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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028143/functional-analysis-of-toxoplasma-lactate-dehydrogenases-suggests-critical-roles-of-lactate-fermentation-for-parasite-growth-in-vivo
#1
Ningbo Xia, Jichao Yang, Shu Ye, Lihong Zhang, Yanqin Zhou, Junlong Zhao, L David Sibley, Bang Shen
Glycolysis was thought to be the major pathway of energy supply in both fast replicating tachyzoites and slowly growing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. However its biological significance has not been clearly verified. The genome of T. gondii encodes two lactate dehydrogenases (LDH), which are differentially expressed in tachyzoites and bradyzoites. In this study, we knocked out the two LDH genes individually and in combination, and found that neither gene was required for tachyzoite growth in vitro under standard growth conditions...
October 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024267/novel-t3ss-effector-esek-in-edwardsiella-piscicida-is-chaperoned-by-esch-and-escs-to-express-virulence
#2
Huifang Cao, Cuiting Yang, Shu Quan, Tianjian Hu, Lingzhi Zhang, Yuanxing Zhang, Dahai Yang, Qin Liu
Bacterium usually utilizes type III secretion systems (T3SS) to deliver effectors directly into host cells with the aids of chaperones. Hence, it is very important to identify bacterial T3SS effectors and chaperones for better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Edwardsiella piscicida is an invasive enteric bacterium, which infects a wide range of hosts from fish to human. Given E. piscicida encodes a functional T3SS to promote infection, very few T3SS effectors and chaperones have been identified in this bacterium so far...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975702/mechanisms-and-functions-of-guanylate-binding-proteins-and-related-interferon-inducible-gtpases-roles-in-intracellular-lysis-of-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Chinh C Ngo, Si Ming Man
Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are a group interferon-inducible GTPases within the constellation of the dynamin GTPase superfamily. These proteins restrict the replication of intracellular pathogens in both immune and non-immune cells. GBPs and their related family members Immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) target and lyse the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole, destroying the residential niche of vacuolar protozoal and bacterial pathogens. They also prevent virion infectivity and target replication complexes of RNA viruses...
October 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973822/leukocyte-recruitment-and-molecular-fortification-of-keratinocytes-triggered-by-streptococcal-m1-protein
#4
Sandra T Persson, Simon Hauri, Johan Malmström, Heiko Herwald
Streptococcus pyogenes of the M1 serotype is commonly associated with invasive streptococcal infections and development of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The M1 protein is a powerful inducer of inflammatory responses for several human cell types, but the reason why M1 protein-related strains is over-represented in invasive streptococcal diseases is still not understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate if soluble M1 protein can aggravate the severity of streptococcal skin infections in respect to inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, and tissue remodeling as seen in patients with cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis...
October 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973783/sweet-host-revenge-galectins-and-gbps-join-forces-at-broken-membranes
#5
REVIEW
Jörn Coers
Most bacterial pathogens enter and exit eukaryotic cells during their journey through the vertebrate host. In order to endure inside a eukaryotic cell, bacterial invaders commonly employ bacterial secretion systems to inject host cells with virulence factors that co-opt the host's membrane trafficking systems and thereby establish specialized pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as intracellular niches permissive for microbial growth and survival. To defend against these microbial adversaries hiding inside PVs, host organisms including humans evolved an elaborate cell-intrinsic armory of antimicrobial weapons that include noxious gases, antimicrobial peptides, degradative enzymes and pore-forming proteins...
October 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902970/a-genetic-screen-in-rodent-malaria-parasites-identifies-five-new-apicoplast-putative-membrane-transporters-one-of-which-is-essential-in-human-malaria-parasites
#6
Claire P Sayers, Vanessa Mollard, Hayley D Buchanan, Geoffrey I McFadden, Christopher D Goodman
The malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium, contains a unique non-photosynthetic plastid known as the apicoplast. The apicoplast is an essential organelle bound by four membranes. Although membrane transporters are attractive drug targets, only two transporters have been characterised in the malaria parasite apicoplast membranes. We selected 27 candidate apicoplast membrane proteins, 20 of which are annotated as putative membrane transporters, and performed a genetic screen in P. berghei to determine blood stage essentiality and subcellular localisation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886618/bcl10-synergistically-links-ceacam3-and-tlr-dependent-inflammatory-signalling
#7
Anna Sintsova, Cynthia X Guo, Helen Sarantis, Tak W Mak, Michael Glogauer, Scott D Gray-Owen
The neutrophil-specific innate immune receptor CEACAM3 functions as a decoy to capture Gram-negative pathogens, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that exploit CEACAM family members to adhere to the epithelium. Bacterial binding to CEACAM3 results in their efficient engulfment and triggers activation of an NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response by human neutrophils. Herein, we report that CEACAM3 cross-linking is not sufficient for induction of cytokine production, and show that the inflammatory response induced by N...
September 8, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876505/n-3-oxo-acyl-homoserine-lactone-induces-apoptosis-primarily-through-a-mitochondrial-pathway-in-fibroblasts
#8
Aaron M Neely, Guoping Zhao, Christian Schwarzer, Nicole S Stivers, Aaron G Whitt, Shuhan Meng, Joseph A Burlison, Terry E Machen, Chi Li
N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) is produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to function as a quorum-sensing molecule for bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 is also known to influence many aspects of human host cell physiology, including induction of cell death. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggered cell death is (are) still not completely known. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in "initiator" caspases or "effector" caspases...
September 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873507/borrelia-burgdorferi-outer-surface-protein-c-ospc-binds-complement-component-c4b-and-confers-bloodstream-survival
#9
Jennifer A Caine, Yi-Pin Lin, Julie R Kessler, Hiromi Sato, John M Leong, Jenifer Coburn
Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the US, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. We have found a novel role for OspC from B. burgdorferi and B...
September 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873268/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-hematogenous-spreading-of-s-aureus-device-biofilms-demonstrating-clumping-dispersal-as-an-advantageous-dissemination-mechanism
#10
R B Grønnemose, K L Saederup, H J Kolmos, S W K Hansen, C A Asferg, K J Rasmussen, Y Palarasah, T E Andersen
Staphylococcus aureus is able to disseminate from vascular device biofilms to the blood and organs, resulting in life-threatening infections such as endocarditis. The mechanisms behind spreading are largely unknown, especially how the bacterium escapes immune effectors and antibiotics in the process. Using an in vitro catheter infection model, we studied S. aureus biofilm growth, late-stage dispersal, and reattachment to downstream endothelial cell layers. The ability of the released biofilm material to resist host response and disseminate in vivo was furthermore studied in whole blood- and phagocyte survival assays, and in a short-term murine infection model...
September 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778116/caveolin-1-restricts-group-a-streptococcus-invasion-of-non-phagocytic-host-cells
#11
Jin Yan Lim, Timothy C Barnett, Michele Bastiani, Kerrie-Ann McMahon, Charles Ferguson, Richard I Webb, Robert G Parton, Mark J Walker
Caveolae are composed of two major proteins, caveolin-1 (CAV1) and cavin-1/polymerase transcript factor I (CAVIN1). Here we demonstrate that CAV1 levels modulate invasion of group A Streptococcus (GAS) into non-phagocytic mammalian cells. GAS showed enhanced internalization into CAV1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and CAV1 knockdown human epithelial HEp-2 cells, whereas over-expression of CAV1 in HEp-2 cells reduced GAS invasion. This effect was not dependent on the expression of the GAS fibronectin binding protein SfbI, which had previously been implicated in caveolae-mediated uptake...
August 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776327/helicobacter-pylori-outer-inflammatory-protein-a-oipa-suppresses-apoptosis-of-ags-gastric-cells-in-vitro
#12
Anis Rageh Al-Maleki, Mun Fai Loke, Sook Yin Lui, Nur Siti Khadijah Ramli, Yalda Khosravi, Chow Goon Ng, Gopinath Venkatraman, Khean-Lee Goh, Bow Ho, Jamuna Vadivelu
Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) is an important virulence factor associated with gastric cancer and ulcer development; however, the results have not been well established and turned out to be controversial. This study aims to elucidate the role of OipA in Helicobacter pylori infection using clinical strains harbouring oipA "on" and "off" motifs. Proteomics analysis was performed on AGS cell pre-infection and postinfection with H. pylori oipA "on" and "off" strains, using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry...
August 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753224/aspergillus%C3%A2-fumigatus-protein-phosphatase-ppza-is-involved-in-iron-assimilation-secondary-metabolite-production-and-virulence
#13
Adriana Oliveira Manfiolli, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Stephen Dolan, Sean Doyle, Gary Jones, Diego M Riaño Pachón, Mevlüt Ulaş, Luke M Noble, Derek J Mattern, Axel A Brakhage, Vito Valiante, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Ozgur Bayram, Gustavo H Goldman
Metal restriction imposed by mammalian hosts during an infection is a common mechanism of defence to reduce or avoid the pathogen infection. Metals are essential for organism survival due to its involvement in several biological processes. Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a disease that typically manifests in immunocompromised patients. A. fumigatus PpzA, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase Z (PPZ), has been recently identified as associated with iron assimilation. A. fumigatus has 2 high-affinity mechanisms of iron acquisition during infection: reductive iron assimilation and siderophore-mediated iron uptake...
July 28, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745020/distinct-roles-of-the-7-transmembrane-receptor-protein-rta3-in-regulating-the-asymmetric-distribution-of-phosphatidylcholine-across-the-plasma-membrane-and-biofilm-formation-in-candida-albicans
#14
Archita Srivastava, Shabnam Sircaik, Farha Husain, Edwina Thomas, Shivani Ror, Sumit Rastogi, Darakshan Alim, Priyanka Bapat, David R Andes, Clarissa J Nobile, Sneh L Panwar
Fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans exhibit several survival mechanisms to evade attack by antifungals and colonise host tissues. Rta3, a member of the Rta1-like family of lipid-translocating exporters has a 7-transmembrane domain topology, similar to the G-protein-coupled receptors and is unique to the fungal kingdom. Our findings point towards a role for the plasma membrane localised Rta3 in providing tolerance to miltefosine, an analogue of alkylphosphocholine, by maintaining mitochondrial energetics...
July 25, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745813/subversion-of-innate-immune-responses-by-francisella-involves-the-disruption-of-traf3-and-traf6-signalling-complexes
#15
Daniela Putzova, Swarupa Panda, Anetta Härtlova, Jiří Stulík, Nelson O Gekara
The success of pathogens depends on their ability to circumvent immune defences. Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious bacteria known. The remarkable virulence of Francisella is believed to be due to its capacity to evade or subvert the immune system, but how remains obscure. Here, we show that Francisella triggers but concomitantly inhibits the Toll-like receptor, RIG-I-like receptor, and cytoplasmic DNA pathways. Francisella subverts these pathways at least in part by inhibiting K63-linked polyubiquitination and assembly of TRAF6 and TRAF3 complexes that control the transcriptional responses of pattern recognition receptors...
November 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745416/a-role-for-host-cell-exocytosis-in-inlb-mediated-internalisation-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#16
Hoan Van Ngo, Manmeet Bhalla, Da-Yuan Chen, Keith Ireton
The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalisation of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localised polymerisation of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerisation, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exocytosis in the human cell promotes InlB-dependent internalisation. Using a probe consisting of VAMP3 with an exofacial green fluorescent protein tag, focal exocytosis was detected during InlB-mediated entry...
November 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671740/atp-prevents-woronin-bodies-from-sealing-septal-pores-in-unwounded-cells-of-the-fungus-zymoseptoria-tritici
#17
Gero Steinberg, Martin Schuster, Christian Hacker, Sreedhar Kilaru, Ana Correia
Septa of filamentous ascomycetes are perforated by septal pores that allow communication between individual hyphal compartments. Upon injury, septal pores are plugged rapidly by Woronin bodies (WBs), thereby preventing extensive cytoplasmic bleeding. The mechanism by which WBs translocate into the pore is not known, but it has been suggested that wound-induced cytoplasmic bleeding "flushes" WBs into the septal opening. Alternatively, contraction of septum-associated tethering proteins may pull WBs into the septal pore...
November 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664674/adaptive-immunity-is-essential-in-preventing-recrudescence-of-plasmodium-yoelii-malaria-parasites-after-artesunate-treatment
#18
Carla Claser, Zi Wei Chang, Bruce Russell, Laurent Rénia
Artemisinin-based antimalarials, such as artesunate (ART), alone or in combination, are the mainstay of the therapy against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance threatens the future success of its global malaria eradication. Although much of the reported artemisinin resistance can be attributed to mutations intrinsic to the parasite, a significant proportion of treatment failures are thought to be due to other factors such as the host's immune system...
November 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656597/adherens-junctions-and-desmosomes-are-damaged-by-entamoeba-histolytica-participation-of-ehcpadh-complex-and-ehcp112-protease
#19
Elizabeth Hernández-Nava, Patricia Cuellar, Porfirio Nava, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Michael Schnoor, Esther Orozco, Abigail Betanzos
Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites adhere to epithelium at the cell-cell contact and perturb tight junctions disturbing the transepithelial electrical resistance. Behind tight junctions are the adherens junctions (AJs) that reinforce them and the desmosomes (DSMs) that maintain the epithelium integrity. The damage produced to AJs and DMSs by this parasite is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of the trophozoites, the EhCPADH complex, and the EhCP112 recombinant enzyme (rEhCP112) on AJ and DSM proteins. We found that trophozoites degraded β-cat, E-cad, Dsp l/ll, and Dsg-2 with the participation of EhCPADH and EhCP112...
November 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655069/delivery-of-parasite-cdg7_flc_0990-rna-transcript-into-intestinal-epithelial-cells-during-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-suppresses-host-cell-gene-transcription-through-epigenetic-mechanisms
#20
Yang Wang, Ai-Yu Gong, Shibin Ma, Xiqiang Chen, Juliane K Strauss-Soukup, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidial infection causes dysregulated transcription of host genes key to intestinal epithelial homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies demonstrate that several Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) RNA transcripts are selectively delivered into epithelial cells during host cell invasion and may modulate gene transcription in infected cells. We report here that C. parvum infection suppresses the transcription of LRP5, SLC7A8, and IL33 genes in infected intestinal epithelium...
November 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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