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Drugs in R&D

Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Hiroaki Matsuno
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, the osteoporosis treatment has attracted attention, and several drugs have been developed. Among these, bisphosphonates (BPs), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) monoclonal (MAb) denosumab (DMAb) are the major osteoporosis agents. Several studies demonstrated that the effect of osteoporosis agents is evaluated by lumar or hip dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, private clinic commonly use the radial DXA...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Nora Angélica Núñez Guzmán, Daniel Ruiz Molina, Benigno Figueroa Núñez, Juan Carlos Soto-Sosa, Jorge Eduardo Herrera Abarca
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial was to establish the bioequivalence of two tablets containing acetaminophen 650 mg (reference) and acetaminophen 650 mg plus caffeine 65 mg (test), administered orally, in fasting conditions in healthy Mexican volunteers. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 21 male and five female individuals, during a 24-h period, to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of acetaminophen. Plasma samples were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry...
October 12, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Bishwa B Adhikari, James L Goodson, Susan Y Chu, Paul A Rota, Martin I Meltzer
OBJECTIVE: Currently available measles vaccines are administered by subcutaneous injections and require reconstitution with a diluent and a cold chain, which is resource intensive and challenging to maintain. To overcome these challenges and potentially increase vaccination coverage, microneedle patches are being developed to deliver the measles vaccine. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of using microneedle patches with traditional vaccine delivery by syringe-and-needle (subcutaneous vaccination) in children's measles vaccination programs...
October 1, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Ko-Onn Lee, Chin-Meng Khoo, Balram Chowbay, Yiong-Huak Chan, Meng-Kwoon Sim
Des-aspartate-angiotensin I (DAA-I) is an endogenous angiotensin peptide and a prototype angiotensin receptor agonist (ARA). It acts on the angiotensin AT1 receptor and antagonises the deleterious actions of angiotensin II. DAA-I attenuates animal models of human disease in which angiotensin II has been implicated, such as cardiac hypertrophy, neointima formation, arteriosclerosis, renal failure, post-infarction injuries, diabetes, viral infection, chemical-induced inflammation, heat stroke, cancer, and gamma radiation lethality...
September 28, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Nour Karra, Rana Cohen, Maya Berlin, Natalie Dinavitser, Gideon Koren, Matitiahu Berkovitch
INTRODUCTION: Mebendazole is an effective drug widely used in the treatment of parasitic infections. Although theoretically considered as safe during lactation, no studies have evaluated its potential adverse effects in infants of breastfeeding mothers. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the safety of mebendazole in infants of lactating women treated with the drug. METHODS: Women referred for consultation regarding mebendazole use were invited to participate in the study...
September 2016: Drugs in R&D
Martin Schaller, Lena Gonser
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease that can manifest as a spectrum of symptoms including erythema, inflammatory lesions, edema, and telangiectasia. Treatment decisions need to be adapted to reflect the nature and severity of the different symptoms present. In this report, we discuss the case of a female patient diagnosed with severe, inflamed papulopustular rosacea (PPR) presenting with a large number of inflammatory lesions and severe background erythema. This patient responded well to a treatment regimen consisting of a short course of antibiotics in combination with a corticosteroid, followed by monotherapy with isotretinoin to reduce the inflammation...
September 2016: Drugs in R&D
Khaled S Abdelkawy, Ahmed M Donia, R Brigg Turner, Fawzy Elbarbry
PURPOSE: Several severe drug interactions have been reported when sildenafil, a potent drug for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, is co-administered with drugs or herbal remedies that inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. This study evaluates the effects of two citrus fruit juices, lemon and Seville orange, on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in male healthy subjects following a single oral dose. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, three-way crossover study in nine healthy male volunteers...
September 2016: Drugs in R&D
Samantha Forder, Michael Voelker, Angel Lanas
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aspirin is a commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) agent for the symptomatic treatment of acute pain, fever, or the common cold, but data regarding safety in this context are limited. In order to characterize the safety of aspirin beyond single-dose or long-term use data, we conducted a meta-analysis of multiple-dose, multiple-day studies of OTC aspirin at a label-approved dosage. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of individual patient data from three Bayer-sponsored studies...
September 2016: Drugs in R&D
Aki Okamoto, Hirohide Yokokawa, Hironobu Sanada, Toshio Naito
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate changes in levels of biomarkers associated with adipocyte function and insulin and glucagon kinetics after a meal tolerance test (MTT) during treatment with dapagliflozin among obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: T2DM patients with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels >6.5 % and body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2) were treated with dapagliflozin 5 mg/day for at least 12 weeks. HbA1c, body weight, ketone bodies, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured before and after treatment with dapagliflozin...
June 22, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Trine Høyer Rose, Daniel Röshammar, Lars Erichsen, Lars Grundemar, Johnny T Ottesen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterise the population pharmacokinetics of FE 999049, a novel recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), after multiple dosing in healthy women, taking into account endogenous FSH levels and the reproductive hormone dynamics. METHODS: Longitudinal measurements of FSH, luteinising hormone, progesterone, estradiol, and inhibin B levels were collected after repeated subcutaneous dosing with 225 IU of FE 999049 in 24 gonadotropin downregulated healthy women...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Nuggehally R Srinivas
Since many drugs are cytochrome P450 (CYP)-3A4 substrates, it has become common practice to assess drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential with a CYP3A4 inhibitor (ketoconazole) or inducer (rifampicin) in early drug development. Such an evaluation is relevant to anticancer drugs with metabolism governed by CYP3A4. DDIs with rifampicin are complex, involving other physiological mechanisms that may impact overall pharmacokinetics. Our objective was to study and delineate such mechanisms for oral versus intravenous anticancer drugs...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Changyu Pan, Jorge L Gross, Wenying Yang, Xiaofeng Lv, Li Sun, Charlotte Thim Hansen, Hongfei Xu, Robert Wagner
INTRODUCTION: To lower the barrier for initiating insulin treatment and obtain adequate glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), new basal insulin preparations with improved pharmacological properties and consequently a lower risk of hypoglycemia are needed. The objective of this trial was to confirm the efficacy and compare the safety of insulin degludec (IDeg) with insulin glargine (IGlar) in a multinational setting with two thirds of subjects enrolled in China. METHODS: This was a 26-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target, non-inferiority trial in 833 subjects with T2DM (48 % were female, mean age 56 years, diabetes duration 8 years), inadequately controlled on oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs)...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Naoyuki Nakada
BACKGROUND: YM758 monophosphate is a novel If channel inhibitor that has an inhibitory action for If current and shows a strong and specific activity, selectively lowering the heart rate and decreasing oxygen consumption by heart muscle. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the current study were to investigate the in vivo metabolic profiles of YM758 in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys and to elucidate the structures of YM758 metabolites. METHODS: Biological samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography hyphenated with a radiometric detection system and liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer to clarify their metabolic patterns...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Sophie Boudriau, Cecilia Hanzel, Julie Massicotte, Laura Sayegh, Jing Wang, Marc Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Rapidly disintegrating or 'fast-melt' oral formulations have been developed recently to facilitate drug intake among patients. Even though these formulations have helped to improve therapy adherence, some of their limitations include: the dissolution time, their facility to be swallowed, and the dosage strengths that may be accommodated. To overcome these limitations, a novel, porous, quickly disintegrating, and easier-to-swallow fast-melt formulation based on powder-liquid, three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology has been developed...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Chris Kalberg, Dianne O'Dell, Dmitry Galkin, Amy Newlands, William A Fahy
INTRODUCTION: The fixed-dose, long-acting bronchodilator combination of umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI) has not previously been compared with a combination of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist and long-acting β2-agonist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: This 12-week, randomized, blinded, triple-dummy, parallel-group, non-inferiority study compared once-daily UMEC/VI 62.5/25 mcg with once-daily tiotropium (TIO) 18 mcg + indacaterol (IND) 150 mcg in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Olubunmi B Falade, Adeyinka G Falusi, Ajibola A Olaniyi, Chizoba Ezeasor, David A Kwasi, Chinedum P Babalola
INTRODUCTION: The co-existence of malaria with bacterial infections is common in the tropics, hence the concurrent use of antimalarials and antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect on pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial activity of co-administration of quinine and combined ampicillin-cloxacillin. METHODS: In total, 14 healthy adults received single oral doses of ampicillin-cloxacillin combination alone and with quinine in a randomized crossover manner...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Trine Høyer Rose, Daniel Röshammar, Lars Erichsen, Lars Grundemar, Johnny T Ottesen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for a novel recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (FE 999049) expressed from a human cell line of foetal retinal origin (PER.C6(®)) developed for controlled ovarian stimulation prior to assisted reproductive technologies. METHODS: Serum FSH levels were measured following a single subcutaneous FE 999049 injection of 37.5, 75, 150, 225 or 450 IU in 27 pituitary-suppressed healthy female subjects participating in this first-in-human single ascending dose trial...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
Stephen Pawsey, Mike Wood, Helen Browne, Kirsteen Donaldson, Mark Christie, Steven Warrington
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase 1 (FAAH) has been proposed as a novel mechanism for treating pain syndromes by increasing the levels of endogenous cannabinoids (ECs). This study describes the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of V158866, a reversible FAAH inhibitor, after first administration to man. METHODS: 51 healthy male subjects were recruited into this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, adaptive dose, phase I single (Part A) and repeated ascending dose (Part B) study...
June 2016: Drugs in R&D
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