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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778116/caveolin-1-restricts-group-a-streptococcus-invasion-of-non-phagocytic-host-cells
#1
Jin Yan Lim, Timothy C Barnett, Michele Bastiani, Kerrie-Ann McMahon, Charles Ferguson, Richard I Webb, Robert G Parton, Mark J Walker
Caveolae are composed of two major proteins, caveolin-1 (CAV1) and cavin-1/polymerase transcript factor I (CAVIN1). Here we demonstrate that CAV1 levels modulate invasion of group A Streptococcus (GAS) into non-phagocytic mammalian cells. GAS showed enhanced internalization into CAV1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and CAV1 knockdown human epithelial HEp-2 cells, whereas over-expression of CAV1 in HEp-2 cells reduced GAS invasion. This effect was not dependent on the expression of the GAS fibronectin binding protein SfbI, which had previously been implicated in caveolae-mediated uptake...
August 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776327/helicobacter-pylori-outer-inflammatory-protein-a-oipa-suppresses-apoptosis-of-ags-gastric-cells-in-vitro
#2
Anis Rageh Al-Maleki, Mun Fai Loke, Sook Yin Lui, Nur Siti Khadijah Ramli, Yalda Khosravi, Chow Goon Ng, Gopinath Venkatraman, Khean-Lee Goh, Bow Ho, Jamuna Vadivelu
Outer Inflammatory Protein A (OipA) is an important virulence factor associated with gastric cancer and ulcer development, however the results has not been well-established and turned out to be controversial. This study aims to elucidate the role of OipA in H. pylori infection using clinical strains harboring oipA "on" and "off" motifs. Proteomics analysis was performed on AGS cell pre and post-infection with H. pylori oipA "on" and "off" strains, using liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry. AGS apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed...
August 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753224/aspergillus-fumigatus-protein-phosphatase-ppza-is-involved-in-iron-assimilation-secondary-metabolite-production-and-virulence
#3
Adriana Oliveira Manfiolli, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Stephen Dolan, Sean Doyle, Gary Jones, Diego M Riaño Pachón, Mevlüt Ulaş, Luke M Noble, Derek J Mattern, Axel A Brakhage, Vito Valiante, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Ozgur Bayram, Gustavo H Goldman
Metal restriction imposed by mammalian hosts during an infection is a common mechanism of defense to reduce or avoid the pathogen infection. Metals are essential for organism survival due to its involvement in several biological processes. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a disease that typically manifests in immunocompromised patients. A. fumigatus PpzA, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase Z (PPZ), has been recently identified as associated with iron assimilation. A. fumigatus has two high affinity mechanisms of iron acquisition during infection: reductive iron assimilation (RIA) and siderophore-mediated iron uptake...
July 28, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745813/subversion-of-innate-immune-responses-by-francisella-involves-the-disruption-of-traf3-and-traf6-signaling-complexes
#4
Daniela Putzova, Swarupa Panda, Anetta Härtlova, Jiří Stulík, Nelson O Gekara
The success of pathogens depends on their ability to circumvent immune defenses. Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious bacteria known. The remarkable virulence of Francisella is believed to be due to its capacity to evade or subvert the immune system, but how remains obscure. Here we show that Francisella triggers but concomitantly inhibits the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and Cytoplasmic DNA (CDR) pathways. Francisella subverts these pathways at least in part by inhibiting K63-linked polyubiquitination and assembly of TRAF6 and TRAF3 complexes that control the transcriptional responses of PRRs...
July 26, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745416/a-role-for-host-cell-exocytosis-in-inlb-mediated-internalization-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#5
Hoan Van Ngo, Manmeet Bhalla, Da-Yuan Chen, Keith Ireton
The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalization of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localized polymerization of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerization, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Here we demonstrate that exocytosis in the human cell promotes InlB-dependent internalization. Using a probe consisting of VAMP3 with an exofacial Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) tag, focal exocytosis was detected during InlB-mediated entry...
July 26, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745020/distinct-roles-of-the-7-transmembrane-receptor-protein-rta3-in-regulating-the-asymmetric-distribution-of-phosphatidylcholine-across-the-plasma-membrane-and-biofilm-formation-in-candida-albicans
#6
Archita Srivastava, Shabnam Sircaik, Farha Husain, Edwina Thomas, Shivani Ror, Sumit Rastogi, Darakshan Alim, Priyanka Bapat, David R Andes, Clarissa J Nobile, Sneh L Panwar
Fungal pathogens like Candida albicans exhibit several survival mechanisms to evade attack by antifungals and colonize host tissues. Rta3, a member of the Rta1-like family of lipid-translocating exporters has a 7-transmembrane domain (7TMD) topology, similar to the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and is unique to the fungal kingdom. Our findings point towards a role for the plasma membrane localized Rta3 in providing tolerance to miltefosine, an analog of alkylphosphocholine, by maintaining mitochondrial energetics...
July 25, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672089/genome-packaging-of-reovirus-is-mediated-by-the-scaffolding-property-of-the-microtubule-network
#7
Pranav N M Shah, Megan L Stanifer, Katharina Höhn, Ulrike Engel, Uta Haselmann, Ralf Bartenschlager, Hans-Georg Kräusslich, Jacomine Krijnse-Locker, Steeve Boulant
Reovirus replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, in virally induced mini-organelles called virus factories. Based on the serotype of the virus, the virus factories can manifest as filamentous (T1L strain) or globular structures (T3D strain). The filamentous factories morphology is dependent on the microtubule cytoskeleton; however, the exact function of the microtubule network in virus replication remains unknown. Using a combination of fluorescent microscopy, electron microscopy, and tomography of high-pressure frozen and freeze substituted cells, we determined the ultrastructural organization of reovirus factories...
July 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672057/intracellular-salmonella-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Dirk Bumann, Joep Schothorst
Growth of Salmonella inside infected host cells is a key aspect of their ability to cause local enteritis or systemic disease. This growth depends on exploitation of host nutrients through a large Salmonella metabolism network with hundreds of metabolites and enzymes. Studies in cell culture infection models are unraveling more and more of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, but also show striking Salmonella metabolic plasticity depending on host cell line and experimental conditions. In vivo studies have revealed a qualitatively diverse, but quantitatively poor, host-Salmonella nutritional interface, which on one side makes Salmonella fitness largely resilient against metabolic perturbations, but on the other side severely limits Salmonella biomass generation and growth rates...
July 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671740/atp-prevents-woronin-bodies-from-sealing-septal-pores-in-unwounded-cells-of-the-fungus-zymoseptoria-tritici
#9
G Steinberg, M Schuster, C Hacker, S Kilaru, A Correia
Septa of filamentous ascomycetes are perforated by septal pores that allow communication between individual hyphal compartments. Upon injury, septal pores are plugged rapidly by Woronin bodies (WBs), thereby preventing extensive cytoplasmic bleeding. The mechanism by which WBs translocate into the pore is not known, but it has been suggested that wound-induced cytoplasmic bleeding "flushes" WBs into the septal opening. Alternatively, contraction of septum-associated tethering proteins may pull WBs into the septal pore...
July 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664674/adaptive-immunity-is-essential-in-preventing-recrudescence-of-plasmodium-yoelii-malaria-parasites-after-artesunate-treatment
#10
Carla Claser, Zi Wei Chang, Bruce Russell, Laurent Rénia
Artemisinin-based antimalarials, such as artesunate (ART), alone or in combination, are the mainstay of the therapy against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance threatens the future success of its global malaria eradication. Although much of the reported artemisinin resistance can be attributed to mutations intrinsic to the parasite, a significant proportion of treatment failures are thought to be due to other factors such as the host's immune system...
June 30, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656691/listeria-monocytogenes-cytosolic-metabolism-promotes-replication-survival-and-evasion-of-innate-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Grischa Y Chen, Daniel A Pensinger, John-Demian Sauer
Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis, is an intracellular pathogen that is exquisitely evolved to survive and replicate in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells typically restrict bacteria from colonising the cytosol, likely through a combination of cell autonomous defences, nutritional immunity, and innate immune responses including induction of programmed cell death. This suggests that L. monocytogenes and other professional cytosolic pathogens possess unique metabolic adaptations, not only to support replication but also to facilitate resistance to host-derived stresses/defences and avoidance of innate immune activation...
June 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656597/adherens-junctions-and-desmosomes-are-damaged-by-entamoeba-histolytica-participation-of-ehcpadh-complex-and-ehcp112-protease
#12
Elizabeth Hernández-Nava, Patricia Cuellar, Porfirio Nava, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Michael Schnoor, Esther Orozco, Abigail Betanzos
Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites adhere to epithelium at the cell-cell contact and perturb tight junctions (TJs) disturbing the transepithelial electrical resistance. Behind TJs are the adherens junctions (AJs) that reinforce them; and the desmosomes (DSMs) that maintain the epithelium integrity. The damage produced to AJs and DMSs by this parasite is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of the trophozoites, the EhCPADH complex and the EhCP112 recombinant enzyme (rEhCP112) on AJ and DSM proteins. We found that trophozoites degraded β-cat, E-cad, Dsp l/ll and Dsg-2 with the participation of EhCPADH and EhCP112...
June 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655069/delivery-of-parasite-cdg7_flc_0990-rna-transcript-into-intestinal-epithelial-cells-during-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-suppresses-host-cell-gene-transcription-through-epigenetic-mechanisms
#13
Yang Wang, Ai-Yu Gong, Shibin Ma, Xiqiang Chen, Juliane K Strauss-Soukup, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidial infection causes dysregulated transcription of host genes key to intestinal epithelial homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies demonstrate that several C. parvum RNA transcripts are selectively delivered into epithelial cells during host cell invasion and may modulate gene transcription in infected cells. We report here that C. parvum infection suppresses the transcription of LRP5, SLC7A8, and IL33 genes in infected intestinal epithelium. Trans-suppression of these genes in infected host cells is associated with promoter enrichment of suppressive epigenetic markers (i...
June 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the preintegration complex must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise, the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment, and simple diffusion is difficult...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622430/enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-an-active-defense-system-against-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#15
Akiko Urashima, Ayano Sanou, Hilo Yen, Toru Tobe
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a food-borne pathogen causing serious diarrheal diseases, must overcome attack by AMPs. Here, we show that resistance of EHEC against human cathelicidin LL-37, a primary AMP, was enhanced by butyrate, which has been shown to act as a stimulant for the expression of virulence genes. The increase of resistance depended on the activation of the ompT gene, which encodes the outer membrane protease OmpT for LL-37...
June 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618160/vaccinia-virus-a11-is-required-for-membrane-rupture-and-viral-membrane-assembly
#16
Cristina Suarez, Simone Hoppe, Esthel Pénard, Paul Walther, Jacomine Krijnse Locker
While most enveloped viruses acquire their membrane from the host by budding or a wrapping process, collective data argue that nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) may be an exception. The prototype member of NCLDVs, vaccinia virus (VACV) may induce rupture of ER-derived membranes to build an open membrane sphere that closes after DNA uptake. This unconventional membrane assembly pathway is also used by at least three other members of the NCLDVs. In this study we identify the VACV gene product of A11, as required for membrane rupture, hence for VACV-membrane assembly and virion formation...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618099/epec-effector-espf-promotes-crumbs3-endocytosis-and-disrupts-epithelial-cell-polarity
#17
Rocio Tapia, Sarah E Kralicek, Gail A Hecht
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host intestinal epithelial cells causing diarrhoea. EPEC infection redistributes basolateral proteins β1-integrin and Na(+) /K(+) ATPase to the apical membrane of host cells. The Crumbs (Crb) polarity complex (Crb3/Pals1/Patj) is essential for epithelial cell polarisation and tight junction (TJ) assembly. Here, we demonstrate that EPEC displaces Crb3 and Pals1 from the apical membrane to the cytoplasm of cultured intestinal epithelial cells and colonocytes of infected mice...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580630/the-midgut-microbiota-plays-an-essential-role-in-sand-fly-vector-competence-for-leishmania-major
#18
Isabelle Louradour, Carolina Cunha Monteiro, Ehud Inbar, Kashinath Ghosh, Richard Merkhofer, Phillip Lawyer, Andrea Paun, Margery Smelkinson, Nagila Secundino, Michael Lewis, Dinesh Erram, Ludek Zurek, David Sacks
For many arthropod vectors, the diverse bacteria and fungi that inhabit the gut can negatively impact pathogen colonization. Our attempts to exploit antibiotic treatment of colonized Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies in order to improve their vector competency for Leishmania major resulted instead in flies that were refractory to the development of transmissible infections due to the inability of the parasite to survive and to colonize the anterior midgut with infective, metacyclic stage promastigotes. The parasite survival and development defect could be overcome by feeding the flies on different symbiont bacteria but not by feeding them on bacterial supernatants or replete medium...
June 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573684/lc3-association-with-the-parasitophorous-vacuole-membrane-of-plasmodium-berghei-liver-stages-follows-a-non-canonical-autophagy-pathway
#19
Rahel Wacker, Nina Eickel, Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer, Takeshi Annoura, Livia Niklaus, Shahid M Khan, Jun-Lin Guan, Volker T Heussler
Eukaryotic cells can employ autophagy to defend themselves against invading pathogens. Upon infection by Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, the host hepatocyte targets the invader by labelling the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) with the autophagy marker protein LC3. Until now it has not been clear whether LC3 recruitment to the PVM is mediated by fusion of autophagosomes or by direct incorporation. To distinguish between these possibilities, we knocked out genes that are essential for autophagosome formation and for direct LC3 incorporation into membranes...
June 1, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346820/blastomyces-dermatitidis-serine-protease-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iva-dppiva-cleaves-elr-cxc-chemokines-altering-their-effects-on-neutrophils
#20
Jenna Lorenzini, J Scott Fites, Jeniel Nett, Bruce S Klein
Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response that involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Although neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. We recently reported that the fungal protease dipeptidyl peptidase IVA (DppIVA) promotes B...
September 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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