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Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677399/outcomes-of-cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-in-a-less-resourced-health-care-system
#1
Vinicius Ponzio, Luis F A Camargo, José O Medina-Pestana, John R Perfect, Arnaldo L Colombo
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the second most common cause of invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients in many countries, and data on graft outcome after treatment for this infection is lacking in less-resourced health care settings. METHODS: Data from 47 renal transplant recipients were retrospectively collected at a single institution during a period of 13 years. Graft dysfunction, graft loss and mortality rates were evaluated. Predictors of mortality and graft loss were estimated...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677384/risk-factors-and-long-term-outcomes-of-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-with-chronic-high-epstein-barr-virus-loads
#2
Hideya Kamei, Yoshinori Ito, Junichi Kawada, Satoshi Ogiso, Yasuharu Onishi, Masahiko Komagome, Nobuhiko Kurata, Yasuhiro Ogura
BACKGROUND: Serial monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reveals that certain pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients exhibit high EBV loads for long periods. We investigated the incidence and risk factors of chronic high EBV (CHEBV) loads (continuous EBV DNA >10000 IU/mL of whole blood for ≥6 months) and long-term outcomes. METHODS: This single center, retrospective observational study investigated pediatric LT recipients who survived ≥6 months. We quantitated EBV DNA weekly during hospitalization and subsequently every 4 or 6 weeks at the outpatient clinic...
April 20, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668124/a-reduced-dose-of-fluconazole-as-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-hla-identical-sibling
#3
B Sarina, J Mariotti, S Bramanti, L Morabito, R Crocchiolo, A Rimondo, F Tordato, D Pocaterra, E Casari, Chiara De Philippis, C Carlo-Stella, A Santoro, L Castagna
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a common side effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), resulting in increased non relapse mortality (NRM) and reduced overall survival (OS) rates. 75-days of Fluconazole 400 mg/day represents the standard primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) after allo-SCT, especially for low-risk transplants. However, the ideal dosage of fluconazole has never been tested. METHODS: Here we report the experience of our institution on 113 consecutive patients receiving an allo-SCT from a HLA identical sibling between 1999 and 2015, where PAP consisted of fluconazole 100 mg/day only during the pre-engraftment phase...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668123/nocardia-infections-in-the-transplanted-host
#4
M Hemmersbach-Miller, J E Stout, M H Woodworth, G M Cox, J L Saullo
BACKGROUND: Nocardia are uncommon pathogens that disproportionately afflict the immunocompromised host. Epidemiology and outcome data of Nocardia infections in transplant recipients are limited. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients at Duke University Hospital with a history of solid organ transplant (SOT) or hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and at least one positive culture for Nocardia between 1996-2013. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of Nocardia infections in the transplanted host...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668122/aspergillus-infection-of-the-larynx-in-a-solid-organ-transplant-recipient
#5
Andrea Wisniowski-Yáñez, Jaqueline Ramírez-Anguiano, Rodrigo Rosado-Canto, Adolfo Valdivia-Cayoja, Teresa Pérez-Gutiérrez, Jennifer Cuellar-Rodriguez
Primary laryngeal aspergillosis is a rare condition. Only a few cases have been reported in the past years. Most of them have been reported in healthy patients or with a mild immunocompromised state. We report a case of primary laryngeal aspergillosis in a solid-organ transplant recipient (SOT), an infection not previously described in this population; we reviewed the published literature in all populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668120/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-living-donor-liver-transplant-recipients-significantly-impacts-the-early-post-transplant-outcome-a-single-center-experience
#6
Sanjay Kumar Yadav, Sanjiv Saigal, Narendra Singh Choudhary, Sujeet Saha, Jayant Kumar Sah, Neeraj Saraf, Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Goja, Amit Rastogi, Prashant Bhangui, A S Soin
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral infection in liver transplant recipients that influences the outcomes of liver transplantation. However, its impact on early outcomes following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is not fully defined in the Indian subcontinent. This study was done to assess the impact of CMV infection on early post-transplant outcomes in LDLT recipients. METHODS: Out of 272 LDLTs performed from January 2012 to April 2013, 151 recipients underwent CMV viral load analysis in plasma within 90 days post LDLT based on clinical suspicion...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668078/adherence-and-immune-response-to-revaccination-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-at-a-pediatric-onco-hematology-reference-center
#7
Fernanda Gouveia-Alves, Roseane Gouveia, Valéria C Ginani, Adriana Seber, Danielle A Kuramoto, Gabriel F A Murad, Fernanda G Spina, Antonio S Petrilli, Victor G Zecchin, Celso Granato, Fabianne Carlesse, M Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients. METHODS: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. After written informed consent, a questionnaire was filled in, the vaccination card was analyzed, a blood sample was collected and tested by ELISA for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, measles, rubella and varicella antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668077/jc-and-bk-virus-dna-detection-in-archival-slides-of-urine-cytospin-from-renal-transplant-patients
#8
Patricia Assis, Carlos Eduardo Carvalho, Marcelo Soares Silva, Bruna Ribeiro, Maria da Gloria Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Although identifying cytological viral inclusions (decoy cells) in the urine is relatively easy, distinguishing between Polyomaviruses BKV and JCV is not possible. Few studies have been published regarding JCV detection in kidney transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of BKV and JCV DNA in archival slides of urine cytospin material from renal transplant patients. METHODS: A total of 44 urine specimens were evaluated cytologically for the presence of viral inclusions (decoy cells) and by nested polymerase chain reaction to differentiate between JCV and BKV in DNA isolated from archival slides of urine cytospin material...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668074/a-20-year-experience-with-nocardiosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-sot-recipients-in-the-southwestern-united-states-a-single-center-study
#9
Aneela Majeed, Norman Beatty, Ahmad Iftikhar, Adeela Mushtaq, Julia Fisher, Pryce Gaynor, Jeeyong C Kim, Jose Luis Marquez, Francisco E Mora, Anca Georgescu, Tirdad Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at higher risk (incidence 0.04% to 3.5%) of developing nocardiosis. Rate of nocardiosis in the Southwestern US may be high due to environmental factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review study on 54 SOT patients diagnosed with Nocardia between 1997 and 2016 at our center. To explore the association of various risk factors with both the development of disseminated disease and mortality, a series of Fisher's exact tests was used...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668073/sequential-systematic-anti-mold-prophylaxis-with-micafungin-and-voriconazole-results-in-very-low-incidence-of-invasive-mold-infections-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
Claudia Rosillo, Ana Maria Avila, Yao-Ting Huang, Sean Devlin, Christina Cho, Juan Montoro, Molly A Maloy, Genovefa A Papanicolaou, Pere Barba, Miguel-Angel Perales
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for invasive mold infections (IMI). The goal of the study is to describe the incidence and outcome of IMI in patients after allo-HSCT in a large cohort of patients receiving anti-mold prophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 988 consecutive adults who underwent allo-HSCT in our center from 2008 through 2014. Standard prophylaxis consisted of micafungin 150mg IV daily from admission to day +7 +/- 3 followed by voriconazole until day +75 to +100...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668068/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-in-the-swiss-transplant-cohort-study
#11
D Neofytos, O Chatzis, D Nasioudis, E Boely Janke, T Doco Lecompte, C Garzoni, C Berger, A Cussini, K Boggian, N Khanna, O Manuel, N J Mueller, C van Delden
BACKGROUND: There is lack of recent multicenter epidemiological data on invasive aspergillosis (IA) among solid organ transplant recipient (SOTr) in the mold-acting antifungal era. We describe the epidemiology and outcomes of IA in a contemporary cohort of SOTr using the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. METHODS: All consecutive SOTr with proven or probable IA between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2014 were included. A case-control study to identify IA predictors was performed: 1-case was matched with 3-controls based on SOT type, transplant center, and time post-SOT...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668040/graft-loss-attributed-to-possible-transfusion-transmitted-ehrlichiosis-following-cord-blood-stem-cell-transplant
#12
A Mah, G M Viola, E Ariza Heredia, K Rezvani, P Kebriaei, M M Bhatti, X Han, E J Shpall, V Mulanovich
We present a case of possible transfusion-transmitted Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in a heavily transfused cord blood transplant recipient, resulting in severe infection and graft loss. Transfusion-transmitted, vector-borne infections in immunocompromised individuals can have severe consequences, and should be considered in hospitalized patients receiving blood products with unexplained fever or sepsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603543/clinical-significance-of-post-prophylaxis-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#13
Nikta Jaamei, Angela Koutsokera, Jérôme Pasquier, Matteo Mombelli, Pascal Meylan, Manuel Pascual, John-David Aubert, Oriol Manuel
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease has been associated with the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) after transplantation. However, the relevance of CMV replication occurring after the discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis on the development of CLAD has not been fully established. METHODS: Patients who underwent lung transplantation during 2004-2014 were included. All patients received antiviral prophylaxis for 3-6 months, followed by monitoring of CMV replication during the first year post-transplantation (preemptive therapy)...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603539/asymptomatic-bacteriuria-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-the-challenge-in-the-first-eight-weeks
#14
LETTER
Rodrigo Rosado-Canto, Diego Luis Carrillo-Pérez, José Manuel Arreola-Guerra, José Sifuentes-Osornio
We have read with great interest, the elegant review by Hollyer et al.1 which is a complete update on the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in the kidney transplant recipient (KTR). Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is a common condition during the first three months after KT, with a reported incidence of 51%.2 Based on the clinical trial by Origüen et al.,3 and other studies, the authors conclude that "clinicians should adopt a more conservative approach in the management of AB with observation and without antibiotics in most cases"...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603533/aspergillus-flavus-native-valve-endocarditis-following-combined-liver-and-renal-transplantation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Sultan Alsobayeg, Nada Alshehri, Shamayel Mohammed, Bahaa M Fadel, Ali S Omrani, Reem Almaghrabi
Fungal endocarditis is a rare but serious form of infective endocarditis, typically involving prosthetic valves and resulting in high morbidity and mortality[1]. Fungi account for 1.3-6% of all cases of infective endocarditis, out of which Candida species are the most common, followed by Aspergillus species (25-30%)[1-3]. The most frequest risk factors for fungal endocarditis include cardiac surgery, indwelling vascular devices and intravenous drug use. However, fungal endocarditis of the native cardiac valves is extremely unusual[4]...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603522/re-infection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-after-hsct-presenting-lymphadenopathy-resembling-recurrence-of-lymphoma
#16
Junichi Hashiguchi, Masahiro Onozawa, Tomoaki Naka, Kanako C Hatanaka, Souichi Shiratori, Junichi Sugita, Katsuya Fujimoto, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Takanori Teshima
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) reactivation is one of the fatal complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, re-infection has not been reported. Here we report a case of mycosis fungoides in which cervical lymphadenopathy developed after HSCT. Initially, recurrent lymphoma was suspected. However, biopsy of the lymph node showed typical histology of toxoplasmosis and serology showed re-infection of T. gondii. Toxoplasmosis needs to be differentiated for cases with lymphoadenopthy after HSCT...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603514/sexual-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-after-solid-organ-transplantation-late-presentation-and-potentially-fatal-complications
#17
M P Cristelli, M A Mazolin, C Manzardo, M S J Ribeiro, F Cofán, D W C Santos, M A Castel, H Tedesco-Silva, A Moreno, F Diekman, J M Miro, J O Medina-Pestana
INTRODUCTION: While the growing knowledge on HIV among solid organ transplant recipients (SOT) is limited to either pretransplant infection or allograft transmission, there are only sparse reports describing HIV-infection after transplantation through sexual route, the primary mode of transmission in the general population. METHODS: From two different centers, we report nine new cases of HIV infection in SOT recipients attributed to sexual acquisition: eight cases of kidney-transplant recipients and one heart-transplant recipient...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602266/cmv-infection-in-heart-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#18
Ignacio A Echenique, Michael P Angarone, Jonathan Rich, Allen S Anderson, Valentina Stosor
BACKGROUND: CMV infection remains a major complication after heart transplantation with varying prophylaxis strategies employed. We sought to determine the impact of valganciclovir (VGC) duration on the epidemiology of CMV infections after heart transplantation. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of CMV donor (D) or recipient (R) seropositive heart transplant recipients from 2005-2012 who completed VGC prophylaxis, ranging from 3-12 months according to serostatus and induction immunosuppression...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573141/a-multicenter-investigation-of-respiratory-syncytial-viral-infection-in-children-with-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#19
Courtney M Rowan, Shira J Gertz, Matt S Zinter, Jerelyn Moffet, Rajinder Ps Bajwa, Jessie L Barnum, Michele Kong
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) may be a risk factor for morbidity and mortality from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Previous studies have been limited by small sample size. We took a multicenter approach with the goal of better understanding the epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, morbidity and mortality associated with RSV infections among children with HCT in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of pediatric HCT recipients diagnosed with RSV infection between January 2010 and December 2014...
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573075/plasmodium-falciparum-infection-transmitted-by-transfusion-a-cause-of-hemophagocytic-syndrome-after-bone-marrow-tranplantation-in-a-non-endemic-country
#20
Saloua Ladeb, Nour Ben Abdejlil, Najla Fakhfakh, Amel Lakhal, Dorra Belloumi, Leila Ben Hamed, Aicha Kallel, Lamia Torjman, Rym El Fatimi, Slama Hmida, Kalthoum Kallel, Tarek Ben Othman
A 27-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation from his HLA identical brother in July 2016. Conditioning included ATGAM 30 mg/kg for 3 days and Cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg for 4 days. The patient received several platelet and red blood cell transfusions before and after the conditioning. The patient received broad spectrum antibiotics and caspofungin because persistant febrile neutropenia without bacteriological or mycological documentation. Hemophagocytic syndrome was diagnosed on day +12...
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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