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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622430/enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-an-active-defense-system-against-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#1
Akiko Urashima, Ayano Sanou, Hilo Yen, Toru Tobe
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a food-borne pathogen causing serious diarrheal diseases, must overcome attack by AMPs. Here, we show that resistance of EHEC against human cathelicidin LL-37, a primary AMP, was enhanced by butyrate, which has been shown to act as a stimulant for the expression of virulence genes. The increase of resistance depended on the activation of the ompT gene, which encodes the outer membrane protease OmpT for LL-37...
June 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618160/vaccinia-virus-a11-is-required-for-membrane-rupture-and-viral-membrane-assembly
#2
Cristina Suarez, Simone Hoppe, Esthel Pénard, Paul Walther, Jacomine Krijnse Locker
While most enveloped viruses acquire their membrane from the host by budding or a wrapping process, collective data argue that nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) may be an exception. The prototype member of NCLDVs, vaccinia virus (VACV) may induce rupture of ER-derived membranes to build an open membrane sphere that closes after DNA uptake. This unconventional membrane assembly pathway is also used by at least three other members of the NCLDVs. In this study we identify the VACV gene product of A11, as required for membrane rupture, hence for VACV-membrane assembly and virion formation...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618099/epec-effector-espf-promotes-crumbs3-endocytosis-and-disrupts-epithelial-cell-polarity
#3
Rocio Tapia, Sarah E Kralicek, Gail A Hecht
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a type three secretion system to inject effector proteins into host intestinal epithelial cells causing diarrhea. EPEC infection redistributes basolateral proteins β1-integrin and Na(+) /K(+) ATPase to the apical membrane of host cells. The Crumbs (Crb) polarity complex (Crb3/Pals1/Patj) is essential for epithelial cell polarization and tight junction (TJ) assembly. Here we demonstrate that EPEC displaces Crb3 and Pals1 from the apical membrane to the cytoplasm of cultured intestinal epithelial cells and colonocytes of infected mice...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580630/the-midgut-microbiota-plays-an-essential-role-in-sand-fly-vector-competence-for-leishmania-major
#4
Isabelle Louradour, Carolina Cunha Monteiro, Ehud Inbar, Kashinath Ghosh, Richard Merkhofer, Phillip Lawyer, Andrea Paun, Margery Smelkinson, Nagila Secundino, Michael Lewis, Dinesh Erram, Ludek Zurek, David Sacks
For many arthropod vectors, the diverse bacteria and fungi that inhabit the gut can negatively impact pathogen colonization. Our attempts to exploit antibiotic treatment of colonized Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies in order to improve their vector competency for Leishmania major resulted instead in flies that were refractory to the development of transmissible infections due to the inability of the parasite to survive and to colonize the anterior midgut with infective, metacyclic stage promastigotes. The parasite survival and development defect could be overcome by feeding the flies on different symbiont bacteria but not by feeding them on bacterial supernatants or replete medium...
June 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573684/lc3-association-with-the-parasitophorous-vacuole-membrane-of-plasmodium-berghei-liver-stages-follows-a-non-canonical-autophagy-pathway
#5
Rahel Wacker, Nina Eickel, Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer, Takeshi Annoura, Livia Niklaus, Shahid M Khan, Jun-Lin Guan, Volker T Heussler
Eukaryotic cells can employ autophagy to defend themselves against invading pathogens. Upon infection by Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, the host hepatocyte targets the invader by labelling the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) with the autophagy marker protein LC3. Until now it has not been clear whether LC3 recruitment to the PVM is mediated by fusion of autophagosomes or by direct incorporation. To distinguish between these possibilities, we knocked out genes that are essential for autophagosome formation and for direct LC3 incorporation into membranes...
June 1, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544363/expression-patterns-of-sterol-transporters-npc1-and-npc2-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#6
Vincent Dani, Fabrice Priouzeau, Marjolijn Mertz, Magali Mondin, Sophie Pagnotta, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Simon K Davy, Cécile Sabourault
The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians (e.g. corals and sea anemones) and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is triggered by both host-symbiont recognition processes and metabolic exchange between the two partners. The molecular communication is crucial for homeostatic regulation of the symbiosis, both under normal conditions and during stresses that further lead to symbiosis collapse. It is therefore important to identify and fully characterize the key players of this intimate interaction at the symbiotic interface...
May 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544656/the-cellular-ceramide-transport-protein-cert-promotes-chlamydia-psittaci-infection-and-controls-bacterial-sphingolipid-uptake
#7
Sophia Koch-Edelmann, Sebastian Banhart, Essa M Saied, Laura Rose, Lukas Aeberhard, Michael Laue, Joerg Doellinger, Christoph Arenz, Dagmar Heuer
Chlamydiaceae are bacterial pathogens that cause diverse diseases in humans and animals. Despite their broad host and tissue tropism, all Chlamydia species share an obligate intracellular cycle of development and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with their eukaryotic host cells. Here, we have analysed interactions of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia psittaci with a human epithelial cell line. We found that C. psittaci recruits the ceramide transport protein (CERT) to its inclusion. Chemical inhibition and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of CERT showed that CERT is a crucial factor for C...
May 19, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477431/ehrho1-regulates-plasma-membrane-blebbing-through-pi3-kinase-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#8
Ravi Bharadwaj, Ranjana Arya, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries. Motility of E. histolytica is important for its pathogenesis. Blebbing is an essential process contributing to cellular motility in many systems. In mammalian cells, formation of plasma membrane blebs is regulated by Rho-GTPases through its effectors, such as ROCK, mDia1 and acto-myosin proteins. In the present study, we have illuminated the role of EhRho1 in bleb formation and motility of E...
May 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476074/down-the-rabbit-hole-is-necroptosis-truly-an-innate-response-to-infection
#9
Jaclyn S Pearson, James M Murphy
Pathogenic microbes have evolved countless sophisticated mechanisms to subvert host immune responses and cause disease. Understanding evasion strategies employed by pathogens has led to numerous discoveries on specific host cell processes that are critical for controlling infection. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a key host defense to microbial infection, as well as being critical for organ development and cellular homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Much of our current understanding of PCD as a host response to infection has stemmed from the discovery and study of viral inhibitors of apoptosis, and more recently viral inhibition of the newly characterised from of PCD termed necroptosis, the mechanisms of which are still under intense investigation...
May 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436089/a-novel-dense-granule-protein-gra41-regulates-timing-of-egress-and-calcium-sensitivity-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Kaice A LaFavers, Karla M Márquez-Nogueras, Isabelle Coppens, Silvia N J Moreno, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite with high seroprevalence in humans. Repeated lytic cycles of invasion, replication, and egress drive both the propagation and the virulence of this parasite. Key steps in this cycle, including invasion and egress, depend on tightly regulated calcium fluxes and, although many of the calcium-dependent effectors have been identified, the factors that detect and regulate the calcium fluxes are mostly unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we used a forward genetic approach to isolate mutants resistant to extracellular exposure to the calcium ionophore A23187...
April 24, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423214/plasmodium-falciparum-otu-like-cysteine-protease-pfotu-is-essential-for-apicoplast-homeostasis-and-associates-with-non-canonical-role-of-atg8
#11
Gaurav Datta, Mohammad E Hossain, Mohd Asad, Sumit Rathore, Asif Mohmmed
The metabolic pathways associated with the mitochondrion and the apicoplast in Plasmodium, two parasite organelles of prokaryotic origin, are considered as suitable drug targets. In the present study, we have identified functional role of a novel OTU domain containing cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum (PfOTU). A C-terminal regulatable fluorescent affinity (RFA) tag on native protein was utilized for its localization and functional characterization. Detailed studies showed vesicular localization of PfOTU, and its association with the apicoplast...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409866/p-falciparum-rh5-basigin-interaction-induces-changes-in-the-cytoskeleton-of-the-host-rbc
#12
Yaw Aniweh, Xiaohong Gao, Piliang Hao, Wei Meng, Soak Kuan Lai, Karthigayan Gunalan, Trang T Chu, Ameya Sinha, Julien Lescar, Rajesh Chandramohanadas, Hoi Yeung Li, Siu Kwan Sze, Peter R Preiser
The successful invasion of Plasmodium is an essential step in their life cycle. The parasite reticulocyte-binding protein homologues (RHs) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins are two families involved in the invasion leading to merozoite-red blood cell (RBC) junction formation. Ca(2+) signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the invasion. RHs have been linked to Ca(2+) signaling, which triggers the erythrocyte-binding like proteins release ahead of junction formation, consistent with RHs performing an initial sensing function in identifying suitable RBCs...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382773/the-yin-and-yang-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-infectious-diseases-and-avenues-to-target-them
#13
REVIEW
Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Iris Bosschem, Freddy Haesebrouck, Jagadeesh Bayry
CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players for maintaining immune tolerance and for reducing the inflammation-mediated tissue damage following infection. However, Tregs also suppress protective immune responses to pathogens (including virus, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) and vaccines and enhance pathogen persistence by inhibiting the activation and functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes and by promoting immunosuppressive environment...
April 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376558/pfap2tel-harbouring-a-non-canonical-dna-binding-ap2-domain-binds-to-plasmodium-falciparum-telomeres
#14
Miguel Sierra-Miranda, Shruthi-Sridhar Vembar, Dulce María Delgadillo, Pedro A Ávila-López, Abril-Marcela Herrera-Solorio, Daniela Lozano Amado, Miguel Vargas, Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas
The telomeres of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are essential not only for chromosome end maintenance during blood stage development in humans but also to generate genetic diversity by facilitating homologous recombination of subtelomeric, multigene virulence families such as var and rifin. However, other than the telomerase PfTERT, proteins that act at P. falciparum telomeres are poorly characterised. To isolate components that bind to telomeres, we performed oligonucleotide pulldowns and electromobility shift assays with a telomeric DNA probe and identified a non-canonical member of the ApiAP2 family of transcription factors, PfAP2Tel (encoded by PF3D7_0622900), as a component of the P...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371168/ama1-and-maebl-are-important-for-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-infection-of-the-liver
#15
Annie S P Yang, Sash Lopaticki, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Justin A Boddey
The malaria sporozoite injected by a mosquito migrates to the liver by traversing host cells. The sporozoite also traverses hepatocytes before invading a terminal hepatocyte and developing into exoerythrocytic forms. Hepatocyte infection is critical for parasite development into merozoites that infect erythrocytes, and the sporozoite is thus an important target for antimalarial intervention. Here, we investigated two abundant sporozoite proteins of the most virulent malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and show that they play important roles during cell traversal and invasion of human hepatocytes...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371146/investigating-chitin-deacetylation-and-chitosan-hydrolysis-during-vegetative-growth-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#16
Ivey A Geoghegan, Sarah J Gurr
Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4-linked glucosamine. Chitosan is known to have important functions in the cell walls of a number of fungal species, but its role during hyphal growth has not yet been investigated. In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that chitosan localizes to the septa and lateral cell walls of vegetative hyphae and identified 2 chitin deacetylases expressed during vegetative growth-CDA1 and CDA4...
March 29, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346820/blastomyces-dermatitidis-serine-protease-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iva-dppiva-cleaves-elr-cxc-chemokines-altering-their-effects-on-neutrophils
#17
Jenna Lorenzini, J Scott Fites, Jeniel Nett, Bruce S Klein
Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response, which involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. While neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. We recently reported that the fungal protease DppIVA promotes B...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111881/helicobacter-hepaticus-cytolethal-distending-toxin-promotes-intestinal-carcinogenesis-in-129rag2-deficient-mice
#18
Zhongming Ge, Yan Feng, Lili Ge, Nicola Parry, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, James G Fox
Multiple pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria produce the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) with activity of DNase I; CDT can induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), G2/M cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells. However, the link of CDT to in vivo tumorigenesis is not fully understood. In this study, 129/SvEv Rag2(-/-) mice were gavaged with wild-type Helicobacter hepatics 3B1(Hh) and its isogenic cdtB mutant HhcdtBm7, followed by infection for 10 and 20 weeks (WPI). HhCDT deficiency did not affect cecal colonization levels of HhcdtBm7, but attenuated severity of cecal pathology in HhcdtBm7-infected mice...
July 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103630/orientia-tsutsugamushi-ank9-is-a-multifunctional-effector-that-utilizes-a-novel-grip-like-golgi-localization-domain-for-golgi-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-trafficking-and-interacts-with-host-copb2
#19
Andrea R Beyer, Kyle G Rodino, Lauren VieBrock, Ryan S Green, Brittney K Tegels, Lee D Oliver, Richard T Marconi, Jason A Carlyon
Orientia tsutsugamushi causes scrub typhus, a potentially fatal infection that afflicts 1 million people annually. This obligate intracellular bacterium boasts one of the largest microbial arsenals of ankyrin repeat-containing protein (Ank) effectors, most of which target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by undefined mechanisms. Ank9 is the only one proven to function during infection. Here, we demonstrate that Ank9 bears a motif that mimics the GRIP domain of eukaryotic golgins and is necessary and sufficient for its Golgi localization...
July 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#20
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
June 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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