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Paediatric Drugs

Patrick C Donnelly, Rebecca M Sutich, Ryan Easton, Oluwatunmise A Adejumo, Todd A Lee, Latania K Logan
BACKGROUND: Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Despite its effectiveness, its use for the treatment of infections in neonatal patients has been limited because of concern about its potential toxicity. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the literature for an association between ceftriaxone and cardiopulmonary events, hyperbilirubinemia, and pseudolithiasis among neonates...
October 7, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Ravi Prasad Nidanapu, Sundaram Rajan, Subramanian Mahadevan, Batmanabane Gitanjali
INTRODUCTION: Tablet splitting is the process of dividing a tablet into portions to obtain a prescribed dose of medication. Very few studies have investigated whether split parts of a tablet deliver the expected amount of drug to patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to evaluate the split parts of adult-dose tablet formulations for percentage of weight deviation, weight uniformity, weight loss, drug content, and the content uniformity of four antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prescribed to pediatric patients...
October 5, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Sebastian Botzenhardt, Asia N Rashed, Ian C K Wong, Stephen Tomlin, Antje Neubert
AIM: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are frequently prescribed in paediatrics. Prescribing and dosing patterns in hospitalised children are not well known. This study explores analgesic drug utilisation on five paediatric wards and discusses its findings in comparison with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. METHOD: A sub-analysis of a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study was undertaken. Prescription data of children aged up to ≤18 years were collected between October 2008 and December 2009 on paediatric general medical wards in five hospitals in Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom (UK), Hong Kong (HK) and Malaysia...
September 30, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Daphnée Michelet, Julie Hilly, Alia Skhiri, Rachida Abdat, Thierno Diallo, Christopher Brasher, Souhayl Dahmani
INTRODUCTION: Reducing postoperative opioid consumption is a priority given its impact upon recovery, and the efficacy of ketamine as an opioid-sparing agent in children is debated. The goal of this study was to update a previous meta-analysis on the postoperative opioid-sparing effect of ketamine, adding trial sequential analysis (TSA) and four new studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials that examined ketamine as a perioperative opioid-sparing agent in children and infants...
September 29, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Ann Haerskjold, Marie Linder, Lonny Henriksen, Simon Francis Thomsen, Helle Kieler, Henrik Ravn, Lone Graff Stensballe
BACKGROUND: Treatment with biologic pharmaceuticals may be associated with an increased risk of immune-mediated disease. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus infection. Palivizumab is primarily used in preterm children known to be immunologically immature. The long-term effect of palivizumab in terms of autoimmune diseases has not yet been investigated. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with the development of autoimmune diseases in children...
September 24, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Karel Allegaert, Amir Lahav, John N van den Anker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Selçuk Yüksel, Havva Evrengül, Z Birsin Özçakar, Tülay Becerir, Nagihan Yalçın, Emine Korkmaz, Fatih Ozaltin
INTRODUCTION: Studies relating to first-line, early, and long-term eculizumab treatment and outcomes in children with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) are scarce and unclear. The aim of this case-series study was to evaluate the outcomes of first-line, early, and long-term eculizumab treatment in our aHUS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the data from four pediatric patients with aHUS who were treated with eculizumab. In three of them, eculizumab was used as a first-line therapy, and the follow-up period was ≥2 years in three patients...
September 19, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
E Greze, M Benard, I Hamon, C Casper, F E Haddad, M-J Boutroy, J-M Hascoët
INTRODUCTION: Doxapram is used as a third-line treatment for apnea unresponsive to caffeine and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of dosing adjusted for gender and postmenstrual age (PMA) (GrA) versus infants' weight alone (GrW) on doxapram plasma levels, clinical efficacy, and side effects. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind study, including premature infants for whom optimized caffeine and CPAP therapy for apnea of prematurity had failed...
September 10, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Štefan Blazina, Gašper Markelj, Mojca Zajc Avramovič, Nataša Toplak, Tadej Avčin
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of childhood. The outcome in patients with JIA has markedly improved with the advent of biologic drugs. Although early aggressive therapy with biologics seems to be very effective, this approach leads to overtreatment in patients who would respond to classic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Therefore, methotrexate remains first-line long-term therapy for most children with polyarticular JIA. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors have shown tremendous benefit in children with refractory non-systemic JIA...
August 2, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Dominique M IJff, Tamar M van Veenendaal, Mariette H Debeij-van Hall, Jacobus F A Jansen, Anton J A de Louw, Marian H J M Majoie, Albert P Aldenkamp
INTRODUCTION: Although ethosuximide is one of the oldest antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), little information is available about the cognitive side effects of ethosuximide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive profile of ethosuximide. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used an extensive neuropsychological test battery in patients with epilepsy aged 6-16 years who were treated with monotherapy ethosuximide. We evaluated the efficacy of the drug by seizure frequency (seizure free or not)...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Anand Iyer, Richard Appleton
Infantile spasms, and specifically within the context of West syndrome , is one of the most common epileptic encephalopathies to occur in early infancy. Early recognition and treatment can improve neurodevelopmental outcome in some cases, although the underlying aetiology is probably the most important prognostic factor in both spasm suppression and developmental outcome. Corticosteroids, either adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or prednisolone, and vigabatrin are currently the preferred first-line treatment options...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Karel Allegaert, Amir Lahav, John N van den Anker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Lusine Ambartsumyan, Alejandro Flores, Samuel Nurko, Leonel Rodriguez
OBJECTIVES: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a challenging disorder with high morbidity and mortality due to limited effective therapies that improve enteral tolerance. We aimed to present our experience using octreotide in children with CIPO and evaluate factors predicting therapy response. METHODS: The study population included total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-dependent children with CIPO receiving octreotide at a tertiary care center. Octreotide response was defined as an enteral feeding increase of ≥10 cc/kg/day...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Susanna Esposito, Giulia Fior, Alessandro Mori, Silvia Osnaghi, Daniele Ghiglioni
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an inflammatory disease of the ocular surface. It commonly occurs in the first decade of life, has a wide geographical distribution, and usually occurs in warm, dry areas. The pathogenesis of VKC seems to have an immune, nervous, and endocrine basis. The most common eye symptoms are itching, discharge, tearing, eye irritation, redness of the eyes, and photophobia. Although VKC generally has a good prognosis, the lack of clarity regarding the origin of the disease makes treatment a challenge for pediatricians and ophthalmologists...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Robert L Findling, Ronald L Landbloom, Mary Mackle, Xiao Wu, Linda Snow-Adami, Kiki Chang, Suresh Durgam
BACKGROUND: Sublingually administered asenapine was approved in March 2015 by the United States Food and Drug Administration for patients aged 10-17 years with an acute manic or mixed episode associated with bipolar I disorder (BP-1). This is the first long-term safety and tolerability study of asenapine in this population. METHODS: Following the 3-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients aged 10-17 years with an acute manic or mixed episode associated with BP-1, patients could enroll in this flexible-dose (2...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Alessandra Magnani, Nizar Mahlaoui
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by lack of phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, which results in inflammatory dysregulation and increased susceptibility to infections. Patients with CGD may develop severe obstructive disorders of the digestive tract as a result of their dysregulated inflammatory response. Despite a growing focus on inflammatory manifestations in CGD, the literature data on obstructive complications are far less extensive than those on infectious complications...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Marco Lamberti, Rosamaria Siracusano, Domenico Italiano, Norma Alosi, Francesca Cucinotta, Gabriella Di Rosa, Eva Germanò, Edoardo Spina, Antonella Gagliano
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently overlapping neurodevelopmental disorders. Individuals in whom the disorders are comorbid show more severe impairment because of deficits in the processing of social situations, adaptive functioning, and executive control than individuals with either disorder alone. OBJECTIVE: This open-label pilot study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and aripiprazole for treating ADHD symptoms in patients with both ASD and ADHD over the course of 24 weeks of treatment...
August 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Laetitia Gerlier, Mark Lamotte, Sofia Dos Santos Mendes, Oliver Damm, Markus Schwehm, Martin Eichner
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to estimate the public health outcomes of vaccinating Belgian children using an intranasal tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (QLAIV) combined with current coverage of high-risk/elderly individuals using the trivalent inactivated vaccine. METHODS: We used a deterministic, age-structured, dynamic model to simulate seasonal influenza transmission in the Belgian population under the current coverage or after extending vaccination with QLAIV to healthy children aged 2-17 years...
August 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Benoit Bailey, Evelyne D Trottier
Far more attention is now given to pain management in children in the emergency department (ED). When a child arrives, pain must be recognized and evaluated using a pain scale that is appropriate to the child's development and regularly assessed to determine whether the pain intervention was effective. At triage, both analgesics and non-pharmacological strategies, such as distraction, immobilization, and dressing should be started. For mild pain, oral ibuprofen can be administered if the child has not received it at home, whereas ibuprofen and paracetamol are suitable for moderate pain...
August 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Glyn Williams, Richard Howard
The awareness of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the pediatric population is increasing. The condition involves regional pain that is out of proportion to any initiating event (if there is one) and is associated with sensory, functional, autonomic, and inflammatory changes in the region of the pain. The signs and symptoms of CRPS can vary between patients and stage of the disease process. Like many chronic pain conditions, it is often associated with significant disability and a detrimental effect on quality of life...
August 2016: Paediatric Drugs
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