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Paediatric Drugs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523589/alternating-acetaminophen-and-ibuprofen-versus-monotherapies-in-improvements-of-distress-and-reducing-refractory-fever-in-febrile-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Shuanghong Luo, Mengdong Ran, Qiuhong Luo, Min Shu, Qin Guo, Yu Zhu, Xiaoping Xie, Chongfan Zhang, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND: No evidence can be found in the medical literature about the efficacy of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen treatment in children with refractory fever. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effect of alternating acetaminophen and ibuprofen therapy on distress and refractory fever compared with acetaminophen or ibuprofen as monotherapy in febrile children. METHODS: A total of 474 febrile children with axillary temperature ≥38...
May 18, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516289/understanding-the-stability-of-dopamine-and-dobutamine-over-24%C3%A2-h-in-simulated-neonatal-ward-conditions
#2
Katherine Kirupakaran, Liam Mahoney, Heike Rabe, Bhavik A Patel
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to investigate the possible effects of temperature and light on the stability of dopamine and dobutamine continuous infusions over 24 h when prepared in a variety of dilution vehicles. METHODS: Syringe-driver infusion apparatuses were set up for dopamine and dobutamine diluted with either 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) or 5% glucose delivering 3 and 5 μg/kg/min, respectively, via 206-cm extension sets. All infusions were prepared for a neonate weight of 1 kg...
May 17, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516288/efficacy-and-safety-of-ibuprofen-in-infants-aged-between-3-and-6-months
#3
Victoria C Ziesenitz, Andreas Zutter, Thomas O Erb, Johannes N van den Anker
Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug frequently administered to children of various ages for relief of fever and pain and is approved as an over-the-counter medication in many countries worldwide. Although there are extensive data on its efficacy and safety in children and adults, there are divergent dosing recommendations for analgesia and treatment of fever in infants, especially in the age group between 3 and 6 months of age. In this article, we have assessed the safety and efficacy of ibuprofen use in infants in an attempt to find the optimal method of pain and fever management in this specific age group...
May 17, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510067/immunization-during-pregnancy-impact-on-the-infant
#4
REVIEW
Kirsten P Perrett, Terry M Nolan
Maternal immunization has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, as women and healthcare providers accept and recognize the benefits of this strategy not only for the pregnant woman but also for the developing fetus and young infant. This article reviews the evidence for active immunization during pregnancy, with an emphasis on perinatal and infant outcomes. Current recommendations for immunization during pregnancy are presented, with particular focus on the routinely recommended vaccines during pregnancy: influenza and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis)...
May 16, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497352/monogenic-periodic-fever-syndromes-treatment-options-for-the-pediatric-patient
#5
REVIEW
Seza Ozen, Selcan Demir
Autoinflammatory diseases are disorders of the innate immune system characterized by uncontrolled inflammation. The most commonly encountered autoinflammatory diseases are the hereditary periodic fever syndromes, which present with fever and other features of the skin, serosal membranes, and musculoskeletal system. The main inherited (monogenic) periodic fever syndromes are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (HIDS)/mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD)...
May 11, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466422/neurotoxicity-versus-neuroprotection-of-anesthetics-young-children-on-the-ropes
#6
Ramón Eizaga Rebollar, María V García Palacios, Javier Morales Guerrero, Luis M Torres Morera
Normal brain development in young children depends on a balance between excitation and inhibition of neurons, and alterations to this balance may cause apoptosis. During the perioperative period, both surgical stimuli and anesthetics can induce neurotoxicity. This article attempts to expand the perspective of a topical issue-anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity-by also considering the protective effect of general anesthetics against surgery-induced neurotoxicity, all of which may generate some controversy in the current literature...
May 2, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447300/erratum-to-emergence-delirium-in-pediatric-anesthesia
#7
Arthura D Moore, Doralina L Anghelescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421469/effectiveness-and-safety-of-different-once-daily-doses-of-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-for-infantile-spasms
#8
Jinghua Yin, Qianjin Lu, Fei Yin, Ying Wang, Fang He, Liwen Wu, Lifen Yang, Xiaolu Deng, Chen Chen, Jing Peng
INTRODUCTION: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been commonly used as a first-line treatment for infantile spasms (IS), but its optimal dose and duration are still unclear. This study is the largest retrospective cohort to document the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability for three gradient doses of ACTH in IU/kg/day units in Chinese patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to elucidate the effectiveness and safety of three different low doses and duration of ACTH treatment for IS in China...
April 18, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353155/occurrence-of-potential-adverse-drug-events-from-prescribing-errors-in-a-pediatric-intensive-and-high-dependency-unit-in-hong-kong-an-observational-study
#9
Celeste L Y Ewig, Hon Ming Cheung, Kwok Ho Kam, Hiu Lam Wong, Chad A Knoderer
BACKGROUND: Critically ill pediatric patients are considered at high risk for medication errors. Although much research focuses on the actual errors, equally important are medication errors that, although intercepted, carried the potential for an adverse drug event. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of prescribing errors and potential adverse drug events (pADEs) in a local pediatric intensive and critical care unit (PICU) in Hong Kong. Our secondary objective was to determine the type of error, nature of medication involved and the time of error occurrence...
March 28, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303480/erratum-to-use-of-fentanyl-in-adolescents-with-clinically-severe-obesity-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-a-pilot-study
#10
Janelle D Vaughns, Victoria C Ziesenitz, Elaine F Williams, Alvina Mushtaq, Ricarda Bachmann, Gisela Skopp, Johanna Weiss, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447301/management-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-pediatric-patients
#11
REVIEW
Rudolph M Navari
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life and is perceived by patients as a major adverse effect of the treatment. This review summarizes the safety and efficacy of current antiemetic agents for the prevention of CINV in children. Information on antiemetic prophylaxis for CINV in children was obtained from a literature review of current peer-reviewed articles and recent international guidelines. The literature review and the international antiemetic guidelines provide recommendations for use of specific antiemetics in children based on the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434087/hepatitis-b-during-pregnancy-in-endemic-areas-screening-treatment-and-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission
#12
REVIEW
Naichaya Chamroonkul, Teerha Piratvisuth
The proper management of pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and to protect the baby from HBV infection. In the majority of cases, vertical transmission can be prevented with a universal screening program, HBV vaccine immunoprophylaxis, and administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) for babies born to mothers with HBV. However, in mothers with a high viral load (>200,000 or >1,000,000 IU/ml, depending on the guideline), the chance of immunoprophylaxis failure remains high...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413843/methodology-used-to-assess-acceptability-of-oral-pediatric-medicines-a-systematic-literature-search-and-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Punam Mistry, Hannah Batchelor
BACKGROUND: Regulatory guidelines require that any new medicine designed for a pediatric population must be demonstrated as being acceptable to that population. There is currently no guidance on how to conduct or report on acceptability testing. AIM: Our objective was to undertake a review of the methods used to assess the acceptability of medicines within a pediatric population and use this review to propose the most appropriate methodology. METHODS: We used a defined search strategy to identify literature reports of acceptability assessments of medicines conducted within pediatric populations and extracted information about the tools used in these studies for comparison across studies...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401420/an-update-on-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Taddio, Floriana Zennaro, Serena Pastore, Rolando Cimaz
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), also known as chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), is a rare inflammatory disorder that primarily affects children. It is characterized by pain, local bone expansion, and radiological findings suggestive of osteomyelitis, usually at multiple sites. CRMO predominantly affects the metaphyses of long bones, but involvement of the clavicle or mandible are suggestive of the diagnosis. CRMO is a diagnosis of exclusion, and its pathogenesis remains unknown. Differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancies, benign bone tumors, metabolic disorders, and other autoinflammatory disorders...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391425/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-drugs-for-treating-behavioural-insomnia-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-methodological-quality-assessment
#15
REVIEW
Shweta Anand, Henry Tong, Frank M C Besag, Esther W Chan, Samuele Cortese, Ian C K Wong
OBJECTIVE: A large proportion of paediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have associated sleep problems which not only affect the child's wellbeing but also impact family functioning. Management of sleep problems is consequently an important aspect of overall ADHD management in paediatric patients. Although some drugs are being used off-label for the management of paediatric insomnia, there is scant clinical evidence supporting their use. Our aim was to identify and assess the quality of published studies reporting the safety, tolerability and efficacy of drugs used for treating behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374138/administration-of-inhaled-pulmonary-vasodilators-to-the-mechanically-ventilated-neonatal-patient
#16
REVIEW
Michael D Davis, Steven M Donn, Robert M Ward
Pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening condition that affects people of all ages that can occur as an idiopathic disorder at birth or as part of a variety of cardiovascular and infectious disorders. It is commonly treated with inhaled pulmonary vasodilators such as nitric oxide and less frequently using formulations and analogs of prostacyclin. To minimize systemic effects and preserve pulmonary vasodilation, vasodilators are often administered directly into the airway. Nitric oxide is the only USA Food and Drug Administration-approved inhaled pulmonary vasodilator that can be used during mechanical ventilation...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299720/ketamine-infusion-as-a-counter-measure-for-opioid-tolerance-in-mechanically-ventilated-children-a-pilot-study
#17
Felix Neunhoeffer, Anja Hanser, Martin Esslinger, Vanja Icheva, Matthias Kumpf, Ines Gerbig, Michael Hofbeck, Jörg Michel
BACKGROUND: Drug rotation to prevent opioid tolerance is well recognized in chronic pain management. However, ketamine infusion as a counter measure for opioid tolerance is rarely described in mechanically ventilated children developing tolerance from prolonged opioid infusion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in a 14-bed medical-surgical-cardiac pediatric intensive care unit. Thirty-two mechanically ventilated children who had developed tolerance from prolonged intravenous infusion of opioids received a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine as an opioid substitute for more than 2 days, scheduled in a drug rotation protocol...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290112/protecting-bone-health-in-pediatric-rheumatic-diseases-pharmacological-considerations
#18
REVIEW
Yujuan Zhang, Diana Milojevic
Bone health in children with rheumatic conditions may be compromised due to several factors related to the inflammatory disease state, delayed puberty, altered life style, including decreased physical activities, sun avoidance, suboptimal calcium and vitamin D intake, and medical treatments, mainly glucocorticoids and possibly some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Low bone density or even fragility fractures could be asymptomatic; therefore, children with diseases of high inflammatory load, such as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and those requiring chronic glucocorticoids may benefit from routine screening of bone health...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238111/use-of-fentanyl-in-adolescents-with-clinically-severe-obesity-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-a-pilot-study
#19
Janelle D Vaughns, Victoria C Ziesenitz, Elaine F Williams, Alvina Mushtaq, Ricarda Bachmann, Gisela Skopp, Johanna Weiss, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
BACKGROUND: The number of obese pediatric patients requiring anesthesia is rapidly increasing. Although fentanyl is a commonly used narcotic during surgery, there are no pharmacokinetic (PK) data available for optimal dosing of fentanyl in adolescents with clinically severe obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional review board-approved exploratory pilot study was conducted in six adolescents aged 14-19 years undergoing bariatric surgery. Mean total body weight (TBW) and mean BMI were 137...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275979/intranasal-dexmedetomidine-for-procedural-sedation-in-children-a-suitable-alternative-to-chloral-hydrate
#20
REVIEW
Giorgio Cozzi, Stefania Norbedo, Egidio Barbi
Sedation is often required for children undergoing diagnostic procedures. Chloral hydrate has been one of the sedative drugs most used in children over the last 3 decades, with supporting evidence for its efficacy and safety. Recently, chloral hydrate was banned in Italy and France, in consideration of evidence of its carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative with unique properties that has been increasingly used for procedural sedation in children. Several studies demonstrated its efficacy and safety for sedation in non-painful diagnostic procedures...
April 2017: Paediatric Drugs
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