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Cellular Microbiology

Hannah F Preugschas, Eike R Hrincius, Carolin Mewis, Giao V Q Tran, Stephan Ludwig, Christina Ehrhardt
Activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade is required for efficient propagation of several RNA and DNA viruses, including human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In RSV infection, activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade is biphasic. An early induction within minutes after infection is associated with viral attachment. Subsequently, a second activation occurs with, so far, unknown function in the viral life cycle. In this study we aimed to characterise the role of Raf/MEK/ERK-mediated signalling during ongoing RSV infection...
September 17, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Woosuk Choi, Alina X Yang, Michelle A Waltenburg, Shawn Choe, Madeline Steiner, Ahmed Radwan, Jingjun Lin, Carrol W Maddox, Adam W Stern, Richard L Fredrickson, Gee W Lau
Because of exposure to environmental pollutants, infectious agents and genetic predisposition, companion animals develop respiratory illnesses similar to those in humans. Older dogs of smaller breeds develop canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD), chronic bronchitis (CB), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with chronic lung infection, airway goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia (GCHM) and mucus hypersecretion. Excessive mucus clogs airways, reduces gas exchanges, disables the mucociliary clearance and reduces drug penetration...
September 16, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Robert B Lochhead, Sheila L Arvikar, John M Aversa, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Klemen Strle, Allen C Steere
In most patients with Lyme arthritis (LA), antibiotic therapy results in Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen elimination, tissue repair, and return to homeostasis. However, despite spirochetal killing, some patients develop proliferative synovitis, characterized by synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, vascular damage, and fibrosis that persists for months to several years after antibiotic treatment, called post-infectious LA. In this study, we characterized the transcriptomes of post-infectious LA patients' synovial tissue, the target tissue of the immune response...
September 14, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
K M Wagstaff, S Headey, S Telwatte, D Tyssen, A C Hearps, D R Thomas, G Tachedjian, D A Jans
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing nations where high cost and logistical issues severely limit the use of current HIV therapeutics. This, combined HIV's high propensity to develop resistance, means that new anti-viral agents against novel targets are still urgently required. We previously identified novel anti-HIV agents directed against the nuclear import of the HIV Integrase (IN) protein, which plays critical roles in the HIV lifecycle inside the cell nucleus, as well as in transporting the HIV pre-integration complex (PIC) into the nucleus...
September 14, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Thomas Moest, Weidong Zhao, Yaya Zhao, Jan Moritz Schüssler, Wen Yan, Jean-Pierre Gorvel, Stéphane Méresse
Cells infected with Salmonella are characterized by the appearance of membrane tubular structures that stretch from the bacterial vacuole. The formation of these tubules requires the translocation of Salmonella effector proteins within the infected cell. Different types of Salmonella-induced tubules with varying host protein compositions have been identified. This variability probably reflects the ability of these tubules to interact with different host compartments. Membrane tubules decorated with effector proteins but essentially devoid of host proteins and named LAMP1-negative (LNT) were observed...
September 13, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Flavio De Maio, Basem Battah, Valentina Palmieri, Linda Petrone, Francesco Corrente, Alessandro Salustri, Ivana Palucci, Silvia Bellesi, Massimiliano Papi, Salvatore Rubino, Michela Sali, Delia Goletti, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Riccardo Manganelli, Marco De Spirito, Giovanni Delogu
PE_PGRSs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) represent a family of complex and peculiar proteins whose role and function remain elusive. In this study, we investigated PE_PGRS3 and PE_PGRS4, two highly homologous PE_PGRSs encoded by two contiguous genes in the Mtb genome. Using a gene-reporter system in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms) and transcriptional analysis in Mtb, we show that PE_PGRS3, but not PE_PGRS4, is specifically expressed under low phosphate concentrations. Interestingly, PE_PGRS3, but not PE_PGRS4, has a unique, arginine-rich C-terminal domain of unknown function...
September 7, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Azad Eshghi, Robert Gaultney, Patrick England, Sébastien Brûlé, Isabelle Miras, Hiromi Sato, Jenifer Coburn, Jacques Bellalou, Tara J Moriarty, Ahmed Haouz, Mathieu Picardeau
Pathogenic Leptospira bacteria are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans worldwide. These pathogenic species have the ability to rapidly cross host tissue barriers by a yet unknown mechanism. A comparative analysis of pathogens and saprophytes revealed a higher abundance of genes encoding proteins with Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) domains in the genomes of pathogens. In other bacterial pathogens, proteins with LRR domains have been shown to be involved in mediating host cell attachment and invasion...
September 1, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Alberto Bellido, Belén Hermosa, Toni Ciudad, Germán Larriba
We have analyzed the role of homologous recombination (HR) genes on the repair of DSBs induced by γ-ionizing radiation (IR) in Candida albicans. Depletion of either CaRad51 or CaRad52 caused a dramatic drop in the number of survivors compared to wild type, whereas depletion of CaRad59 caused a moderate decrease. Besides, compared to S. cerevisiae, C. albicans relies more on HR proteins for repair of IR lesions. Pulse-field electrokaryotypes of survivors identified genetic alterations mainly in the form of aneuploidy in HR mutants and chromosome length polymorphism and ectopic translocation in wild type...
September 1, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Pei-I Chi, Wei-Ru Huang, Hung-Chuan Chiu, Jyun-Yi Li, Brent L Nielsen, Hung-Jen Liu
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an energy source for many types of viruses for facilitating virus replication. This is the first report to demonstrate that the structural protein σA of avian reovirus (ARV) functions as an activator of cellular energy. Three cellular factors, isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 subunit beta (IDH3B), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) co-immunoprecipitated with ARV σA and were identified by 2D-LC/MS/MS. ARV enhances glycolytic flux through upregulation of glycolytic enzymes...
August 29, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Edith Acquaye-Seedah, Yimin Huang, Jamie N Sutherland, Andrea M DiVenere, Jennifer A Maynard
Pertussis toxin (PTx) is a major protective antigen produced by Bordetella pertussis that is included in all current acellular vaccines. Of several well-characterized monoclonal antibodies binding this toxin, the humanized hu1B7 and hu11E6 antibodies are highly protective in multiple in vitro and in vivo assays. In this study, we determine the molecular mechanisms of protection mediated by these antibodies. Neither antibody directly binds the B. pertussis bacterium nor supports antibody-dependent complement cytotoxicity...
August 27, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Chih-Ho Lai, Ju-Chun Huang, Hsin-Hung Cheng, Meng-Chen Wu, Mei-Zi Huang, Hui-Ying Hsu, Yu-An Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu, Yi-Jiun Pan, Yen-Ting Chu, Tsan-Jan Chen, Yu-Fang Wu, Wei Yang Sit, Jai-Shin Liu, Ya-Fang Chiu, Hung-Jung Wang, Wen-Ching Wang
Cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase (CGT) encoded by the type 1 capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis protein J (capJ) gene of Helicobacter pylori converts cellular cholesterol into cholesteryl glucosides. H. pylori infection induces autophagy that may increase bacterial survival in epithelial cells. However, the role of H. pylori CGT that exploits lipid rafts in interfering with autophagy for bacterial survival in macrophages has not been investigated. Here, we show that wild-type H. pylori carrying CGT modulates cholesterol to trigger autophagy and restrain autophagosome fusion with lysosomes, permitting a significantly higher bacterial burden in macrophages than that in a capJ-knockout (∆CapJ) mutant...
August 27, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Stefanie Norkowski, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
The delivery of effector proteins into infected eukaryotic cells represents a key virulence feature of many microbial pathogens in order to derail essential cellular processes and effectively counter the host defence system. Although bacterial effectors are truly numerous and exhibit a wide range of biochemical activities, commonalities in terms of protein structure and function shared by many bacterial pathogens exist. Recent progress has shed light on a species-spanning family of bacterial effectors containing an LPX repeat motif as a subtype of the leucine-rich repeat superfamily, partially combined with a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase domain...
August 23, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Mrigya Babuta, Sanjeev Kumar, Samudrala Gourinath, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
Phagocytosis is involved in invasive disease of the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Upon binding of red blood cells, there is a sequential recruitment of EhC2PK, EhCaBP1, EhAK1, and Arp2/3 complex during the initiation phase. In addition, EhCaBP3 is also recruited to the site and, along with myosin 1B, is thought to be involved in progression of phagocytic cups from initiation to phagosome formation. However, it is not clear how EhCaBP3 gets recruited to the rest of the phagocytic machinery. Here, we show that EhARPC2, a subunit of Arp2/3 complex, interacts with EhCaBP3 in a Ca2+ -dependent manner both in vivo and in vitro...
August 22, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Rebecca J Bayliss, Vincent Piguet
In order to thrive, viruses have evolved to manipulate host cell machinery for their own benefit. One major obstacle faced by pathogens is the immunological synapse. To enable efficient replication and latency in immune cells viruses have developed a range of strategies to manipulate cellular processes involved in IS formation to evade immune detection and control T-cell activation. In vitro, viruses such as HIV-1 and HTLV-1 utilise structures known as virological synapses to aid transmission of viral particles from cell-to-cell in a process termed trans-infection...
August 19, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Reinhard Beyer, Zeljkica Jandric, Christoph Zutz, Christa Gregori, Birgit Willinger, Ilse D Jacobsen, Pavel Kovarik, Joseph Strauss, Christoph Schüller
Candida glabrata is a common human fungal commensal and opportunistic pathogen. This fungus shows remarkable resilience as it can form recalcitrant biofilms on indwelling catheters, has intrinsic resistance against azole antifungals, and is causing vulvovaginal candidiasis. As a nosocomial pathogen, it can cause life-threatening bloodstream infections in immune-compromised patients. Here, we investigate the potential role of the high osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) MAP kinase pathway for C. glabrata virulence...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Annette Fischer, Thomas Rudel
Chlamydia belong to the group of obligate intracellular bacteria that reside in a membrane bound vacuole during the entire intracellular phase of their life cycle. This vacuole called inclusion shields the bacteria from adverse influences in the cytosol of the host cell like the destructive machinery of the cell-autonomous defence system. The inclusion thereby prevents the digestion and eradication in specialised compartments of the intact and viable cell called phagolysosomes or autophagolysosomes. It is becoming more and more evident that keeping the inclusion intact also prevents the onset of cell intrinsic cell death programmes that are activated upon damage of the inclusion and direct the cell to destruct itself and the pathogen inside...
August 12, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Yuxi Zhao, Kok P M van Kessel, Carla J C de Haas, Malbert R C Rogers, Jos A G van Strijp, Pieter-Jan A Haas
Staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) proteins, one of the major virulence factor families produced by Staphylococcus aureus, were previously demonstrated to be immune evasion molecules that interfere with a variety of innate immune defences. However, in contrast to characterised SSLs, which inhibit immune functions, we show that SSL13 is a strong activator of neutrophils via the formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). Moreover, our data show that SSL13 acts as a chemoattractant and induces degranulation and oxidative burst in neutrophils...
August 11, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Jessica Quintin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Duncan Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Dorothy Truong, Kirsten C Boddy, Veronica Canadien, Danielle Brabant, Gregory D Fairn, Vanessa M D'Costa, Etienne Coyaud, Brian Raught, Dolores Pérez-Sala, Wei Sun Park, Won Do Heo, Sergio Grinstein, John H Brumell
Salmonella uses Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) to deliver virulence factors, called effectors, into host cells during infection. The T3SS effectors promote invasion into host cells and the generation of a replicative niche. SopB is a T3SS effector that plays an important role in Salmonella pathogenesis through its lipid phosphatase activity. Here, we show that SopB mediates the recruitment of Rho GTPases (RhoB, RhoD, RhoH, and RhoJ) to bacterial invasion sites. RhoJ contributes to Salmonella invasion, and RhoB and RhoH play an important role in Akt activation...
July 16, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
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