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Paediatric Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243034/application-of-pyridostigmine-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-a-case-series
#1
Mhd Louai Manini, Michael Camilleri, Rayna Grothe, Carlo Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in children. Treatment is challenging with limited medical and surgical options. Pyridostigmine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction promoting intestinal contractions. Little is known about the role and dosing of pyridostigmine in pediatric GI motility disorders. METHODS: We present a case series of children with GI dysmotility managed with oral pyridostigmine...
December 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222627/pediatric-asthma-management-in-china-current-and-future-challenges
#2
Xiaojian Zhou, Jianguo Hong
The purpose of this report was to review the state of asthma diagnosis and treatment in China and to examine challenges in achieving earlier diagnosis and treatment. The prevalence of asthma in children in China has increased over past decades, and data published in 2013 indicated a prevalence of 3.0% in children aged 0-14 years. Although this prevalence has increased, the percentage of children with acute asthma attacks decreased from 86% in 2000 to 77% in 2010, and the frequency of hospitalizations for asthma attacks decreased from 54...
December 8, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214395/pharmacological-management-of-hereditary-angioedema-with-c1-inhibitor-deficiency-in-pediatric-patients
#3
REVIEW
Henriette Farkas
Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a form of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. It is a rare disorder with an onset during childhood in most instances. Therefore, familiarity with the options for the management of pediatric cases is indispensable. The recurrent angioedematous episodes do not respond to conventional treatments and may evolve into a life-threatening condition. In view of the recommendations adopted by international consensus in 2016, patient management and follow-up should be guided by an individualized strategy...
December 7, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214394/serious-adverse-events-associated-with-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-agents-in-pediatric-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-in-a-real-life-setting
#4
Serena Pastore, Samuele Naviglio, Arianna Canuto, Loredana Lepore, Stefano Martelossi, Alessandro Ventura, Andrea Taddio
OBJECTIVES: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) agents are generally well tolerated, yet they can be associated with serious adverse events (SAEs) in a minority of patients. We examined the incidence of SAEs in a pediatric referral center for chronic rheumatologic and gastroenterological inflammatory disorders. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of SAEs occurring during treatment with anti-TNF-α agents in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 78)  or pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n = 105) seen at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, Italy, between June 2001 and February 2016...
December 6, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170943/asenapine-treatment-in-pediatric-patients-with-bipolar-i-disorder-or-schizophrenia-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Ekaterina Stepanova, Bradley Grant, Robert L Findling
Asenapine, administered as a twice-daily (BID) sublingual tablet, is approved in the US as monotherapy for the acute treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years based on the positive results of one 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study; the recommended dose is 2.5-10 mg BID. Although asenapine has been studied in pediatric patients with schizophrenia, it is not approved for this indication. Asenapine is not approved for pediatric use in bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia in other major markets...
November 23, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143289/agents-in-development-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
REVIEW
Kelly W Maloney, Lia Gore
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in childhood. Standard chemotherapy has afforded outstanding outcomes for many patients; however, there remain some sub-groups with high-risk features, refractory disease, and patients that  relapse who have a poor prognosis with conventional treatments. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in newer treatment options, including improved monoclonal antibody therapies, T cell engagers, and chimeric antigen T-cell receptor products, all of which have changed the landscape for patients who relapse...
November 15, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127674/pharmacotherapeutic-management-of-pediatric-lymphoma
#7
REVIEW
Christine Mauz-Körholz, Natascha Ströter, Julia Baumann, Ante Botzen, Katharina Körholz, Dieter Körholz
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprise approximately 15% of all childhood malignancies. Cure rates for both lymphoma entities have evolved tremendously during the last couple of decades, raising the 5-year survival rates to almost 100% for HL and to 85% for NHL. The mainstay therapy for both malignancies is still chemotherapy-with different regimens recommended for different types of disease. In HL, combined modality treatment, i.e., chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, has long been the standard regimen...
November 10, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101553/treatment-options-for-resistant-kawasaki-disease
#8
REVIEW
Linny Kimly Phuong, Nigel Curtis, Peter Gowdie, Jonathan Akikusa, David Burgner
"Resistant" Kawasaki disease is defined by the American Heart Association as failure to respond within 36 h following the first dose of intravenous immunoglobulin. The optimal management of resistant Kawasaki disease remains uncertain, the outcomes are potentially serious, and the cost of some treatments is considerable. We review the current evidence to guide treatment of resistant Kawasaki disease. Given the relative rarity, there are few trial data, and studies tend to be small and methodologically heterogeneous, making interpretation difficult and limiting generalisability...
November 3, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098603/development-of-guanfacine-extended-release-dosing-strategies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-drug-drug-interactions-with-moderate-cyp3a4-inhibitors-or-inducers
#9
Aiqun Li, Karen Yeo, Devin Welty, Haojing Rong
BACKGROUND: Guanfacine extended-release (GXR) is an orally administered, non-stimulant treatment for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is primarily metabolized by the 3A4 isozyme of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4). The results of clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies indicate that guanfacine is sensitive to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) perpetrated by strong inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide guidance on the possible requirement for GXR dose adjustment in children and adolescents with ADHD by predicting DDIs following co-administration with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers...
November 2, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079905/anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-therapy-for-paediatric-crohn-s-disease-improved-benefits-through-treatment-optimisation-deeper-understanding-of-its-risks-and-reduced-costs-due-to-biosimilar-availability
#10
M A Cozijnsen, J N Samsom, L de Ridder
Antibodies directed to tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are very effective in treating paediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Over the last few years, research has provided important new insights into how to optimise this treatment's effectiveness. Research on predictors for anti-TNF treatment responsiveness has revealed potential markers, but data on their accuracy in paediatric CD patients are lagging behind. Also, new evidence has become available on the safety profile of anti-TNF antibodies that suggests the assumed increased malignancy risk seen in patients on anti-TNF and thiopurine combination treatment may be linked more to thiopurine use and not to anti-TNF treatment...
October 27, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900869/enabling-development-of-paediatric-medicines-in-europe-10-years-of-the-eu-paediatric-regulation
#11
Paolo A Tomasi, Gunter F Egger, Chrissi Pallidis, Agnes Saint-Raymond
The year 2017 marks the tenth anniversary of entry into force of the Paediatric Regulation in the European Union (EU). This law aimed to stimulate the development of paediatric medicines and provide more information on their use, as a response to the lack of evidence and approval of medicines for children. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has had a central role in the implementation of the Regulation. Pharmaceutical companies need to submit a paediatric investigation plan (PIP) to the EMA's Paediatric Committee (PDCO) for every new medicine, unless an exemption (waiver) is granted...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889403/do-paediatric-investigation-plans-pips-advance-paediatric-healthcare
#12
Klaus Rose, Philip D Walson
Since 2007, new drugs need a paediatric investigation plan (PIP) for EU registration. The PIPs' justifications can be traced back to concerns expressed by Shirkey that label warnings against paediatric use made children "therapeutic orphans", and the American Academy of Pediatrics' claim that all children differ considerably from adults. US legislation first encouraged, then also required, separate, adult-style safety and efficacy studies in all paediatric subpopulations. This triggered paediatric regulatory studies by the pharmaceutical industry...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861756/management-of-supraventricular-tachycardia-in-infants
#13
REVIEW
Chalese Richardson, Eric S Silver
Supraventricular tachycardia is the most common tachyarrhythmia encountered in infants. In older children and adults, definitive treatment of the supraventricular tachycardia substrate with catheter ablation is a common approach to management. However, in infants, the risks of catheter ablation are significantly higher, and the patients often outgrow the potential to experience episodes. Therefore, antiarrhythmic medications are often utilized to minimize the likelihood of experiencing episodes. This article reviews the common arrhythmia mechanisms encountered in infants and the medications used to treat these patients...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808948/tiotropium-bromide-in-children-and-adolescents-with-asthma
#14
Hengameh H Raissy, H William Kelly
Evidence is emerging on the use of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) in the management of asthma. Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva(®) Respimat(®)) is the only LAMA approved in children and adolescents. As the use of tiotropium becomes more common in clinical practice, it is necessary to review the existing data to identify patients who may benefit from the addition of this medication to their daily asthma regimen. This review discusses recent evidence on the safety and efficacy of tiotropium bromide in the management of asthma in children and adolescents...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#15
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786082/incidence-survival-and-treatment-of-localized-and-metastatic-neuroblastoma-in-germany-1979-2015
#16
Frank Berthold, Claudia Spix, Peter Kaatsch, Fritz Lampert
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive clinical long-term survey over the complete spectrum of neuroblatoma disease is lacking in the literature. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the incidence, risk profiles, therapies, and outcomes for the total cohort of German patients with neuroblastoma including all clinical stages and risk groups. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of neuroblastoma patients who participated in one of the six consecutive national trials between 1979 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770451/pharmacotherapy-for-seizures-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#17
REVIEW
Elissa Yozawitz, Arthur Stacey, Ronit M Pressler
Seizures are common in neonates with moderate and severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and are associated with worse outcomes, independent of HIE severity. In contrast to adults and older children, no new drugs have been licensed for treatment of neonatal seizures over the last 50 years, because of a lack of controlled clinical trials. Hence, many antiseizure medications licensed in older children and adults are used off-label for neonatal seizure, which is associated with potential risks of adverse effects during a period when the brain is particularly vulnerable...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770450/pediatric-clinical-trials-conducted-in-south-korea-from-2006-to-2015-an-analysis-of-the-south-korean-clinical-research-information-service-us-clinicaltrials-gov-and-european-clinical-trials-registries
#18
Sheung-Nyoung Choi, Ji-Hyun Lee, In-Kyung Song, Eun-Hee Kim, Jin-Tae Kim, Hee-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The status of pediatric clinical trials performed in South Korea in the last decade, including clinical trials of drugs with unapproved indications for children, has not been previously examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide information regarding the current state of pediatric clinical trials and create a basis for future trials performed in South Korea by reviewing three databases of clinical trials registrations. METHODS: We searched for pediatric clinical studies (participants <18 years old) conducted in South Korea between 2006 and 2015 registered on the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), ClinicalTrials...
December 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597354/pharmacologic-considerations-for-pediatric-sedation-and-anesthesia-outside-the-operating-room-a-review-for-anesthesia-and-non-anesthesia-providers
#19
REVIEW
Narjeet Khurmi, Perene Patel, Molly Kraus, Terrence Trentman
Understanding the pharmacologic options for pediatric sedation outside the operating room will allow practitioners to formulate an ideal anesthetic plan, allaying anxiety and achieving optimal immobilization while ensuring rapid and efficient recovery. The authors identified relevant medical literature by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases for English language publications covering a period from 1984 to 2017. Search terms included pediatric anesthesia, pediatric sedation, non-operating room sedation, sedation safety, and pharmacology...
October 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551734/alopecia-areata-an-update-on-treatment-options-for-children
#20
REVIEW
Lauren Peloquin, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Pediatric alopecia areata is a spectrum of autoimmune non-scarring alopecia in which some patients lose small patches of hair from their scalp but others lose more or all of the hair from the scalp and body, including eyebrows and eyelashes. Few studies have looked at therapies for this disorder in children, so much of the data are derived from adult literature and describe off-label use of medication. Generally, topical therapies consisting of topical steroids and topical irritating compounds/contact sensitizers are used...
October 2017: Paediatric Drugs
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