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Genetics and Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786103/true-polyploid-meiosis-in-the-human-male
#1
Peter L Pearson, Kamlesh Madan
Polyploidy does not usually occur in germinal cells of mammals and other higher vertebrates. We describe a unique example of mosaic autotetraploidy in the meiosis of a human male. Although the original observations were made in the late 1960s, we did not publish them at that time, because we expected to detect further examples that could be described together. However, this did not occur and we have now decided to make the observations available to demonstrate that polyploidy in mammalian male meiosis can arise at a higher frequency than expected by random polyploidization of individual meiotic cells, by either DNA duplication or cell fusion prior to synapsis...
May 21, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786102/the-ucp2-866g-a-ala55val-and-ucp3-55c-t-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-premature-coronary-artery-disease-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-mexican-population
#2
Ricardo Gamboa, Claudia Huesca-Gómez, Vanessa López-Pérez, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Guillermo Cardoso-Saldaña, Aida Medina-Urrutia, Juan Gabriel Juárez-Rojas, María Elena Soto, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón
We examined the role of UCP gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for premature coronary artery disease (pCAD). The UCP2 Ala55Val (C/T rs660339), UCP2 -866G/A (rs659366), and UCP3 -55C/T (rs1800849) polymorphisms were genotyped in 948 patients with pCAD, and 763 controls. The distribution of the UCP2 A55V (C/T rs660339) and UCP3 -55 (rs1800849) was similar in patients and controls. However, under a recessive model, the UCP2 -866 (rs659366) A allele was associated with increased risk of developing pCAD (OR = 1...
May 21, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782032/leaf-associated-bacterial-microbiota-of-coffee-and-its-correlation-with-manganese-and-calcium-levels-on-leaves
#3
Leandro Pio de de Sousa, Marcio José da da Silva, Jorge Maurício Mondego
Coffee is one of the most valuable agricultural commodities and the plants' leaves are the primary site of infection for most coffee diseases, such as the devastating coffee leaf rust. Therefore, the use of bacterial microbiota that inhabits coffee leaves to fight infections could be an alternative agricultural method to protect against coffee diseases. Here, we report the leaf-associated bacteria in three coffee genotypes over the course of a year, with the aim to determine the diversity of bacterial microbiota...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782031/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-hubacek-et-al-s-report-lack-of-an-association-between-snps-within-the-cholinergic-receptor-genes-and-smoking-behavior-in-a-czech-post-monica-study
#4
Ahmet Müderrisoglu, Melih Babaoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782030/the-genomes-of-three-bradyrhizobium-sp-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-lupinus-albescens-grown-in-extremely-poor-soils-display-important-genes-for-resistance-to-environmental-stress
#5
Camille E Granada, Luciano K Vargas, Fernando Hayashi Sant'Anna, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antonio de Baura, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Tiago Falcon, Luciane M P Passaglia
Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767668/genetic-variations-in-circadian-rhythm-genes-and-susceptibility-for-myocardial-infarction
#6
Ivana Škrlec, Jakov Milic, Marija Heffer, Borut Peterlin, Jasenka Wagner
Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study on 200 patients hospitalized due to MI and 200 healthy controls, investigating the association between MI and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four circadian genes (ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY2, and PER2). The variants of all four genes were chosen based on their previously reported association with cardiovascular risk factors, which have a major influence on the occurrence of myocardial infarction...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767667/cytotaxonomic-study-of-the-chilean-endemic-complex-alstroemeria-magnifica-herb-alstroemeriaceae
#7
Carlos M Baeza, Víctor Finot, Eduardo Ruiz, Pedro Carrasco, Patricio Novoa, Marcelo Rosas, Oscar Toro-Núñez
Alstroemeria L. (Alstroemeriaceae) represents one of the most diverse genera of vascular plants in Chile. It contains approximately 54 taxa, 40 of which are endemic. The "complex" Alstroemeria magnifica is endemic to Chile, and it comprises four varieties: A. magnifica var. magenta, A. magnifica var. magnifica, A. magnifica var. sierrae, and A. magnifica var. tofoensis. It is distributed from Coquimbo to the Valparaíso Region. We analyzed karyotypes of 10 populations along its natural distribution...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767666/the-genome-sequence-of-dyella-jiangningensis-fcav-scs01-from-a-lignocellulose-decomposing-microbial-consortium-metagenome-reveals-potential-for-biotechnological-applications
#8
Joana G Desiderato, Danillo O Alvarenga, Milena T L Constancio, Lucia M C Alves, Alessandro M Varani
Cellulose and its associated polymers are structural components of the plant cell wall, constituting one of the major sources of carbon and energy in nature. The carbon cycle is dependent on cellulose- and lignin-decomposing microbial communities and their enzymatic systems acting as consortia. These microbial consortia are under constant exploration for their potential biotechnological use. Herein, we describe the characterization of the genome of Dyella jiangningensis FCAV SCS01, recovered from the metagenome of a lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortium, which was isolated from a sugarcane crop soil under mechanical harvesting and covered by decomposing straw...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767665/karyotype-and-genome-size-comparative-analyses-among-six-species-of-the-oilseed-bearing-genus-jatropha-euphorbiaceae
#9
Anne C T A Marinho, Santelmo Vasconcelos, Emanuelle V Vasconcelos, Daniela A Marques, Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal
Jatropha is an important genus of Euphorbiaceae, with species largely used for various purposes, including the manufacturing of soaps and pharmaceutical products and applications in the bioenergetic industry. Although there have been several studies focusing J. curcas in various aspects, the karyotype features of Jatropha species are poorly known. Therefore, we analyzed six Jatropha species through fluorochrome staining (CMA/DAPI), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes and genome size estimation by flow cytometry...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767664/biochemical-and-molecular-characterization-of-3-methylcrotonylglycinuria-in-an-italian-asymptomatic-girl
#10
Carla Cozzolino, Guglielmo Rd Villani, Giulia Frisso, Emanuela Scolamiero, Lucia Albano, Giovanna Gallo, Roberta Romanelli, Margherita Ruoppolo
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an organic aciduria resulting from deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC), a biotin-dependent mitochondrial enzym carboxylating 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA during leucine catabolism. Its deficiency, due to mutations on MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes, leads to accumulation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA metabolites in blood and/or urine, primarily 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (C5-OH) in plasma and 3-methylcrotonyl-glycine (3-MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA) in the urine...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767663/cox-2-gene-expression-and-methylation-profile-in-sapajus-apella-as-an-experimental-model-for-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#11
Danilo do Rosário Pinheiro, Maria Lucia Harada, Rommel Mario Rodriguez Burbano, Barbara do Nascimento Borges
Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the main causes of cancer-related death worldwide. There are two distinct histological types of GC: diffuse and intestinal. The latter is characterized by the presence of pre-neoplastic lesions. One of the most frequently altered enzymes in intestinal GC is COX-2, an important lesion marker. This work aimed to study COX-2 methylation and expression in N-methyl-N-Nitrosurea (MNU)-induced intestinal GC in six Sapajus apella animals. The partial promoter sequence of S. apella COX-2 gene was obtained and used to identify transcription factors and cis-regulatory element binding sites...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583156/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-gpat-gene-family-reveals-the-evolution-and-diversification-of-plant-gpats
#12
Edgar Waschburger, Franceli Rodrigues Kulcheski, Nicole Moreira Veto, Rogerio Margis, Marcia Margis-Pinheiro, Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet
sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase (GPAT) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acyl group from acyl-CoA or acyl-ACP to the sn-1 or sn-2 position of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to generate lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). The functional studies of GPAT in plants demonstrated its importance in controlling storage and membrane lipid. Identifying genes encoding GPAT in a variety of plant species is crucial to understand their involvement in different metabolic pathways and physiological functions...
March 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583155/association-between-molecular-markers-and-behavioral-phenotypes-in-the-immatures-of-a-butterfly
#13
Janaína De Nardin, Vanessa Buffon, Luís Fernando Revers, Aldo Mellender de Araújo
Newly hatched caterpillars of the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis routinely cannibalize eggs. In a manifestation of kin recognition they cannibalize sibling eggs less frequently than unrelated eggs. Previous work has estimated the heritability of kin recognition in H. erato phyllis to lie between 14 and 48%. It has furthermore been shown that the inheritance of kin recognition is compatible with a quantitative model with a threshold. Here we present the results of a preliminary study, in which we tested for associations between behavioral kin recognition phenotypes and AFLP and SSR markers...
March 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583154/comparison-of-the-editing-patterns-and-editing-efficiencies-of-talen-and-crispr-cas9-when-targeting-the-human-ccr5-gene
#14
Arildo Nerys-Junior, Luciene P Braga-Dias, Paula Pezzuto, Vinícius Cotta-de-Almeida, Amilcar Tanuri
The human C-C chemokine receptor type-5 (CCR5) is the major transmembrane co-receptor that mediates HIV-1 entry into target CD4+ cells. Gene therapy to knock-out the CCR5 gene has shown encouraging results in providing a functional cure for HIV-1 infection. In gene therapy strategies, the initial region of the CCR5 gene is a hotspot for producing functional gene knock-out. Such target gene editing can be done using programmable endonucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9)...
March 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583153/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-vriesea-reitzii-bromeliaceae-a-species-from-the-southern-brazilian-highlands
#15
Luis Eduardo Soares, Márcia Goetze, Camila M Zanella, Fernanda Bered
The Southern Brazilian Highlands are composed by a mosaic of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (MOF) and grassland formations, an interesting landscape for the study of population structure. We analyzed the genetic diversity within and among populations of the MOF-endemic bromeliad Vriesea reitzii by genotyping seven nuclear microsatellite loci in 187 individuals from six populations. We characterized levels of genetic diversity and assessed the genetic structure among populations. Vriesea reitzii populations showed high levels of genetic variation (number of alleles 28 - 43, allelic richness 3...
March 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583152/remembering-the-past-studies-on-evolution-done-by-the-genetics-group-at-universidade-federal-do-rio-grande-do-sul-ufrgs
#16
Francisco M Salzano
After a brief introduction about the factors that are involved in science development, and world and Brazilian evolutionary genetics, the studies developed in Porto Alegre in this area were reviewed. Four periods in the development of this group were distinguished: (a) Origins and first expansion (1949-1961); (b) Second expansion (1962-1988); (c) Third expansion (1989-2001); and (d) The last 15 years (2002-present). The international Porto Alegre Biological Evolution Workshops (PABEWs), with five biannual events from 2007 o 2015, were also mentioned...
March 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668018/how-strong-was-the-bottleneck-associated-to-the-peopling-of-the-americas-new-insights-from-multilocus-sequence-data
#17
Nelson J R Fagundes, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Rohina Rubicz, Larissa Tarskaia, Michael H Crawford, Francisco M Salzano, Sandro L Bonatto
In spite of many genetic studies that contributed for a deep knowledge about the peopling of the Americas, no consensus has emerged about important parameters such as the effective size of the Native Americans founder population. Previous estimates based on genomic datasets may have been biased by the use of admixed individuals from Latino populations, while other recent studies using samples from Native American individuals relied on approximated analytical approaches. In this study we use resequencing data for nine independent regions in a set of Native American and Siberian individuals and a full-likelihood approach based on isolation-with-migration scenarios accounting for recent flow between Asian and Native American populations...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668017/phylogeographic-analyses-of-the-pampas-cat-leopardus-colocola-carnivora-felidae-reveal-a-complex-demographic-history
#18
Anelisie da Silva Santos, Tatiane Campos Trigo, Tadeu Gomes de Oliveira, Leandro Silveira, Eduardo Eizirik
The pampas cat is a small felid that occurs in open habitats throughout much of South America. Previous studies have revealed intriguing patterns of morphological differentiation and genetic structure among its populations, as well as molecular evidence for hybridization with the closely related L. tigrinus. Here we report phylogeographic analyses encompassing most of its distribution (focusing particularly on Brazilian specimens, which had been poorly sampled in previous studies), using a novel dataset comprising 2,143 bp of the mitogenome, along with previously reported mtDNA sequences...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668016/genetic-and-ecological-niche-modeling-of-calydorea-crocoides-iridaceae-an-endemic-species-of-subtropical-highland-grasslands
#19
Juliana Lustosa Matos de Alencar, Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos, Juliana Fachinetto, Luana Olinda Tacuatiá, Eliana Regina Forni-Martins, Eudes Maria Stiehl-Alves, Tatiana Teixeira de Souza-Chies
Evolutionary analyses have been widely used for evaluation of genetic diversity of natural populations and correlate these data to the fitness of the species, especially in the case of threatened species. Calydorea crocoides occurs in a restricted area at altitudes from 800 to 1500 m in southern Brazil and is considered endangered. A study assessing genetic diversity, cytogenetic features and ecological niche was performed aiming to characterize C. crocoides by multidisciplinary approaches. Molecular data highlighted that most of the total variation (76%; p < 0...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668015/skull-shape-and-size-variation-within-and-between-mendocinus-and-torquatus-groups-in-the-genus-ctenomys-rodentia-ctenomyidae-in-chromosomal-polymorphism-context
#20
Rodrigo Fornel, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela, Thales Renato O de Freitas
We tested the association between chromosomal polymorphism and skull shape and size variation in two groups of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys. The hypothesis is based on the premise that chromosomal rearrangements in small populations, as it occurs in Ctenomys, produce reproductive isolation and allow the independent diversification of populations. The mendocinus group has species with low chromosomal diploid number variation (2n=46-48), while species from the torquatus group have a higher karyotype variation (2n=42-70)...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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