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Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325104/lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-meningoencephalitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-following-exposure-to-mice
#1
Farah Tanveer, Mariam Younas, Joel Fishbain
Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) are at increased risk for a wide variety of typical and atypical infections as a consequence of impaired cell mediated and humoral immunity. We report a case of meningoencephalitis in a renal transplant recipient caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) acquired by exposure to mice excreta. The clinical course was complicated by the development of hydrocephalus, requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of LCMV infection in a SOTR that was not organ donor derived...
October 16, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320937/role-of-t-reg-cells-in-cd47-dst-induced-immune-tolerance-in-skin-heart-transplantation-mice
#2
Yu Hu, Honglan Zhou, Baoshan Gao, Gang Wang, Yuantao Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of Treg cells in the establishment of immune tolerance induced by donor specific transfusion (DST) in mice with skin-heart transplantation. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice received DST of splenocytes from CD47+/+ or CD47-/- H-2bm1 mice or no DST 7 days before skin-heart transplantation from MHC class I-mismatched H-2bm1 donors. The number and proportion of Treg cells in graft and lymphoid organs were measured by flow cytometry (FACS) and immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
October 15, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298678/epstein-barr-virus-associated-smooth-muscle-tumors-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-incidence-over-31-years-at-a-single-institution-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Ryan J Stubbins, Nassiba Alami Laroussi, Anthea C Peters, Simon Urschel, Frank Dicke, Raymond L Lai, James Zhu, Curtis Mabilangan, Jutta K Preiksaitis
INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated smooth muscle tumors (EBV-SMT) are a rare complication of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Incidence data related to this EBV-SMT are limited. EBV DNA is universally present in these tumors. How these cells get infected with EBV, whether this is a result of primary EBV infection versus reactivation, and how persistent active EBV infection post-transplant influences EBV-SMT pathogenesis remains unknown. METHODS: Among 5006 SOT recipients (474 pediatric, 4532 adult) receiving SOT at our center between Jan 1984 - Dec 2015, three cases of post-transplant EBV-SMT were identified...
October 9, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298542/a-rare-case-of-disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-complex-with-colitis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#4
Marinela Ingilizova, Shara Epstein, Dong Heun Lee, Neal Patel, Shraddha Patel Babariya, Ricardo Morgenstern, Nikolay Popnikolov, Dagan Coppock
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) colitis is a rare complication of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Here we describe a case of disseminated MAC infection with colitis following renal transplantation. Despite common pathways of immunosuppression, SOT recipients and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients differ in their typical presentations of MAC infection. Intestinal infections have been more commonly reported in HIV-infected patients than in SOT recipients. The explanation for this difference may be related to HIV's targeted effects on the CD4+ T cell reservoir in gut associated lymphoid tissue...
October 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295412/risk-of-hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-seronegative-for-the-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-and-seropositive-for-the-hepatitis-b-core-antibody
#5
Sara Querido, André Weigert, Teresa Adragão, Luís Rodrigues, Cristina Jorge, Margarida Bruges, Domingos Machado
BACKGROUND: Previous contact with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is common in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Literature has shown conflicting results on the risk of HBV reactivation in kidney transplant (KT) recipients with serologic evidence of past HBV infection. METHODS: We reviewed 631 consecutive KT recipients and selected 70 patients simultaneously HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc-positive before KT, regardless of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) status. Demographic characteristics, co-infection with other viruses, presence of a previous KT, induction and maintenance immunosuppression, length of follow up, biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes, incidence of impaired liver function and causes of graft loss and mortality were collected...
October 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295407/effect-of-isavuconazole-on-tacrolimus-and-sirolimus-serum-concentrations-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-a-drug-drug-interaction-study
#6
Van Kieu, Kristi Jhangiani, Sanjeet Dadwal, Ryotaro Nakamura, Doreen Pon
INTRODUCTION: Isavuconazole, a triazole antifungal, is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, which also metabolizes tacrolimus and sirolimus. In previous studies, isavuconazole administration increased tacrolimus and sirolimus area under the curve values by 2.3-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively, in healthy adults and tacrolimus concentration/dose (C/D) ratio by 1.3-fold in solid organ transplant patients. We aimed to determine the magnitude of effect of isavuconazole administration on tacrolimus and sirolimus C/D ratios in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) patients...
October 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295406/donor-derived-strongyloidiasis-after-organ-transplantation-in-norway
#7
Espen Nordheim, Monica Olafsson Storrø, Ane Kristine Natvik, Grete Birkeland Kro, Karsten Midtvedt, Anna Varberg Reisaeter, Morten Hagness, Børre Fevang, Frank O Pettersen
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth which in humans can cause asymptomatic chronic infection maintained for decades through its autoinfective cycle. During solid organ transplantation recipients may unintentionally receive an organ infected with strongyloides. This is a very rare complication but may have deadly outcome if not detected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281879/heart-transplantation-for-infective-endocarditis-viable-option-for-a-limited-few
#8
REVIEW
Katie M Murphy, Holenarasipur R Vikram
Active infection in the recipient is considered a relative contraindication for solid organ transplantation. However, heart transplantation (HT) can be curative in patients with ventricular assist device infections. For patients with infective endocarditis (IE), valve replacement is part of the management strategy based on emergent, acute, or elective indications. HT has been utilized as an uncommon and sporadic treatment option for carefully selected patients with refractory or recurrent IE after all other surgical treatment options have been exhausted, or are not feasible...
October 3, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276937/primary-effusion-lymphoma-of-the-pleural-space-report-of-a-rare-complication-of-cardiac-transplant-with-review-of-the-literature
#9
IrfanAli R Kugasia, Arun Kumar, Akshay Khatri, Faisal Saeed, Humayun Islam, Oleg Epelbaum
Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) is a rare mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma arising in body cavities and presenting with effusions. It has been described predominantly in patients with impaired immunity from the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is associated with the Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Seldom has PEL been diagnosed in persons negative for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and in such cases it has occurred primarily in the setting of post-transplant immunosuppression. We report an instructive case of a Caribbean-American HIV-negative orthotopic heart transplant recipient with a history of HHV8-associated Kaposi's Sarcoma who developed HHV-8 viremia and PEL of the pleural space early in the post-transplant course...
October 1, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256505/comparison-of-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-daptomycin-susceptible-and-nonsusceptible-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-infections-in-liver-transplant-recipients-a-reply-to-lewis-et-al
#10
LETTER
Margaret R Jorgenson, Jillian L Descourouez, Glen E Leverson, Warren E Rose, Jeannina A Smith, Luis A Fernandez
Daptomycin resistance is emerging and is associated with liver transplantation (LTX). The outcomes of patients infected with daptomycin-nonsusceptible-enterococci (DNSE) with minimum-inhibitory-concentrations (MIC)>4 mg/L are unfavorable. As a result, some have recommended reducing the breakpoint for DAP susceptibility in enterococci to ≤2 mg/L. Unfavorable outcomes associated with DNSE are due in part to decreased efficacy of DAP and alternative agents, along with increased toxicity of these regimens for the treatment of VRE...
September 26, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256500/human-herpes-virus-6-associated-post-transplant-acute-limbic-encephalitis-clinical-observations-of-biomarkers-for-risk-of-seizure-in-a-pediatric-population
#11
Jonathan D Santoro, Christopher C Hemond
BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) is a cause of post-transplant acute limbic encephalitis (PALE). Seizures are associated with this disorder yet no predictive biomarkers have been identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate lab and neurodiagnostic biomarkers in patients with HHV6 associated PALE. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed at our institution between 2000 and 2017. Patients were identified through a clinical database. Inclusion criteria included: age less than 18 years, HHV6 (quantitative real-time PCR or meningoencephalitis panel) tested in CSF and serum...
September 26, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222242/successful-heart-kidney-transplantation-from-a-hepatitis-c-viremic-donor-to-negative-recipient-one-year-of-follow-up
#12
Nicholas Wettersten, Hao Tran, Kristin Mekeel, Victor Pretorius, Eric Adler, Saima Aslam
Every year the number of patients waiting for a heart transplant increases faster than the number of available donor organs. Some potential donor organs are from donors with active communicable diseases, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), potentially making donation prohibitive. The advent of direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV has drastically changed the treatment of HCV. Recently, these agents have been used to treat HCV in organ donor recipients who acquired the disease from the donor organ. We report a case of heart-kidney transplantation from an HCV viremic donor to HCV negative recipient with successful treatment and sustained virologic response...
September 17, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221820/bacterial-infections-in-pediatric-patients-during-early-post-liver-transplant-period-a-prospective-study-in-iran
#13
Gholamreza Pouladfar, Zahra Jafarpour, Seyed Ali Malek Hosseini, Mohammad Firoozifar, Razieh Rasekh, Leila Khosravifard
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infection in early period after liver transplant (LT) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality; however, data on children is limited. METHODS: To investigate the frequency, characteristics, and the associated factors of bacterial infection during hospitalization after LT, we prospectively enrolled all consecutive children with LT for a one-year, case-control study at the unique referral center of pediatric LT in Iran. RESULTS: Eighty-five events of bacterial infection were detected among 51 out of 94 LT recipients (54...
September 17, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221817/risk-factors-for-infection-after-pediatric-lung-transplantation
#14
Chinyere Onyearugbulem, Lauren Williams, Huirong Zhu, Maria C Gazzaneo, Ernestina Melicoff, Shailendra Das, Jorge Coss-Bu, Fong Lam, George Mallory, Flor M Munoz
Although infection is the leading cause of death in the first year following pediatric lung transplantation, there are limited data on risk factors for early infection. Sepsis remains under-recognized and under-reported in the early post-operative period for lung transplant recipients (LTR). We evaluated the incidence of infection and sepsis, and identified risk factors for infection in the early post-operative period in pediatric LTRs. A retrospective review of medical records of LTRs at a large quaternary-care hospital from January 2009 to March 2016 was conducted...
September 17, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204269/reactivation-of-chagas-disease-among-heart-transplant-recipients-in-the-united-states-2012-2016
#15
Elizabeth B Gray, Ricardo M La Hoz, Jaime S Green, Holenarasipur R Vikram, Theresa Benedict, Hilda Rivera, Susan P Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation has been shown to be a safe and effective intervention for progressive cardiomyopathy from chronic Chagas disease. However, in the presence of the immunosuppression required for heart transplantation, the likelihood of Chagas disease reactivation is significant. Reactivation may cause myocarditis resulting in allograft dysfunction and the rapid onset of congestive heart failure. Reactivation rates have been well documented in Latin America; however, there is a paucity of data regarding the risk in non-endemic countries...
September 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203904/double-lung-transplantation-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-with-mycobacterium-kansasii-infection
#16
Georges Ambaraghassi, Pasquale Ferraro, Charles Poirier, Danielle Rouleau, Claude Fortin
Good outcomes with kidney and liver transplantation in HIV-positive patients have led clinicians to recommend lung transplantation in HIV-positive patients based on extrapolated data. Pre-transplant mycobacterial infection is associated with an increased risk of developing new infection or aggravating existing infection, though it does not contraindicate transplantation in non-HIV-infected patients. However, no data exists regarding the outcome of HIV-positive patients with pre-transplant mycobacterial infection...
September 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203903/liver-transplantation-for-hepatitis-b-associated-liver-disease-three-decades-of-experience
#17
Eva Maria Teegen, Max Magnus Maurer, Brigitta Globke, Johann Pratschke, Dennis Eurich
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV)-associated end-stage liver disease used to be a relevant indication for liver transplantation (LT). After transplantation, HBV-reinfection remains a serious issue. Different strategies to prevent HBV-reinfection range from the single application of immunoglobulins (HBIG), to the use of modern nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) in combination with HBIG, followed by HBIG-discontinuation. The aim of this analysis was to compare different strategies and to sum up the results of 30 years at a high-volume transplant center and deliver additional information on the histopathological level...
September 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203504/native-kidney-cytomegalovirus-nephritis-and-cytomegalovirus-prostatitis-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#18
Susanna K Tan, Xingxing S Cheng, Chia-Sui Kao, Jenna Weber, Benjamin A Pinsky, Harcharan S Gill, Stephan Busque, Aruna K Subramanian, Jane C Tan
We present a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) native kidney nephritis and prostatitis in a CMV D+/R- kidney transplant recipient who had completed six months of CMV prophylaxis four weeks prior to the diagnosis of genitourinary CMV disease. The patient had a history of benign prostatic hypertrophy and urinary retention that required self-catheterization to relieve high post-voiding residual volumes. At 7 months post-transplant, he was found to have a urinary tract infection, moderate hydronephrosis of the transplanted kidney, and severe hydroureteronephrosis of the native left kidney and ureter, and underwent native left nephrectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate...
September 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199584/the-impact-of-infection-among-left-ventricular-assist-device-recipients-on-post-transplantation-outcomes-a-retrospective-review
#19
Dana T Lerman, Keith W Hamilton, Dana Byrne, Doreen F Lee, Kristen Zeitler, Tamara Claridge, Jaime Gray, Grace Y Minamoto
INTRODUCTION: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) infections are common, and the consequences of LVAD infections on orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) outcomes is not well described. AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and evaluate risk factors for developing LVAD infections, and examine outcomes of LVAD-specific infections (VSI) after OHT. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the records of 74 consecutive patients at two institutions who had undergone LVAD placement and subsequent OHT between January 2007 and December 2012...
September 10, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195271/risk-factors-for-mortality-after-respiratory-syncytial-virus-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-adults-with-hematologic-malignancies
#20
Erik Vakil, Ajay Sheshadri, Saadia A Faiz, Dimpy P Shah, Yayuan Zhu, Liang Li, Joumana Kmeid, Jacques Azzi, Amulya Balagani, Lara Bashoura, Ella Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with high mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM). We sought to determine whether allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients would be at higher risk for 60-day mortality. METHODS: We examined a retrospective cohort of adults with HM with or without HCT treated for RSV LRTI (n = 154) at our institution from 1996-2013. We defined possible RSV LRTI as RSV detected only in the upper respiratory tract with new radiologic infiltrates and proven RSV LRTI as RSV detected in BAL fluid with new radiologic infiltrates...
September 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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