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Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326649/leflunomide-for-the-treatment-of-trichodysplasia-spinulosa-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#1
Rawan Kassar, Janis Chang, An-Wen Chan, Leslie B Lilly, Ayman Al Habeeb, Coleman Rotstein
Trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) is a rare dermatologic complication associated with the immunosuppressive therapy used in solid organ transplantation. The distinctive clinical manifestation of this condition is spiny follicular papules on the face, ears, extremities, and trunk. Histopathologically, abnormally maturing hair follicles with hyperkeratotic material are noted. The condition is produced by the trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus. Treatment of this condition in the past has entailed a reduction in immunosuppression, topical agents such as cidofovir or retinoidsm or oral valganciclovir...
March 22, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326641/tattooing-and-immunodepression-caution-is-warranted-also-in-organ-transplant-patients
#2
LETTER
Nicolas Kluger
I read with great interest the case report by Trinh and Angarone(1) on a case of Purpureocillium lilacium infection after decorative tattooing in a patient with a kidney transplant. With the increasing popularity of tattooing, patients with immunocompromised conditions or those treated by immunosuppressive drugs may desire to get tattooed. Even though professional tattooists have improved in the field of hygiene and asepsis, there is no such thing as zero risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 22, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306183/flavivirus-cross-reactivity-in-serological-tests-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patient-a-case-report
#3
Sonia M Raboni, Carmem Bonfim, Bernardo M Almeida, Camila Zanluca, Andrea C Koishi, Paula R V P Rodrigues, Claudia K Kay, Lisandro L Ribeiro, Rosana H Scola, Claudia N Duarte Dos Santos
Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infection is a challenge, particularly in the context of a disease associated with immune response enhancement in a transplant patient, where aspects such as previous flavivirus infections may be involved with the outcome. We report a case of a pediatric patient who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after matched-unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patient lives in a Brazilian region that is experiencing an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV)...
March 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295889/acute-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-causing-acute-liver-failure-requiring-living-donor-liver-transplantation-in-a-non-pregnant-immunocompetent-woman
#4
Wai Sum Li, Kenneth Chok
We report a rare case of acute liver failure from acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a non-pregnant woman without comorbidities who survived after liver transplantation. The source was likely consumption of partially cooked pig liver. HEV genotype 3 is the second most common genotype causing acute hepatitis E in developed countries. Fulminant hepatitis E rarely occurs without a risk factor, as in our patient. Vigilant monitoring for chronic hepatitis E in post-transplant immunocompromised patients is needed. This article is protected by copyright...
March 14, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295973/cutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-in-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patient-caused-by-alternaria-rosae-first-case-report
#5
Amy W Liu, Allen C Bateman, Adam Greenbaum, Kanishka Garvin, Jill Clarridge, Jonathan Grim
Alternaria species have been reported as a rare cause of fungal infection in organ and stem cell transplant recipients, but to date no reports have been published of infection in humans caused by Alternaria rosae. Here, we report cutaneous A. rosae infection in a 66-year-old farmer with a history of primary myelofibrosis who had undergone allogeneic unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Forty-nine days post transplant, he presented with a nodule on the thumb with no findings suggestive of disseminated infection...
March 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295849/efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-simeprevir-daclatasvir-and-ribavirin-in-patients-with-recurrent-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b-infection-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-the-phase-ii-saturn-study
#6
Xavier Forns, Marina Berenguer, Kerstin Herzer, Martina Sterneck, Maria Francesca Donato, Pietro Andreone, Stefano Fagiuoli, Tomasz Cieciura, Magdalena Durlik, Jose Luis Calleja, Zoe Mariño, Umesh Shukla, Thierry Verbinnen, Oliver Lenz, Sivi Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Monika Peeters, Katrien Janssen, Ronald Kalmeijer, Wolfgang Jessner
BACKGROUND: Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following liver transplantation is associated with accelerated progression to graft failure and reduced patient survival. METHODS: The Phase II, open-label SATURN study (NCT01938625) investigated the combination of simeprevir (SMV), daclatasvir (DCV), and ribavirin (RBV) administered for 24 weeks in 35 patients with recurrent HCV genotype (GT) 1b infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). RESULTS: High rates of both on-treatment and sustained virologic response 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12) were achieved in patients who were either treatment-naïve or had failed post-OLT treatment with peginterferon and RBV...
March 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294481/mycoplasma-hominis-periaortic-abscess-following-heart-lung-transplantation
#7
Hideharu Hagiya, Hisao Yoshida, Norihisa Yamamoto, Keigo Kimura, Akiko Ueda, Isao Nishi, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazunori Tomono
We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation, to our knowledge. The absence of sternal wound infection delayed the diagnosis, but the patient successfully recovered with debridement surgeries and long-term antibiotic therapy. Owing to the difficulty in detection and the intrinsic resistance to beta-lactams, M. hominis infections are prone to being misdiagnosed and undertreated. M. hominis should be suspected in cases where conventional microbiological identification and treatment approaches fail...
March 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296035/sepsis-after-renal-transplantation-clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-risk-factors
#8
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: As immunosuppressive therapy and allograft survival have improved, the increased incidence of sepsis has become a major hurdle of disease-free survival after renal transplantation. METHODS: We identified 112 of 957 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with sepsis. 31 KTRs developed severe sepsis or septic shock, and 30 KTRs died from sepsis. KTRs without sepsis were used for comparison. CMV-specific and alloreactive T-cells were measured using an interferon-γ Elispot-assay...
March 11, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295964/respiratory-virus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-a-tropical-center-predictive-value-of-the-immunodeficiency-scoring-index
#9
Lin Wang, John Allen, Colin Diong, Yeow-Tee Goh, Sathish Gopalakrishnan, Aloysius Ho, William Hwang, Francesca Lim, Lynette Oon, Thuan-Tong Tan, Yeh-Ching Linn, Ban-Hock Tan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) is a prevalent infection in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Ability to assess the potential severity of RVI is important in the management of such patients. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of RVI in allo-HSCT recipients and explored the predictive value of the immunodeficiency scoring index (ISI) established for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and its applicability for RVI caused by other respiratory viruses...
March 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294487/risk-factors-survival-and-impact-of-prophylaxis-length-in-cytomegalovirus-seropositive-lung-transplant-recipients-a-prospective-observational-multicenter-study
#10
Victor Monforte, Helena Sintes, C López-Gallo, M Delgado, Francisco Santos, Felipe Zurbano, A Solé, Joan Gavaldá, J M Borro, Javier Redel-Montero, J M Cifrian, A Pastor, Antonio Román, Piedad Ussetti
BACKGROUND: The optimal length of cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in lung transplantation according to CMV serostatus is not well established. METHODS: We have performed a prospective, observational, multicenter study in order to determine the incidence of CMV infection and disease in 92 CMV-seropositive lung transplant recipients (LTR), their related outcomes and risk factors, and the impact of prophylaxis length. RESULTS: At 18 months post transplantation, 37 patients (40%) developed CMV infection (23 [25%]) or disease (14 [15...
March 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273399/clinical-presentation-and-outcomes-of-norovirus-infection-in-intestinal-allograft-compared-to-native-intestine
#11
Diana F Florescu, Jessica L Sonderup, Wendy Grant, Pearlie P Chong, David van Duin, Andre C Kalil
BACKGROUND: No data are available on clinical manifestations and course of norovirus gastroenteritis (NVE) in intestinal allograft (from intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients, ITR) compared to native intestine (from other allograft recipients, nITR). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of solid organ transplant recipients with NVE at two centers from January 1, 2010 to April 1, 2014. Chi-square, t-test, linear and logistic regression analyses were done to compare NVE in ITR vs nITR patients...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273393/a-retrospective-study-to-describe-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-opportunistic-infections-after-abdominal-organ-transplantation
#12
Mia Helfrich, Peter Dorschner, Kathryn Thomas, Valentina Stosor, Michael G Ison
BACKGROUND: Most epidemiologic studies of opportunistic infections (OI) following abdominal organ transplant (AOT) are derived prior to the era of contemporary immunosuppression and prophylaxis. These studies suggest that most OI occur within the first 6 months post transplant. METHOD: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, we describe the epidemiology of OI in 359 consecutive AOT recipients, in the era of contemporary prophylaxis practices and alemtuzumab induction in kidney and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant recipients...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273391/liver-transplantation-for-fulminant-genotype-2a-c-hepatitis-c-virus-marked-by-a-rapid-recurrence-followed-by-cure
#13
Brett Tracy, Roshan Shrestha, Lance Stein, Devina Bhasin, Harrison Pollinger, Raymond A Rubin
Although chronic hepatitis C is still the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States and Europe, acute liver failure caused by to hepatitis C is distinctly uncommon and transplantation for fulminant hepatitis C virus (HCV) has not been documented in the United States. We present a case report of fulminant hepatic failure caused by genotype 2a/c HCV not only treated with LT, but also complicated by severe, rapid recurrence of HCV within 6 days of transplantation. The risk factor for the infection was likely sexual, as there were no other concomitant causes of liver disease pre-transplant or explanations for acute hepatitis post-transplant...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273390/purpureocillium-lilacinum-tattoo-related-skin-infection-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#14
Sonya A Trinh, Michael P Angarone
Purpureocillium lilacinum is an emerging pathogenic mold among immunocompromised hosts that causes cutaneous infections related to skin breakdown. We present the first reported case of P. lilacinum tattoo-related skin infection, to our knowledge. A kidney transplant recipient recently treated for acute cellular rejection presented with skin papules overlying a tattoo. Diagnosis was confirmed on culture, histology, and 18s ribosomal RNA polymerase chain reaction. The morphological features on culture characteristic of P...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273385/effect-of-aerosolized-antipseudomonals-on-pseudomonas-positivity-and-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-after-lung-transplantation
#15
Cody A Moore, Joseph M Pilewski, Raman Venkataraman, Keven M Robinson, Matthew R Morrell, Stephen R Wisniewski, Adriana Zeevi, John F McDyer, Christopher R Ensor
PURPOSE: To describe the effects of aerosolized antipseudomonals (AAP) on Pseudomonas (PS) culture positivity, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and acute cellular rejection (ACR) in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). METHODS: Single-center, retrospective cohort study of adult LTRs treated with either AAP for ≥28 days vs no AAP therapy or AAP therapy <28 days, indexed to a matched median date post lung transplantation (LT). Primary outcome was freedom from PS positivity by positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or bronchial wash at 1 year...
March 8, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258601/incidence-and-outcome-of-bk-polyomavirus-infection-in-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-with-renal-transplant-patients-receiving-cyclosporine-mycophenolate-sodium-or-everolimus-based-low-dose-immunosuppressive-therapy
#16
Willem B van Doesum, Lilli Gard, Frederike J Bemelman, Johan W de Fijter, Jaap J Homan van der Heide, Hubert G M Niesters, Willem J van Son, Coen A Stegeman, Henk Groen, Annelies Riezebos-Brilman, Jan Stephan F Sanders
INTRODUCTION: It remains unclear whether overall degree of immunosuppression or specific effects of individual immunosuppressive agents are causal for increased occurrence of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection in renal transplant recipients (RTR). METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial in 361 de novo RTR was performed. A total of 224 RTR were randomized at 6 months into three treatment groups with dual therapy consisting of prednisolone (Pred) plus either cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate sodium (MPS), or everolimus (EVL)...
March 4, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251730/epidemiological-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-a-solid-organ-transplantation-department
#17
Anastasia Geladari, Theodoros Karampatakis, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Elias Iosifidis, Olga Tsiatsiou, Lida Politi, Aggeliki Karyoti, Vasilios Papanikolaou, Athanassios Tsakris, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of intensified infection control measures (ICM) on colonization and infection caused by carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii in a Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT) Department. METHODS: A quasi-experimental methodology was followed. The study was divided in 3 periods: pre-intervention, intervention with implementation of an ICM bundle including active surveillance program (ASP) and gradually enhanced measures, and post-ASP without ASP...
March 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244199/liver-transplantation-with-an-uncommon-full-right-hemiliver-graft-after-hydatid-cysts-resection-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Damiano Patrono, Francesco Tandoi, Giorgia Rizza, Giorgia Catalano, Stefano Mirabella, Piero Celoria, Silvia Corcione, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Mauro Salizzoni, Renato Romagnoli
Because of widespread organ shortage, the transplant community has been exploiting more and more so-called "extended criteria" donors. In this scenario, liver grafts harboring benign tumors or large cysts represent an infrequent but potentially valuable source of viable grafts. We depict a challenging case of liver transplantation performed using a graft harboring two large Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts in close proximity with the hilar plate and complicated by cystobiliary communication. Although liver transplantation using grafts with hydatid cyst has been rarely reported (three published cases), our case was peculiar as one of the cysts was located close to the hilum and was ruptured into left hepatic duct...
February 28, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218980/microbiologic-yield-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-specimens-from-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#19
Kenneth K Sakata, Christine L Klassen, Kathryn B Bollin, Thomas E Grys, James L Slack, Lewis J Wesselius, Holenarasipur R Vikram
PURPOSE: Stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients commonly undergo bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collection as an infectious pulmonary work-up. Previous studies report the utility and overall diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy with BAL in this vulnerable population, though none focused purely on microbiologic yield or made comparisons with less invasive means of pathogen detection. We sought to determine and elaborate on the microbiologic yield of BAL in SCT recipients, assess a correlation between BAL studies and less invasive means of pathogen detection, and assess the utility of repeating a BAL within 30 days...
February 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211139/scabies-in-a-bilateral-hand-allograft-recipient-an-additional-mimicker-of-acute-skin-rejection-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#20
Jean Kanitakis, Emmanuel Morelon
Vascularized composite tissue allografts include skin, which frequently undergoes, in the early post-graft period, acute rejections. The diagnosis of acute rejection may be difficult as it can be mimicked by several dermatoses. We present a bilateral hand allograft recipient who developed, 16.5 years post-graft, cutaneous lesions raising suspicion about rejection. Physical examination and skin biopsy were diagnostic of scabies. This ectoparasitosis should be added in the list of dermatoses that can mimic allograft rejection in vascular composite allografts...
February 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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