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Cellular Microbiology

Ming Liu, Shanshan Yang, Chengkun Zheng, Xuesong Luo, Weicheng Bei, Peng Cai
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a globally present marine bacterium that often leads to acute gastroenteritis. Two type III secretion systems (T3SSs), T3SS1 and T3SS2, are important for host infection. Type I collagen is a component of the extracellular matrix and is abundant in the small intestine. However, whether type I collagen serves as the cellular receptor for V. parahaemolyticus infection of host cells remains enigmatic. In this study, we discovered that type I collagen is not only important for the attachment of V...
May 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Chen Xiao-Ping, Zheng Hao, Li Wen-Ge, Chen Guo-Dong, Lu Jin-Xing
Systemic bacterial infections are prone to secondary Candida albicans superinfection. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. In this study, a model comprising sub-lethal cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) plus C. albicans intravenous injection (i.v.) was applied to mimic the situation in superinfection. Compared with mice without systemic bacterial infection, mice with systemic bacterial infection had lower anti-fungal gene expression (including Il1b, Tnf, Il6, Ifnb, Ifng, Cxcl1, and Ccr2) in monocytes, and less inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils infiltrating into the kidney when challenged with C...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Chandreyee Datta, Arijita Subuddhi, Manish Kumar, Thurbu Tshering Lepcha, Sohini Chakraborty, Kuladip Jana, Zhumur Ghosh, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with tumour progression, extracellular matrix remodelling and cell proliferation. miRNAs modulate host gene expression during infection by pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with varying degrees of gastric pathology. In order to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression by miRNAs during H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and its likely downstream consequences, we analysed the transcriptomes and miRnomes of AGS cells infected with H...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
L M van Leeuwen, M Boot, C Kuijl, D I Picavet, G van den Brink, S M A van der Pol, H E de Vries, N N van der Wel, M van der Kuip, A M van Furth, A M van der Sar, W Bitter
Central nervous system (CNS) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis, in particular in early childhood. In order to induce CNS infection, M. tuberculosis needs to cross specialized barriers protecting the brain. How M. tuberculosis crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enters the CNS is not well understood. Here, we use transparent zebrafish larvae and the closely related pathogen Mycobacterium marinum to answer this question. We show that in the early stages of development mycobacteria rapidly infect brain tissue, either as free mycobacteria or within circulating macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Xuran Zhuang, Xiuli Yang, Amanda S Altieri, Daniel C Nelson, Utpal Pal
One of the Borrelia burgdorferi virulence determinants, annotated as Lmp1, is a surface-exposed, conserved and potential multi-domain protein involved in various functions in spirochete infectivity. Lmp1 contributes to host-pathogen interactions and evasion of host adaptive immunity by spirochetes. Here we show that in diverse B. burgdorferi species, Lmp1 exists as distinct, region-specific and lower molecular mass polypeptides encompassing one or more domains, including independent N-terminal and middle regions and a combined middle and C-terminal region...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Samual C Allgood, M Ramona Neunuebel
Bacterial pathogens have developed a wide range of strategies to survive within human cells. A number of pathogens multiply in a vacuolar compartment, while others can rupture the vacuole and replicate in the host cytosol. A common theme among many bacterial pathogens is the use of specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins into the host cell. These effectors can manipulate the host's membrane trafficking pathways to remodel the vacuole into a replication-permissive niche and prevent degradation...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Mandy I Cheng, Chen Chen, Patrik Engström, Daniel A Portnoy, Gabriel Mitchell
Listeria monocytogenes grows in the host cytosol and uses the surface protein ActA to promote actin polymerization and mediate actin-based motility. ActA, along with two secreted bacterial phospholipases C (PLCs), also mediates avoidance from autophagy, a degradative process that targets intracellular microbes. Although it is known that ActA prevents autophagic recognition of L. monocytogenes in epithelial cells by masking the bacterial surface with host factors, the relative roles of actin polymerization and actin-based motility in autophagy avoidance are unclear in macrophages...
May 3, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Ambuj K Kushwaha, Liana Apolis, Daisuke Ito, Sanjay A Desai
Malaria parasites export many proteins into their host erythrocytes and increase membrane permeability to diverse solutes. While most solutes use a broad-selectivity channel known as the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC), increased Ca++ uptake is mediated by a distinct, poorly characterized mechanism that appears to be essential for the intracellular parasite. Here, we examined infected cell Ca++ uptake with a kinetic fluorescence assay and the virulent human pathogen, P. falciparum. Cell surface labeling with N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide esters revealed differing effects on transport into infected and uninfected cells, indicating that Ca++ uptake at the infected cell surface is mediated by new or altered proteins at the host membrane...
May 3, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Ralf Schuelein, Hugh Spencer, Laura F Dagley, Peng Fei Li, Lin Luo, Jennifer L Stow, Gilu Abraham, Thomas Naderer, Laura Gomez-Valero, Carmen Buchrieser, Chihiro Sugimoto, Junya Yamagishi, Andrew I Webb, Shivani Pasricha, Elizabeth L Hartland
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila influences numerous eukaryotic cellular processes through the Dot/Icm-dependent translocation of more than 300 effector proteins into the host cell. Although many translocated effectors localize to the Legionella replicative vacuole, other effectors can affect remote intracellular sites. Following infection, a subset of effector proteins localizes to the nucleus where they subvert host cell transcriptional responses to infection. Here we identified Lpg2519 (Lpp2587/Lpw27461), as a new nuclear-localized effector that we have termed SnpL...
April 24, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Ravi Bharadwaj, Shalini Sharma, Janhawi, Ranjana Arya, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Invasive infection in amoebiasis mostly affects intestinal epithelial cell lining, but can also involve other organs, such as liver, lungs or brain. Phagocytosis is an essential mode of nutrition in amoeba and has often been associated with virulence behaviour of E. histolytica. E. histolytica possesses a highly dynamic and actin-rich cytoskeleton that is thought to be involved in many processes, such as motility, pseudopod formation and pathogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Tze Hann Ng, Chia-Wei Lu, Shih-Shun Lin, Che-Chih Chang, Loc H Tran, Wen-Chi Chang, Chu-Fang Lo, Han-Ching Wang
An emerging bacterial disease, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), is caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with an additional AHPND-associated plasmid pVA1 encoding a virulent toxin (Pirvp ) that damages the shrimp's hepatopancreas. Like other species of Vibrio, these virulent strains initially colonize the shrimp's stomach, but it is not yet understood how the bacteria or toxins are subsequently able to cross the epithelial barrier and reach the hepatopancreas. Here, by using transcriptomics and system biology methods, we investigate AHPND-induced changes in the stomach of AHPND-causing V...
April 6, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Leticia S Guidolin, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Andres A Ciocchini, Diego J Comerci, Jean-Pierre Gorvel
Cyclic β-1,2-D-glucans (CβG) are natural bionanopolymers present in the periplasmic space of many Proteobacteria. These molecules are sugar rings made of 17 to 25 D-glucose units linked exclusively by β-1,2 glycosidic bonds. CβG are important for environmental sensing and osmoadaptation in bacteria, but most importantly, they play key roles in complex host-cell interactions such as symbiosis, pathogenesis and immunomodulation. In the last years, the identification and characterization of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of CβG allowed to know in detail the steps necessary for the formation of these sugar rings...
April 6, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Michinaga Ogawa, Ryuta Matsuda, Naoki Takada, Mikado Tomokiyo, Shouji Yamamoto, Sayaka Shizukusihi, Toshiyuki Yamaji, Yuko Yoshikawa, Mitsutaka Yoshida, Isei Tanida, Masato Koike, Miyo Murai, Hidetoshi Morita, Haruko Takeyama, Akihide Ryo, Jun-Lin Guan, Masahiro Yamamoto, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Toru Yanagawa, Mitsunori Fukuda, Hiroshi Kawabe, Makoto Ohnishi
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia and can penetrate epithelial barriers to enter the bloodstream and brain. We investigated intracellular fates of S. pneumoniae and found that the pathogen is entrapped by selective autophagy in pneumolysin- and ubiquitin-p62-LC3 cargo-dependent manners. Importantly, following induction of autophagy, Rab41 was relocated from the Golgi apparatus to S. pneumoniae-containing autophagic vesicles (PcAV), which were only formed in the presence of Rab41-positive intact Golgi apparatuses...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Aize Pellon, Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Xabier Guruceaga, Alazne Zabala, Idoia Buldain, Aitziber Antoran, Juan Anguita, Aitor Rementeria, Carlos Matute, Fernando L Hernando
Lomentospora (Scedosporium) prolificans is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. The fungus is able to disseminate via the bloodstream finally arriving at the central nervous system (CNS) producing neurological symptoms and in many cases, patient death. In this context, microglial cells, which are the resident immune cells in the CNS, may play an important role in these infections. However, this aspect of anti-L. prolificans immunity has been poorly researched to date...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Stéphanie Hallée, Natalie A Counihan, Kathryn Matthews, Tania F de Koning-Ward, Dave Richard
The inner membrane complex and the apical secretory organelles are defining features of apicomplexan parasites. Despite their critical roles, the mechanisms behind the biogenesis of these structures in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are still poorly defined. We here show that decreasing expression of the P. falciparum homologue of the conserved endolysomal escorter Sortilin-VPS10 prevents the formation of the inner membrane complex and abrogates the generation of new merozoites. Moreover, protein trafficking to the rhoptries, the micronemes and the dense granules is disrupted, which leads to the accumulation of apical complex proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and the parasitophorous vacuole...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Adam J Lopez-Denman, Alice Russo, Kylie M Wagstaff, Peter A White, David A Jans, Jason M Mackenzie
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, and is a significant pathogen of global medical importance. Flavivirus replication is known to be exclusively cytoplasmic, but we show here for the first time that access to the nucleus of the WNV strain Kunjin (WNVKUN ) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (protein NS5) is central to WNVKUN virus production. We show that treatment of cells with the specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) results in increased NS5 nuclear accumulation in WNVKUN -infected cells and NS5 transfected cells, indicative of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling under normal conditions...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Steffen Backert, Sabine Bernegger, Joanna Skórko-Glonek, Silja Wessler
The HtrA family of chaperones and serine proteases is important for regulating stress responses and controlling protein quality in the periplasm of bacteria. HtrA is also associated with infectious diseases since inactivation of htrA genes results in significantly reduced virulence properties by various bacterial pathogens. These virulence features of HtrA can be attributed to reduced fitness of the bacteria, higher susceptibility to environmental stress and/or diminished secretion of virulence factors. In some Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, HtrA itself can be exposed to the extracellular environment promoting bacterial colonization and invasion of host tissues...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Stéphanie Hallée, Catherine Theriault, Dominic Gagnon, Jessica Kehrer, Friedrich Frischknecht, Gunnar R Mair, Dave Richard
Compared to other eukaryotic cell types, malaria parasites appear to possess a more rudimentary Golgi apparatus being composed of dispersed, unstacked cis and trans-cisternae. Despite playing a central role in the secretory pathway of the parasite, few Plasmodium Golgi resident proteins have been characterized. We had previously identified a new Golgi resident protein of unknown function which we had named Golgi Protein 1 and now show that it forms a complex with a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein (Golgi Protein 2, GP2)...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Juliane Meir, Elena Hartmann, Marie-Therese Eckstein, Eva Guiducci, Florian Kirchner, Andreas Rosenwald, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann, J Christian Pérez
The fungus Candida albicans thrives on a variety of human mucosae, yet the fungal determinants that contribute to fitness on these surfaces remain underexplored. Here, by screening a collection of C. albicans deletion strains in a mouse model of oral infection (oropharyngeal candidiasis), we identify several novel regulatory genes that modulate the fitness of the fungus in this locale. We investigate in detail the interplay between the host mucosa and one of the identified mutants and establish that the C...
March 25, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Qing Cai, Sen-Miao Tong, Wei Shao, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases maintain dynamics of lysine acetylation/deacetylation on histones and nonhistone substrates involved in gene regulation and cellular events. Hos2 is a Class I histone deacetylases that deacetylates unique histone H4-K16 site in yeasts. Here, we report that orthologous Hos2 deacetylates H4-K16 and is also involved in the acetylation of histone H3-K56 and the phosphorylation of histone H2A-S129 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 CDK1-Y15 in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
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