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Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896920/decrease-in-eosinophilia-as-a-marker-of-response-to-therapy-in-solid-organ-transplant-candidates-with-strongyloides-infection-a-single-center-experience
#1
LETTER
J Simkins, S Anjan, J F Camargo
Strongyloides stercoralis infects up to 100 million persons worldwide.1 Solid organ transplant (SOT) patients are at risk for hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated infection with high mortality rates.2-3 Pre-transplant screening is recommended in SOT candidates with epidemiological risk factors, and treatment indicated in those who test positive. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896858/prediction-of-bk-viremia-by-urine-viral-load-in-renal-transplant-patients-an-analysis-of-bk-viral-load-results-in-paired-urine-and-plasma-samples
#2
Kathleen Madden, Charles Janitell, Daniel Sower, Shangxin Yang
BK virus (BKPyV) associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) may affect up to 10% of renal transplant recipients, causing graft failure in the absence of intervention. The dilemma in monitoring BKPyVAN in renal transplant patients has been that only testing urine BK viral load represents higher sensitivity (earlier detection) but lower specificity, while testing plasma BK viral load represents lower sensitivity (later detection) but higher specificity. However, blindly testing both urine and plasma inevitably contributes to unnecessary medical cost...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896857/diagnosis-of-invasive-mold-diseases-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-using-aspergillus-mucorales-and-panfungal-pcr-in-bal
#3
Elisabeth Wehrle-Wieland, Kristina Affolter, Daniel Goldenberger, Sarah Tschudin Sutter, Joerg Halter, Jakob Passweg, Michael Tamm, Nina Khanna, Daiana Stolz
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of invasive mold diseases (IMD) remains challenging. Here, the performance of panfungal PCR, Aspergillus and Mucorales PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was evaluated. METHODS: We conducted a single-center study including 167 hematologic patients at risk for IMD with BAL performed 2011-2014. Diagnostic performance of single tests (Aspergillus-, Mucorales-and panfungal PCR, galactomannan (GM)≥0.5 and ≥1, culture/cytology) or in combination was calculated for predicting IMD comparing proven/probable or proven/probable/possible IMD versus no IMD, respectively...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896814/mycobacterium-abscessus-left-ventricle-assist-device-driveline-infections-an-emerging-pathogen
#4
Jonatan David Nunez Breton, Gabriel Hernandez, Jacques Simkins, Sandra Chaparro Viviana
The use of left ventricular assist device is associated with improvement in survival in patients with refractory heart failure. However, driveline infection limits the success of its use as it is associated with significant mortality. We describe the first two cases of Mycobacterium abscesus driveline infection. Both patients had persistent infection despite of aggressive antibiotic treatment and local debridement, and only improved after removal of their left ventricular assist devices. This article is protected by copyright...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896802/trends-in-ceftazidime-avibactam-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-organisms-recovered-from-respiratory-samples-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#5
LETTER
Eric Farfour, Erwan Trochu, Clotilde Devin, Emilie Cardot Martin, Lucie Limousin, Antoine Roux, Clément Picard, Emilie Jolly, Marc Vasse, Philippe Lesprit
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patient are frequently colonized by multidrug resistant micro-organisms. About 5% and 10% of patients are colonized by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia respectively, and up to 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates are multidrug resistant. 1,2 Ceftazidime-avibactam is a new cephalosporin-inhibitor combination with a potent activity against multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) such as KPC and OXA-48 like producing Enterobacteriacae and multidrug resistant P...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896781/an-outbreak-of-pneumocytis-jirovecii-pneumonia-among-liver-transplant-recipients
#6
Romain Miguel Montanes, Laure Elkrief, David Hajage, Pauline Houssel, Bruno Fantin, Claire Francoz, Didier Dreyfuss, Jean-Damien Ricard, François Durand
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in liver transplant recipients occurred between 2009 and 2011 at the Beaujon University Hospital just after immediate release tacrolimus was replaced by extended release tacrolimus. We conducted a retrospective study to analyse the transmission mode of Pneumocystis, the role of the change in the immunosuppressive regimen and the factors associated with PCP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To analyse transmission, we built a transmission map...
June 13, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890028/safe-administration-of-rotavirus-vaccine-in-a-cohort-of-infants-exposed-to-immunosuppressive-drugs-during-gestation
#7
Maria Isabel S Dinelli, Amélia M N Dos Santos, Lily Y Weckx, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
In utero exposure to immunosuppressive drugs might be a contraindication to rotavirus vaccine, but that may vary according to the immunosuppressive regimen. We evaluated 24 infants born to kidney transplanted mothers exposed to three immunosuppressants during pregnancy (prednisone, azathioprine and tacrolimus or cyclosporine) and 31 control infants not exposed to these medications. No differences in adverse events were detected after rotavirus vaccination at 2 and 4 months. This article is protected by copyright...
June 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890021/clinical-characteristics-risk-factors-and-outcome-of-tuberculosis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-multicentric-case-control-study-in-a-low-endemic-area
#8
Julien Gras, Nathalie De Castro, Claire Montlahuc, Laure Champion, Anne Scemla, Marie Matignon, Marie Lachâtre, Laurent Raskine, Nathalie Grall, Marie Noëlle Peraldi, Jean Michel Molina
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare but life-threatening infection after solid organ transplant. The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical features, risk factors and outcome of TB after kidney transplantation in a low-prevalence area. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study, describing all kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with TB between 2005 and 2015 in three French centers. For each TB case, two controls without TB were identified and matched by center, age, transplant date, and birth country...
June 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890019/post-transplant-liver-graft-schistosomiasis-in-a-migrant-from-sub-saharan-africa-italy-2017
#9
Paola Carrai, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Luca Emanuele Pollina, Luca Giordani, Valentina Mangano, Riccardo Iapoce, Francesca Rinaldi, Alessandro Bartoloni, Franco Filipponi, Paolo De Simone, Fabrizio Bruschi
We report a case of post-transplant liver graft infection with Schistosoma spp in a migrant from Sub-Saharan Africa transplanted for HBV-related cirrhosis and with undiagnosed schistosomiasis pre-transplantation. The occurrence of tropical diseases in non-endemic areas warrants screening protocols for organ donors and recipients with a history of exposure in endemic areas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 11, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873170/solving-the-mystery-hyalinized-cyst-wall-containing-organism-like-structures-in-a-lung-transplant-donor
#10
Julia Bini Viotti, Matthias Loebe, Nicolas Brozzi, Andre Pinto, Jacques Simkins, Christina M Cloke, Jose F Camargo, Sam Salama, Lilian M Abbo
A 59-year-old man with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy underwent orthotopic heart transplantation. The donor, a 31-year-old male declared brain dead after a gunshot wound to the head, was considered high risk due to history of incarceration, illicit drug use and sex with a HIV positive partner. At organ procurement, the heart, kidneys, pancreas and liver looked grossly normal. A small right lower lobe nodule was noticed, and lung biopsy was performed. Bronchoscopy showed purulent secretions in the right lower lobe...
June 5, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873156/healthcare-related-transmission-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-from-key-insights-towards-comprehensive-prevention
#11
REVIEW
Mark G J de Boer, Peter Walzer, Shunsuke Mori
In at risk populations, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) may occur as a solitary event as well as in a cluster- or outbreak setting due to interpatient transmission of P. jirovecii. Despite the data and insights obtained from studies of outbreaks of PCP, the development and implementation of comprehensive recommendations for the prevention of healthcare related transmission of P. jirovecii have been delayed. Both optimization of chemoprophylaxis strategies as well as combination with prudent use of isolation precautions are warranted to achieve this goal...
June 5, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873153/a-vexing-case-of-bone-pain-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-voriconazole-induced-periostitis
#12
Krishna Poinen, Marianna Leung, Alissa Jade Wright, David Landsberg
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression increases the risk of opportunistic infections including fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Voriconazole is used to treat invasive aspergillus infections but prolonged usage may rarely lead to periostitis. Increased plasma fluoride concentration leading to osteoblastic upregulation is thought to be the catalyst, and symptom reversal occurs with discontinuation of the offending agent. CASE: A renal transplant recipient who was on voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis developed diffuse debilitating symmetrical bone pain...
June 5, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863799/donor-derived-multiorgan-transmission-of-mixed-p-malariae-and-p-ovale-infection-impact-of-globalization-on-post-transplant-infections
#13
Pilar Martín-Dávila, Francesca Norman, Jesus Fortún-Abete, Miguel Píris, Ruben Lovatti, Jose Miguel Rubio, Adolfo Martinez-Pérez, Javier Graus, Gema Ta, Jesus Villarubia, Beatriz Mahillo, Rogelio López-Vélez
A 57-year-old man was admitted with fever and thrombocytopenia one month after renal transplantation. He had never received a blood transfusion or travelled outside Spain. A peripheral blood smear revealed Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale parasites, diagnosis confirmed later by malaria PCR. The donor, from Equatorial Guinea, had negative thick and thin blood smears and rapid malaria antigen test prior to organ donation. Peripheral blood malaria PCR was not performed during donor screening. The second renal recipient and the liver recipient were evaluated and were found to be asymptomatic...
June 4, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863293/granulomatous-inflammation-in-bk-polyomavirus-associated-nephropathy
#14
Yang Zhang, Hiba Ahmed, Abdolreza Haririan, Richard Ugarte, John C Papadimitriou, Cinthia B Drachenberg
Evolving BK polyomavirus associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation that closely resembles acute T-cell mediated allograft rejection if tubulitis is significant. The cellular composition of the inflammation varies during the course of BKPyVAN, and clusters of plasma cells may herald resolution of the infection. Less commonly, BKPyVAN can present with a predominance of histiocytes and granuloma formation. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is uncommon in biopsies of either native or transplant kidneys...
June 4, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856498/ureaplasma-and-mycoplasma-in-kidney-allograft-recipients-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Lukas Gerber, Ariana Gaspert, Antonio Braghetti, Hugo Zwahlen, Rudolf Wüthrich, Reinhard Zbinden, Nicolas Mueller, Thomas Fehr
Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Increasingly, serious and sometimes fatal infections in immunocompromised hosts have been reported, highlighting their pathogenic potential. We reviewed the clinical impact of positive Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma spp. urine cultures in 10 renal allograft recipients who presented with sterile leukocyturia. Five recipients remained asymptomatic. Five patients were symptomatic with dysuria or pain at the graft site...
June 1, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851203/genomic-characterization-of-recurrent-mold-infections-in-thoracic-transplant-recipients
#16
Julia A Messina, Cameron R Wolfe, Marion Hemmersbach-Miller, Carmelo Milano, Jamie L Todd, John Reynolds, Barbara D Alexander, Wiley A Schell, Christina A Cuomo, John R Perfect
Invasive mold disease in thoracic organ transplant recipients is a well-recognized complication, but the long-term persistence of molds within the human body and evasion of host defenses has not been well-described. We present two cases of invasive mold disease (Verruconis gallopava and Aspergillus fumigatus) in thoracic transplant recipients who had the same mold cultured years prior to the invasive disease presentation. The paired isolates from the index and recurrent infections in both patients were compared using whole genome sequencing to determine if the same strain of mold caused both the index and recurrent infections...
May 31, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846991/infections-in-patients-after-berlin-heart-%C3%A2-excor-assist-device-implantation
#17
Patricia Muñoz, Maricela Valerio, Víctor Vásquez, Jesús Velásquez-Rodríguez, Iago Sousa, Eduardo Zatarain, José María Barrio, Manuel Ruiz, Gregorio Cuerpo, Hugo Rodríguez-Abella, Javier Hortal, Emilio Bouza
OBJECTIVES: Berlin Heart® EXCOR devices (BHED) are ventricular assist devices (VAD) used mainly as a bridge to heart transplantation (HT) in pediatric population. The aim of our study is to report the infections diagnosed in adult patients undergoing a BHED implantation. METHODS: Adult patients receiving a BHED between Jul 2009 and Oct 2017 at our institution were included. Infections were classified according to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation definitions in VAD-Specific (VAD-S), VAD-Related (VAD-R) and non-VAD (N-VAD)...
May 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809315/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-late-onset-bk-virus-nephropathy-in-kidney-and-kidney-pancreas-transplant-recipients
#18
Hannah Imlay, Kathryn Whitaker, Cynthia E Fisher, Ajit P Limaye
BACKGROUND: BK virus nephropathy (BKPyVAN) is a major complication in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and typically occurs within 1 year of transplant. Guidelines vary in recommendations for BKPyV screening beyond 1 year. A systematic characterization of risk factors and outcomes of late-onset (>1 year) BKPyVAN has not previously been reported. METHODS: We retrospectively compared characteristics and outcomes of early- (<1 year) and late-onset BKPyVAN (definitive [biopsy-confirmed] or presumptive [plasma BKPyV >10,000 copies/mL]) in a cohort of 671 KTR and simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant (SPK) recipients between 2008 and 2013 at a single US transplant center...
May 29, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809312/early-viral-specific-t-cell-testing-predicts-late-cytomegalovirus-reactivation-following-liver-transplantation
#19
S Sood, C Haifer, L Yu, J Pavlovic, P J Gow, R M Jones, K Visvanathan, P W Angus, A G Testro
INTRODUCTION: Although antiviral prophylaxis is effective in preventing early cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation following liver transplantation (OLT), it predisposes patients to late CMV after prophylaxis has ceased. QuantiFERON-CMV (QFN-CMV, Qiagen, The Netherlands) measures an individual's viral-specific immune response. METHODS: Fifty-nine OLT recipients were prospectively monitored post-OLT in an observational cohort study. QFN-CMV was performed at regular time-points...
May 29, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809311/assessment-of-risk-for-transplant-transmissible-infectious-encephalitis-among-deceased-organ-donors
#20
Hannah K Smalley, Nishi Anand, Dylan Buczek, Nicholas Buczek, Timothy Lin, Tanay Rajore, Muriel Wacker, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Brian M Gurbaxani, Teresa Hammett, Pinar Keskinocak, Joel Sokol, Matthew J Kuehnert
BACKGROUND: There were 13 documented clusters of infectious encephalitis transmission via organ transplant from deceased donors to recipients during 2002-2013. Hence, organs from donors diagnosed with encephalitis are often declined due to concerns about the possibility of infection, given that there is no quick and simple test to detect causes of infectious encephalitis. METHODS: We constructed a database containing cases of infectious and non-infectious encephalitis...
May 29, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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