journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Paediatric Drugs

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003498/pharmacokinetics-and-drug-interaction-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Giulia Iapadre, Ganna Balagura, Luca Zagaroli, Pasquale Striano, Alberto Verrotti
Selecting the most appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) or combination of drugs for each patient and identifying the most suitable therapeutic regimen for their needs is increasingly challenging, especially among pediatric populations. In fact, the pharmacokinetics of several drugs vary widely in children with epilepsy because of age-related factors, which can influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the pharmacological agent. In addition, individual factors, such as seizure type, associated comorbidities, individual pharmacokinetics, and potential drug interactions, may contribute to large fluctuations in serum drug concentrations and, therefore, clinical response...
July 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923109/current-challenges-in-neonatal-resuscitation-what-is-the-role-of-adrenaline
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Antonucci, Luca Antonucci, Cristian Locci, Annalisa Porcella, Laura Cuzzolin
Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication. It is the best established drug in neonatal resuscitation, but only weak evidence supports current recommendations for its use. Furthermore, the available evidence is partly based on extrapolations from adult studies, and this introduces further uncertainty, especially when considering the unique physiological characteristics of newly born infants. The timing, dose, and route of administration of adrenaline are still debated, even though this medication has been used in neonatal resuscitation for a long time...
June 19, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948928/pediatric-cancer-immunotherapy-opportunities-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Mary Frances Wedekind, Nicholas L Denton, Chun-Yu Chen, Timothy P Cripe
Cancer immunotherapies, widely heralded as transformational for many adult cancer patients, are becoming viable options for selected subsets of pediatric cancer patients. Many therapies are currently being investigated, from immunomodulatory agents to adoptive cell therapy, bispecific T-cell engagers, oncolytic virotherapy, and checkpoint inhibition. One of the most exciting immunotherapies recently FDA approved is the use of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells for pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
June 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876872/pharmacotherapy-for-persistent-posttraumatic-headaches-in-children-and-adolescents-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#4
Joanne Kacperski
Concussion, now most often referred to as mild traumatic brain injury in recent literature, is common in pediatrics, and headache is often the most common complaint post-injury. Although most children and adolescents recover within 1-2 weeks, some develop frequent and debilitating headaches that can last for months or longer. Most clinicians would agree on the importance of managing both acute and persistent posttraumatic headaches appropriately to speed recovery, minimize disability, maximize function, and improve quality of life, but there are no well-established guidelines to instruct physicians in doing so...
June 7, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748932/increased-metformin-clearance-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents-a-pharmacokinetic-substudy-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Anne van Rongen, Marloes P van der Aa, Maja Matic, Ron H N van Schaik, Vera H M Deneer, Marja M van der Vorst, Catherijne A J Knibbe
BACKGROUND: In view of the increased use of metformin in obese adolescents, the aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of metformin in overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS: In overweight and obese adolescents receiving metformin 500 or 1000 mg twice daily for 37 weeks during a clinical trial, blood samples were collected over 8 h during an oral glucose tolerance test. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using NONMEM. RESULTS: Data for 22 overweight and obese adolescents with a mean total body weight (TBW) of 79...
May 10, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740791/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-not-a-small-matter
#6
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased substantially in the past two decades and NAFLD has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD is a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of necroinflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and subsequently to cirrhosis. Despite the increasing prevalence and progressive nature of NAFLD even among children, therapy for NAFLD in both adults and children are limited...
May 9, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736878/vancomycin-in-pediatric-patients-with-solid-or-hematological-malignant-disease-predictive-performance-of-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-and-new-optimized-dosing-regimens
#7
Amélie Marsot, F Gallais, C Galambrun, C Coze, O Blin, N Andre, R Guilhaumou
BACKGROUND: The application of population pharmacokinetic models and Bayesian methods offers the potential to develop individualized therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVES: The current study presents an external evaluation of a vancomycin pharmacokinetic model in a pediatric cancer population and proposes an easy-to-use chart for clinicians for a priori vancomycin schedule adaptation to achieve target concentration. METHODS: External evaluation of a population pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin administered via continuous infusion was realized in a new retrospective dataset of pediatric patients with cancer...
May 8, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725877/dose-dependent-teratology-in-humans-clinical-implications-for-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Gideon Koren, Matitiahu Berkovitch, Asher Ornoy
Since the inception of clinical teratology, the vast majority of scientific work has focused on identification of drugs and environmental agents causing malformations in humans as a dichotomous variable (i.e. yes or no), as well as the relative and absolute risks of such occurrences. Generally, the dose dependency of such events has not been investigated. With the establishment of large pregnancy databases, dose-dependence relationships are being uncovered for increasing numbers of medications, including valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, topiramate, and lithium...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850985/the-use-of-ommaya-reservoirs-to-deliver-central-nervous-system-directed-chemotherapy-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#9
Ruairi Wilson, Caroline Osborne, Christina Halsey
Prophylactic eradication of central nervous system (CNS) leukaemia is the current standard of care in treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). This is conventionally achieved through regular lumbar punctures with intrathecal injections of methotrexate into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Ommaya reservoirs are subcutaneous implantable devices that provide a secure route of drug delivery into the CSF via an intraventricular catheter. They are an important alternative in cases where intrathecal injection via lumbar puncture is difficult...
August 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785564/helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-pediatric-patients-update-on-diagnosis-and-eradication-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Kallirroi Kotilea, Nicolas Kalach, Matjaž Homan, Patrick Bontems
Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired mainly in childhood and remains an essential cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This article provides commentary on the last ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guidelines and on publications made after the consensus conference of 2015. The majority of infected children are asymptomatic and pediatric studies do not support a role for H. pylori in functional disorders such as recurrent abdominal pain. The role of H. pylori infection in failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and celiac disease remains controversial...
August 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637469/correction-to-palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-with-immunocompromised-conditions-or-down-syndrome-a-multicenter-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japan
#11
Tomoko Kashiwagi, Yukiko Okada, Ken Nomoto
"Newborns, infants, or young children aged 24 months and under who have Down syndrome, and children ≤ 24 months of age without a current hs-CHD if they had experienced persistent respiratory symptoms or regular outpatient treatment due to a respiratory tract infection in previous RSV seasons were also eligible for the study."
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616471/a-review-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-for-focal-onset-seizures-in-pediatrics-role-of-extrapolation
#12
REVIEW
Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar, Gregory L Holmes
Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) receive regulatory approval for children years after the drug is available in adults, encouraging off-label use of the drug in children and hindering attempts to obtain quality pediatric data in controlled trials. Extrapolating adult efficacy data to pediatrics can reduce the time between approval in adults and that in children. To extrapolate efficacy from adults to children, several assumptions must be supported, such as (1) a similar disease progression and response to interventions in adults and children, and (2) similar exposure response in adults and children...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569124/optimizing-amikacin-dosage-in-pediatrics-based-on-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling
#13
Saeed Alqahtani, Manal Abouelkheir, Abdullah Alsultan, Yasmine Elsharawy, Aljawharah Alkoraishi, Reem Osman, Wael Mansy
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the population pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin in pediatric patients to contribute to the future development of a revised optimum dose and population-specific dosing regimens. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review in non-critical pediatric patients (aged 1-12 years) who received amikacin for suspected or proven Gram-negative infection at a university hospital. The population pharmacokinetic models were developed using Monolix 4...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497992/the-management-of-paediatric-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-latest-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Brusaferro, Edoardo Farinelli, Letizia Zenzeri, Rita Cozzali, Susanna Esposito
Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is one of the most common health complaints in both children and adults. Although RAP is considered a functional disorder rather than an organic disease, affected children and their families can still experience anxiety and concerns that can interfere with school, sports, and regular daily activities and lead to frequent attendances at pediatric emergency departments or pediatric gastroenterology clinics. Our review shows experts do not agree on a universally proven management that will work on every child presenting with functional abdominal pain (FAP)...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476333/ethical-considerations-for-the-participation-of-children-of-minor-parents-in-clinical-trials
#15
Mary A Ott, Francis P Crawley, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Seth Owusu-Agyei, David Neubauer, Gary Dubin, Tatjana Poplazarova, Norman Begg, Susan L Rosenthal
Children of minor parents are under-represented in clinical trials. This is largely because of the ethical, legal, and regulatory complexities in the enrolment, consent, and appropriate access of children of minor parents to clinical research. Using a case-based approach, we examine appropriate access of children of minor parents in an international vaccine trial. We first consider the scientific justification for inclusion of children of minor parents in a vaccine trial. Laws and regulations governing consent generally do not address the issue of minor parents...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468383/effect-of-levocarnitine-on-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-conventional-therapy-in-children-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy-results-of-a-randomized-trial-in-29-children
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yuwen Wang, Yi Xu, Runmei Zou, Lijia Wu, Ping Liu, Hong Yang, Zhenwu Xie, Cheng Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of levocarnitine supplementation has not been evaluated in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of oral levocarnitine supplementation in pediatric patients with DCM. METHODS: Twenty-nine children with DCM (17 male, 12 female, aged 1 month to 13 years) were divided into two groups according to a simple randomization: control group (n = 10) and experimental group (n = 19)...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388076/rotavirus-vaccines-effectiveness-safety-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Eleanor Burnett, Umesh Parashar, Jacqueline Tate
Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrheal death among children < 5 years old worldwide, estimated to have caused ~ 215,000 deaths in 2013. Prior to rotavirus vaccine implementation, > 65% of children had at least one rotavirus diarrhea illness by 5 years of age and rotavirus accounted for > 40% of all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations globally. Two live, oral rotavirus vaccines have been implemented nationally in > 100 countries since 2006 and their use has substantially reduced the burden of severe diarrheal illness in all settings...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302790/optimizing-the-dosing-of-intravenous-theophylline-in-acute-severe-asthma-in-children
#18
Gemma L Saint, Malcolm G Semple, Ian Sinha, Daniel B Hawcutt
Optimizing the management of children presenting with acute severe asthma is of utmost importance to minimize hospital stays, morbidity, and mortality. Intravenous medications, including theophyllines, are used as second-line treatments for children experiencing a life-threatening exacerbation. For intravenous theophylline (aminophylline), guidelines and formularies recommend a target therapeutic range between 10 and 20 mg/l, with the commonest regimen being a loading dose of 5 mg/kg followed by an infusion calculated by age and weight...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275494/differences-in-pediatric-headache-prescription-patterns-by-diagnosis
#19
Jonathan Rabner, Allison Ludwick, Alyssa LeBel
BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported prescription patterns for headache medication. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to present the rates of specific medication prescribed to pediatric patients diagnosed with migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and new daily persistent headache (NDPH), as well as differences in those prescription patterns by diagnosis, age, and gender. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A query using the i2b2 platform yielded 14,591 patients [migraine 10,547 (72...
June 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651656/using-lithium-in-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-efficacy-tolerability-and-practical-considerations
#20
REVIEW
B Grant, J A Salpekar
Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels...
April 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
journal
journal
34607
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"