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Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301734/deep-learning-in-medical-image-analysis
#1
Dinggang Shen, Guorong Wu, Heung-Il Suk
This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Deep learning is rapidly becoming the state of the art, leading to enhanced performance in various medical applications...
March 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301735/glutaminolysis-a-hallmark-of-cancer-metabolism
#2
Lifeng Yang, Sriram Venneti, Deepak Nagrath
Glutamine is the most abundant circulating amino acid in blood and muscle and is critical for many fundamental cell functions in cancer cells, including synthesis of metabolites that maintain mitochondrial metabolism; generation of antioxidants to remove reactive oxygen species; synthesis of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), purines and pyrimidines, and fatty acids for cellular replication; and activation of cell signaling. In light of the pleiotropic role of glutamine in cancer cells, a comprehensive understanding of glutamine metabolism is essential for the development of metabolic therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer cells...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301736/epigenetic-regulation-a-new-frontier-for-biomedical-engineers
#3
Zhen Chen, Shuai Li, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy, Shu Chien
Gene expression in mammalian cells depends on the epigenetic status of the chromatin, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, promoter-enhancer interactions, and noncoding RNA-mediated regulation. The coordinated actions of these multifaceted regulations determine cell development, cell cycle regulation, cell state and fate, and the ultimate responses in health and disease. Therefore, studies of epigenetic modulations are critical for our understanding of gene regulation mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels...
March 6, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226216/overcoming-immune-dysregulation-with-immunoengineered-nanobiomaterials
#4
Evan A Scott, Nicholas B Karabin, Punn Augsornworawat
The immune system is governed by an immensely complex network of cells and both intracellular and extracellular molecular factors. It must respond to an ever-growing number of biochemical and biophysical inputs by eliciting appropriate and specific responses in order to maintain homeostasis. But as with any complex system, a plethora of false positives and false negatives can occur to generate dysregulated responses. Dysregulated immune responses are essential components of diverse inflammation-driven pathologies, including cancer, heart disease, and autoimmune disorders...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226218/assessing-cartilage-biomechanical-properties-techniques-for-evaluating-the-functional-performance-of-cartilage-in-health-and-disease
#5
Benjamin A Lakin, Brian D Snyder, Mark W Grinstaff
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects millions of people and results in weakened hyaline cartilage due to overloading. During joint articulation, hyaline cartilage must withstand high loads while maintaining low friction to prevent wear and tissue loss. Thus, cartilage compressive stiffness and the coefficient of friction are important indicators of the tissue's functional performance. These mechanical properties are often measured ex vivo using mechanical testing regimens, but arthroscopic handheld probes (e.g., for indentation testing, ultrasound, and optical coherence tomography) and noninvasive imaging modalities (e...
February 2, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226217/sulfation-of-glycosaminoglycans-and-its-implications-in-human-health-and-disorders
#6
Diana Soares da Costa, Rui L Reis, Iva Pashkuleva
Sulfation is a dynamic and complex posttranslational modification process. It can occur at various positions within the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) backbone and modulates extracellular signals such as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions; different sulfation patterns have been identified for the same organs and cells during their development. Because of their high specificity in relation to function,GAGsulfation patterns are referred to as the sulfation code. This review explores the role of GAG sulfation in different biological processes at the cell, tissue, and organism levels...
February 2, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420575/emerging-themes-in-image-informatics-and-molecular-analysis-for-digital-pathology
#7
Rohit Bhargava, Anant Madabhushi
Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420574/optical-based-analysis-of-soft-tissue-structures
#8
Will Goth, John Lesicko, Michael S Sacks, James W Tunnell
Fibrous structures are an integral and dynamic feature of soft biological tissues that are directly related to the tissues' condition and function. A greater understanding of mechanical tissue behavior can be gained through quantitative analyses of structure alone, as well as its integration into computational models of soft tissue function. Histology and other nonoptical techniques have traditionally dominated the field of tissue imaging, but they are limited by their invasiveness, inability to provide resolution on the micrometer scale, and dynamic information...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420573/electrical-chips-for-biological-point-of-care-detection
#9
Bobby Reddy, Eric Salm, Rashid Bashir
As the future of health care diagnostics moves toward more portable and personalized techniques, there is immense potential to harness the power of electrical signals for biological sensing and diagnostic applications at the point of care. Electrical biochips can be used to both manipulate and sense biological entities, as they can have several inherent advantages, including on-chip sample preparation, label-free detection, reduced cost and complexity, decreased sample volumes, increased portability, and large-scale multiplexing...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420572/lubrication-of-articular-cartilage
#10
Sabrina Jahn, Jasmine Seror, Jacob Klein
The major synovial joints such as hips and knees are uniquely efficient tribological systems, able to articulate over a wide range of shear rates with a friction coefficient between the sliding cartilage surfaces as low as 0.001 up to pressures of more than 100 atm. No human-made material can match this. The means by which such surfaces maintain their very low friction has been intensively studied for decades and has been attributed to fluid-film and boundary lubrication. Here, we focus especially on the latter: the reduction of friction by molecular layers at the sliding cartilage surfaces...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420571/engineered-models-of-confined-cell-migration
#11
Colin D Paul, Wei-Chien Hung, Denis Wirtz, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Cells in the body are physically confined by neighboring cells, tissues, and the extracellular matrix. Although physical confinement modulates intracellular signaling and the underlying mechanisms of cell migration, it is difficult to study in vivo. Furthermore, traditional two-dimensional cell migration assays do not recapitulate the complex topographies found in the body. Therefore, a number of experimental in vitro models that confine and impose forces on cells in well-defined microenvironments have been engineered...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420570/the-virtual-physiological-human-ten-years-after
#12
Marco Viceconti, Peter Hunter
Biomedical research and clinical practice are struggling to cope with the growing complexity that the progress of health care involves. The most challenging diseases, those with the largest socioeconomic impact (cardiovascular conditions; musculoskeletal conditions; cancer; metabolic, immunity, and neurodegenerative conditions), are all characterized by a complex genotype-phenotype interaction and by a "systemic" nature that poses a challenge to the traditional reductionist approach. In 2005 a small group of researchers discussed how the vision of computational physiology promoted by the Physiome Project could be translated into clinical practice and formally proposed the term Virtual Physiological Human...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420569/lensless-imaging-and-sensing
#13
Aydogan Ozcan, Euan McLeod
High-resolution optical microscopy has traditionally relied on high-magnification and high-numerical aperture objective lenses. In contrast, lensless microscopy can provide high-resolution images without the use of any focusing lenses, offering the advantages of a large field of view, high resolution, cost-effectiveness, portability, and depth-resolved three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Here we review various approaches to lensless imaging, as well as its applications in biosensing, diagnostics, and cytometry...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27022702/design-of-catalytic-peptides-and-proteins-through-rational-and-combinatorial-approaches
#14
Yoshiaki Maeda, Olga V Makhlynets, Hiroshi Matsui, Ivan V Korendovych
This review focuses on recent progress in noncomputational methods to introduce catalytic function into proteins, peptides, and peptide assemblies. We discuss various approaches to creating catalytic activity and classification of noncomputational methods into rational and combinatorial classes. The section on rational design covers recent progress in the development of short peptides and oligomeric peptide assemblies for various natural and unnatural reactions. The section on combinatorial design describes recent advances in the discovery of catalytic peptides...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928211/immune-tolerance-for-autoimmune-disease-and-cell-transplantation
#15
Xunrong Luo, Stephen D Miller, Lonnie D Shea
The undesired destruction of healthy cells, either endogenous or transplanted, by the immune system results in the loss of tissue function or limits strategies to restore tissue function. Current therapies typically involve nonspecific immunosuppression that may prevent the appropriate response to an antigen, thereby decreasing humoral immunity and increasing the risks of patient susceptibility to opportunistic infections, viral reactivation, and neoplasia. The induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance to block undesired immune responses to self- or allogeneic antigens, while maintaining the integrity of the remaining immune system, has the potential to transform the current treatment of autoimmune disease and serve as a key enabling technology for therapies based on cell transplantation...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928210/implications-of-lymphatic-transport-to-lymph-nodes-in-immunity-and-immunotherapy
#16
Susan N Thomas, Nathan A Rohner, Erin E Edwards
Adaptive immune response consists of many highly regulated, multistep cascades that protect against infection while preserving the health of autologous tissue. The proper initiation, maintenance, and resolution of such responses require the precise coordination of molecular and cellular signaling over multiple time and length scales orchestrated by lymphatic transport. In order to investigate these functions and manipulate them for therapy, a comprehensive understanding of how lymphatics influence immune physiology is needed...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928209/innovative-tools-and-technology-for-analysis-of-single-cells-and-cell-cell-interaction
#17
Tania Konry, Saheli Sarkar, Pooja Sabhachandani, Noa Cohen
Heterogeneity in single-cell responses and intercellular interactions results from complex regulation of cell-intrinsic and environmental factors. Single-cell analysis allows not only detection of individual cellular characteristics but also correlation of genetic content with phenotypic traits in the same cell. Technological advances in micro- and nanofabrication have benefited single-cell analysis by allowing precise control of the localized microenvironment, cell manipulation, and sensitive detection capabilities...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928208/microfluidics-for-high-throughput-quantitative-studies-of-early-development
#18
Thomas J Levario, Bomyi Lim, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Hang Lu
Developmental biology has traditionally relied on qualitative analyses; recently, however, as in other fields of biology, researchers have become increasingly interested in acquiring quantitative knowledge about embryogenesis. Advances in fluorescence microscopy are enabling high-content imaging in live specimens. At the same time, microfluidics and automation technologies are increasing experimental throughput for studies of multicellular models of development. Furthermore, computer vision methods for processing and analyzing bioimage data are now leading the way toward quantitative biology...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26863923/drugging-membrane-protein-interactions
#19
Hang Yin, Aaron D Flynn
The majority of therapeutics target membrane proteins, accessible on the surface of cells, to alter cellular signaling. Cells use membrane proteins to transduce signals into cells, transport ions and molecules, bind cells to a surface or substrate, and catalyze reactions. Newly devised technologies allow us to drug conventionally "undruggable" regions of membrane proteins, enabling modulation of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, we survey the state of the art of high-throughput screening and rational design in drug discovery, and we evaluate the advances in biological understanding and technological capacity that will drive pharmacotherapy forward against unorthodox membrane protein targets...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26863922/the-lymphatic-system-in-disease-processes-and-cancer-progression
#20
Timothy P Padera, Eelco F J Meijer, Lance L Munn
Advances in our understanding of the structure and function of the lymphatic system have made it possible to identify its role in a variety of disease processes. Because it is involved not only in fluid homeostasis but also in immune cell trafficking, the lymphatic system can mediate and ultimately alter immune responses. Our rapidly increasing knowledge of the molecular control of the lymphatic system will inevitably lead to new and effective therapies for patients with lymphatic dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the molecular and physiological control of lymphatic vessel function and explore how the lymphatic system contributes to many disease processes, including cancer and lymphedema...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
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