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Genetics and Molecular Biology

Yongjun Shu, Wei Li, Jinyue Zhao, Ying Liu, Changhong Guo
Medicago ruthenica is a perennial forage legume with the remarkable ability to survive under unfavorable environmental conditions. It has been identified as an excellent species of Medicago that can adapt to various environmental stresses including low temperature, drought, and salinity. To investigate its potential as a genetic resource, we performed transcriptome sequencing and analysis in M. ruthenica under abiotic stresses. We generated >120 million reads from six cDNA libraries, resulting in 79,249 unique transcripts, most of which were highly similar to transcripts from M...
June 28, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Paulo Eduardo Brandão
This paper reports on an investigation of the role of codon usage evolution on the suggested bovine-to-human spillover of Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), an enteric/respiratory virus of cattle, resulting in the emergence of the exclusively respiratory Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43). Analyses based on full genomes of BCoV and HCoV-OC43 and on both human and bovine mRNAs sequences of cholecystokinin (CCK) and surfactant protein 1 A (SFTP1-A), representing the enteric and respiratory tract codon usage, respectively, have shown natural selection leading to optimization or deoptimization of viral codon usage to the human enteric and respiratory tracts depending on the virus genes under consideration...
June 28, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Min Jeong Hong, Dae Yeon Kim, Joon-Woo Ahn, Si-Yong Kang, Yong Weon Seo, Jin-Baek Kim
We aimed to investigate the biological responses induced by acute and chronic gamma irradiation in colored wheat seeds rich in natural antioxidants. After acute and chronic irradiation, the phenotypic effects on plant growth, germination rate, seedling height, and root length were examined, and the biochemical changes were investigated by analyzing the expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and total antioxidant capacity. High dosages of chronic radiation reduced plant growth compared with the controls...
June 28, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Roberta Paresque, Jocilene da Silva Rodrigues, Kelli Beltrame Righetti
We have created a database system named CIPEMAB (CItogenética dos PEquenos MAmíferos Brasileiros) to assemble images of the chromosomes of Brazilian small mammals (Rodents and Marsupials). It includes karyotype information, such as diploid number, karyotype features, idiograms, and sexual chromosomes characteristics. CIPEMAB facilitates quick sharing of information on chromosome research among cytogeneticists as well as researchers in other fields. The database contains more than 300 microscopic images, including karyotypic images obtained from 182 species of small mammals from the literature...
June 28, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Igor Costa Amorim, Rafaelle Grazielle Coelho Costa, Crislaine Xavier, Rita de Cássia de Moura
Transposable elements are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences that can move within the genome and are related to genome and chromosome evolution, adaptation, and speciation. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the chromosomal location and accumulation of a Mariner-like element in populations of four phylogenetically related species of the Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) sericeus complex. Mapping of the isolated element was performed by fluorescent in situ hybridization in different populations of analyzed species...
June 4, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Eurico Camargo Neto, Jaqueline Schulte, Jamile Pereira, Heydy Bravo, Claudio Sampaio-Filho, Roberto Giugliani
We describe the initial results of a neonatal screening program for four lysosomal storage diseases (MPS I, Pompe, Gaucher and Fabry) using the digital microfluidics methodology. The method successfully identified patients previously diagnosed with these diseases and was used to test dried blood spot samples obtained from 10,527 newborns aged 2 to 14 days. The digital microfluidic technology shows potential for a simple, rapid and high-throughput screening for these four diseases in a standard neonatal screening laboratory...
June 4, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Nahum Zepeta-Flores, Mahara Valverde, Alejandro Lopez-Saavedra, Emilio Rojas
The importance of glutathione (GSH) in alternative cellular roles to the canonically proposed, were analyzed in a model unable to synthesize GSH. Gene expression analysis shows that the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton pathway is strongly impacted by the absence of GSH. To test this hypothesis, we evaluate the effect of GSH depletion via buthionine sulfoximine (5 and 12.5 mM) in human neuroblastoma MSN cells. In the present study, 70% of GSH reduction did not induce reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation, or cytotoxicity, which enabled us to evaluate the effect of glutathione in the absence of oxidative stress...
June 4, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Liwang Gao, Lijun Wu, Meixian Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Hong Cheng, Jie Mi
The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is significantly associated with obesity, but the associations of FTO with obesity-related traits are not fully described. We aimed to investigate the association of the FTO single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6499640 with lipid levels in Chinese children. A total of 3503 children aged 6-18 years were included in the present study. Lipid levels were analyzed and the SNP rs6499640 was genotyped using the TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay. Statistically significant associations were found between rs6499640 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0...
June 4, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Peter L Pearson, Kamlesh Madan
Polyploidy does not usually occur in germinal cells of mammals and other higher vertebrates. We describe a unique example of mosaic autotetraploidy in the meiosis of a human male. Although the original observations were made in the late 1960s, we did not publish them at that time, because we expected to detect further examples that could be described together. However, this did not occur and we have now decided to make the observations available to demonstrate that polyploidy in mammalian male meiosis can arise at a higher frequency than expected by random polyploidization of individual meiotic cells, by either DNA duplication or cell fusion prior to synapsis...
May 21, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Ricardo Gamboa, Claudia Huesca-Gómez, Vanessa López-Pérez, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Guillermo Cardoso-Saldaña, Aida Medina-Urrutia, Juan Gabriel Juárez-Rojas, María Elena Soto, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón
We examined the role of UCP gene polymorphisms as susceptibility markers for premature coronary artery disease (pCAD). The UCP2 Ala55Val (C/T rs660339), UCP2 -866G/A (rs659366), and UCP3 -55C/T (rs1800849) polymorphisms were genotyped in 948 patients with pCAD, and 763 controls. The distribution of the UCP2 A55V (C/T rs660339) and UCP3 -55 (rs1800849) was similar in patients and controls. However, under a recessive model, the UCP2 -866 (rs659366) A allele was associated with increased risk of developing pCAD (OR = 1...
May 21, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Leandro Pio de de Sousa, Marcio José da da Silva, Jorge Maurício Mondego
Coffee is one of the most valuable agricultural commodities and the plants' leaves are the primary site of infection for most coffee diseases, such as the devastating coffee leaf rust. Therefore, the use of bacterial microbiota that inhabits coffee leaves to fight infections could be an alternative agricultural method to protect against coffee diseases. Here, we report the leaf-associated bacteria in three coffee genotypes over the course of a year, with the aim to determine the diversity of bacterial microbiota...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Ahmet Müderrisoglu, Melih Babaoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Camille E Granada, Luciano K Vargas, Fernando Hayashi Sant'Anna, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antonio de Baura, Fábio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Tiago Falcon, Luciane M P Passaglia
Lupinus albescens is a resistant cover plant that establishes symbiotic relationships with bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. This symbiosis helps the development of these plants in adverse environmental conditions, such as the ones found in arenized areas of Southern Brazil. This work studied three Bradyrhizobium sp. (AS23, NAS80 and NAS96) isolated from L. albescens plants that grow in extremely poor soils (arenized areas and adjacent grasslands). The genomes of these three strains were sequenced in the Ion Torrent platform using the IonXpress library preparation kit, and presented a total number of bases of 1,230,460,823 for AS23, 1,320,104,022 for NAS80, and 1,236,105,093 for NAS96...
May 17, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Ivana Škrlec, Jakov Milic, Marija Heffer, Borut Peterlin, Jasenka Wagner
Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study on 200 patients hospitalized due to MI and 200 healthy controls, investigating the association between MI and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four circadian genes (ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY2, and PER2). The variants of all four genes were chosen based on their previously reported association with cardiovascular risk factors, which have a major influence on the occurrence of myocardial infarction...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Carlos M Baeza, Víctor Finot, Eduardo Ruiz, Pedro Carrasco, Patricio Novoa, Marcelo Rosas, Oscar Toro-Núñez
Alstroemeria L. (Alstroemeriaceae) represents one of the most diverse genera of vascular plants in Chile. It contains approximately 54 taxa, 40 of which are endemic. The "complex" Alstroemeria magnifica is endemic to Chile, and it comprises four varieties: A. magnifica var. magenta, A. magnifica var. magnifica, A. magnifica var. sierrae, and A. magnifica var. tofoensis. It is distributed from Coquimbo to the Valparaíso Region. We analyzed karyotypes of 10 populations along its natural distribution...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Joana G Desiderato, Danillo O Alvarenga, Milena T L Constancio, Lucia M C Alves, Alessandro M Varani
Cellulose and its associated polymers are structural components of the plant cell wall, constituting one of the major sources of carbon and energy in nature. The carbon cycle is dependent on cellulose- and lignin-decomposing microbial communities and their enzymatic systems acting as consortia. These microbial consortia are under constant exploration for their potential biotechnological use. Herein, we describe the characterization of the genome of Dyella jiangningensis FCAV SCS01, recovered from the metagenome of a lignocellulose-degrading microbial consortium, which was isolated from a sugarcane crop soil under mechanical harvesting and covered by decomposing straw...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Anne C T A Marinho, Santelmo Vasconcelos, Emanuelle V Vasconcelos, Daniela A Marques, Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal
Jatropha is an important genus of Euphorbiaceae, with species largely used for various purposes, including the manufacturing of soaps and pharmaceutical products and applications in the bioenergetic industry. Although there have been several studies focusing J. curcas in various aspects, the karyotype features of Jatropha species are poorly known. Therefore, we analyzed six Jatropha species through fluorochrome staining (CMA/DAPI), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes and genome size estimation by flow cytometry...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Carla Cozzolino, Guglielmo Rd Villani, Giulia Frisso, Emanuela Scolamiero, Lucia Albano, Giovanna Gallo, Roberta Romanelli, Margherita Ruoppolo
3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria is an organic aciduria resulting from deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (3-MCC), a biotin-dependent mitochondrial enzym carboxylating 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA during leucine catabolism. Its deficiency, due to mutations on MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes, leads to accumulation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA metabolites in blood and/or urine, primarily 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (C5-OH) in plasma and 3-methylcrotonyl-glycine (3-MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA) in the urine...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Danilo do Rosário Pinheiro, Maria Lucia Harada, Rommel Mario Rodriguez Burbano, Barbara do Nascimento Borges
Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the main causes of cancer-related death worldwide. There are two distinct histological types of GC: diffuse and intestinal. The latter is characterized by the presence of pre-neoplastic lesions. One of the most frequently altered enzymes in intestinal GC is COX-2, an important lesion marker. This work aimed to study COX-2 methylation and expression in N-methyl-N-Nitrosurea (MNU)-induced intestinal GC in six Sapajus apella animals. The partial promoter sequence of S. apella COX-2 gene was obtained and used to identify transcription factors and cis-regulatory element binding sites...
May 14, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Nelson J R Fagundes, Alice Tagliani-Ribeiro, Rohina Rubicz, Larissa Tarskaia, Michael H Crawford, Francisco M Salzano, Sandro L Bonatto
In spite of many genetic studies that contributed for a deep knowledge about the peopling of the Americas, no consensus has emerged about important parameters such as the effective size of the Native Americans founder population. Previous estimates based on genomic datasets may have been biased by the use of admixed individuals from Latino populations, while other recent studies using samples from Native American individuals relied on approximated analytical approaches. In this study we use resequencing data for nine independent regions in a set of Native American and Siberian individuals and a full-likelihood approach based on isolation-with-migration scenarios accounting for recent flow between Asian and Native American populations...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
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