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Paediatric Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748932/increased-metformin-clearance-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents-a-pharmacokinetic-substudy-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Anne van Rongen, Marloes P van der Aa, Maja Matic, Ron H N van Schaik, Vera H M Deneer, Marja M van der Vorst, Catherijne A J Knibbe
BACKGROUND: In view of the increased use of metformin in obese adolescents, the aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of metformin in overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS: In overweight and obese adolescents receiving metformin 500 or 1000 mg twice daily for 37 weeks during a clinical trial, blood samples were collected over 8 h during an oral glucose tolerance test. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using NONMEM. RESULTS: Data for 22 overweight and obese adolescents with a mean total body weight (TBW) of 79...
May 10, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740791/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-not-a-small-matter
#2
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased substantially in the past two decades and NAFLD has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD is a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of necroinflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and subsequently to cirrhosis. Despite the increasing prevalence and progressive nature of NAFLD even among children, therapy for NAFLD in both adults and children are limited...
May 9, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736878/vancomycin-in-pediatric-patients-with-solid-or-hematological-malignant-disease-predictive-performance-of-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-and-new-optimized-dosing-regimens
#3
Amélie Marsot, F Gallais, C Galambrun, C Coze, O Blin, N Andre, R Guilhaumou
BACKGROUND: The application of population pharmacokinetic models and Bayesian methods offers the potential to develop individualized therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVES: The current study presents an external evaluation of a vancomycin pharmacokinetic model in a pediatric cancer population and proposes an easy-to-use chart for clinicians for a priori vancomycin schedule adaptation to achieve target concentration. METHODS: External evaluation of a population pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin administered via continuous infusion was realized in a new retrospective dataset of pediatric patients with cancer...
May 8, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725877/dose-dependent-teratology-in-humans-clinical-implications-for-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Gideon Koren, Matitiahu Berkovitch, Asher Ornoy
Since the inception of clinical teratology, the vast majority of scientific work has focused on identification of drugs and environmental agents causing malformations in humans as a dichotomous variable (i.e. yes or no), as well as the relative and absolute risks of such occurrences. Generally, the dose dependency of such events has not been investigated. With the establishment of large pregnancy databases, dose-dependence relationships are being uncovered for increasing numbers of medications, including valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, topiramate, and lithium...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651656/using-lithium-in-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-efficacy-tolerability-and-practical-considerations
#5
REVIEW
B Grant, J A Salpekar
Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels...
April 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637469/correction-to-palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-with-immunocompromised-conditions-or-down-syndrome-a-multicenter-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japan
#6
Tomoko Kashiwagi, Yukiko Okada, Ken Nomoto
"Newborns, infants, or young children aged 24 months and under who have Down syndrome, and children ≤ 24 months of age without a current hs-CHD if they had experienced persistent respiratory symptoms or regular outpatient treatment due to a respiratory tract infection in previous RSV seasons were also eligible for the study."
April 10, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633166/a-phase-3-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study-of-vilazodone-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Suresh Durgam, Changzheng Chen, Raffaele Migliore, Chandran Prakash, John Edwards, Robert L Findling
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious illness in children and adolescents. Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor approved for MDD in adults. This study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vilazodone in adolescent patients, ages 12-17 years, with MDD (NCT01878292). METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, fixed-dose study was conducted at 56 study centers in the United States and was 10 weeks in duration (a 1-week screening period, an 8-week double-blind treatment period, and a 1-week double-blind down-taper period)...
April 9, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616471/a-review-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-for-focal-onset-seizures-in-pediatrics-role-of-extrapolation
#8
REVIEW
Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar, Gregory L Holmes
Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) receive regulatory approval for children years after the drug is available in adults, encouraging off-label use of the drug in children and hindering attempts to obtain quality pediatric data in controlled trials. Extrapolating adult efficacy data to pediatrics can reduce the time between approval in adults and that in children. To extrapolate efficacy from adults to children, several assumptions must be supported, such as (1) a similar disease progression and response to interventions in adults and children, and (2) similar exposure response in adults and children...
April 3, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497992/the-management-of-paediatric-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-latest-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Brusaferro, Edoardo Farinelli, Letizia Zenzeri, Rita Cozzali, Susanna Esposito
Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is one of the most common health complaints in both children and adults. Although RAP is considered a functional disorder rather than an organic disease, affected children and their families can still experience anxiety and concerns that can interfere with school, sports, and regular daily activities and lead to frequent attendances at pediatric emergency departments or pediatric gastroenterology clinics. Our review shows experts do not agree on a universally proven management that will work on every child presenting with functional abdominal pain (FAP)...
March 2, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476333/ethical-considerations-for-the-participation-of-children-of-minor-parents-in-clinical-trials
#10
Mary A Ott, Francis P Crawley, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Seth Owusu-Agyei, David Neubauer, Gary Dubin, Tatjana Poplazarova, Norman Begg, Susan L Rosenthal
Children of minor parents are under-represented in clinical trials. This is largely because of the ethical, legal, and regulatory complexities in the enrolment, consent, and appropriate access of children of minor parents to clinical research. Using a case-based approach, we examine appropriate access of children of minor parents in an international vaccine trial. We first consider the scientific justification for inclusion of children of minor parents in a vaccine trial. Laws and regulations governing consent generally do not address the issue of minor parents...
February 23, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569124/optimizing-amikacin-dosage-in-pediatrics-based-on-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling
#11
Saeed Alqahtani, Manal Abouelkheir, Abdullah Alsultan, Yasmine Elsharawy, Aljawharah Alkoraishi, Reem Osman, Wael Mansy
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the population pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin in pediatric patients to contribute to the future development of a revised optimum dose and population-specific dosing regimens. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review in non-critical pediatric patients (aged 1-12 years) who received amikacin for suspected or proven Gram-negative infection at a university hospital. The population pharmacokinetic models were developed using Monolix 4...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524176/correction-to-immunosuppression-drug-therapy-in-lung-transplantation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Pamela Burcham, Lisa Sarzynski, Sabrina Khalfoun, Kimberly J Novak, Julie C Miller, Dmitry Tumin, Don Hayes
In the print publication the name of the seventh author was incorrectly published.
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344778/the-relationship-between-vancomycin-trough-concentrations-and-auc-mic-ratios-in-pediatric-patients-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Stacey Tkachuk, Kyle Collins, Mary H H Ensom
BACKGROUND: In adults, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is associated with better clinical and bacteriological response to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who achieve target AUC/MIC ≥ 400. This target is often extrapolated to pediatric patients despite the lack of similar evidence. The impracticalities of calculating the AUC in practice means vancomycin trough concentrations are used to predict the AUC/MIC...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282674/correction-to-development-of-guanfacine-extended-release-dosing-strategies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-drug-drug-interactions-with-moderate-cyp3a4-inhibitors-or-inducers
#14
Aiqun Li, Karen Yeo, Devin Welty, Haojing Rong
The article "Development of Guanfacine Extended-Release Dosing Strategies in Children and Adolescents with ADHD Using a PhysiologicallyBased Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict Drug-Drug Interactions with Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors or Inducers", written by Aiqun Li, Karen Yeo, Devin Welty, Haojing Rong, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 02nd November, 2017 without open access.
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247424/method-development-for-clinical-comprehensive-evaluation-of-pediatric-drugs-based-on-multi-criteria-decision-analysis-application-to-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-children-with-asthma
#15
Yuncui Yu, Lulu Jia, Yao Meng, Lihua Hu, Yiwei Liu, Xiaolu Nie, Meng Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Sheng Han, Xiaoxia Peng, Xiaoling Wang
BACKGROUND: Establishing a comprehensive clinical evaluation system is critical in enacting national drug policy and promoting rational drug use. In China, the 'Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation System for Pediatric Drugs' (CCES-P) project, which aims to compare drugs based on clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness to help decision makers, was recently proposed; therefore, a systematic and objective method is required to guide the process. METHODS: An evidence-based multi-criteria decision analysis model that involved an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was developed, consisting of nine steps: (1) select the drugs to be reviewed; (2) establish the evaluation criterion system; (3) determine the criterion weight based on the AHP; (4) construct the evidence body for each drug under evaluation; (5) select comparative measures and calculate the original utility score; (6) place a common utility scale and calculate the standardized utility score; (7) calculate the comprehensive utility score; (8) rank the drugs; and (9) perform a sensitivity analysis...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243034/application-of-pyridostigmine-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-a-case-series
#16
Mhd Louai Manini, Michael Camilleri, Rayna Grothe, Carlo Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in children. Treatment is challenging with limited medical and surgical options. Pyridostigmine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction promoting intestinal contractions. Little is known about the role and dosing of pyridostigmine in pediatric GI motility disorders. METHODS: We present a case series of children with GI dysmotility managed with oral pyridostigmine...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222627/pediatric-asthma-management-in-china-current-and-future-challenges
#17
Xiaojian Zhou, Jianguo Hong
The purpose of this report was to review the state of asthma diagnosis and treatment in China and to examine challenges in achieving earlier diagnosis and treatment. The prevalence of asthma in children in China has increased over past decades, and data published in 2013 indicated a prevalence of 3.0% in children aged 0-14 years. Although this prevalence has increased, the percentage of children with acute asthma attacks decreased from 86% in 2000 to 77% in 2010, and the frequency of hospitalizations for asthma attacks decreased from 54...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214395/pharmacological-management-of-hereditary-angioedema-with-c1-inhibitor-deficiency-in-pediatric-patients
#18
REVIEW
Henriette Farkas
Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a form of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. It is a rare disorder with an onset during childhood in most instances. Therefore, familiarity with the options for the management of pediatric cases is indispensable. The recurrent angioedematous episodes do not respond to conventional treatments and may evolve into a life-threatening condition. In view of the recommendations adopted by international consensus in 2016, patient management and follow-up should be guided by an individualized strategy...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098603/development-of-guanfacine-extended-release-dosing-strategies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-drug-drug-interactions-with-moderate-cyp3a4-inhibitors-or-inducers
#19
Aiqun Li, Karen Yeo, Devin Welty, Haojing Rong
BACKGROUND: Guanfacine extended-release (GXR) is an orally administered, non-stimulant treatment for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is primarily metabolized by the 3A4 isozyme of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4). The results of clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies indicate that guanfacine is sensitive to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) perpetrated by strong inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide guidance on the possible requirement for GXR dose adjustment in children and adolescents with ADHD by predicting DDIs following co-administration with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers...
April 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468383/effect-of-levocarnitine-on-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-conventional-therapy-in-children-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy-results-of-a-randomized-trial-in-29-children
#20
Yuwen Wang, Yi Xu, Runmei Zou, Lijia Wu, Ping Liu, Hong Yang, Zhenwu Xie, Cheng Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of levocarnitine supplementation has not been evaluated in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of oral levocarnitine supplementation in pediatric patients with DCM. METHODS: Twenty-nine children with DCM (17 male, 12 female, aged 1 month to 13 years) were divided into two groups according to a simple randomization: control group (n = 10) and experimental group (n = 19)...
February 21, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
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