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Microbes and Infection

Mary M Weber, Robert Faris, Erin J van Schaik, James E Samuel
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates in an endolysosome-like compartment termed the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV). Formation of this unique replicative niche requires delivery of bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol where they mediate crucial interactions with the host. We previously identified an essential Dot/Icm effector, CirA that is required for intracellular replication and CCV formation. Furthermore, CirA was shown to stimulate the GTPase activity of RhoA in vitro...
January 10, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Gilbert Greub
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Traditionally, tick-borne pathogen detection has been carried out using PCR-based methods that rely in known sequences for specific primers design. This approach matches with the view of a 'single-pathogen' epidemiology. Recent results, however, have stressed the importance of coinfections in pathogen ecology and evolution with impact in pathogen transmission and disease severity. New approaches, including high-throughput technologies, were then used to detect multiple pathogens, but they all need a priori information on the pathogens to search...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
HSV-1 ocular infection can cause herpes stromal keratitis (SK), an immunopathological lesion. Frequent recurrences can lead to progressive corneal scaring which can result in vision impairment if left untreated. Currently, the acute and epithelial forms of SK are usually controlled using anti-viral drugs. However, chronic forms of SK which are inflammatory in nature, require the addition of a topical corticosteroid to the anti-viral treatment regimen. In this review, we highlight the essential events involved in SK pathogenesis which can be targeted for improved therapy...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Chinatsu Maita, Mizue Matsushita, Masahiro Miyoshi, Torahiko Okubo, Shinji Nakamura, Junji Matsuo, Masaharu Takemura, Masaki Miyake, Hiroki Nagai, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Acanthamoeba isolated from environmental soil harbors the obligate intracellular symbiont Neochlamydia, which has a critical role in host amoebal defense against Legionella pneumophila infection. Here, by using morphological analysis with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, proteome analyses with two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and transcriptome analysis with DNA microarray, we explored the mechanism by which the Neochlamydia effected this defense...
January 6, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Nira Pollock, Rakesh Dhiman, Nada Daifalla, Maha Farhat, Antonio Campos-Neto
Identification of pathogen-specific biomarkers present in patients' serum or urine samples can be a useful diagnostic approach. In efforts to discover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) biomarkers we identified by mass spectroscopy a unique 21-mer Mtb peptide sequence (VVLGLTVPGGVELLPGVALPR) present in the urines of TB patients from Zimbabwe. This peptide has 100% sequence homology with the protein TBCG_03312 from the C strain of Mtb (a clinical isolate identified in New York, NY, USA) and 95% sequence homology with Mtb oxidoreductase (MRGA423_21210) from the clinical isolate MTB423 (identified in Kerala, India)...
January 3, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Brian M O Ogendi, Rakesh K Bakshi, Kanupriya Gupta, Richa Kapil, LaDraka T Brown, Stephen J Jordan, Steffanie Sabbaj, Christen G Press, Jeannette Y Lee, William M Geisler
T cell phenotypes involved in the immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) have not been fully elucidated in humans. We evaluated differences in T cell phenotypes between CT-infected women and CT-seronegative controls and investigated changes in T cell phenotype distributions after CT treatment and their association with reinfection. We found a higher expression of T cell activation markers (CD38+HLA-DR+), T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-associated effector phenotypes (CXCR3+CCR5+ and CCR4+, respectively), and T cell homing marker (CCR7) for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CT-infected women...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Siddheshvar Bhela, Barry T Rouse
miRNAs are small noncoding RNA that play a crucial role in gene regulation by inhibiting translation or promoting mRNA degradation. Viruses themselves express miRNAs that can target either the host or viral mRNA transcriptome. Moreover, viral infection of cells causes a drastic change in host miRNAs. This complex interaction between the host and viruses often favors the virus to evade immune elimination and favors the establishment and maintenance of latency. In this review we discuss the function of both host and viral miRNAs in regulating herpes simplex virus pathogenesis and also discuss the prospect of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic tools...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Ilija Brizić, Lea Hiršl, William J Britt, Astrid Krmpotić, Stipan Jonjić
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of viral infection acquired in utero. Even though the infection has been studied for several decades, immune determinants important for virus control and mechanisms of long-term sequelae caused by infection are still insufficiently characterized. Animal models of congenital HCMV infection provide unique opportunity to study various aspects of human disease. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of immune system in congenital CMV infection, with emphasis on lessons learned from mouse model of congenital CMV infection...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Awa Diop, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Rickettsia species are arthropod endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria that can infect mammalian hosts during their obligate intracellular lifecycle, and cause a range of mild to severe diseases in humans. Paradoxically, during their adaptation to a bottleneck lifestyle, rickettsial genomes have undergone an evolution marked by a progressive chromosomic and plasmidic degradation resulting in a genome reduction from 1.5 to 1.1 Mb, with a coding capacity of 69 to 84%. A striking finding of rickettsial genomics has been that the most virulent species had genomes that were drastically reduced and degraded when compared to closely related less virulent or non pathogenic species...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Vincent Tu, Rama Yakubu, Louis M Weiss
Tachyzoites of the Apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii cause acute infection, disseminate widely in their host, and eventually differentiates into a latent encysted form called bradyzoites that are found within tissue cysts. During latent infection, whenever transformation to tachyzoites occurs, any tachyzoites that develop are removed by the immune system. In contrast, cysts containing bradyzoites are sequestered from the immune system. In the absence of an effective immune response released organisms that differentiate into tachyzoites cause acute infection...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Orhan Rasid, Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Pathogens or endogenous molecules can reprogram innate immunity. This process can take the form of priming or tolerance depending on the activating signal, and favors enhanced resistance of infection and other insults, by modulating inflammation. Similarly to their organ-specific properties, reprogramming of macrophages and NK cells, is also compartmentalized.
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Emma L Langshaw, Manisha Pandey, Michael F Good
Group A Streptococci (GAS) are responsible for a wide array of non-invasive and invasive diseases and varying immune sequelae with high rates of mortality and morbidity. GAS strains with a mutation in their covR/S regulatory system are hypervirulent with an increased capacity for causing invasive disease. CovR/S mutants augment their virulence through the up-regulation of important virulence factors and target host immune surveillance primarily by inhibiting neutrophils. An in-depth understanding of the immunopathogenesis of covR/S mutants will facilitate the development of vaccine strategies and design...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
David W Pascual, Xinghong Yang, Hongbin Wang, Zakia Goodwin, Carol Hoffman, Beata Clapp
Brucellosis remains burdensome for livestock and humans worldwide. Better vaccines for protection are needed to reduce disease incidence. Immunity to brucellosis and barriers to protection are discussed. The benefits and limitations of conventional and experimental brucellosis vaccines are outlined, and novel vaccination strategies needed to ultimately protect against brucellosis are introduced.
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Qila Sa, Ashish Tiwari, Eri Ochiai, Jeremi Mullins, Yasuhiro Suzuki
Significantly larger numbers of Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected in the brains of RAG1-/-NOS2-/- than RAG1-/- mice following infection. In contrast, the cyst numbers markedly decreased in a same manner in both strains of mice after receiving CD8+ immune T cells. Thus, NOS2-mediated innate immunity is important for inhibiting formation of cysts in the brain but not required for the T cell-initiated cyst removal, which is associated with phagocyte accumulation. Treatment with chloroquine, an inhibitor of endolysosomal acidification, partially but significantly inhibited the T cell-mediated cyst removal, suggesting that phagosome-lysomose fusion could be involved in the T...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Katarzyna Pienkowska, Lutz Wiehlmann, Burkhard Tümmler
High-throughput untargeted metagenome sequencing provides information about the composition of the microbial communities of viruses, bacteria, archaea and unicellular eukaryotes in the habitat of interest. This review outlines the sampling, processing, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of secretions of the respiratory tract and summarizes our current knowledge of the upper and lower human airways metagenome in health and disease.
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Leanne M Low, Danielle I Stanisic, Michael F Good
The apicoplast, a relic plastid found in most Apicomplexan parasites, is a notable drug target. Certain antibiotics elicit a delayed death phenotype by targeting this organelle. Here, we review apicoplast targeting drugs and their targets, particularly those that cause delayed death, and highlight its potential uses in malaria vaccine development.
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Firuza Bayramova, Nicolas Jacquier, Gilbert Greub
The Chlamydiales order is composed of obligate intracellular bacteria and includes the Chlamydiaceae family and several family-level lineages called Chlamydia-related bacteria. In this review we will highlight the conserved and distinct biological features between these two groups. We will show how a better characterization of Chlamydia-related bacteria may increase our understanding on the Chlamydiales order evolution, and may help identifying new therapeutic targets to treat chlamydial infections.
December 18, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Leandro S Silva, Gustavo C Prado, Paula G Quintana, Norton Heise, Kildare R Miranda, Eduardo J L Torres, Pedro M Persechini, Ana Acacia S Pinheiro, Julieta Schachter
Purine nucleotide synthesis in protozoa takes place exclusively via the purine salvage pathway and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) is an important enzyme in the Plasmodium salvage pathway which is not present in erythrocytes. Here, we describe the antimalarial effect of 2´3´-dialdehyde adenosine or oxidized adenosine (oADO), inhibitor of SAHH, on in vitro infection of human erythrocytes by P. falciparum. Treatment of infected erythrocytes with oADO inhibits parasite development and reinvasion of new cells...
December 15, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jürgen Löffler, Frank Ebel
Fungal hyphae constitute a special challenge for the immune system, since they are too large to be phagocytosed. This review summarizes our current knowledge on those immune cells that are able to attack and eliminate hyphae and we discuss the different means that are employed by these cells in order to kill hyphae.
December 14, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Microbes and Infection
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