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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423214/plasmodium-falciparum-otu-like-cysteine-protease-pfotu-is-essential-for-apicoplast-homeostasis-and-associates-with-non-canonical-role-of-atg8
#1
Gaurav Datta, Mohammad E Hossain, Mohd Asad, Sumit Rathore, Asif Mohmmed
The metabolic pathways associated with the mitochondrion and the apicoplast in Plasmodium, two parasite organelles of prokaryotic origin, are considered as suitable drug targets. In the present study, we have identified functional role of a novel OTU domain containing cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum (PfOTU). A C-terminal regulatable fluorescent affinity (RFA) tag on native protein was utilized for its localization and functional characterization. Detailed studies showed vesicular localization of PfOTU, and its association with the apicoplast...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409866/rh5-basigin-interaction-induces-changes-in-the-cytoskeleton-of-the-host-rbc
#2
Yaw Aniweh, Xiaohong Gao, Piliang Hao, Wei Meng, Soak Kuan Lai, Karthigayan Gunalan, Trang T Chu, Ameya Sinha, Julien Lescar, Rajesh Chandramohanadas, Hoi Yeung Li, Siu Kwan Sze, Peter R Preiser
The successful invasion of Plasmodium is an essential step in their life cycle. The parasite reticulocyte-binding protein homologues (RHs) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins (EBLs) are two families involved in the invasion leading to merozoite-RBC junction formation. Ca(2+) signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the invasion. RHs have been linked to Ca(2+) signaling which triggers the EBLs release ahead of junction formation, consistent with RHs performing an initial sensing function in identifying suitable RBCs...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382773/the-yin-and-yang-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-infectious-diseases-and-avenues-to-target-them
#3
REVIEW
Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Iris Bosschem, Freddy Haesebrouck, Jagadeesh Bayry
CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players for maintaining immune tolerance. Tregs are critical for reducing the inflammation-mediated tissue damage following infection. However, Tregs also suppress protective immune responses to pathogens (including virus, bacteria, parasites and fungi) and vaccines, and enhance pathogen persistence by inhibiting the activation and functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, T and B lymphocytes, and by promoting immunosuppressive environment...
April 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376558/pfap2tel-harbouring-a-non-canonical-dna-binding-ap2-domain-binds-to-plasmodium-falciparum-telomeres
#4
Miguel Sierra-Miranda, Shruthi S Vembar, Dulce María Delgadillo, P A Ávila-López, Miguel Vargas, Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas
The telomeres of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are essential not only for chromosome end maintenance during blood stage development in humans but also to generate genetic diversity by facilitating homologous recombination of subtelomeric, multigene virulence families such as var and rifin. However, other than the telomerase PfTERT, proteins that act at P. falciparum telomeres are poorly characterized. To isolate components that bind to telomeres, we performed oligonucleotide pulldowns and electromobility shift assays with a telomeric DNA probe and identified a non-canonical member of the ApiAP2 family of transcription factors, PfAP2Tel (encoded by PF3D7_0622900), as a component of the P...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371168/ama1-and-maebl-are-important-for-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-infection-of-the-liver
#5
Annie S P Yang, Sash Lopaticki, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Justin A Boddey
The malaria sporozoite injected by a mosquito migrates to the liver by traversing host cells. The sporozoite also traverses hepatocytes before invading a terminal hepatocyte and developing into exoerythrocytic forms. Hepatocyte infection is critical for parasite development into merozoites that infect erythrocytes, and the sporozoite is thus an important target for antimalarial intervention. Here, we investigated two abundant sporozoite proteins of the most virulent malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and show that they play important roles during cell traversal and invasion of human hepatocytes...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#6
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) and Guillain- Barré Syndrome (GBS). Here we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371146/investigating-chitin-deacetylation-and-chitosan-hydrolysis-during-vegetative-growth-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#7
Ivey A Geoghegan, Sarah J Gurr
Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4-linked glucosamine. Chitosan is known to have important functions in the cell walls of a number of fungal species, but its role during hyphal growth has not yet been investigated. In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that chitosan localizes to the septa and lateral cell walls of vegetative hyphae, and identified two chitin deacetylases expressed during vegetative growth - CDA1 and CDA4...
March 29, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346820/blastomyces-dermatitidis-serine-protease-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iva-dppiva-cleaves-elr-cxc-chemokines-altering-their-effects-on-neutrophils
#8
Jenna Lorenzini, J Scott Fites, Jeniel Nett, Bruce S Klein
Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response, which involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. While neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. We recently reported that the fungal protease DppIVA promotes B...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318141/zika-virus-induced-cellular-remodelling
#9
Evan D Rossignol, Kristen N Peters, John H Connor, Esther Bullitt
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with morbidities such as Guillain-Barré, infant microcephaly, and ocular disease. The spread of this positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus and its growing public health threat underscore gaps in our understanding of basic ZIKV virology. To advance knowledge of the virus replication cycle within mammalian cells, we use serial section 3-dimensional electron tomography to demonstrate the widespread remodelling of intracellular membranes upon infection with ZIKV. We report extensive structural rearrangements of the endoplasmic reticulum and reveal stages of the ZIKV viral replication cycle...
March 20, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295924/flagellin-phase-dependent-swimming-on-epithelial-cell-surfaces-contributes-to-productive-salmonella-gut-colonisation
#10
Julia A Horstmann, Erik Zschieschang, Theresa Truschel, Juana de Diego, Michele Lunelli, Manfred Rohde, Tobias May, Till Strowig, Theresia Stradal, Michael Kolbe, Marc Erhardt
The flagellum is a sophisticated nanomachine and an important virulence factor of many pathogenic bacteria. Flagellar motility enables directed movements towards host cells in a chemotactic process, and near-surface swimming on cell surfaces is crucial for selection of permissive entry sites. The long external flagellar filament is made of tens of thousands subunits of a single protein, flagellin, and many Salmonella serovars alternate expression of antigenically distinct flagellin proteins, FliC and FljB. However, the role of the different flagellin variants during gut colonisation and host cell invasion remains elusive...
March 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#11
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT/B most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonization such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273394/inhibition-of-type-i-interferon-induction-and-signalling-by-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses
#12
REVIEW
Stephanie L Cumberworth, Jordan J Clark, Alain Kohl, Claire L Donald
The Flavivirus genus (Flaviviridae family) contains a number of important human pathogens, including dengue and Zika viruses, which have the potential to cause severe disease. In order to efficiently establish a productive infection in mammalian cells, flaviviruses have developed key strategies to counteract host immune defences, including the type I interferon response. They employ different mechanisms to control interferon signal transduction and effector pathways, and key research generated over the past couple of decades has uncovered new insights into their abilities to actively decrease interferon antiviral activity...
March 8, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256794/laser-capture-microdissection-enables-transcriptomic-analysis-of-dividing-and-quiescent-liver-stages-of-plasmodium-relapsing-species
#13
Roger Cubi, Shruthi S Vembar, Anne Biton, Jean-Francois Franetich, Mallaury Bordessoulles, Daniel Sossau, Gigliola Zhanghi, Henriette Bosson-Vanga, Magalie Benard, Alicia Moreno, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Roger Le Grand, Artur Scherf, Dominique Mazier
Dormant liver stage forms (hypnozoites) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax present major hurdles to control and eradicate infection. Despite major research efforts, the molecular composition of hypnozoites remains ill defined. Here, we applied a combination of state-of-the-art technologies to generate the first transcriptome of hypnozoites. We developed a robust laser dissection microscopy protocol to isolate individual P. cynomolgi hypnozoites and schizonts from infected monkey hepatocytes and optimized RNA-seq analysis to obtain the first transcriptomes of these stages...
March 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252830/the-ralstonia-solanacearum-effector-ripak-suppresses-plant-hypersensitive-response-by-inhibiting-the-activity-of-host-catalases
#14
Yunhao Sun, Pai Li, Mengying Deng, Dong Shen, Guangyi Dai, Nan Yao, Yongjun Lu
The destructive bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum delivers effector proteins via a type-III secretion system for its pathogenesis of plant hosts. However, the biochemical functions of most of these effectors remain unclear. RipAK of R. solanacearum GMI1000 is a type-III effector with unknown functions. Functional analysis demonstrated that in tobacco leaves, ripAK knockout bacteria produced an obvious hypersensitive response; also, infected tissues accumulated reactive oxygen species in a shorter period postinfection, compared with wild type...
March 2, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207988/the-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-dengue-virus-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Nilanka Perera, Joanna L Miller, Nicole Zitzmann
Symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections range from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic disease and death. Host-viral interactions play a significant role in deciding the fate of the infection. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a prosurvival cellular reaction induced in response to DENV-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. The UPR has complex interactions with the cellular autophagy machinery, apoptosis, and innate immunity. DENV has evolved to manipulate the UPR to facilitate its replication and to evade host immunity...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205319/the-plasmodium-rhoptry-associated-protein-complex-is-important-for-parasitophorous-vacuole-membrane-structure-and-intraerythrocytic-parasite-growth
#16
Sreejoyee Ghosh, Kit Kennedy, Paul Sanders, Kathryn Matthews, Stuart A Ralph, Natalie A Counihan, Tania F de Koning-Ward
Plasmodium parasites must invade erythrocytes in order to cause the disease malaria. The invasion process involves the coordinated secretion of parasite proteins from apical organelles that include the rhoptries. The rhoptry is comprised of two compartments, the neck and the bulb. Rhoptry neck proteins are involved in host cell adhesion and formation of the tight junction that forms between the invading parasite and erythrocyte, whereas the role of rhoptry bulb proteins remains ill-defined due to the lack of functional studies...
February 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186697/complement-activated-vitronectin-enhances-the-invasion-of-nonphagocytic-cells-by-bacterial-pathogens-burkholderia-and-klebsiella
#17
Yi Han Tan, Akshamal M Gamage, Yunn-Hwen Gan
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a serum-resistant Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing disseminated infections with metastatic complications. However, its interaction with nonphagocytic cells is poorly understood. We observed that exposure of B. pseudomallei and the closely related yet avirulent B. thailandensis to human plasma increased epithelial cell invasion by >20 fold. Enhanced invasion was primarily driven by a plasma factor, which required a functional complement cascade, but surprisingly, was downstream of C3 mediated opsonisation...
February 10, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125161/a-fibronectin-binding-protein-fbpa-of-weissella-cibaria-inhibits-colonization-and-infection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mammary-glands
#18
Liangliang Wang, Wei Si, Huping Xue, Xin Zhao
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infections in both humans and animals. Probiotics are known to inhibit colonization of pathogens on host tissues. However, mechanisms for the inhibition are still elusive due to complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Here we show that reduced abilities of S. aureus to infect mammary glands in the presence of Weissella cibaria were correlated with its poor adherence to mammary epithelial cells. Such inhibition by Weissella cibaria isolates was at least partially attributed to a fibronectin-binding protein (FbpA) on this lactic acid bacterium...
January 26, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860076/incoming-human-papillomavirus-16-genome-is-lost-in-pml-protein-deficient-hacat-keratinocytes
#19
Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba, Wioleta Luszczek, Timothy R Keiffer, Lucile G M Guion, Stephen DiGiuseppe, Rona S Scott, Martin Sapp
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) target promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) during infectious entry and PML protein is important for efficient transcription of incoming viral genome. However, the transcriptional down regulation was shown to be promoter-independent in that heterologous promoters delivered by papillomavirus particles were also affected. To further investigate the role of PML protein in HPV entry, we used small hairpin RNA to knockdown PML protein in HaCaT keratinocytes. Confirming previous findings, PML knockdown in HaCaT cells reduced HPV16 transcript levels significantly following infectious entry without impairing binding and trafficking...
May 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794208/infection-with-the-lyme-disease-pathogen-suppresses-innate-immunity-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Nataliya Zlotnikov, Ashkan Javid, Mijhgan Ahmed, Azad Eshghi, Tian Tian Tang, Anoop Arya, Anil Bansal, Fatima Matar, Maitry Parikh, Rhodaba Ebady, Adeline Koh, Nupur Gupta, Peng Song, Yang Zhang, Susan Newbigging, Gary P Wormser, Ira Schwartz, Robert Inman, Michael Glogauer, Tara J Moriarty
Obesity is a major global public health concern. Immune responses implicated in obesity also control certain infections. We investigated the effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) on infection with the Lyme disease bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi in mice. DIO was associated with systemic suppression of neutrophil- and macrophage-based innate immune responses. These included bacterial uptake and cytokine production, and systemic, progressive impairment of bacterial clearance, and increased carditis severity...
May 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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