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Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044831/a-cluster-of-scedosporiosis-in-lung-transplant-candidates-and-recipients-the-zurich-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Irene A Abela, Christian Murer, Macé M Schuurmans, Juergen W Schmitt, Frabci Muller, Frank Imkamp, Nicolas J Mueller, Christian Benden
Scedosporium species are fungal pathogens increasingly recognized in cystic fibrosis (CF). They can cause multiresistant, life-threatening infections that are of particular concern in CF patients undergoing lung transplantation, as optimal treatment remains unclear. Here, we describe our Zurich experience of CF patients with Scedosporium infection. Disseminated infection occurred in one patient after transplantation and was successfully treated. We propose a step-by-step approach to treat candidates with colonization, and discuss our cases in the context of the current literature...
October 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994164/utilization-of-increased-risk-for-transmission-of-infectious-disease-donor-organs-in-solid-organ-transplantation-retrospective-analysis-of-disease-transmission-and-safety
#2
Linda Irwin, Camille N Kotton, Nahel Elias, Julie Palafox, Debra Basler, Sarah H Shao, William Lester, Xiaofeng Zhang, Brendan Kimball, Carrie Trencher, Jay A Fishman
The inadequate supply of transplantable organs necessitates new approaches to organ availability. Serologies and nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are used in microbiologic screening of potential organ donors. Organs from donors considered at "high risk" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC 1994) or "increased risk" (U.S. Public Health Service, PHS 2013) for transmission of viral infection to recipients may provide an expanded source of organs for transplantation...
October 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994224/rare-and-unusual-presentation-of-cladophialophora-infection-in-a-pulmonary-transplant-cystic-fibrosis-patient
#3
Quitterie Reynaud, Damien Dupont, Raphaële Nove-Josserand, Stephane Durupt, Florence Persat, Florence Ader, Dominique Grenet, Isabelle Durieu
A 35-year-old woman with severe cystic fibrosis was admitted for sudden loss of strength in both legs, revealing a myelitis. The medullar lesion biopsy revealed phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora species. Myelitis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana is a rare disease associated with high mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994174/subcutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-series-of-seven-cases
#4
Haridasan Satish, Sreejith Parameswaran, B H Srinivas, C Laxmisha, B S Bibilash, S Rakesh, R Jayasurya, Padhi Rajesh, S Ezhilnilavan, D K Avinash, P S Priyamvada
BACKGROUND: Superficial and deep fungal infections are more frequent in transplant recipients primarily because of the failure of cell-mediated immunity and lesser amount of antigen-presenting Langerhans cells in their epidermis. Here we report seven cases of post-renal transplant subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, all of which manifested within 1 year after transplantation and were unresponsive to prolonged courses of itraconazole. This is the first case series, to our knowledge, of phaeohyphomycosis in transplant recipients in India...
October 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994171/brain-abscesses-caused-by-cladophialophora-bantiana-in-a-lung-transplant-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Anthony Gschwend, Tristan Dégot, Julie Denis, Alina M Sabou, Mi Young Jeung, Emilie Zapata, Michele Porzio, Benjamin Renaud-Picard, Raoul Herbrecht, Romain Kessler
Cladophialophora bantiana brain abscesses are rare, but are frequently and quickly lethal in transplanted patients. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who had undergone lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and presented with headaches and a neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple brain abscesses. C. bantiana was identified by DNA sequencing performed directly on cerebral tissue obtained by surgical biopsy. After 6 months of antifungal treatment, the brain abscesses were replaced by ischemic sequelae...
October 9, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981193/organ-utilization-from-increased-infectious-risk-donors-an-observational-study
#6
Arnaud G L'Huillier, Atul Humar, Clare Payne, Deepali Kumar
BACKGROUND: Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. METHODS: Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database...
October 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981185/infective-endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-renal-transplantation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Inbar Nardi Agmon, Elad Goldberg, Eytan Cohen, Ilan Krause
The potent immunosuppressive drugs used by transplant recipients places them at risk of infections. Data on infective endocarditis (IE) in the setting of renal transplantation (RT) are sparse. We describe a 36-year-old woman referred to a tertiary medical center for evaluation of elevated creatinine levels 1 month after a second RT. Work-up revealed the presence of all four of Duke's criteria: fever, persistent bacteremia, new-onset tricuspid regurgitation, and masses suspected to be vegetation attached to the tricuspid annulus...
October 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963742/transfusion-acquired-hepatitis-e-infection-misdiagnosed-as-severe-critical-illness-polyneuromyopathy-in-a-heart-transplant-patient
#8
Julie Belliere, Florence Abravanel, Marie Béatrice Nogier, Salima Martinez, Pascal Cintas, Sébastien Lhomme, Laurence Lavayssière, Olivier Cointault, Stanislas Faguer, Jacques Izopet, Nassim Kamar
This is the case of a 56-year-old man who underwent heart transplantation. Within the first postoperative days, his respiratory and limb muscles weakened, which was attributed to critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPM). At day 70 post transplantation, he had increased liver enzyme levels and acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was diagnosed. HEV RNA was found in the serum, stools, and cerebrospinal fluid. Results of further investigations suggested a possible HEV-related polyradiculoneuropathy. At transplantation, the patient was negative for immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and HEV RNA...
September 29, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945308/an-autopsy-based-study-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-persistence-in-organs-of-chronic-chagasic-patients-and-its-relevance-for-transplantation
#9
Luiz A Benvenuti, Alessandra Roggério, Marta M Cavalcanti, Anna S Nishiya, José E Levi
BACKGROUND: Chagas' disease (CD) is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease can affect the heart and/or the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but around 70% of infected individuals remain asymptomatic in the chronic form. Organ transplantation from T. cruzi-infected donors is often avoided because of the risk of disease transmission, previously reported after heart, kidney, or liver transplantation. METHODS: We investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the persistence of T...
September 25, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941300/chagas-disease-and-liver-transplantation-experience-in-argentina-using-real-time-quantitative-pcr-for-early-detection-and-treatment
#10
Domingo Balderramo, Florencia Bonisconti, Alvaro Alcaraz, Enzo Giordano, Ariel Sánchez, Martín Barrabino, Juan Pablo Caeiro, Teresita Alvarellos, Martín Maraschio
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is an endemic zoonosis that occurs in Latin-America and is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Early detection of T. cruzi in liver transplant recipients at risk may avoid complications from CD. The aim of this study was to examine the pre-operative evaluation and follow-up of CD after liver transplantation (LT) of patients at risk of CD using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for T. cruzi. METHODS: Between January 2009 and June 2016, 13 (12...
September 23, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940831/low-dose-valganciclovir-prophylaxis-for-cytomegalovirus-in-intermediate-risk-r-renal-transplant-recipients-single-center-experience
#11
Salman Khan, Clara Fischman, Shirish Huprikar
Renal transplant recipients (RTR) who are seropositive for CMV (R+) are considered to be at intermediate-risk for CMV disease. Current guidelines recommend high-dose valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis because of limited data on the efficacy of low-dose VGCV. We describe our experience with using low-dose VGCV in R+ RTR. We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of 316 R+ RTR at our institution between 2002 and 2006. The primary endpoint was CMV disease at 1 year post transplant. The incidence of CMV disease at 12 months after transplantation was only 3% (6/221) in the D+R+ and 4% (4/95) in the D-R+ RTR...
September 22, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940730/fifty-one-cases-of-fungal%C3%A2-arteritis-after-kidney-transplantation-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Maozhi Tang, Xiaosong Xu, Bingbing Shen, Jun Zhang, Peng Li, Qianguang Pan, Mei Mei, Pan Xie, Hong Liu
Fungal arteritis affecting graft arteries is a rare but life-threatening complication in kidney transplantation (KT). Here, we report the case of a patient with Aspergillus arteritis who experienced renal artery rupture 8 days after KT. We also reviewed 50 other reported cases of fungal arteritis after KT. We found that fungal contamination can occur during kidney graft harvest, preservation, and/or transplantation. Typically, early diagnosis, timely antifungal treatment, and emergency surgery seem crucial for avoiding life-threatening vascular complications...
September 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921783/barriers-to-listing-for-hiv-infected-patients-being-evaluated-for-kidney-transplantation
#13
Dong Heun Lee, Suzanne M Boyle, Gregory E Malat, Christopher Kern, Charles Milrod, Shannon DeBellis, Meera N Harhay, Karthik Ranganna, Stephen Guy, Sindhura Talluri, Tiffany Bias, Alden Doyle
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have excellent outcomes following kidney transplantation (KT) but still might face barriers in the evaluation and listing process. The aim of this study was to characterize the patient population, referral patterns, and outcomes of HIV-infected patients who present for KT evaluation. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients who were evaluated for KT...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921781/valganciclovir-vgcv-followed-by-cytomegalovirus-cmv-hyperimmune-globulin-compared-to-vgcv-for-200-days-in-abdominal-organ-transplant-recipients-at-high-risk-for-cmv-infection-a-prospective-randomized-pilot-study
#14
James N Fleming, David J Taber, Nicole A Weimert, Satish Nadig, John W McGillicuddy, Charles F Bratton, Prabhakar K Baliga, Kenneth D Chavin
BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antivirals against cytomegalovirus (CMV), use of CMV hyperimmune globulin has decreased. Although antiviral prophylaxis in patients at high risk for CMV is effective, many patients still have late infection, never developing antibodies sufficient to achieve immunity. Utilizing a combination of antiviral and CMV immunoglobulin G may allow patients to achieve immunity and decrease late CMV infections. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized, open-label, pilot study comparing valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis for 200 days vs VGCV for 100 days followed by CMV HIG in abdominal transplant recipients at high risk for CMV...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921749/functional-specific-t-cell-expansion-after-first-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-predicts-viremia-control-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#15
Miriam Ciáurriz, Lorea Beloki, Amaya Zabalza, Eva Bandrés, Cristina Mansilla, Estela Pérez-Valderrama, Mercedes Lachén, Mercedes Rodríguez-Calvillo, Natalia Ramírez, Eduardo Olavarría
BACKGROUND: The use of preemptive antiviral therapy to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients might result in over-treatment, inducing drug-related toxicity and viral resistance. A search for predictive markers is needed, to determine requirement for antiviral therapy. Clinical follow-up, in combination with the use of streptamers (STs) and cytokine-intracellular staining, could help to identify patients at high risk for CMV reactivations...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921746/identification-of-occult-active-infection-using-pet-ct-in-a-combined-liver-kidney-transplant-candidate
#16
Julien Al Shakarchi, Desley Neil, Graham Lipkin, Ahmed Elsharkawy, Nicholas Inston
This case describes a patient being considered for combined liver-kidney transplantation for Caroli's disease with a failed renal transplant. A chronic septic focus could not be located with standard imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography. This case report highlights the observation that a retained non-functioning transplant can be the cause of fever of unknown origin and PET-CT can be useful in diagnosing these challenging cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
September 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865164/viral-specific-t-cell-response-in-hemorrhagic-cystitis-after-haploidentical-donor-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama, Supanart Srisala, Chonnamet Techasaensiri, Borje S Andersson
Viral hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be devastating. Standard treatment modalities have not been well established, but immune reconstitution may be necessary for sustained viral clearance. We studied five pediatric patients who developed viral HC after haplo-identical HSCT. All patients developed virus-specific CD4- and CD8-positive T cells, and the emergence of these viral-specific T cells was temporally associated with successful viral clearance. This article is protected by copyright...
September 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865149/bordetella-bronchiseptica-bloodstream-infection-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#18
Harry R Powers, Kairav Shah
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative coccobacillus that infects animals, but rarely affects humans. B. bronchiseptica has been reported to cause disease in immunocompromised hosts. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with a renal transplant who developed B. bronchiseptica bacteremia likely as a result of close contact between dogs and his skin cancer biopsy sites. The patient was successfully treated with 2 weeks of oral levofloxacin. This case alerts physicians to B. bronchiseptica as a cause of bacteremia in solid organ transplant patients with exposure to animals...
September 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859257/cytomegalovirus-infection-management-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-across-european-centers-in-the-time-of-molecular-diagnostics-an-esgich-survey
#19
David Navarro, Rafael San-Juan, Oriol Manuel, Estela Giménez, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Hans H Hirsch, Paolo Antonio Grossi, José María Aguado
BACKGROUND: Scant information is available about how transplant centers are managing their use of quantitative molecular testing (QNAT) assays for active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection monitoring in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The current study was aimed at gathering information on current practices in the management of CMV infection across European centers in the era of molecular testing assays. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study was conducted by the European Study Group of Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts (ESGICH) of the Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID)...
August 31, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851131/graded-isavuconazole-introduction-in-a-patient-with-voriconazole-allergy
#20
Megan K Morales, Ché Harris, Shmuel Shoham
Triazole antifungal drugs may rarely cause serious allergic reactions including angioedema. No standardized tests are available to predict cross-reactivity within the azole class and little guiding information on whether to change therapy within the class or to another class after a serious allergic reaction. Herein we report the first successful use, to our knowledge, of graded isavuconazole introduction for treatment of aspergillosis in a liver transplant recipient with severe voriconazole allergy. This article is protected by copyright...
August 29, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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