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Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345977/targeted-and-nontargeted-%C3%AE-particle-therapies
#1
Michael R McDevitt, George Sgouros, Stavroula Sofou
α-Particle irradiation of cancerous tissue is increasingly recognized as a potent therapeutic option. We briefly review the physics, radiobiology, and dosimetry of α-particle emitters, as well as the distinguishing features that make them unique for radiopharmaceutical therapy. We also review the emerging clinical role of α-particle therapy in managing cancer and recent studies on in vitro and preclinical α-particle therapy delivered by antibodies, other small molecules, and nanometer-sized particles. In addition to their unique radiopharmaceutical characteristics, the increased availability and improved radiochemistry of α-particle radionuclides have contributed to the growing recent interest in α-particle radiotherapy...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345976/synthetic-biology-immunotherapy-by-design
#2
Matthew J Brenner, Jang Hwan Cho, Nicole M L Wong, Wilson W Wong
Cellular immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of human disease. Clinical evidence suggests that T cell immunotherapies have the potential to combat cancers that evade traditional immunotherapy. Despite promising results, adverse effects leading to fatalities have left scientists seeking tighter control over these therapies, which is reflected in the growing body of synthetic biology literature focused on developing tightly controlled, context-independent parts. In addition, researchers are adapting these tools for other uses, such as for the treatment of autoimmune disease, HIV infection, and fungal interactions...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328778/engineering-approaches-to-study-cellular-decision-making
#3
Pamela K Kreeger, Laura E Strong, Kristyn S Masters
In their native environment, cells are immersed in a complex milieu of biochemical and biophysical cues. These cues may include growth factors, the extracellular matrix, cell-cell contacts, stiffness, and topography, and they are responsible for regulating cellular behaviors such as adhesion, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. The decision-making process used to convert these extracellular inputs into actions is highly complex and sensitive to changes both in the type of individual cue (e...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220201/engineering-hydrogel-microenvironments-to-recapitulate-the-stem-cell-niche
#4
Christopher M Madl, Sarah C Heilshorn
Stem cells are a powerful resource for many applications including regenerative medicine, patient-specific disease modeling, and toxicology screening. However, eliciting the desired behavior from stem cells, such as expansion in a naïve state or differentiation into a particular mature lineage, remains challenging. Drawing inspiration from the native stem cell niche, hydrogel platforms have been developed to regulate stem cell fate by controlling microenvironmental parameters including matrix mechanics, degradability, cell-adhesive ligand presentation, local microstructure, and cell-cell interactions...
December 8, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#5
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633566/microsphere-based-scaffolds-in-regenerative-engineering
#6
Vineet Gupta, Yusuf Khan, Cory J Berkland, Cato T Laurencin, Michael S Detamore
Microspheres have long been used in drug delivery applications because of their controlled release capabilities. They have increasingly served as the fundamental building block for fabricating scaffolds for regenerative engineering because of their ability to provide a porous network, offer high-resolution control over spatial organization, and deliver growth factors/drugs and/or nanophase materials. Because they provide physicochemical gradients via spatiotemporal release of bioactive factors and nanophase ceramics, microspheres are a desirable tool for engineering complex tissues and biological interfaces...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633565/febio-history-and-advances
#7
Steve A Maas, Gerard A Ateshian, Jeffrey A Weiss
The principal goal of the FEBio project is to provide an advanced finite element tool for the biomechanics and biophysics communities that allows researchers to model mechanics, transport, and electrokinetic phenomena for biological systems accurately and efficiently. In addition, because FEBio is geared toward the research community, the code is designed such that new features can be added easily, thus making it an ideal tool for testing novel computational methods. Finally, because the success of a code is determined by its user base, integral goals of the FEBio project have been to offer support and outreach to our community; to provide mechanisms for dissemination of results, models, and data; and to encourage interaction between users...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633564/energy-harvesting-from-the-animal-human-body-for-self-powered-electronics
#8
Canan Dagdeviren, Zhou Li, Zhong Lin Wang
Living subjects (i.e., humans and animals) have abundant sources of energy in chemical, thermal, and mechanical forms. The use of these energies presents a viable way to overcome the battery capacity limitation that constrains the long-term operation of wearable/implantable devices. The intersection of novel materials and fabrication techniques offers boundless possibilities for the benefit of human health and well-being via various types of energy harvesters. This review summarizes the existing approaches that have been demonstrated to harvest energy from the bodies of living subjects for self-powered electronics...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633563/mammalian-synthetic-biology-engineering-biological-systems
#9
Joshua B Black, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Charles A Gersbach
The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633562/advances-in-imaging-brain-metabolism
#10
Fahmeed Hyder, Douglas L Rothman
Metabolism is central to neuroimaging because it can reveal pathways by which neuronal and glial cells use nutrients to fuel their growth and function. We focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods used in brain metabolic studies. (17)O-MRS and (31)P-MRS, respectively, provide rates of oxygen use and ATP synthesis inside mitochondria, whereas (19)F-MRS enables measurement of cytosolic glucose metabolism. Calibrated functional MRI (fMRI), an advanced form of fMRI that uses contrast generated by deoxyhemoglobin, provides maps of oxygen use that track neuronal firing across brain regions...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633561/regulation-of-energy-homeostasis-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#11
Martin L Yarmush, Matthew D'Alessandro, Nima Saeidi
The obesity epidemic continues to escalate each year in the United States more than anywhere else in the world. The existing pharmaceutical and other nonsurgical treatments for morbid obesity produce suboptimal physiologic outcomes compared with those of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. RYGB has been the gold standard of bariatric surgery because the beneficial long-term outcomes, which include sustainable weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) resolution, are far superior to those obtained with other bariatric surgeries...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633560/bioinspired-hydrogels-to-engineer-cancer-microenvironments
#12
Kyung Min Park, Daniel Lewis, Sharon Gerecht
Recent research has demonstrated that tumor microenvironments play pivotal roles in tumor development and metastasis through various physical, chemical, and biological factors, including extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, matrix remodeling, oxygen tension, pH, cytokines, and matrix stiffness. An emerging trend in cancer research involves the creation of engineered three-dimensional tumor models using bioinspired hydrogels that accurately recapitulate the native tumor microenvironment. With recent advances in materials engineering, many researchers are developing engineered tumor models, which are promising platforms for the study of cancer biology and for screening of therapeutic agents for better clinical outcomes...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471698/design-approaches-to-myocardial-and-vascular-tissue-engineering
#13
Olukemi O Akintewe, Erin G Roberts, Nae-Gyune Rim, Michael A H Ferguson, Joyce Y Wong
Engineered tissues represent an increasingly promising therapeutic approach for correcting structural defects and promoting tissue regeneration in cardiovascular diseases. One of the challenges associated with this approach has been the necessity for the replacement tissue to promote sufficient vascularization to maintain functionality after implantation. This review highlights a number of promising prevascularization design approaches for introducing vasculature into engineered tissues. Although we focus on encouraging blood vessel formation within myocardial implants, we also discuss techniques developed for other tissues that could eventually become relevant to engineered cardiac tissues...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460181/multiscale-modeling-of-muscular-skeletal-systems
#14
Gang Seob Jung, Markus J Buehler
Multiscale modeling of muscular-skeletal systems-the materials and structures that help organisms support themselves and move-is a rapidly growing field of study that has contributed key elements to the understanding of these systems, especially from a multiscale perspective. The systems, including materials such as bone and muscle, have hierarchical structures ranging from the nano- to the macroscale, and it is difficult to understand their macroscopic behaviors, both physiological and pathological, without knowledge of their hierarchical structures and properties...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441034/thrombus-formation-at-high-shear-rates
#15
Lauren D C Casa, David N Ku
The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375650/emerging-frontiers-of-neuroengineering-a-network-science-of-brain-connectivity
#16
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati, Scott T Grafton
Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375649/objective-assessment-of-surgical-technical-skill-and-competency-in-the-operating-room
#17
S Swaroop Vedula, Masaru Ishii, Gregory D Hager
Training skillful and competent surgeons is critical to ensure high quality of care and to minimize disparities in access to effective care. Traditional models to train surgeons are being challenged by rapid advances in technology, an intensified patient-safety culture, and a need for value-driven health systems. Simultaneously, technological developments are enabling capture and analysis of large amounts of complex surgical data. These developments are motivating a "surgical data science" approach to objective computer-aided technical skill evaluation (OCASE-T) for scalable, accurate assessment; individualized feedback; and automated coaching...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301736/epigenetic-regulation-a-new-frontier-for-biomedical-engineers
#18
Zhen Chen, Shuai Li, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy, Shu Chien
Gene expression in mammalian cells depends on the epigenetic status of the chromatin, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, promoter-enhancer interactions, and noncoding RNA-mediated regulation. The coordinated actions of these multifaceted regulations determine cell development, cell cycle regulation, cell state and fate, and the ultimate responses in health and disease. Therefore, studies of epigenetic modulations are critical for our understanding of gene regulation mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301734/deep-learning-in-medical-image-analysis
#19
Dinggang Shen, Guorong Wu, Heung-Il Suk
This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Deep learning is rapidly becoming the state of the art, leading to enhanced performance in various medical applications...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301735/glutaminolysis-a-hallmark-of-cancer-metabolism
#20
Lifeng Yang, Sriram Venneti, Deepak Nagrath
Glutamine is the most abundant circulating amino acid in blood and muscle and is critical for many fundamental cell functions in cancer cells, including synthesis of metabolites that maintain mitochondrial metabolism; generation of antioxidants to remove reactive oxygen species; synthesis of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), purines and pyrimidines, and fatty acids for cellular replication; and activation of cell signaling. In light of the pleiotropic role of glutamine in cancer cells, a comprehensive understanding of glutamine metabolism is essential for the development of metabolic therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer cells...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
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