelium. In this study, we investigated how EHEC interacts with the intestinal mucus layer using mucin-producing LS174T colon carcinoma cells and human colonic mucosal biopsies. The level of EHEC binding and A/E lesion formation in LS174T cells was higher compared to mucin-deficient colon carcinoma cell lines, and initial adherence was independent of the presence of flagellin, E...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054438/epigenetic-regulates-transcription-and-pathogenesis-in-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis
#19
Tomas Pachano, Yesica R Nievas, Ayelen Lizarraga, Patricia J Johnson, Pablo H Strobl-Mazzulla, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Different T. vaginalis strains vary greatly in their adherence and cytolysis capacities. These phenotypic differences might be attributed to differentially expressed genes as a consequence of extra-genetic variation, such as epigenetic modifications. In this study we explored the role of histone acetylation in regulating gene transcription and pathogenesis in T...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030753/expression-dynamics-physiologically-relevant-functional-study-of-stevor-in-asexual-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#20
Himanshu Singh, Kripa Madnani, Ying Bena Lim, Jianshu Cao, Peter R Preiser, Chwee Teck Lim
The extensive modification of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes by Variant Surface Antigens (VSA) plays a major role in immune evasion and malaria induced pathology. Here, using high resolution microscopy we visualize the spatio-temporal expression dynamics of STEVOR, an important VSA family, in a stage dependent manner. We demonstrate that it is exported to the cell surface where protein molecules cluster and preferentially localize in proximity to knobs. Quantitative evidence from our force measurements and microfluidic assays reveal that STEVOR can effectively mediate the formation of stable, robust rosettes under static and physiologically relevant flow conditions...
December 28, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
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