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Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100042/diagnostic-open-brain-biopsy-following-initial-negative-results-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-assessment-for-toxoplasma
#1
LETTER
Yasushi Seno, Noritaka Sekiya, Shugo Sasaki, Kosuke Yoshioka, Kyoko Watakabe-Inamoto, Takeshi Hagino, Hideharu Muto, Yuho Najima, Aiko Igarashi, Noriko Doki, Takeshi Kobayashi, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Hisashi Sakamaki, Kazuteru Ohashi
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare but fatal complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and reaching an accurate antemortem diagnosis with pathological proof is difficult.(1,2) We describe herein the clinical course of a patient with cerebral toxoplasmosis following allogeneic HSCT. The diagnosis was successfully made by aggressive open brain biopsy following initial negative results from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment for Toxoplasma. This article is protected by copyright...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100037/donor-derived-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-challenging-the-30-day-paradigm
#2
LETTER
Jose F Camargo
Organ transplantation carries a potential risk of transmission of infectious diseases and malignancy. Fortunately, donor-derived transmission events remain a rare complication of transplantation occurring in less than 1% of solid organ recipients.(1,2) Although uncommon, donor-derived infections (DDIs) can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and as the volume of patients undergoing solid organ transplantation increases the number of infections transmitted through organ donation can also be expected to rise...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100036/hpv45-positive-condyloma-acuminata-of-the-bladder-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#3
Mehmet Sarier, Esin Özel, İbrahim Duman, Yücel Yüksel, Alper Demirbaş
Condyloma acuminata (CA) are warty lesions caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) that generally affect the external genitalia and mucocutaneous junctions. Involvement of the urinary tract is rare, and involvement of the urinary bladder is thought to be due to immunosuppression. A 30-year-old woman was diagnosed with urethral CA 12 months after renal transplantation. She underwent transurethral resection (TUR) of the urethral lesions. During the operation, multiple sessile warty lesions were found incidentally inside the bladder and were also removed by TUR...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099778/pseudozyma-and-other-non-candida-opportunistic-yeast-bloodstream-infections-in-a-large-stem-cell-transplant-center
#4
Anupam Pande, Lemuel R Non, Rizwan Romee, Carlos A Q Santos
INTRODUCTION: Non-Candida opportunistic yeasts are emerging causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunocompromised hosts. However, their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are not well described. CASE REPORT AND REVIEW: We report the first case to our knowledge of Pseudozyma BSI in a SCT recipient. He had evidence of cutaneous involvement, which has not been previously described in the literature. He became infected while neutropenic and receiving empiric micafungin, which is notable because Pseudozyma is reported to be resistant to echinocandins...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083955/cryptococcus-laurentii-diarrhea-post-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#5
Vivek Bhat, Hemant Vira, Navin Khattry, Manoj Toshniwal
We report the recent isolation of Cryptococcus laurentii from the feces of a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The organism was identified using microscopic morphology, cultural characteristics, and biochemical tests including sugar assimilation. Minimum inhibitory concentration of various antifungals was determined by microbroth dilution method. The recovery of pure culture of C. laurentii from stool culture, and the patient's response to treatment with voriconazole support its potential etiological role...
January 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067989/tacrolimus-interaction-with-nafcillin-resulting-in-significant-decreases-in-tacrolimus-concentrations-a-case-report
#6
Minkey Wungwattana, Marizela Savic
Tacrolimus (TAC) is subject to many drug interactions as a result of its metabolism primarily via CYP450 isoenzyme 3A4. Numerous case reports of TAC and CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors have been described including antimicrobials, calcium channel antagonists, and antiepileptic drugs. We present the case of a 13-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and a history of liver transplantation, where subtherapeutic TAC concentrations were suspected to be a result of concomitant TAC and nafcillin (NAF) therapy. The observed drug interaction occurred on two separate hospital admissions, during both of which the patient exhibited therapeutic TAC concentrations prior to exposure to NAF, a CYP3A4 inducer...
January 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067969/disseminated-acanthamoeba-infection-in-a-heart-transplant-recipient-treated-successfully-with-a-miltefosine-containing-regimen-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Max N Brondfield, Michael J A Reid, Rachel L Rutishauser, Jennifer R Cope, Jevon Tang, Jana M Ritter, Almea Matanock, Ibne Ali, Sarah B Doernberg, Alexandra Hilts-Horeczko, Teresa DeMarco, Liviu Klein, Jennifer M Babik
Disseminated acanthamoebiasis is a rare, often fatal, infection most commonly affecting immunocompromised patients. We report a case involving sinuses, skin, and bone in a 60-year-old woman 5 months after heart transplantation. She improved with a combination of flucytosine, fluconazole, miltefosine, and decreased immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successfully treated disseminated acanthamoebiasis in a heart transplant recipient and only the second successful use of miltefosine for this infection among solid organ transplant recipients...
January 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060446/successful-treatment-of-donor-derived-hepatitis-c-viral-infection-in-three-transplant-recipients-from-a-donor-at-increased-risk-for-bloodborne-pathogens
#8
Ashesh P Shah, Andrew Cameron, Pooja Singh, Adam M Frank, Jonathan M Fenkel
We report here the successful treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmitted from a nucleic acid testing (NAT)-negative donor to 3 HCV-negative recipients - 2 renal transplants and 1 liver. Both renal recipients underwent standard deceased-donor renal transplantation with immediate graft function. The liver recipient underwent standard orthotopic liver transplantation and recovered uneventfully. The donor was a 39-year-old woman with a terminal serum creatinine of 0.7 mg/dL. She was high risk for bloodborne pathogens, based upon a history of sexual contact with an HCV-infected male partner...
January 6, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060441/successful-treatment-of-donor-derived-hepatitis-c-infection-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient
#9
Nicole Theodoropoulos, Bryan A Whitson, Stanley I Martin, Stephanie Pouch, Amy Pope-Harman
Data are limited regarding the use of direct-acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C infection post lung transplant, especially in a donor-derived infection. We present a case of a lung transplant recipient with donor-derived hepatitis C that was successfully treated with a 12-week regimen of simeprevir and sofosbuvir. This case reiterates the importance of screening recipients of increased-risk donor organs for disease transmission and the value of early therapy. This article is protected by copyright...
January 6, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054734/compassionate-use-experience-with-high-titer-respiratory-syncytical-virus-rsv-immunoglobulin-in-rsv-infected-immunocompromised-persons
#10
Ann R Falsey, Christine Koval, John P DeVincenzo, Edward E Walsh
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) may cause fatal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in immunocompromised patients. Ribavirin with or without standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is frequently given although efficacy is debated. Infusion of IVIG with high levels of neutralizing antibody against RSV may offer benefit in these patients. METHODS: RI-001 contains standardized levels of high-titer anti-RSV neutralizing antibody and was provided for compassionate use to 15 patients with RSV LRTI who either failed conventional therapy or had significant risk of progression...
January 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054732/liver-transplantation-is-associated-with-good-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-and-acute-liver-failure-due-to-anti-tubercular-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Michele Bartoletti, Giulia Martelli, Sara Tedeschi, Mariacristina Morelli, Valentine Bertuzzo, Marina Tadolini, Paolo Pianta, Francesco Cristini, Maddalena Giannella, Russell E Lewis, Antonio D Pinna, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Active tuberculosis (TB) is commonly considered a contraindication for liver transplantation (LT). However, in patients with TB who develop acute liver failure (ALF) due to toxicity induced by anti-tubercular treatment (ATT), LT could be the only opportunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of LT in this scenario. METHODS: We described 2 cases and comprehensively reviewed the literature finding 26 cases of LT performed in patients having a concomitant active TB and liver failure secondary to ATT toxicity...
January 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039955/mycobacterium-genavense-induced-spindle-cell-pseudotumor-in-a-pediatric-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Ritika Coelho, Rabi Hanna, Aron Flagg, Lisa M Stempak, Sarah Ondrejka, Gary W Procop, Susan Harrington, Anthony Zembillas, Karissa Kusick, Blanca E Gonzalez
We describe the first reported pediatric patient to our knowledge with a spindle cell pseudotumor caused by Mycobacterium genavense in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient, and review the literature of such an entity in the transplant population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 31, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039947/acute-pulmonary-involvement-by-paracoccidiodomycosis-disease-immediately-after-kidney-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Marcelo V Radisic, Laura Linares, Javier Afeltra, Natalia Pujato, Roxana G Vitale, Martin Bravo, Ana C Dotta, Domingo H Casadei
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Human disease has been observed in a limited geographic and ecological niche, and it is attributed to exposure to the fungus in soil. Most primary infections are subclinical, as the infection is contained by the host mainly through cell-mediated immune response. However, as the fungus has the ability to survive in a dormant state for long periods, an impairment of the immune response may lead to reactivation and clinical disease...
December 31, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036142/jc-polyomavirus-nephropathy-a-rare-cause-of-transplant-dysfunction-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Doyle Yang, Brandon Keys, David Conti, Llewellyn Foulke, Kathleen Stellrecht, Linda Cook, Reynold I Lopez-Soler
JC polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (JC-PVAN) is a rare but challenging cause of renal dysfunction. We report JC-PVAN in a renal allograft recipient and highlight the obstacles in definitive diagnosis of this disease entity. A deceased-donor renal transplant recipient was diagnosed with JC polyomavirus nephritis 4 years after transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents were subsequently reduced, resulting in an initial stabilization of renal function. We present this interesting case and discuss the challenges with diagnosing and treating this rare entity...
December 30, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036138/early-diagnosis-of-ehrlichia-ewingii-infection-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient-by-peripheral-blood-smear
#15
Hariharan Regunath, Christian Rojas-Moreno, Juan P Olano, Richard D Hammer, William Salzer
Ehrlichiosis in lung transplant (LT) recipients is associated with severe outcomes. Ehrlichia ewingii is a less frequent cause of symptomatic ehrlichiosis, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions (morulae) within circulating neutrophils. We report a case of E. ewingii infection in a LT recipient diagnosed promptly by blood smear exam and confirmed with molecular studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 30, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035717/the-role-of-cd4-cell-count-as-discriminatory-measure-to-guide-chemoprophylaxis-against-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-negative-immunocompromised-patients-a-systematic-review
#16
Peter E Messiaen, Senne Cuyx, Tom Dejagere, Jeroen C Van der Hilst
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has increased in immunocompromised patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is highly effective in preventing PJP in both HIV-positive and -seronegative patients. In HIV-positive patients, the risk of PJP is strongly correlated with decreased CD4 cell count. The role of CD4 cell count in the pathogenesis of PJP in non-HIV immunocompromised patients is less well studied...
December 30, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032944/false-positive-serum-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-elevation-due-to-intake-of-seaweed-in-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient
#17
LETTER
Norisato Hashimoto, Takehiko Mori, Risa Hashida, Masatoshi Sakurai, Yuya Koda, Takaaki Toyama, Jun Kato, Shinichiro Okamoto
The (1, 3)-β-D-glucan (β-D-glucan) is one of the polysaccharides composing the fungal cell wall, and assays to detect serum β-D-glucan through specific enzyme activity have been widely used as a tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of invasive fungal infection.(1) However, the usefulness of this assay is partly limited by its poor specificity owing to various factors.(1,2) We experienced a patient showing a marked elevation of serum β-D-glucan after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which was found to be caused by daily oral intake of kelp, a widely consumed seaweed...
December 29, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943544/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-recurrence-after-transplantation-with-sofosbuvir-ledipasvir-the-role-of-ribavirin
#18
Brigitta Globke, Nathanael Raschzok, Eva-Maria Teegen, Johann Pratschke, Eckart Schott, Dennis Eurich
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) used to be a serious problem in the era of interferon-based treatment. Since the introduction of modern directly acting antivirals, treatment has become easier and shorter. According to published data, in the natural course of hepatitis C infection the duration of antiviral treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF) und ledipasvir (LDV) may be shortened to 12 instead of 24 weeks, using ribavirin (RBV) in addition. Furthermore, the question of whether or not RBV is really necessary, in a 12-week SOF/LDV treatment in the post-transplant setting, is still unanswered...
December 10, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943503/invasive-fungal-infection-after-heart-transplantation-a-seven-year-single-center-experience
#19
Ignacio A Echenique, Michael P Angarone, Robert A Gordon, Jonathan Rich, Allen S Anderson, Edwin C McGee, Travis O Abicht, Joseph Kang, Valentina Stosor
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an infrequent but major complication of heart-transplantation (HT). We sought to describe the epidemiology at our institution. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 159 HT recipients was performed from June 2005 to December 2012. IFIs were defined by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. RESULTS: By univariate analysis, Hispanic ethnicity/race was associated with IFI (P=0...
December 10, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943501/risk-factors-and-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-during-the-peritransplant-period
#20
Sol Del Mar Aldrete, Colleen S Kraft, Matthew J Magee, Austin Chan, Don Hutcherson, Amelia A Langston, Brian I Greenwell, Eileen M Burd, Rachel Friedman-Moraco
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients represent a high-risk group for developing Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI). We aimed to identify specific risk factors for CDI in an HSCT patient population during the peritransplant period. METHODS: We performed a case-control study within a cohort of HSCT patients who received a transplant from November 2010 to March 2013. Cases had a clinical presentation compatible with CDI and a positive stool sample Xpert(®) C...
December 10, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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