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Microbes and Infection

Jorge Cervantes
Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). A great amount of research has attempted to elucidate the mechanisms by which Bb causes inflammation and chronic symptomatology in some patients. Patients often seek unconventional treatments that lack scientific evidence, as medical care is unable to effectively explain and treat their illness. Bb-DNA can persist for long periods of time in some individuals, even after antibiotic therapy. Herein, scientific rationale is presented for a new therapeutic approach against remaining bacterial DNA, and/or increasing the ability of human macrophages to remove extracellular Bb DNA...
June 15, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Wonhyo Seo, Alexandre Servat, Florence Cliquet, Jenkins Akinbowale, Christophe Prehaud, Monique Lafon, Claude Sabeta
Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease and infections generally lead to a fatal encephalomyelitis in both humans and animals. In South Africa, domestic (dogs) and the wildlife (yellow mongoose) host species maintain the canid and mongoose rabies variants respectively. In this study, pathogenicity differences of South African canid and mongoose rabies viruses were investigated in a murine model, by assessing the progression of clinical signs and survivorship. Comparison of glycoprotein gene sequences revealed amino acid differences that may underpin the observed pathogenicity differences...
June 13, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Farhoud Faraji, Munfarid Zaidi, Carole Fakhry, Daria A Gaykalova
This review examines the general cellular and molecular underpinnings of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related carcinogenesis in the context of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and focuses on HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in areas for which specific data is available. It covers the major pathways dysregulated in HPV-positive HNSCC and the genome-wide changes associated with this disease.
June 12, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jason A Tetro
Although considered a neglected tropical disease, the mosquito-borne Usutu virus has demonstrated signs of emergence from Africa to Europe. While human cases are infrequent, the potential for neuroinvasive infection, even in immunocompetent individuals, suggests a need for increased research into virus biology and pathogenesis, as well as rapid measures for diagnosis and environmental surveillance.
June 12, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Wonhyo Seo, Christophe Prehaud, Zakir Khan, Claude Sabeta, Monique Lafon
In the field of live viral vaccines production, there is an unmet need for in vitro tests complying a 3R approach (Refine, Replace and Reduce the use of animal experimentation) to replace the post-licensing safety tests currently assayed in animals. Here, we performed a pilot study evaluating whether virulence of rabies virus, RABV, can be forecast by an in vitro test of neurite outgrowth. The rationale to use neurite outgrowth as a read-out for this test is based on the salient property of the cytoplasmic domain of the G-protein (Cyto-G) of virulent RABV strains - not of attenuated RABV strains - to stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro...
June 8, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Paolo Gaibani, Giada Rossini
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Africa in the middle of the 16th century and currently widely circulates in several European countries. Herein, we summarize current knowledge about USUV from ecology, epidemiology, phylogeny to clinical manifestations and diagnosis and discuss the role as human pathogen.
June 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Narayan Gyawali, Richard S Bradbury, John G Aaskov, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
At least 75 arboviruses have been identified from Australia. Most have a zoonotic transmission cycle, maintained in the environment by cycling between arthropod vectors and susceptible mammalian or avian hosts. The primary arboviruses that cause human disease in Australia are Ross River, Barmah Forest, Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin and dengue. Several other arboviruses are associated with human disease but little is known about their clinical course and diagnostic testing is not routinely available. Given the significant prevalence of undifferentiated febrile illness in Australia, investigation of the potential threat to public health presented by these viruses is required...
May 25, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan, Evan M O'Dea, Angar Tsoggerel, Steven P Templeton
The differential recognition of fungal cell wall polysaccharides that program innate and adaptive immunity to the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been a focus of considerable interest. In a mouse model of fungal conidia aspiration, decreased relative levels of cell wall core carbohydrates β-1,3-glucan to chitin in A. fumigatus isolates and mutant strains were correlated with increased airway eosinophil recruitment. In addition, an increase in fungal surface chitin exposure induced by the β-1,3-glucan synthesis-targeting drug caspofungin was associated with increased murine airway eosinophil recruitment after a single challenge of conidia...
May 25, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Mikaila Bandara, J Mark Skehel, Aras Kadioglu, Ian Collinson, Angela H Nobbs, Ariel J Blocker, Howard F Jenkinson
In Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4, genes encoding a SecY2A2 accessory Sec system are present within a locus encoding a serine-rich repeat surface protein PsrP. Mutant strains deleted in secA2 or psrP were deficient in biofilm formation, while the ΔsecA2 mutant was reduced in binding to airway epithelial cells. Cell wall protein (CWP) fractions from the ΔsecA2 mutant, but not from the ΔpsrP mutant, were reduced in haemolytic (pneumolysin) activity. Contact-dependent pneumolysin (Ply) activity of wild type TIGR4 cells was ten-fold greater than that of ΔsecA2 mutant cells suggesting that Ply was not active at the ΔsecA2 cell surface...
April 27, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Belinda Yau, Lay Khoon Too, Helen J Ball, Nicholas H Hunt
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis causes debilitating neurological symptoms and acute fatalities in patients, and long-term neurological sequelae in some survivors. Current vaccines do not protect against all 94 known S. pneumoniae capsular serotypes, many of which are capable of causing pneumococcal meningitis (PM). We here compare the pathogenic outcomes of two clinically virulent isolates of S. pneumoniae, serotype 3 strain WU2 and serotype 4 strain TIGR4, in a murine model of PM. At an identical infectious dosage of 10(3) CFU administered via the intracerebroventricular route, significantly greater mortality, interleukin (IL)1β and IL6 production, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction occurred in TIGR4-induced PM compared to PM caused by WU2...
April 22, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish
Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) was first isolated in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in the 1990s from the blood of a butcher. Subsequently, the virus was recognized in many patients in Saudi Arabia and rarely from Egypt and Djibouti. In this review, we summarize the current literature on AHFV globally with special focus on Saudi Arabia.
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Anel Lizcano, Ramya Akula Suresh Babu, Anukul T Shenoy, Alison Maren Saville, Nikhil Kumar, Adonis D'Mello, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Ryan P Gilley, Jesus Segovia, Timothy J Mitchell, Hervé Tettelin, Carlos J Orihuela
Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a glycoprotein that mediates Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to lung cells and promotes biofilm formation. Herein, we investigated the transcriptional organization of psrP-secY2A2, the 37-kbp pathogenicity island encoding PsrP and its accessory genes. PCR amplification of cDNA and RNA-seq analysis found psrP-secY2A2 to be minimally composed of three operons: psrP-glyA, glyB, and glyC-asp5. Transcription of all three operons was greatest during biofilm growth and immunoblot analyses confirmed increased PsrP production by biofilm pneumococci...
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Hongxia Wang, Anisia J Silva, Jorge A Benitez
A screen for inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae motility identified the compound 3-amino 1,8-naphthalimide (3-A18NI), a structural analog of the cholera drug virstatin. Similar to virstatin, 3-A18NI diminished cholera toxin production. In contrast, 3-A18NI impeded swimming and/or swarming motility of V. cholerae and V. parahemolyticus suggesting that it could target the chemotaxis pathway shared by the polar and lateral flagellar system of vibrios. 3-A18NI did not inhibit the expression of V. cholerae major flagellin FlaA or the assembly of its polar flagellum...
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Vijayamahantesh, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Ashish K Singh, T Venkateshwaran, V N R Das, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases for which no vaccine exists. These diseases are caused by the Leishmania species complex. Activation of the CD8(+) T cell is crucial for protection against intracellular pathogens, and peptide antigens are attractive strategies for the precise activation of CD8(+) T in vaccine development against intracellular infections. The traditional approach to mine the epitopes is an arduous task. However, with the advent of immunoinformatics, in silico epitope prediction tools are available to expedite epitope identification...
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Ana Laura Grossi de Oliveira, Ana Thereza Chaves, Cristiane Alves Silva Menezes, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose disequilibrium in the host's genetic, immunological and clinical mechanisms leads to distinct manifestations defining the type of immunological response. This review focuses its attention on the influence of the Vitamin D Receptor and hepcidin expressions that can suggest the protection or severity of leprosy.
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jacques Y Bou Khalil, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
Chlamydiae are pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria, which form an important part of amoeba-associated microorganisms. In this paper, we report the isolation, developmental cycle and genome analysis of Protochlamydia phocaeensis sp. nov., an obligate intracellular parasite with a large host spectrum, able to infect Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. The genome size is 3,424,182 bp with a GC content of 42%. This bacterium displayed a particular developmental cycle depending on the infected host...
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Hyo Sun Jin, Hye-Mi Lee, Da-Hye Lee, Guang-Ho Cha, Kyoung Sang Cho, Jichan Jang, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Mycobacterium marinum is a pathogenic mycobacterial species closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established a mycobacterial infection model of Drosophila melanogaster to characterize the role played by cg6568, a homolog of the human cathelicidin gene, in the innate defense against infection. Drosophila cg6568 was expressed at various levels during all developmental stages, and the expression levels were modulated by M. marinum in a time-dependent manner. 20-hydroxyecdysone induced Drosophila cg6568 transcription both in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
Emma Lorenzen, Frank Follmann, Jan O Secher, Sandra Goericke-Pesch, Mette S Hansen, Hannah Zakariassen, Anja W Olsen, Peter Andersen, Gregers Jungersen, Jørgen S Agerholm
Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting the upper porcine genital tract by transcervical and transabdominal intrauterine inoculation, compared to previously performed vaginal inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the hormonal cycle, estrus vs...
June 2017: Microbes and Infection
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