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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892646/trafficking-of-pfexp1-to-the-parasitophorous-vacuolar-membrane-of-plasmodium-falciparum-is-independent-of-protein-folding-and-the-ptex-translocon
#1
Anke Tribensky, Andreas W Graf, Mathias Diehl, Wiebke Fleck, Jude M Przyborski
Having entered the mature human erythrocyte, the malaria parasite survives and propagates within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a membrane-bound compartment separating the parasite from the host cell cytosol. The bounding membrane of this vacuole, referred to as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM), contains parasite-encoded proteins, but how these membrane proteins are trafficked to the PVM remains unknown. Here we have studied the trafficking of PfExp1 to the PVM. We find that trafficking of PfExp1 to the PVM is independent of the folding state of the protein, and also continues unabated upon inactivation of the PVM translocon PTEX...
November 28, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886437/the-microrna-99-family-modulates-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-by-promoting-igf-1r-pi3k-akt-mtor-ulk1-signaling-induced-autophagy
#2
Yong Lin, Wanyu Deng, Jinke Pang, Thekla Kemper, Jing Hu, Jian Yin, Jiming Zhang, Mengji Lu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small highly conserved noncoding RNAs that are widely expressed in multicellular organisms and participate in the regulation of various cellular processes including autophagy and viral replication. Evidently, miRNAs are able to modulate host gene expression and thereby inhibit or enhance hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The miR-99 family members are highly expressed in the liver. Interestingly, the plasma levels of miR-99 family in the peripheral blood correspond with HBV DNA loads...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870323/inflammasome-activators-induce-fibronectin-expression-and-release-in-macrophages
#3
Hye-Kyoung Jun, Young-Jung Jung, Bong-Kyu Choi
Extracellular fibronectin (Fn) can activate pro-inflammatory pathways and serves as an endogenous danger signalling molecule; thus, it has been suggested as a biomarker for several diseases. In the present study, we found that pathogen-derived activators of the inflammasomes induce the expression and secretion of Fn in macrophages through a mechanism involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and caspase-1 activation. We also found that plasma Fn induces caspase-1 activation and cell death in macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts...
November 21, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860076/incoming-human-papillomavirus-16-genome-is-lost-in-pml-protein-deficient-hacat-keratinocytes
#4
Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba, Wioleta Luszczek, Timothy R Keiffer, Lucile G M Guion, Stephen DiGiuseppe, Rona S Scott, Martin Sapp
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) target PML nuclear bodies (NBs) during infectious entry and PML protein is important for efficient transcription of incoming viral genome. However, the transcriptional down regulation was shown to be promoter-independent in that heterologous promoters delivered by papillomavirus particles were also affected. To further investigate the role of PML protein in HPV entry, we used shRNA to knockdown PML protein in HaCaT keratinocytes. Confirming previous findings, PML knockdown in HaCaT cells reduced HPV16 transcript levels significantly following infectious entry without impairing binding and trafficking...
November 17, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860197/crispr-cas9-the-ultimate-weapon-to-battle-infectious-diseases
#5
REVIEW
M Doerflinger, W Forsyth, G Ebert, M Pellegrini, M J Herold
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. Novel therapeutics are urgently required to treat multi-drug resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by acute infections such as malaria and dengue fever virus as well as chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus -1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The CRISPR/Cas9 system, which has revolutionized biomedical research, holds great promise for the identification and validation of novel drug targets...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860066/crispr-cas9-a-powerful-tool-to-target-human-herpesviruses
#6
REVIEW
Ferdy R van Diemen, Robert Jan Lebbink
Over 90% of the adult population is infected with one or multiple herpesviruses. These viruses are characterized by their ability to establish latency, where the host is unable to clear the invader from infected cells resulting in a lifelong infection. Herpesviruses cause a wide variety of (recurrent) diseases such as cold sores, shingles, congenial defects and several malignancies. Although the productive phase of a herpesvirus infection can often be efficiently limited by nucleoside analogues, these drugs are ineffective during a latent herpesvirus infection and are therefore unable to clear herpesviruses from the human host...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862840/differential-nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-of-the-nucleoprotein-of-influenza-a-viruses-and-association-with-host-tropism
#7
Jing Li, Weinan Zheng, Lidan Hou, Can Chen, Wenhui Fan, Hongren Qu, Jingwen Jiang, Jinhua Liu, George F Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Lei Sun, Wenjun Liu
The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus plays a crucial role in virus replication, infectivity, and host adaptation. As a major component of the viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNP), NP initiates vRNP shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm in the host cell. However, the characteristics of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of NP from H1N1 influenza A virus still remain unclear. In the present study, the subcellular localization and the related key residues of the H1N1 influenza virus NP were identified and evaluated...
November 8, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886433/the-burkholderia-cenocepacia-peptidoglycan-associated-lipoprotein-is-involved-in-epithelial-cell-attachment-and-elicitation-of-inflammation
#8
Ruth Dennehy, Maria Romano, Alessia Ruggiero, Yasmine F Mohamed, Simon L Dignam, Cristóbal Mujica Troncoso, Máire Callaghan, Miguel A Valvano, Rita Berisio, Siobhán McClean
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens causing infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bcc is highly antibiotic resistant, making conventional antibiotic treatment problematic. The identification of novel targets for anti-virulence therapies should improve therapeutic options for infected CF patients. We previously identified that the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal) was immunogenic in Bcc infected CF patients; however, its role in Bcc pathogenesis is unknown...
November 7, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794209/microrna-in-innate-immunity-and-autophagy-during-mycobacterial-infection
#9
REVIEW
Jin Kyung Kim, Tae Sung Kim, Joyoti Basu, Eun-Kyeong Jo
The fine-tuning of innate immune responses is an important aspect of host defenses against mycobacteria. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play essential roles in regulating multiple biological pathways including innate host defenses against various infections. Accumulating evidence shows that many miRNAs regulate the complex interplay between mycobacterial survival strategies and host innate immune pathways. Recent studies have contributed to understanding the role of miRNAs, the levels of which can be modulated by mycobacterial infection, in tuning host autophagy to control bacterial survival and innate effector function...
October 29, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794208/infection-with-the-lyme-disease-pathogen-suppresses-innate-immunity-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#10
Nataliya Zlotnikov, Ashkan Javid, Mijhgan Ahmed, Azad Eshghi, Tian Tian Tang, Anoop Arya, Anil Bansal, Fatima Matar, Maitry Parikh, Rhodaba Ebady, Adeline Koh, Nupur Gupta, Peng Song, Yang Zhang, Susan Newbigging, Gary P Wormser, Ira Schwartz, Robert Inman, Michael Glogauer, Tara J Moriarty
Obesity is a major global public health concern. Immune responses implicated in obesity also control certain infections. We investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO) on infection with the Lyme disease bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi in mice. DIO was associated with systemic suppression of neutrophil- and macrophage-based innate immune responses. These included bacterial uptake and cytokine production, and systemic, progressive impairment of bacterial clearance and increased carditis severity...
October 29, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794207/lipid-droplet-hijacking-by-intracellular-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Roingeard, Rossana C N Melo
Lipid droplets were long considered to be simple storage structures, but they have recently been shown to be dynamic organelles involved in diverse biological processes, including emerging roles in innate immunity. Various intracellular pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, specifically target host lipid droplets during their life cycle. Viruses such as hepatitis C virus, dengue virus and rotaviruses use lipid droplets as platforms for assembly. Bacteria, such as mycobacteria and chlamydia, and parasites, such as trypanosomes, use host lipid droplets for nutritional purposes...
October 29, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781359/analysis-of-ca-2-mediated-signalling-regulating-toxoplasma-infectivity-reveals-complex-relationships-between-key-molecules
#12
Rebecca J Stewart, Lachlan Whitehead, Brunda Nijagal, Brad E Sleebs, Guillaume Lessene, Malcolm J McConville, Kelly L Rogers, Christopher J Tonkin
Host cell invasion, exit and parasite dissemination is critical to the pathogenesis of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp. These processes are regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) signalling although the temporal dynamics of Ca(2+) fluxes and down-stream second messenger pathways are poorly understood. Here we use a genetically encoded biosensor, GFP-Calmodulin-M13-6 (GCaMP6), to capture Ca(2+) flux in live Toxoplasma and investigate the role of Ca(2+) signalling in egress and motility...
October 26, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780306/the-multidrug-resistance-transporters-cgtpo1_1-and-cgtpo1_2-play-a-role-in-virulence-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-glabrata
#13
Rui Santos, Catarina Costa, Dalila Mil-Homens, Daniela Romão, Carla C C R de Carvalho, Pedro Pais, Nuno P Mira, Arsénio M Fialho, Miguel C Teixeira
The mechanisms of persistence and virulence associated to Candida glabrata infections are poorly understood, limiting the ability to fight this fungal pathogen. In this study, the multidrug resistance transporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2 are shown to play a role in C. glabrata virulence. The survival of the infection model Galleria mellonella, infected with C. glabrata, was found to increase upon the deletion of either CgTPO1_1 or CgTPO1_2. The underlying mechanisms were further explored. In the case of CgTpo1_1, this phenotype was found to be consistent with the observation that it confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), such as the human AMP histatin-5...
October 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762484/-non-haemolytic-enterotoxin-nhe-of-bacillus-cereus-induces-apoptosis-in-vero-cells
#14
Xiaoye Liu, Shuangyang Ding, Peijie Shi, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Kui Zhu
Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes foodborne infectious diseases and food poisoning. Non-haemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) is the major toxin found in almost all enteropathogenic B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. However, little is known about the cellular response after Nhe triggered pore formation on cell membrane. Here we demonstrate that Nhe induced cell cycle arrest at G0 /G1 phase and provoked apoptosis in Vero cells, most likely associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and death receptor pathways...
October 20, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739224/alteration-of-epithelial-cell-lysosomal-integrity-induced-by-bacterial-cholesterol-dependent-cytolysins
#15
Julien Karim Malet, Pascale Cossart, David Ribet
Bacterial pathogens can interfere during infection with host cell organelles, such as mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi system or nuclei. As important cellular functions are often compartmentalized in these organelles, their targeting allows pathogens to manipulate key host functions during infection. Here, we identify lysosomes as a new class of organelles targeted by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrate that extracellular Listeria, via secretion of the pore-forming toxin Listeriolysin O (LLO), alter lysosomal integrity in epithelial cells, but not in macrophages...
October 14, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739160/extrusions-are-phagocytosed-and-promote-chlamydia-survival-within-macrophages
#16
Meghan Zuck, Tisha Ellis, Anthony Venida, Kevin Hybiske
The precise strategies that intracellular pathogens use to exit host cells have a direct impact on their ability to disseminate within a host, transmit to new hosts, and engage or avoid immune responses. The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis exits the host cell by two distinct exit strategies, lysis and extrusion. The defining characteristics of extrusions, and advantages gained by Chlamydia within this unique double-membrane structure are not well understood. Here, we define extrusions as being largely devoid of host organelles, comprised mostly of Chlamydia elementary bodies, and containing phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of the extrusion membrane...
October 14, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706915/genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-exposed-to-osmotic-stress-reveals-regulators-of-osmotic-and-cell-wall-stresses-that-are-saka-hog1-and-mpkc-dependent
#17
Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Mario Henrique Paziani, Márcia Regina Von Zeska Kress, Diego M Riaño-Pachón, Daisuke Hagiwara, Laure N A Ries, Neil Andrew Brown, Gustavo H Goldman
Invasive aspergillosis is predominantly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and adaptations to stresses experienced within the human host are a prerequisite for the survival and virulence strategies of the pathogen. The central signal transduction pathway operating during hyperosmotic stress is the High Osmolarity Glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. A. fumigatus MpkC and SakA, orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hog1p, constitute the primary regulator of the hyperosmotic stress response...
October 5, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704705/the-iron-sulfur-cluster-sensor-iscr-is-a-negative-regulator-of-spi1-type-iii-secretion-system-in-salmonella-enterica
#18
Alexandra Vergnes, Julie P M Viala, Rabah Ouadah-Tsabet, Bérengère Pocachard, Laurent Loiseau, Stéphane Méresse, Frédéric Barras, Laurent Aussel
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S)-containing proteins contribute to various biological processes, including redox reactions or regulation of gene expression. Living organisms have evolved by developing distinct biosynthetic pathways to assemble these clusters, including ISC (Iron Sulfur Cluster) and SUF (Sulfur mobilization). Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, from gastroenteritis to severe systemic diseases. Salmonella possesses all known prokaryotic systems to assemble Fe-S clusters, including ISC and SUF...
October 5, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696627/influenza-a-nucleoprotein-targets-subnuclear-structures
#19
Chris T Höfer, Fabian Jolmes, Ivan Haralampiev, Michael Veit, Andreas Herrmann
The Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is the major protein component of the genomic viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes, which are the replication- and transcription-competent units of Influenza viruses. Early during infection, NP mediates import of vRNPs into the host cell nucleus where viral replication and transcription take place; also newly synthesized NP molecules are targeted into the nucleus, enabling coreplicational assembly of progeny vRNPs. NP reportedly acts as regulatory factor during infection, and it is known to be involved in numerous interactions with host cell proteins...
October 3, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696623/novel-insights-into-the-composition-and-function-of-the-toxoplasma-imc-sutures
#20
Allan L Chen, Andy S Moon, Hannah N Bell, Amy S Huang, Ajay A Vashisht, Justin Y Toh, Andrew H Lin, Santhosh M Nadipuram, Elliot W Kim, Charles P Choi, James A Wohlschlegel, Peter J Bradley
The Toxoplasma inner membrane complex (IMC) is a specialized organelle underlying the parasite's plasma membrane that consists of flattened rectangular membrane sacs that are sutured together and positioned atop a supportive cytoskeleton. We have previously identified a novel class of proteins localizing to the transverse and longitudinal sutures of the IMC, which we named ISCs. Here we have used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) at the sutures to better define the composition of this IMC subcompartment...
October 1, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
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