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Paediatric Drugs

Radna Minou Oostveen, Kathy Pritchard-Jones
Although differences exist in treatment and risk-stratification strategies for children with Wilms tumor (WT) between the European [International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP)] and American [Children's Oncology Group (COG)] study groups, outcomes are very similar, with an overall survival of > 85%. Future strategies aim to de-intensify treatment and reduce toxicity for children with a low risk of relapse and intensify treatment for children with high-risk disease. For metastatic WT, response of lung nodules to chemotherapy is used as a marker to modify treatment intensity...
January 2, 2019: Paediatric Drugs
Sanford Singer, Jamie Koenekoop, Jonathan Meddings, Julie Powell, Anne Desroches, Ernest G Seidman
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects both patients and their families. Current therapies often alleviate symptoms but do not prevent or eradicate the disease. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine whether pancreatic enzyme supplementation is an effective and safe treatment in refractory pediatric AD associated with food allergies. METHODS: We conducted an open-label pilot study using a case-control design...
December 17, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Jordan T Jones, Nasreen Talib, Daniel Lovell, Mara L Becker
BACKGROUND: Arthropathy of Down syndrome (DA) is largely under-recognized, with an average 2-year delay in diagnosis. Most patients present with polyarthritis, and treatment has historically been challenging. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate the clinical features and treatment of DA in the largest cohort reported to date. METHODS: In a retrospective chart review at two tertiary care hospitals, International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for Down syndrome (DS) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015, were identified and charts reviewed...
December 13, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Kazeem A Oshikoya, Gerold T Wharton, Debbie Avant, Sara L Van Driest, Norman E Fenn, Allison Lardieri, Edwin Doe, Beena G Sood, Carol Taketomo, Phuong Lieu, Lilly Yen, Ann W McMahon
OBJECTIVES: Half of prescription drugs commonly given to children lack product labeling on pediatric safety, efficacy, and dosing. Two drugs most widely used off-label in pediatrics are azithromycin and fentanyl. We sought to determine the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) when oral azithromycin or intravenous/intramuscular fentanyl are used off-label compared to on-label in pediatric intensive care units (ICUs). STUDY DESIGN: Six pediatric hospitals participated in a retrospective chart review of patients administered oral azithromycin (n = 241) or intravenous/intramuscular fentanyl (n = 367) between January 5, 2013 and December 26, 2014...
November 28, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Jose Carlos Flores-González, Ana Estalella-Mendoza, Patricia Rodríguez-Campoy, Mónica Saldaña-Valderas, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies (UGEs) performed under ketamine sedation may increase the risk of respiratory adverse events (RAEs) due to pharyngeal stimulation. Topical lidocaine prevents general anesthesia-induced laryngospasm. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether topical lidocaine may reduce the incidence of RAEs induced by pharyngeal stimulation in UGEs performed on children sedated with ketamine. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective study...
November 27, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Masato Takeuchi, Shuichi Ito, Masaki Nakamura, Koji Kawakami
BACKGROUND: We sought to quantify the degree of anemia after high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) by assessing hemoglobin (Hb) dynamics and determining the risk of transfusion. METHODS: We analyzed data from a database containing inpatient data collected from 230 hospitals in Japan. In addition to administrative records, this database included laboratory results for some patients. We searched for individuals aged ≤ 18 years with a diagnosis of KD (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, code M30...
October 22, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Emma H McCafferty, Sohita Dhillon, Emma D Deeks
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease that is typically characterized by the abnormal BCR-ABL1 fusion gene on the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in neoplastic cells. Dasatinib (Sprycel® ) is an orally administered, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of certain hematological malignancies, including Ph-positive CML in the chronic phase (Ph+ CML-CP) in adult and pediatric patients. In open-label phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials, dasatinib produced early and durable target responses (i...
December 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Julie Park, Urmi Das, Mohammed Didi, Renuka Ramakrishnan, Matthew Peak, Paul Newland, Joanne Blair
BACKGROUND: Hydrocortisone is the preferred treatment for adrenal insufficiency in childhood. A small minority of children experience low cortisol concentrations and symptoms of cortisol insufficiency, poorly responsive to modifications in dosing. We speculated that treatment with modified-release hydrocortisone Plenadren® may be beneficial in these selected patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to report cortisol profiles during treatment with standard formulation hydrocortisone and Plenadren, and growth and weight gain during treatment with Plenadren in selected children with adrenal insufficiency...
December 2018: Paediatric Drugs
R Dobra, C Edmondson, D Hughes, I Martin, J C Davies
Cystic fibrosis is the most common inherited condition in the Caucasian population and is associated with significantly reduced life expectancy. Recent advances in treatment have focussed on addressing the underlying cause of the condition, the defective production, expression and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Several drugs with different modes of action have produced promising results in clinical trials, and some have been incorporated into routine clinical care for specific patients in many countries worldwide...
October 17, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Stuart M MacLeod
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Rolf C R Ljung
Regular prophylactic treatment with factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) concentrates in hemophilia A and B, respectively, is introduced in early infancy and has resulted in dramatic improvement of the conditions. Recombinant FVIII and FIX concentrates have been available for > 25 years and have been modified and refined through the years; however, unfortunately frequent intravenous administrations are still necessary. The half-lives of these products have now been extended (EHL) by fusion with albumin, the Fc-portion of IgG, or by being PEGylated...
October 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Valentina Shakhnovich, P Brian Smith, Jeffrey T Guptill, Laura P James, David N Collier, Huali Wu, Chad E Livingston, Jian Zhao, Gregory L Kearns, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pharmacokinetic data for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), acid-suppression drugs commonly prescribed to children, are lacking for obese children who are at greatest risk for acid-related disease. In a recent multi-center investigation, we demonstrated decreased, total body weight adjusted, apparent clearance (CL/F) of the PPI pantoprazole for obese children compared with their non-obese peers. Subsequently, we developed a population-based pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model to characterize pantoprazole disposition and evaluated appropriate pantoprazole dosing strategies for obese pediatric patients, using simulation...
October 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Ozkan Ilhan, Meltem Bor, Senem Alkan Ozdemir, Sinem Akbay, Esra Arun Ozer
BACKGROUND: Given the severity and high mortality of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) infections, the use of colistin will increase in patients with MDR-GNB infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous colistin in very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) preterm infants. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who received colistin between June 2016 and December 2017...
October 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Catherine Habashy, Erin Springer, Elizabeth A Hall, Doralina L Anghelescu
Methadone is a synthetic opioid with unique pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. It is effective in treating both nociceptive and neuropathic pain, which commonly co-exist in children with cancer. Upon reviewing the literature describing the use of methadone in pediatric oncology patients, publications are limited in number and low in quality of evidence; nevertheless, there is support for the safety and efficacy of methadone in treating pain in children with cancer, particularly when pain is refractory to conventional treatment...
October 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Andrew M Tomlin, David J Woods, Hywel S Lloyd, Murray W Tilyard
BACKGROUND: Research examining trends in the outpatient prescription medicine use of New Zealand children is limited. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to provide an overview of prescription medicine use in New Zealand children and assess changing patterns in use from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all New Zealand primary care-registered children aged < 18 years using data from the national pharmaceutical claims database...
October 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Mary Frances Wedekind, Nicholas L Denton, Chun-Yu Chen, Timothy P Cripe
Cancer immunotherapies, widely heralded as transformational for many adult cancer patients, are becoming viable options for selected subsets of pediatric cancer patients. Many therapies are currently being investigated, from immunomodulatory agents to adoptive cell therapy, bispecific T-cell engagers, oncolytic virotherapy, and checkpoint inhibition. One of the most exciting immunotherapies recently FDA approved is the use of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells for pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
October 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Steven L Ciciora, Frederick W Woodley
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the retrograde movement of gastric (and sometimes duodenal) contents into the esophagus. While the majority of GER is physiologic, for patients, it can be associated with symptoms. While some symptoms are merely bothersome (crying), others can be life threatening (cough, gagging, choking). The main driver of GER in infants is the frequent feedings that produce increased intra-abdominal pressure, which is known to trigger transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter...
September 10, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
O C Smibert, M A Paraskeva, G Westall, Greg Snell
Lung transplantation can offer life-prolonging therapy to children with otherwise terminal end-stage lung disease. However, infectious complications, like those experienced by their adult counterparts, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. These include bacteria, viruses, and fungi that infect the patient pretransplant and those that may be acquired from the donor or by the recipient in the months to years posttransplant. An understanding of the approach to the management of each potential infecting organism is required to ensure optimal outcomes...
September 6, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Silvia Salvatore, Antonio Ripepi, Koen Huysentruyt, Kristel van de Maele, Luana Nosetti, Massimo Agosti, Alessandro Salvatoni, Yvan Vandenplas
BACKGROUND: Guidelines are contradictory regarding the use of alginate in infants with persisting gastroesophageal reflux (GER). While The British National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) guidelines consider alginate as a treatment option, the guidelines of the European and North-American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN, NASPGHAN) do not recommend alginates. AIMS: We assessed the efficacy of alginate to reduce GER episodes in infants...
September 4, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Nicole Bitencourt, Bonnie L Bermas
Pediatric patients often have poor pregnancy outcomes. Systemic lupus erythematosus predominantly impacts women in their second to fourth decade of life, with childhood-onset disease being particularly aggressive. Reproductive issues are an important clinical consideration for pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as maintaining good disease control and planning a pregnancy are important for maternal and fetal outcomes. In this clinical review, we will consider the safety of medications in managing childhood-onset SLE during conception, pregnancy, and breastfeeding...
September 3, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
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