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Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering

Rohit Bhargava, Anant Madabhushi
Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Will Goth, John Lesicko, Michael S Sacks, James W Tunnell
Fibrous structures are an integral and dynamic feature of soft biological tissues that are directly related to the tissues' condition and function. A greater understanding of mechanical tissue behavior can be gained through quantitative analyses of structure alone, as well as its integration into computational models of soft tissue function. Histology and other nonoptical techniques have traditionally dominated the field of tissue imaging, but they are limited by their invasiveness, inability to provide resolution on the micrometer scale, and dynamic information...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Bobby Reddy, Eric Salm, Rashid Bashir
As the future of health care diagnostics moves toward more portable and personalized techniques, there is immense potential to harness the power of electrical signals for biological sensing and diagnostic applications at the point of care. Electrical biochips can be used to both manipulate and sense biological entities, as they can have several inherent advantages, including on-chip sample preparation, label-free detection, reduced cost and complexity, decreased sample volumes, increased portability, and large-scale multiplexing...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Sabrina Jahn, Jasmine Seror, Jacob Klein
The major synovial joints such as hips and knees are uniquely efficient tribological systems, able to articulate over a wide range of shear rates with a friction coefficient between the sliding cartilage surfaces as low as 0.001 up to pressures of more than 100 atm. No human-made material can match this. The means by which such surfaces maintain their very low friction has been intensively studied for decades and has been attributed to fluid-film and boundary lubrication. Here, we focus especially on the latter: the reduction of friction by molecular layers at the sliding cartilage surfaces...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Colin D Paul, Wei-Chien Hung, Denis Wirtz, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Cells in the body are physically confined by neighboring cells, tissues, and the extracellular matrix. Although physical confinement modulates intracellular signaling and the underlying mechanisms of cell migration, it is difficult to study in vivo. Furthermore, traditional two-dimensional cell migration assays do not recapitulate the complex topographies found in the body. Therefore, a number of experimental in vitro models that confine and impose forces on cells in well-defined microenvironments have been engineered...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Marco Viceconti, Peter Hunter
Biomedical research and clinical practice are struggling to cope with the growing complexity that the progress of health care involves. The most challenging diseases, those with the largest socioeconomic impact (cardiovascular conditions; musculoskeletal conditions; cancer; metabolic, immunity, and neurodegenerative conditions), are all characterized by a complex genotype-phenotype interaction and by a "systemic" nature that poses a challenge to the traditional reductionist approach. In 2005 a small group of researchers discussed how the vision of computational physiology promoted by the Physiome Project could be translated into clinical practice and formally proposed the term Virtual Physiological Human...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Aydogan Ozcan, Euan McLeod
High-resolution optical microscopy has traditionally relied on high-magnification and high-numerical aperture objective lenses. In contrast, lensless microscopy can provide high-resolution images without the use of any focusing lenses, offering the advantages of a large field of view, high resolution, cost-effectiveness, portability, and depth-resolved three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Here we review various approaches to lensless imaging, as well as its applications in biosensing, diagnostics, and cytometry...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Yoshiaki Maeda, Olga V Makhlynets, Hiroshi Matsui, Ivan V Korendovych
This review focuses on recent progress in noncomputational methods to introduce catalytic function into proteins, peptides, and peptide assemblies. We discuss various approaches to creating catalytic activity and classification of noncomputational methods into rational and combinatorial classes. The section on rational design covers recent progress in the development of short peptides and oligomeric peptide assemblies for various natural and unnatural reactions. The section on combinatorial design describes recent advances in the discovery of catalytic peptides...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Xunrong Luo, Stephen D Miller, Lonnie D Shea
The undesired destruction of healthy cells, either endogenous or transplanted, by the immune system results in the loss of tissue function or limits strategies to restore tissue function. Current therapies typically involve nonspecific immunosuppression that may prevent the appropriate response to an antigen, thereby decreasing humoral immunity and increasing the risks of patient susceptibility to opportunistic infections, viral reactivation, and neoplasia. The induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance to block undesired immune responses to self- or allogeneic antigens, while maintaining the integrity of the remaining immune system, has the potential to transform the current treatment of autoimmune disease and serve as a key enabling technology for therapies based on cell transplantation...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Susan N Thomas, Nathan A Rohner, Erin E Edwards
Adaptive immune response consists of many highly regulated, multistep cascades that protect against infection while preserving the health of autologous tissue. The proper initiation, maintenance, and resolution of such responses require the precise coordination of molecular and cellular signaling over multiple time and length scales orchestrated by lymphatic transport. In order to investigate these functions and manipulate them for therapy, a comprehensive understanding of how lymphatics influence immune physiology is needed...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Tania Konry, Saheli Sarkar, Pooja Sabhachandani, Noa Cohen
Heterogeneity in single-cell responses and intercellular interactions results from complex regulation of cell-intrinsic and environmental factors. Single-cell analysis allows not only detection of individual cellular characteristics but also correlation of genetic content with phenotypic traits in the same cell. Technological advances in micro- and nanofabrication have benefited single-cell analysis by allowing precise control of the localized microenvironment, cell manipulation, and sensitive detection capabilities...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Thomas J Levario, Bomyi Lim, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Hang Lu
Developmental biology has traditionally relied on qualitative analyses; recently, however, as in other fields of biology, researchers have become increasingly interested in acquiring quantitative knowledge about embryogenesis. Advances in fluorescence microscopy are enabling high-content imaging in live specimens. At the same time, microfluidics and automation technologies are increasing experimental throughput for studies of multicellular models of development. Furthermore, computer vision methods for processing and analyzing bioimage data are now leading the way toward quantitative biology...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Hang Yin, Aaron D Flynn
The majority of therapeutics target membrane proteins, accessible on the surface of cells, to alter cellular signaling. Cells use membrane proteins to transduce signals into cells, transport ions and molecules, bind cells to a surface or substrate, and catalyze reactions. Newly devised technologies allow us to drug conventionally "undruggable" regions of membrane proteins, enabling modulation of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, we survey the state of the art of high-throughput screening and rational design in drug discovery, and we evaluate the advances in biological understanding and technological capacity that will drive pharmacotherapy forward against unorthodox membrane protein targets...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Timothy P Padera, Eelco F J Meijer, Lance L Munn
Advances in our understanding of the structure and function of the lymphatic system have made it possible to identify its role in a variety of disease processes. Because it is involved not only in fluid homeostasis but also in immune cell trafficking, the lymphatic system can mediate and ultimately alter immune responses. Our rapidly increasing knowledge of the molecular control of the lymphatic system will inevitably lead to new and effective therapies for patients with lymphatic dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the molecular and physiological control of lymphatic vessel function and explore how the lymphatic system contributes to many disease processes, including cancer and lymphedema...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Balaji Narasimhan, Jonathan T Goodman, Julia E Vela Ramirez
Pattern recognition receptors on innate immune cells play an important role in guiding how cells interact with the rest of the organism and in determining the direction of the downstream immune response. Recent advances have elucidated the structure and function of these receptors, providing new opportunities for developing targeted drugs and vaccines to treat infections, cancers, and neurological disorders. C-type lectin receptors, Toll-like receptors, and folate receptors have attracted interest for their ability to endocytose their ligands or initiate signaling pathways that influence the immune response...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Alison P McGuigan, Sahar Javaherian
Recapitulating the architecture of native tissue remains a significant challenge, impeding the progress of engineering tissues. Imposing appropriate organization is especially challenging in tissues that contain multiple cellular components in complex structural units. One solution is to mimic developmental processes in embryos. In an embryo, cells are organized by tissue patterning, whereby induction of fate-determining genes is spatially controlled to generate patterns of cell differentiation and maturation...
July 11, 2016: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Michael I Miller, Alain Trouvé, Laurent Younes
The Computational Anatomy project is the morphome-scale study of shape and form, which we model as an orbit under diffeomorphic group action. Metric comparison calculates the geodesic length of the diffeomorphic flow connecting one form to another. Geodesic connection provides a positioning system for coordinatizing the forms and positioning their associated functional information. This article reviews progress since the Euler-Lagrange characterization of the geodesics a decade ago. Geodesic positioning is posed as a series of problems in Hamiltonian control, which emphasize the key reduction from the Eulerian momentum with dimension of the flow of the group, to the parametric coordinates appropriate to the dimension of the submanifolds being positioned...
2015: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Juan José Vaquero, Paul Kinahan
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is based on detecting two time-coincident high-energy photons from the emission of a positron-emitting radioisotope. The physics of the emission, and the detection of the coincident photons, give PET imaging unique capabilities for both very high sensitivity and accurate estimation of the in vivo concentration of the radiotracer. PET imaging has been widely adopted as an important clinical modality for oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological applications. PET imaging has also become an important tool in preclinical studies, particularly for investigating murine models of disease and other small-animal models...
2015: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
V Y Wang, P M F Nielsen, M P Nash
Personalized biophysical modeling of the heart is a useful approach for noninvasively analyzing and predicting in vivo cardiac mechanics. Three main developments support this style of analysis: state-of-the-art cardiac imaging technologies, modern computational infrastructure, and advanced mathematical modeling techniques. In vivo measurements of cardiac structure and function can be integrated using sophisticated computational methods to investigate mechanisms of myocardial function and dysfunction, and can aid in clinical diagnosis and developing personalized treatment...
2015: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Adam W Feinberg
In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics...
2015: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
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