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Cellular Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544363/expression-patterns-of-sterol-transporters-npc1-and-npc2-in-the-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#1
Vincent Dani, Fabrice Priouzeau, Marjolijn Mertz, Magali Mondin, Sophie Pagnotta, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Simon K Davy, Cécile Sabourault
The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians (e.g. corals and sea anemones) and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is triggered by both host-symbiont recognition processes and metabolic exchange between the two partners. The molecular communication is crucial for homeostatic regulation of the symbiosis, both under normal conditions and during stresses that further lead to symbiosis collapse. It is therefore important to identify and fully characterize the key players of this intimate interaction at the symbiotic interface...
May 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544656/the-cellular-ceramide-transport-protein-cert-promotes-chlamydia-psittaci-infection-and-controls-bacterial-sphingolipid-uptake
#2
Sophia Koch-Edelmann, Sebastian Banhart, Essa M Saied, Laura Rose, Lukas Aeberhard, Michael Laue, Joerg Doellinger, Christoph Arenz, Dagmar Heuer
Chlamydiaceae are bacterial pathogens that cause diverse diseases in humans and animals. Despite their broad host and tissue tropism, all Chlamydia species share an obligate intracellular cycle of development and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with their eukaryotic host cells. Here, we have analyzed interactions of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia psittaci with a human epithelial cell line. We found that C. psittaci recruits the ceramide transport protein CERT to its inclusion. Chemical inhibition and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of CERT showed that CERT is a crucial factor for C...
May 19, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477431/ehrho1-regulates-plasma-membrane-blebbing-through-pi3-kinase-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#3
Ravi Bharadwaj, Ranjana Arya, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries. Motility of E. histolytica is important for its pathogenesis. Blebbing is an essential process contributing to cellular motility in many systems. In mammalian cells, formation of plasma membrane blebs is regulated by Rho-GTPases through its effectors, such as ROCK, mDia1 and acto-myosin proteins. In the present study, we have illuminated the role of EhRho1 in bleb formation and motility of E...
May 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476074/down-the-rabbit-hole-is-necroptosis-truly-an-innate-response-to-infection
#4
Jaclyn S Pearson, James M Murphy
Pathogenic microbes have evolved countless sophisticated mechanisms to subvert host immune responses and cause disease. Understanding evasion strategies employed by pathogens has led to numerous discoveries on specific host cell processes that are critical for controlling infection. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a key host defense to microbial infection, as well as being critical for organ development and cellular homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Much of our current understanding of PCD as a host response to infection has stemmed from the discovery and study of viral inhibitors of apoptosis, and more recently viral inhibition of the newly characterised from of PCD termed necroptosis, the mechanisms of which are still under intense investigation...
May 5, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436089/a-novel-dense-granule-protein-gra41-regulates-timing-of-egress-and-calcium-sensitivity-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Kaice A LaFavers, Karla M Márquez-Nogueras, Isabelle Coppens, Silvia N J Moreno, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite with high seroprevalence in humans. Repeated lytic cycles of invasion, replication, and egress drive both the propagation and the virulence of this parasite. Key steps in this cycle, including invasion and egress, depend on tightly regulated calcium fluxes and, although many of the calcium-dependent effectors have been identified, the factors that detect and regulate the calcium fluxes are mostly unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we used a forward genetic approach to isolate mutants resistant to extracellular exposure to the calcium ionophore A23187...
April 24, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423214/plasmodium-falciparum-otu-like-cysteine-protease-pfotu-is-essential-for-apicoplast-homeostasis-and-associates-with-non-canonical-role-of-atg8
#6
Gaurav Datta, Mohammad E Hossain, Mohd Asad, Sumit Rathore, Asif Mohmmed
The metabolic pathways associated with the mitochondrion and the apicoplast in Plasmodium, two parasite organelles of prokaryotic origin, are considered as suitable drug targets. In the present study, we have identified functional role of a novel OTU domain containing cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum (PfOTU). A C-terminal regulatable fluorescent affinity (RFA) tag on native protein was utilized for its localization and functional characterization. Detailed studies showed vesicular localization of PfOTU, and its association with the apicoplast...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409866/p-falciparum-rh5-basigin-interaction-induces-changes-in-the-cytoskeleton-of-the-host-rbc
#7
Yaw Aniweh, Xiaohong Gao, Piliang Hao, Wei Meng, Soak Kuan Lai, Karthigayan Gunalan, Trang T Chu, Ameya Sinha, Julien Lescar, Rajesh Chandramohanadas, Hoi Yeung Li, Siu Kwan Sze, Peter R Preiser
The successful invasion of Plasmodium is an essential step in their life cycle. The parasite reticulocyte-binding protein homologues (RHs) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins are two families involved in the invasion leading to merozoite-red blood cell (RBC) junction formation. Ca(2+) signaling has been shown to play a critical role in the invasion. RHs have been linked to Ca(2+) signaling, which triggers the erythrocyte-binding like proteins release ahead of junction formation, consistent with RHs performing an initial sensing function in identifying suitable RBCs...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382773/the-yin-and-yang-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-infectious-diseases-and-avenues-to-target-them
#8
REVIEW
Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Iris Bosschem, Freddy Haesebrouck, Jagadeesh Bayry
CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players for maintaining immune tolerance and for reducing the inflammation-mediated tissue damage following infection. However, Tregs also suppress protective immune responses to pathogens (including virus, bacteria, parasites, and fungi) and vaccines and enhance pathogen persistence by inhibiting the activation and functions of both innate and adaptive immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes and by promoting immunosuppressive environment...
April 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376558/pfap2tel-harbouring-a-non-canonical-dna-binding-ap2-domain-binds-to-plasmodium-falciparum-telomeres
#9
Miguel Sierra-Miranda, Shruthi-Sridhar Vembar, Dulce María Delgadillo, Pedro A Ávila-López, Abril-Marcela Herrera-Solorio, Daniela Lozano Amado, Miguel Vargas, Rosaura Hernandez-Rivas
The telomeres of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are essential not only for chromosome end maintenance during blood stage development in humans but also to generate genetic diversity by facilitating homologous recombination of subtelomeric, multigene virulence families such as var and rifin. However, other than the telomerase PfTERT, proteins that act at P. falciparum telomeres are poorly characterised. To isolate components that bind to telomeres, we performed oligonucleotide pulldowns and electromobility shift assays with a telomeric DNA probe and identified a non-canonical member of the ApiAP2 family of transcription factors, PfAP2Tel (encoded by PF3D7_0622900), as a component of the P...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371168/ama1-and-maebl-are-important-for-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-infection-of-the-liver
#10
Annie S P Yang, Sash Lopaticki, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Justin A Boddey
The malaria sporozoite injected by a mosquito migrates to the liver by traversing host cells. The sporozoite also traverses hepatocytes before invading a terminal hepatocyte and developing into exoerythrocytic forms. Hepatocyte infection is critical for parasite development into merozoites that infect erythrocytes, and the sporozoite is thus an important target for antimalarial intervention. Here, we investigated two abundant sporozoite proteins of the most virulent malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and show that they play important roles during cell traversal and invasion of human hepatocytes...
March 31, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371146/investigating-chitin-deacetylation-and-chitosan-hydrolysis-during-vegetative-growth-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#11
Ivey A Geoghegan, Sarah J Gurr
Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4-linked glucosamine. Chitosan is known to have important functions in the cell walls of a number of fungal species, but its role during hyphal growth has not yet been investigated. In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that chitosan localizes to the septa and lateral cell walls of vegetative hyphae, and identified two chitin deacetylases expressed during vegetative growth - CDA1 and CDA4...
March 29, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346820/blastomyces-dermatitidis-serine-protease-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iva-dppiva-cleaves-elr-cxc-chemokines-altering-their-effects-on-neutrophils
#12
Jenna Lorenzini, J Scott Fites, Jeniel Nett, Bruce S Klein
Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response, which involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. While neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. We recently reported that the fungal protease DppIVA promotes B...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318141/zika-virus-induced-cellular-remodelling
#13
Evan D Rossignol, Kristen N Peters, John H Connor, Esther Bullitt
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with morbidities such as Guillain-Barré, infant microcephaly, and ocular disease. The spread of this positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus and its growing public health threat underscore gaps in our understanding of basic ZIKV virology. To advance knowledge of the virus replication cycle within mammalian cells, we use serial section 3-dimensional electron tomography to demonstrate the widespread remodelling of intracellular membranes upon infection with ZIKV. We report extensive structural rearrangements of the endoplasmic reticulum and reveal stages of the ZIKV viral replication cycle...
March 20, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295924/flagellin-phase-dependent-swimming-on-epithelial-cell-surfaces-contributes-to-productive-salmonella-gut-colonisation
#14
Julia A Horstmann, Erik Zschieschang, Theresa Truschel, Juana de Diego, Michele Lunelli, Manfred Rohde, Tobias May, Till Strowig, Theresia Stradal, Michael Kolbe, Marc Erhardt
The flagellum is a sophisticated nanomachine and an important virulence factor of many pathogenic bacteria. Flagellar motility enables directed movements towards host cells in a chemotactic process, and near-surface swimming on cell surfaces is crucial for selection of permissive entry sites. The long external flagellar filament is made of tens of thousands subunits of a single protein, flagellin, and many Salmonella serovars alternate expression of antigenically distinct flagellin proteins, FliC and FljB. However, the role of the different flagellin variants during gut colonisation and host cell invasion remains elusive...
March 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#15
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT type B (BoNT/B) most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonisation such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256794/laser-capture-microdissection-enables-transcriptomic-analysis-of-dividing-and-quiescent-liver-stages-of-plasmodium-relapsing-species
#16
Roger Cubi, Shruthi S Vembar, Anne Biton, Jean-Francois Franetich, Mallaury Bordessoulles, Daniel Sossau, Gigliola Zhanghi, Henriette Bosson-Vanga, Magalie Benard, Alicia Moreno, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Roger Le Grand, Artur Scherf, Dominique Mazier
Dormant liver stage forms (hypnozoites) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax present major hurdles to control and eradicate infection. Despite major research efforts, the molecular composition of hypnozoites remains ill defined. Here, we applied a combination of state-of-the-art technologies to generate the first transcriptome of hypnozoites. We developed a robust laser dissection microscopy protocol to isolate individual P. cynomolgi hypnozoites and schizonts from infected monkey hepatocytes and optimized RNA-seq analysis to obtain the first transcriptomes of these stages...
March 3, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252830/the-ralstonia-solanacearum-effector-ripak-suppresses-plant-hypersensitive-response-by-inhibiting-the-activity-of-host-catalases
#17
Yunhao Sun, Pai Li, Mengying Deng, Dong Shen, Guangyi Dai, Nan Yao, Yongjun Lu
The destructive bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum delivers effector proteins via a type-III secretion system for its pathogenesis of plant hosts. However, the biochemical functions of most of these effectors remain unclear. RipAK of R. solanacearum GMI1000 is a type-III effector with unknown functions. Functional analysis demonstrated that in tobacco leaves, ripAK knockout bacteria produced an obvious hypersensitive response; also, infected tissues accumulated reactive oxygen species in a shorter period postinfection, compared with wild type...
March 2, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#18
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
June 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067475/the-chaperonin-tric-forms-an-oligomeric-complex-in-the-malaria-parasite-cytosol
#19
Natalie J Spillman, Josh R Beck, Suresh M Ganesan, Jacquin C Niles, Daniel E Goldberg
The malaria parasite exports numerous proteins into its host red blood cell (RBC). The trafficking of these exported effectors is complex. Proteins are first routed through the secretory system, into the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), a membranous compartment enclosing the parasite. Proteins are then translocated across the PV membrane in a process requiring ATP and unfolding. Once in the RBC compartment the exported proteins are then refolded and further trafficked to their final localizations. Chaperones are important in the unfolding and refolding processes...
June 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061020/a-p4-atpase-subunit-of-the-cdc50-family-plays-a-role-in-iron-acquisition-and-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#20
Guanggan Hu, Mélissa Caza, Erik Bakkeren, Matthias Kretschmer, Gaurav Bairwa, Ethan Reiner, James Kronstad
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans delivers virulence factors such as capsule polysaccharide to the cell surface to cause disease in vertebrate hosts. In this study, we screened for mutants sensitive to the secretion inhibitor brefeldin A to identify secretory pathway components that contribute to virulence. We identified an ortholog of the cell division control protein 50 (Cdc50) family of the noncatalytic subunit of type IV P-type ATPases (flippases) that establish phospholipid asymmetry in membranes and function in vesicle-mediated trafficking...
June 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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