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Paediatric Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808948/tiotropium-bromide-in-children-and-adolescents-with-asthma
#1
Hengameh H Raissy, H William Kelly
Evidence is emerging on the use of long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) in the management of asthma. Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva(®) Respimat(®)) is the only LAMA approved in children and adolescents. As the use of tiotropium becomes more common in clinical practice, it is necessary to review the existing data to identify patients who may benefit from the addition of this medication to their daily asthma regimen. This review discusses recent evidence on the safety and efficacy of tiotropium bromide in the management of asthma in children and adolescents...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#2
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786083/anesthesia-practice-in-pediatric-radiation-oncology-mayo-clinic-arizona-s-experience-2014-2016
#3
Narjeet Khurmi, Perene Patel, Sarang Koushik, Thomas Daniels, Molly Kraus
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the goals of targeted radiation therapy in pediatrics is critical to developing high quality and safe anesthetic plans in this patient population. An ideal anesthetic plan includes allaying anxiety and achieving optimal immobilization, while ensuring rapid and efficient recovery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of children receiving anesthesia for radiation oncology procedures from 1/1/2014 to 7/31/2016. No anesthetics were excluded from the analysis...
August 7, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786082/incidence-survival-and-treatment-of-localized-and-metastatic-neuroblastoma-in-germany-1979-2015
#4
Frank Berthold, Claudia Spix, Peter Kaatsch, Fritz Lampert
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive clinical long-term survey over the complete spectrum of neuroblatoma disease is lacking in the literature. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the incidence, risk profiles, therapies, and outcomes for the total cohort of German patients with neuroblastoma including all clinical stages and risk groups. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of neuroblastoma patients who participated in one of the six consecutive national trials between 1979 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively...
August 7, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776129/comparative-effectiveness-research-in-pediatric-respiratory-disease-promise-and-pitfalls
#5
Kathleen J Ramos, Ranjani Somayaji, David P Nichols, Christopher H Goss
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has become increasing central to clinical research in medicine. CER seeks to conduct clinical trials that compare different commonly used interventions in real-world settings (pragmatic clinical trials) and use a multitude of sources of evidence (including registries and cohort studies) to inform clinical decision making. CER also ensures that stakeholders (patients, families, care providers, insurers) have a voice in the research process by integrating formal stakeholder engagement as part of the research...
August 3, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770451/pharmacotherapy-for-seizures-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Elissa Yozawitz, Arthur Stacey, Ronit M Pressler
Seizures are common in neonates with moderate and severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and are associated with worse outcomes, independent of HIE severity. In contrast to adults and older children, no new drugs have been licensed for treatment of neonatal seizures over the last 50 years, because of a lack of controlled clinical trials. Hence, many antiseizure medications licensed in older children and adults are used off-label for neonatal seizure, which is associated with potential risks of adverse effects during a period when the brain is particularly vulnerable...
August 2, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770450/pediatric-clinical-trials-conducted-in-south-korea-from-2006-to-2015-an-analysis-of-the-south-korean-clinical-research-information-service-us-clinicaltrials-gov-and-european-clinical-trials-registries
#7
Sheung-Nyoung Choi, Ji-Hyun Lee, In-Kyung Song, Eun-Hee Kim, Jin-Tae Kim, Hee-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The status of pediatric clinical trials performed in South Korea in the last decade, including clinical trials of drugs with unapproved indications for children, has not been previously examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide information regarding the current state of pediatric clinical trials and create a basis for future trials performed in South Korea by reviewing three databases of clinical trials registrations. METHODS: We searched for pediatric clinical studies (participants <18 years old) conducted in South Korea between 2006 and 2015 registered on the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), ClinicalTrials...
August 2, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766184/frequency-and-nature-of-adverse-drug-reactions-due-to-non-prescription-drugs-in-children-a-retrospective-analysis-from-the-french-pharmacovigilance-database
#8
Geneviève Durrieu, Mathieu Maupiler, Vanessa Rousseau, Leila Chebane, François Montastruc, Emmanuelle Bondon-Guitton, Jean-Louis Montastruc
INTRODUCTION: Studies that evaluate the safety of non-prescription drugs in children remain scarce. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare adverse drug reactions (ADRs) due to prescription versus non-prescription drugs in children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of ADR notifications for a pediatric population (aged <18 years) registered in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD) between January 1985 and December 2016 by the Midi-Pyrénées PharmacoVigilance Center (in the south of France)...
August 1, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735476/annual-european-congress-of-rheumatology-madrid-spain-14-17-june-2017
#9
Rod McNab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721467/a-review-of-the-safety-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-delivery-of-nasal-oxytocin-in-children-therapeutic-potential-for-autism-and-prader-willi-syndrome-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#10
Marilena M DeMayo, Yun Ju C Song, Ian B Hickie, Adam J Guastella
In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of existing evidence for the safety and therapeutic potential of intranasal oxytocin in pediatric populations. Unique considerations for dosing and delivery of oxytocin to the nasal passageway in pediatric populations and methods to promote adherence are reviewed. Intranasal oxytocin has been administered to 261 children in three open-label studies and eight randomized controlled trials. To date, the only published results in pediatric populations have focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)...
July 18, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712052/pharmacotherapy-for-pediatric-neurogenic-bladder
#11
REVIEW
Paweł Kroll
Neurogenic bladder (NB) is a nonspecific term that may describe conditions ranging from areflectic noncontractile bladder to detrusor overactivity. The most common cause of NB in children is the presence of dysraphic malformations. Urodynamic evaluations make it possible to describe bladder dysfunctions and to plan a therapeutic strategy for each patient. In a child with NB there are two major dangerous functional problems seen in urodynamic investigations: high intravesical pressure in the storage phase and high pressure during urination...
July 15, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620849/clinical-management-of-dystonia-in-childhood
#12
REVIEW
Quyen N Luc, Jyes Querubin
Dystonia is one of the most frequent movement disorders in childhood. It can impede normal motor development and cause significant motor disability. The diagnostic evaluation of childhood dystonia is challenging due to the phenotypic variability and heterogeneous etiologies. Evidence to guide the diagnostic evaluation and treatment is limited. Assessment is primarily directed by clinical history and distinctive examination findings. Neuroimaging is typically necessary to evaluate for acquired or complex inherited dystonias...
June 15, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612093/clinical-trial-design-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#13
Stephen J Balevic, Mara L Becker, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Laura E Schanberg
Randomized clinical trials provide the gold standard evidence base to guide clinical practice. Despite major advances in trial design, pediatric clinical trials are still difficult to perform and pose unique challenges, including the need to consider the impact of developmental changes in trial design. Advances within pediatric rheumatology combined with the need to comply with legislative requirements have driven new approaches to performing pediatric clinical trials such as utilization of large research networks, incorporation of patient and family stakeholders in the planning and implementation of clinical trials, and the development of novel trial designs...
June 13, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597354/pharmacologic-considerations-for-pediatric-sedation-and-anesthesia-outside-the-operating-room-a-review-for-anesthesia-and-non-anesthesia-providers
#14
REVIEW
Narjeet Khurmi, Perene Patel, Molly Kraus, Terrence Trentman
Understanding the pharmacologic options for pediatric sedation outside the operating room will allow practitioners to formulate an ideal anesthetic plan, allaying anxiety and achieving optimal immobilization while ensuring rapid and efficient recovery. The authors identified relevant medical literature by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases for English language publications covering a period from 1984 to 2017. Search terms included pediatric anesthesia, pediatric sedation, non-operating room sedation, sedation safety, and pharmacology...
June 8, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551734/alopecia-areata-an-update-on-treatment-options-for-children
#15
REVIEW
Lauren Peloquin, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Pediatric alopecia areata is a spectrum of autoimmune non-scarring alopecia in which some patients lose small patches of hair from their scalp but others lose more or all of the hair from the scalp and body, including eyebrows and eyelashes. Few studies have looked at therapies for this disorder in children, so much of the data are derived from adult literature and describe off-label use of medication. Generally, topical therapies consisting of topical steroids and topical irritating compounds/contact sensitizers are used...
May 27, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550457/treatment-of-juvenile-dermatomyositis-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Charalampia Papadopoulou, Lucy R Wedderburn
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of childhood consist of a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases characterised by proximal muscle weakness and pathognomonic skin rashes. The overall prognosis of juvenile myositis has improved significantly over recent years, but the long-term outcome differs substantially from patient to patient, suggestive of distinct clinical phenotypes with variable responses to treatment. High doses of corticosteroids remain the cornerstone of therapy along with other immunosuppressant therapies depending on disease severity and response...
May 26, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660554/authors-reply-to-m-s-raghuraman-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-for-procedural-sedation-in-children-a-suitable-alternative-to-chloral-hydrate
#17
LETTER
Giorgio Cozzi, Stefania Norbedo, Egidio Barbi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660553/comment-on-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-for-procedural-sedation-in-children-a-suitable-alternative-to-chloral-hydrate
#18
LETTER
M S Raghuraman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623614/abobotulinumtoxina-a-review-in-pediatric-lower-limb-spasticity
#19
REVIEW
Yahiya Y Syed
AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport(®)) is currently the only botulinum toxin A formulation approved by the US FDA for the treatment of lower limb spasticity in pediatric patients aged ≥2 years. Intramuscular abobotulinumtoxinA was approved based on the results of a pivotal phase 3 trial in children with lower limb spasticity due to cerebral palsy. In this trial, a single treatment cycle with abobotulinumtoxinA 10-15 U/kg/leg injected into the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles significantly improved ankle plantar flexor muscle tone (primary endpoint), with abobotulinumtoxinA recipients showing a significant response to treatment relative to placebo...
August 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547678/immunosuppression-drug-therapy-in-lung-transplantation-for-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Pamela Burcham, Lisa Sarzynski, Sabrina Khalfoun, Kimberly J Novak, Julie C Miller, Dmitry Tumin, Don Hayes
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common indication for lung transplantation (LTx) in children and adults with severe and irreversible lung disease. In the setting of LTx in the CF population, immunosuppressive medications are used to prevent allograft rejection despite the majority of these patients being chronically infected with numerous, and often antibiotic-resistant, pathogens. There is limited evidence for the optimal post-LTx immunosuppression regimen in patients with CF, particularly in children. This article provides a review of immunosuppression regimens in the pediatric and adult CF post-LTx population, investigating drug dosing and monitoring, and medication combinations...
August 2017: Paediatric Drugs
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