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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103630/orientia-tsutsugamushi-ank9-is-a-multifunctional-effector-that-utilizes-a-novel-grip-like-golgi-localization-domain-for-golgi-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-trafficking-and-interacts-with-host-copb2
#1
Andrea R Beyer, Kyle G Rodino, Lauren VieBrock, Ryan S Green, Brittney K Tegels, Lee D Oliver, Richard T Marconi, Jason A Carlyon
Orientia tsutsugamushi causes scrub typhus, a potentially fatal infection that afflicts one million people annually. This obligate intracellular bacterium boasts one of the largest microbial arsenals of ankyrin repeat-containing protein (Ank) effectors, most of which target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by undefined mechanisms. Ank9 is the only one proven to function during infection. Here, we demonstrate that Ank9 bears a motif that mimics the GRIP domain of eukaryotic golgins and is necessary and sufficient for its Golgi localization...
January 19, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095608/esx-1-and-phthiocerol-dimycocerosates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-act-in-concert-to-cause-phagosomal-rupture-and-host-cell-apoptosis
#2
Jacques Augenstreich, Ainhoa Arbues, Roxane Simeone, Evert Haanappel, Alice Wegener, Fadel Sayes, Fabien Le Chevalier, Christian Chalut, Wladimir Malaga, Christophe Guilhot, Roland Brosch, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker
Although phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) are major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis, little is known about their mechanism of action. Localized in the outer membrane of mycobacterial pathogens, DIM are predicted to interact with host cell membranes. Interaction with eukaryotic membranes is a property shared with another virulence factor of Mtb, the early secretory antigenic target EsxA (also known as ESAT-6). This small protein, which is secreted by the type VII secretion system ESX-1 (T7SS/ESX-1), is involved in phagosomal rupture and cell death induced by virulent mycobacteria inside host phagocytes...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095607/heat-shock-protein-70-promotes-coxsackievirus-b3-translation-initiation-and-elongation-via-akt-mtorc1-pathway-depending-on-activation-of-p70s6k-and-cdc2
#3
Fengping Wang, Ye Qiu, Huifang M Zhang, Paul Hanson, Xin Ye, Guangze Zhao Ronald Xie, Lei Tong, Decheng Yang
We previously demonstrated that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection upregulated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and promoted CVB3 multiplication. Here, we report the underlying mechanism by which Hsp70 enhances viral RNA translation. By using an Hsp70-overexpressing cell line infected with CVB3, we found that Hsp70 enhanced CVB3 VP1 translation at two stages. First, Hsp70 induced upregulation of VP1 translation at the initiation stage via upregulation of IRES trans-acting factor La protein and activation of eIF4E binding protein 1, a cap-dependent translation suppressor...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092693/pathogenic-streptococcus-strains-employ-novel-escape-strategy-to-inhibit-bacteriostatic-effect-mediated-by-mammalian-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein
#4
Jing Wang, Youjun Feng, Changjun Wang, Swaminath Srinivas, Chen Chen, Hui Liao, Elaine He, Shibo Jiang, Jiaqi Tang
Pathogenic streptococcal species are responsible for some of the most lethal and prevalent animal and human infections. Previous reports have identified a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI) in two highly virulent clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2), a causative agent of high-mortality streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). This PAI contains a Type-IVC secretion system C subgroup (Type-IVC secretion system) that is involved in the secretion of unknown pathogenic effectors that are responsible for STSS caused by highly virulent strains of SS2...
January 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078755/modulation-of-host-cell-sumoylation-facilitates-efficient-development-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Mulaka Maruthi, Dipti Singh, Segireddy Rameswara Reddy, Babu S Mastan, Satish Mishra, Kota Arun Kumar
SUMOylation is a reversible post translational modification of proteins that regulates protein stabilization, nucleocytoplasmic transport and protein-protein interactions. Several viruses and bacteria modulate host SUMOylation machinery for efficient infection. Plasmodium sporozoites are infective forms of malaria parasite that infect hepatocytes and transforms into exoerythrocytic forms (EEFs). Here we show that, during EEF development, the distribution of SUMOylated proteins in host cell nuclei was significantly reduced and expression of the SUMOylation enzymes was downregulated...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076662/vps13f-links-bacterial-recognition-and-intracellular-killing-in-dictyostelium
#6
Jade Leiba, Ayman Sabra, Romain Bodinier, Anna Marchetti, Wanessa C Lima, Astrid Melotti, Jackie Perrin, Frederic Burdet, Marco Pagni, Thierry Soldati, Emmanuelle Lelong, Pierre Cosson
Bacterial sensing, ingestion and killing by phagocytic cells are essential processes to protect the human body from infectious microorganisms. The cellular mechanisms involved in intracellular killing, their relative importance, and their specificity towards different bacteria are however poorly defined. In this study, we used Dictyostelium discoideum, a phagocytic cell model amenable to genetic analysis, to identify new gene products involved in intracellular killing. A random genetic screen led us to identify the role of Vps13F in intracellular killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae...
January 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076660/influenza-a-virus-ns1-protein-induced-jnk-activation-and-apoptosis-are-not-functionally-linked
#7
Wolfgang Nacken, Viktor Wixler, Christina Ehrhardt, Stephan Ludwig
Expression of the influenza A virus (IAV) non-structural protein NS1 results in the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Both NS1 and JNK are involved in apoptosis induction. To investigate their interrelationship, we stably expressed a tamoxifen inducible NS1 oestrogen receptor fusion-protein (NS1ERT) in mammalian cells. Upon tamoxifen stimulation, NS1ERT expressing cells partially rescued the attenuated replication of NS1-deficient IAVs and also inhibited interferon up-regulation, confirming the functional competence of NS1ERT...
January 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070968/bacterial-short-chain-fatty-acid-metabolites-modulate-the-inflammatory-response-against-infectious-bacteria
#8
R O Corrêa, A Vieira, E M Sernaglia, M Lancellotti, A T Vieira, M J Avila-Campos, H G Rodrigues, M A R Vinolo
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), predominately acetic, propionic and butyric acids, are bacterial metabolites with an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis due to their metabolic and immunomodulatory actions. Some evidence suggests that they may also be relevant during infections. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of SCFAs in the effector functions of neutrophils to an opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Using a subcutaneous model to generate a mono, isolated infection of A...
January 9, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067475/the-chaperonin-tric-forms-an-oligomeric-complex-in-the-malaria-parasite-cytosol
#9
Natalie J Spillman, Josh R Beck, Suresh M Ganesan, Jacquin C Niles, Daniel E Goldberg
The malaria parasite exports numerous proteins into its host red blood cell (RBC). The trafficking of these exported effectors is complex. Proteins are first routed through the secretory system, into the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a membranous compartment enclosing the parasite. Proteins are then translocated across the PV membrane in a process requiring ATP and unfolding. Once in the RBC compartment the exported proteins are then refolded and further trafficked to their final localizations. Chaperones are important in the unfolding and refolding processes...
January 9, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061020/a-p4-atpase-subunit-of-the-cdc50-family-plays-a-role-in-iron-acquisition-and-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#10
Guanggan Hu, Mélissa Caza, Erik Bakkeren, Matthias Kretschmer, Gaurav Bairwa, Ethan Reiner, James Kronstad
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans delivers virulence factors such as capsule polysaccharide to the cell surface to cause disease in vertebrate hosts. In this study, we screened for mutants sensitive to the secretion inhibitor brefeldin A to identify secretory pathway components that contribute to virulence. We identified an ortholog of the Cdc50 family of the non-catalytic subunit of type IV P-type ATPases (flippases) that establish phospholipid asymmetry in membranes and function in vesicle-mediated trafficking...
January 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054754/the-stce-metalloprotease-of-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-reduces-the-inner-mucus-layer-and-promotes-adherence-to-human-colonic-epithelium-ex-vivo
#11
Claire L Hews, Seav-Ly Tran, Udo Wegmann, Bernard Brett, Alistair D S Walsham, Devon Kavanaugh, Nicole J Ward, Nathalie Juge, Stephanie Schüller
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne pathogen and tightly adheres to human colonic epithelium by forming attaching/effacing lesions. To reach the epithelial surface, EHEC must penetrate the thick mucus layer protecting the colonic epithelium. In this study, we investigated how EHEC interacts with the intestinal mucus layer using mucin-producing LS174T colon carcinoma cells and human colonic mucosal biopsies. The level of EHEC binding and A/E lesion formation in LS174T cells was higher compared to mucin-deficient colon carcinoma cell lines, and initial adherence was independent of the presence of flagellin, E...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054438/epigenetic-regulates-transcription-and-pathogenesis-in-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis
#12
Tomas Pachano, Yesica R Nievas, Ayelen Lizarraga, Patricia J Johnson, Pablo H Strobl-Mazzulla, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Different T. vaginalis strains vary greatly in their adherence and cytolysis capacities. These phenotypic differences might be attributed to differentially expressed genes as a consequence of extra-genetic variation, such as epigenetic modifications. In this study we explored the role of histone acetylation in regulating gene transcription and pathogenesis in T...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030753/expression-dynamics-physiologically-relevant-functional-study-of-stevor-in-asexual-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#13
Himanshu Singh, Kripa Madnani, Ying Bena Lim, Jianshu Cao, Peter R Preiser, Chwee Teck Lim
The extensive modification of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes by Variant Surface Antigens (VSA) plays a major role in immune evasion and malaria induced pathology. Here, using high resolution microscopy we visualize the spatio-temporal expression dynamics of STEVOR, an important VSA family, in a stage dependent manner. We demonstrate that it is exported to the cell surface where protein molecules cluster and preferentially localize in proximity to knobs. Quantitative evidence from our force measurements and microfluidic assays reveal that STEVOR can effectively mediate the formation of stable, robust rosettes under static and physiologically relevant flow conditions...
December 28, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008697/host-cell-binding-of-the-flagellar-tip-protein-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#14
Claudia M Freitag, Karin Strijbis, Jos P M van Putten
Flagella are nanofibers that drive bacterial movement. The filaments are generally composed of thousands of tightly packed flagellin subunits with a terminal cap protein, named FliD. Here we report that the FliD protein of the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni binds to host cells. Live-cell imaging and confocal microscopy showed initial contact of the bacteria with epithelial cells via the flagella tip. Recombinant FliD protein bound to the surface of intestinal epithelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion...
December 22, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992947/toxoplasma-gondii-autophagy-related-protein-atg9-is-crucial-for-the-survival-of-parasites-in-their-host
#15
Hoa Mai Nguyen, Hiba El Hajj, Rana El Hajj, Nadim Tawil, Laurence Berry, Maryse Lebrun, Yann Bordat, Sébastien Besteiro
Autophagy is a conserved, life-promoting, catabolic process involved in the recycling of non-essential cellular components in response to stress. The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an early-diverging eukaryote in which part of the autophagy machinery is not exclusively involved in a catabolic process, but instead has been repurposed for an original function in organelle inheritance during cell division. This function, depending essentially on protein TgATG8 and its membrane conjugation system, is crucial for parasite survival and prevented an in depth study of autophagy in the mutants generated so far in Toxoplasma...
December 19, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992096/snare-proteins-required-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-parasitophorous-vacuole-development
#16
Juan Agustín Cueto, María Cristina Vanrell, Betiana Nebaí Salassa, Sébastien Nola, Thierry Galli, María Isabel Colombo, Patricia Silvia Romano
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is an obligate intracellular parasite that exploits different host vesicular pathways to invade the target cells. Vesicular and target SNAREs are key proteins of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery. During the early times of T. cruzi infection, several vesicles are attracted to the parasite contact sites in the plasma membrane. Fusion of these vesicles promotes the formation of the parasitic vacuole and parasite entry. In this work, we study the requirement and the nature of SNAREs involved in the fusion events which take place during T...
December 19, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930836/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-propagates-through-interactions-between-syndecan-1-and-cd81-and-impacts-the-hepatocyte-glycocalyx
#17
Boyan Grigorov, Emma Reungoat, Alice Gentil Dit Maurin, Mihayl Varbanov, Julie Blaising, Maud Michelet, Rachel Manuel, Romain Parent, Birke Bartosch, Fabien Zoulim, Florence Ruggiero, Eve-Isabelle Pécheur
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes after binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, in particular Syndecan-1, followed by recognition of the tetraspanin CD81 and other receptors. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found in a specific microenvironment coating the hepatocyte surface called the glycocalyx and are receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, cytokines, growth factors, lipoproteins, and infectious agents. We investigated the mutual influence of HCV infection on the glycocalyx and revealed new links between Syndecan-1 and CD81...
December 8, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892646/trafficking-of-pfexp1-to-the-parasitophorous-vacuolar-membrane-of-plasmodium-falciparum-is-independent-of-protein-folding-and-the-ptex-translocon
#18
Anke Tribensky, Andreas W Graf, Mathias Diehl, Wiebke Fleck, Jude M Przyborski
Having entered the mature human erythrocyte, the malaria parasite survives and propagates within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a membrane-bound compartment separating the parasite from the host cell cytosol. The bounding membrane of this vacuole, referred to as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM), contains parasite-encoded proteins, but how these membrane proteins are trafficked to the PVM remains unknown. Here we have studied the trafficking of PfExp1 to the PVM. We find that trafficking of PfExp1 to the PVM is independent of the folding state of the protein, and also continues unabated upon inactivation of the PVM translocon PTEX...
November 28, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886437/the-microrna-99-family-modulates-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-by-promoting-igf-1r-pi3k-akt-mtor-ulk1-signaling-induced-autophagy
#19
Yong Lin, Wanyu Deng, Jinke Pang, Thekla Kemper, Jing Hu, Jian Yin, Jiming Zhang, Mengji Lu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small highly conserved noncoding RNAs that are widely expressed in multicellular organisms and participate in the regulation of various cellular processes including autophagy and viral replication. Evidently, miRNAs are able to modulate host gene expression and thereby inhibit or enhance hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The miR-99 family members are highly expressed in the liver. Interestingly, the plasma levels of miR-99 family in the peripheral blood correspond with HBV DNA loads...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870323/inflammasome-activators-induce-fibronectin-expression-and-release-in-macrophages
#20
Hye-Kyoung Jun, Young-Jung Jung, Bong-Kyu Choi
Extracellular fibronectin (Fn) can activate pro-inflammatory pathways and serves as an endogenous danger signalling molecule; thus, it has been suggested as a biomarker for several diseases. In the present study, we found that pathogen-derived activators of the inflammasomes induce the expression and secretion of Fn in macrophages through a mechanism involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and caspase-1 activation. We also found that plasma Fn induces caspase-1 activation and cell death in macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts...
November 21, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
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