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Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414260/hypoglycaemia-as-a-function-of-hba-1c-in-type-2-diabetes-insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-in-a-patient-level-pooled-analysis-of-edition-1-2-and-3
#1
Riccardo C Bonadonna, Jean-François Yale, Claire Brulle-Wohlhueter, Emmanuelle Boëlle-Le Corfec, Pratik Choudhary, Timothy S Bailey
Basal insulin therapy often involves a compromise between achieving glycaemic targets and avoiding hypoglycaemia, dependent on how intensively insulin is titrated. In the phase 3a EDITION 1, 2 and 3 studies, insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) provided equivalent glycaemic control to insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) with less hypoglycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study evaluated the rates of confirmed (≤3.9 mmol/L [≤70 mg/dL]) or severe hypoglycaemia over 6 months of treatment with Gla-300 or Gla-100 in these EDITION studies, as a function of HbA1c ...
November 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414240/reduction-in-albuminuria-with-dapagliflozin-cannot-be-predicted-by-baseline-clinical-characteristics-or-changes-in-most-other-risk-markers
#2
Hiddo J L Heerspink, C David Sjöström, Silvio E Inzucchi, Melissa K Hallow, Valerie A Cain, Peter Rossing, Bergur V Stefansson, Peter Sartipy
The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR). This effect, however, varies among individual patients. In this study, we assessed the baseline characteristics and concurrent changes in other cardiovascular risk markers that might be associated with UACR response to dapagliflozin. A pooled analysis of 11 phase 3 randomized, controlled clinical trials was performed. UACR change from baseline after 24 weeks treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg/day in 531 patients with type 2 diabetes and UACR ≥30 mg/g at baseline was determined...
November 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407726/sglt2-inhibitor-regulates-ketone-body-metabolism-via-inter-organ-crosstalk
#3
Jin Hee Kim, Minyoung Lee, Soo Hyun Kim, So Ra Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Jin Won Cho, Yong-Ho Lee
AIMS: Sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), a new class of glucose-lowering medications for diabetes, increase serum ketone levels. Recent studies have reported that ketone has an anti-inflammatory function and extends longevity in animal models. However, the mechanisms by which various organs upregulate ketogenesis in response to SGLT2i have not been elucidated. We investigated SGLT2i-induced changes in ketogenic enzymes and transporters in normal and diabetic mice models...
November 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407709/prevalence-and-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-south-asians-white-europeans-and-afro-caribbeans-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Chandni Jadawji, Winston Crasto, Clare Gillies, Debasish Kar, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Samuel Seidu
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic nephropathy remains the most common cause of renal disease in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. AIMS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational evidence to assess the difference in the prevalence and progression of diabetic nephropathy, and the development of end-stage renal failure in three ethnicities with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified in a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and reference lists of relevant studies to May 2018...
November 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407704/what-the-diabetes-data-in-fourier-trial-fail-to-show
#5
LETTER
F H van Bruggen, H J Luijendijk
The FOURIER trial was set up to study the clinical outcomes of evolocumab in patients with hypercholesterolemia and a history of cardiovascular disease that use statins. Diabetes mellitus was an outcome of particular interest, because it is a known serious adverse effect of statins [1]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394006/ascorbic-acid-supplementation-improves-postprandial-glycaemic-control-and-blood-pressure-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-findings-of-a-randomized-cross-over-trial
#6
Shaun A Mason, Bodil Rasmussen, Luc J C van Loon, Jo Salmon, Glenn D Wadley
AIMS: The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation improves postprandial glucose responses under free living conditions in people with type 2 diabetes. A secondary aim was to investigate the effect of AA supplementation on blood pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one people with type 2 diabetes (26 males/5 females; aged 61.8±6.8 y; duration of diabetes 5.6±4.6 y; HbA1c 7.6±0.7% [mean±SD]) were enrolled in a randomized cross-over study involving 4 months of supplementation with oral AA (2x500 mg/day) and placebo...
November 4, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393997/follistatins-in-glucose-regulation-of-healthy-and-obese-subjects
#7
Nikolaos Perakakis, Alexander Kokkinos, Natia Peradze, Nicholas Tentolouris, Wael Ghaly, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Andreas Alexandrou, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS: It has been recently suggested that follistatin (FST) and its homologous protein, follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) may be a therapeutic target against type 2 diabetes due to their glucose-regulatory effects in rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated this hypothesis in humans by studying i) the physiology of a possible glycemia-follistatin feedback loop i.e. whether glucose but not lipid intake (oral or intravenous) can regulate circulating FST and FSTL3 in healthy humans(n=32), ii) whether the levels of follistatins change in response to various types of bariatric operation in morbidly obese individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (n=41), and whether such changes are associated prospectively with improvement of glucose homeostasis/insulin sensitivity...
November 4, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393961/canadian-canagliflozin-registry-effectiveness-and-safety-of-canagliflozin-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-canadian-clinical-practice
#8
Vincent Woo, Alan Bell, Maureen Clement, Luis Noronha, Michael A Tsoukas, Fernando Camacho, Shana Traina, Natasha Georgijev, Matthew D Culham, Jennifer B Rose, Wally Rapattoni, Harpreet S Bajaj
AIM: There is limited information on the effects of canagliflozin (CANA), a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) in a real-world practice setting in Canada. CanCARE is a 12-month, prospective, observational analysis to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of CANA in usual clinical Canadian practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SGLT2i-naïve T2DM adult patients (n = 527) on a stable antihyperglycemic agent (AHA) regimen with glycated hemoglobin (A1C) ≥ 7%, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1...
November 4, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393955/achieving-ldl-c-target-levels-less-than-70-mg-dl-may-provide-extra-cardiovascular-protection-in-high-risk-patients-exploratory-analysis-of-the-standard-versus-intensive-statin-therapy-for-patients-with-hypercholesterolemia-and-diabetic-retinopathy-study
#9
Hiroshi Itoh, Issei Komuro, Masahiro Takeuchi, Takashi Akasaka, Hiroyuki Daida, Yoshiki Egashira, Hideo Fujita, Jitsuo Higaki, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Shun Ishibashi, Takaaki Isshiki, Sadayoshi Ito, Atsunori Kashiwagi, Satoshi Kato, Kazuo Kitagawa, Masafumi Kitakaze, Takanari Kitazono, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Tomoaki Murakami, Toyoaki Murohara, Koichi Node, Susumu Ogawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Yoshihiko Seino, Takashi Shigeeda, Shunya Shindo, Masahiro Sugawara, Seigo Sugiyama, Yasuo Terauchi, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kenji Ueshima, Kazunori Utsunomiya, Masakazu Yamagishi, Tsutomu Yamazaki, Shoei Yo, Koutaro Yokote, Kiyoshi Yoshida, Michihiro Yoshimura, Nagahisa Yoshimura, Kazuwa Nakao, Ryozo Nagai
AIMS: EMPATHY, a multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint study, assessed the benefits of intensive statin therapy on reducing cardiovascular (CV) events in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia and retinopathy in primary prevention in Japan. Intensive therapy (targeting LDL-C <70 mg/dL) was no more effective than standard therapy (LDL-C ≥100 to <120 mg/dL) in the intention-to-treat population. However, after 3 years, intergroup difference in LDL-C was only 27...
November 4, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30393950/double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-continuing-or-discontinuing-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-when-initiating-insulin-glargine-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-composit-i-study
#10
Ronan Roussel, Santiago Durán García, Yilong Zhang, Suneri Shah, Carolyn Darmiento, R Ravi Shankar, Gregory T Golm, Raymond L H Lam, Edward A O'Neill, Ira Gantz, Keith D Kaufman, Samuel S Engel
AIMS: To compare the effects of continuing vs. discontinuing sitagliptin when initiating and intensively titrating insulin glargine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on metformin (≥1500 mg/day) in combination with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and/or a sulfonylurea. Those on metformin + sitagliptin were directly randomized; all others were switched to metformin + sitagliptin (discontinuing other DPP-4is and sulfonylureas) and stabilized during a run-in period...
November 4, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378748/hypoglycaemia-and-gastric-emptying
#11
REVIEW
Chinmay S Marathe, Jessica A Marathe, Christopher K Rayner, Palash Kar, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz
Hypoglycaemia is arguably the most important complication of insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Counter-regulation of hypoglycaemia is dependent on autonomic function and frequent hypoglycaemia may lead to reductions in both autonomic warning signals and the catecholamine response - so-called 'impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia' or IAH. It is now appreciated that gastric emptying is a major determinant of the glycaemic response to carbohydrate-containing meals in both health and diabetes, that disordered (especially delayed) gastric emptying occurs frequently in diabetes, and that acute hypoglycaemia accelerates gastric emptying substantially...
October 31, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370686/comparative-effects-of-proximal-and-distal-small-intestinal-administration-of-metformin-on-plasma-glucose-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-gastric-emptying-after-oral-glucose-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Malcolm J Borg, Michelle Bound, Jacqueline Grivell, Zilin Sun, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner, Tongzhi Wu
AIMS: The gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower gut, may be key to the anti-diabetic action of metformin. We evaluated whether administration of metformin into the distal, versus the proximal, small intestine would be more effective in lowering plasma glucose by stimulating glucagon-like pepetide-1 (GLP-1) and/or slowing gastric emptying (GE) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 diet-controlled T2DM patients were studied on three occasions...
October 28, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370611/temporal-changes-in-the-incidence-and-predictors-of-severe-hypoglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-the-fremantle-diabetes-study
#13
Timothy M E Davis, David G Bruce, Judith Finn, Bradley H Curtis, Helen Barraclough, Wendy A Davis
AIMS: Since recent changes in therapies and management may have influenced the risk of severe hypoglycaemia complicating type 2 diabetes, we determined its incidence and predictors in community-based patients studied between 2008 and 2013 and compared them with those in a cohort with type 2 diabetes from the same geographical area assessed a decade earlier. METHODS: We studied 1,551 participants (mean age 65.7 years, 51.9% males) with type 2 diabetes from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2)...
October 28, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362280/teneligliptin-versus-sitagliptin-in-korean-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-with-metformin-and-glimepiride-a-randomized-double-blind-non-inferiority-trial
#14
Yonghyun Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Hak Chul Jang, Dong Jun Kim, Taekeun Oh, Eun Sook Kim, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sung-Rae Kim, JiYoung You, Se-Jin Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of add-on therapy with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor teneligliptin compared with sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin and glimepiride. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority study of adult Korean subjects with T2DM (n=201), with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ranging from 7.0-11.0%, on stable doses of metformin plus glimepiride...
October 26, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362250/day-to-day-fasting-self-monitored-blood-glucose-variability-is-associated-with-risk-of-hypoglycaemia-in-insulin-treated-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-switch-trials
#15
J Hans DeVries, Timothy S Bailey, Anuj Bhargava, Gregg Gerety, Janusz Gumprecht, Simon Heller, Wendy Lane, Carol H Wysham, Bernard Zinman, Britta A Bak, Elise Hachmann-Nielsen, Athena Philis-Tsimikas
AIMS: To investigate the association between day-to-day fasting self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) variability and risk of hypoglycaemia in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and compare day-to-day fasting SMBG variability between treatments with insulin degludec (degludec) and insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrieved from two double-blind, randomised, treat-to-target, two-period (32 weeks each) crossover trials of degludec versus glargine U100 in T1D (SWITCH 1, n=501) and T2D (SWITCH 2, n=720)...
October 25, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362224/evaluation-of-the-long-term-cost-effectiveness-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-versus-dulaglutide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-uk
#16
Adie Viljoen, Christina Stentoft Hoxer, Pierre Johansen, Samuel Malkin, Barnaby Hunt, Stephen C Bain
AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are an appealing glucose-lowering therapy for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), since they also reduce body weight, and are associated with low rates of hypoglycaemia. This analysis assessed the long-term cost-effectiveness of semaglutide 0.5 mg and 1 mg versus dulaglutide 1.5 mg (two once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonists) from a UK healthcare payer perspective, based on the head-to-head SUSTAIN 7 trial, to inform healthcare decision making...
October 25, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350477/low-doses-of-dasiglucagon-consistently-increase-plasma-glucose-levels-from-hypoglycaemia-and-euglycaemia-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Ulrike Hövelmann, Minna Braendholt Olsen, Ulrik Mouritzen, Daniela Lamers, Birgit Kronshage, Tim Heise
OBJECTIVE: Currently available glucagon formulations have limited stability which hampers their use in dual-hormone-artificial pancreas-systems. We characterized the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of dasiglucagon† , a novel, stable and liquid formulated glucagon-analogue, during hypoglycaemic and euglycaemic conditions in adult patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized double-blind trial 17 patients received four single subcutaneous doses (0...
October 23, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328263/fgf21-decreases-food-intake-and-body-weight-in-obese-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs
#18
Berit Christoffersen, Ellen M Straarup, Kirsten Lykkegaard, Johannes Josef Fels, Kristian Sass-Ørum, Xujia Zhang, Kirsten Raun, Birgitte Andersen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of FGF21 on food intake, body weight, body composition, glucose homeostasis, bone mineral density (BMD), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in obese minipigs. The pig is a unique model for studying FGF21 pharmacology as it does not express UCP1 opposite to mice and man. METHODS: Twelve obese Göttingen minipigs with a mean body weight of 91.6±6.7 kg (mean±SD), were treated with either vehicle (n=6) or recombinant human FGF21 (n=6) once daily subcutaneously for 14 weeks (0...
October 17, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328245/gut-microbiota-and-obesity-an-opportunity-to-alter-obesity-through-fecal-microbiota-transplant-fmt
#19
REVIEW
Patrick Lee, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Mary Beth Yacyshyn
Obesity is a global pandemic with immense health consequences for individuals and societies. Multiple factors including environmental influences and genetic predispositions are known to influence the development of obesity. Despite an increasing understanding of the factors driving the obesity episdemic, therapeutic interventions to prevent or reverse obesity are limited in their impact. Manipulation of the human gut microbiome provides a new potential therapeutic approach in the fight against obesity. Specific gut bacteria and their metabolites are known to affect host metabolism and feeding behavior, and dysbiosis of this biosystem may lead to metabolic syndrome...
October 17, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328252/glucotab-guided-insulin-therapy-using-insulin-glargine-u300-enables-glycaemic-control-with-low-risk-of-hypoglycaemia-in-hospitalised-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Felix Aberer, Katharina M Lichtenegger, Edin Smajic, Klaus Donsa, Oliver Malle, Judith Samonigg, Bernhard Höll, Peter Beck, Thomas R Pieber, Johannes Plank, Julia K Mader
AIMS: To investigate efficacy, safety and usability of the GlucoTab® system for glycaemic management using insulin glargine U300 in non-critically ill hospitalised patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open, non-controlled single-arm pilot study, glycaemic control at the general ward of a tertiary care hospital was guided by a mobile decision support system (GlucoTab) for basal-bolus insulin dosing using the novel basal insulin analogue insulin glargine U300 for the first time...
October 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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