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Microbes and Infection

Mikashmi Kohli, Paulami Sen, Madhukar Pai
Recently, WHO published the first ever Essential Diagnostics List (EDL), which includes 113 tests, including tests for HIV, TB, malaria, hepatitis B and C, human papillomavirus (HPV) and syphilis. The EDL is a welcome first step in ensuring that diagnostics are a key part of all health systems. The impact of the list, however, will depend greatly on how countries adopt and implement the EDL.
September 11, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Gilbert Greub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Kezia Lizardo, Janeesh Plakkal Ayyappan, Min-Hui Cui, Rashmi Balasubramanya, Linda A Jelicks, Jyothi Nagajyothi
Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent in Chagas disease, may result in heart disease. Over the last decades, Chagas disease endemic areas in Latin America have seen a dietary transition from the traditional regional diet to a western style, fat rich diet. Previously, we demonstrated that during acute infection high fat diet (HFD) protects mice from the consequences of infection-induced myocardial damage through effects on adipogenesis in adipose tissue and reduced cardiac lipidopathy. However, the effect of HFD on the subsequent stages of infection - the indeterminate and chronic stages - has not been investigated...
July 30, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Yasushi Shibue, Soichiro Kimura, Chiaki Kajiwara, Yoichiro Iwakura, Keizo Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro Tateda
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a key member of the Th17 cytokines and has been reported to be involved in the pathomechanisms underlying various diseases, including infectious diseases. Infections with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have garnered worldwide attention, and the representative USA300 strain is known to cause pneumonia in healthy people, which can be lethal. However, little is known about the role of IL-17 in CA-MRSA pneumonia. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-17 in a CA-MRSA pneumonia animal model...
July 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Seungwha Paik, Seunga Choi, Kang-In Lee, Yong Woo Back, Yeo-Jin Son, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Hwa-Jung Kim
Mycobacterial acyl carrier protein (AcpM; Rv2244) is a meromycolate extension acyl carrier protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which participates in multistep mycolic acid biosynthesis. However, the function of AcpM in host-mycobacterium interactions during infection remains largely uncharacterized. Here we show that AcpM inhibits host cell apoptosis during mycobacterial infection. To examine the function of AcpM during infection, we generated a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) strain overexpressing AcpM (Ms_AcpM) and a strain transformed with an empty vector (Ms_Vec)...
July 5, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Jason A Tetro
Not all infectious disease outbreaks undergo full epidemiological investigations. In certain situations, the resultant lack of knowledge has led to the development of epidemics and public health emergencies. This review will examine six emerging pathogens including their history, present status, and potential to expand to epidemics. Recommendations to improve our understanding of these hidden outbreaks and others also will be provided in the context of health systems policy.
June 27, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Shuping Hou, Xin Sun, Xiaohua Dong, Hui Lin, Lingli Tang, Min Xue, Guangming Zhong
We have previously reported that Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid-encoded Pgp3 is able to neutralize anti-chlamydial activity of human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 by binding to and forming stable complex with LL-37. Besides its microbicidal activity, LL-37 also modulates immune response, including inducing cytokine/chemokine production in fibroblast/epithelial cells and recruitment of inflammatory cells. We now report that LL-37 was significantly induced in the genital tracts of women diagnosed positive for C. trachomatis...
June 26, 2018: Microbes and Infection
R Sahaya Glingston, Rachayeeta Deb, Sachin Kumar, Shirisha Nagotu
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites of the host cells. A commonly accepted view is the requirement of internal membranous structures for various aspects of viral life cycle. Organelles enable favourable intracellular environment for several viruses. However, studies reporting organelle dynamics upon viral infections are scant. In this review, we aim to summarize and highlight modulations caused to various organelles upon viral infection or expression of its proteins.
June 25, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Alice R Cross, Victoria M Baldwin, Sumita Roy, Angela E Essex-Lopresti, Joann L Prior, Nicholas J Harmer
One Health is an effective approach for the management of zoonotic disease in humans, animals and environments. Examples of the management of bacterial zoonoses in Europe and across the globe demonstrate that One Health approaches of international surveillance, information-sharing and appropriate intervention methods are required to successfully prevent and control disease outbreaks in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Additionally, a One Health approach enables effective preparation and response to bioterrorism threats...
June 18, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Tamirys Simão Pimenta, Natalie Ferreira Chaves, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz, Renato Augusto DaMatta, José Antônio Picanço Diniz Junior
In vitro studies have demonstrated that GM-CSF in combination with other stimulatory factors induces a microbicidal response that control T. gondii infection. We assessed whether GM-CSF alone can control T. gondii replication in murine microglial cultures. Microglia were collected and cultured with or without GM-CSF and the half of each group was infected with T. gondii. We determined the T. gondii infectivity, cytokines levels, NO and superoxide detection. GM-CSF alone primes microglia, which after infection induces the production of TNF-α and IL-6, leading to NO and superoxide production, without any stimulus from IL-12p70 and IFN-γ...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Yoshinori Kitagawa, Madoka Sakai, Masayuki Shimojima, Masayuki Saijo, Masae Itoh, Bin Gotoh
The nonstructural protein NSs of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus blocks type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling. However, there is continuing controversy as to whether NSs targets STAT1 or STAT2 or both for this blockade. The present study was designed to gain a further understanding of the blockade mechanism. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a stronger interaction of NSs with STAT2 than with any other component constituting the JAK-STAT pathway. Expression of NSs resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs), and affected cytoplasmic distribution of STAT2...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Arim Min, Young Ah Lee, Kyeong Ah Kim, Myeong Heon Shin
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis. Although mast cell activation is important for provoking tissue inflammation during infection with parasites, information regarding the signaling mechanisms in mast cell activation and T. vaginalis infection is limited. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues that functions as a critical regulator of intracellular signaling, regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA)...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Tara C Smith, Dipendra Thapaliya, Sabana Bhatta, Samantha Mackey, Jean Engohang-Ndong, Margaret Carrel
Sampling for livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-SA) in the United States is haphazard. The diversity of LA-S. aureus in the U.S. appears to be greater than in other countries. We review the epidemiology of LA-S. aureus in U.S. pigs, occupationally-exposed individuals, and environmental samples to assess the diversity and abundance of U.S. LA-S. aureus.
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sascha Cording, Jasna Medvedovic, Emelyne Lecuyer, Tegest Aychek, Gérard Eberl
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the innate counterpart of T cells. Upon infection or injury, ILCs react promptly to direct the developing immune response to the one most adapted to the threat facing the organism. Therefore, ILCs play an important role early in resistance to infection, but also to maintain homeostasis with the symbiotic microbiota following perturbations induced by diet and pathogens. Such roles of ILCs have been best characterized in the intestine and lung, mucosal sites that are exposed to the environment and are therefore colonized with diverse but specific types of microbes...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Nina N McNair, Chetna Bedi, Dmitry M Shayakhmetov, Michael J Arrowood, Jan R Mead
Cryptosporidium spp. are opportunistic protozoan parasites that infect epithelial cells in the intestinal tract and cause a flu-like diarrheal illness. Innate immunity is key to limiting the expansion of parasitic stages early in infection. One mechanism in which it does this is through the generation of early cytokines, such as IL-18. The processing and secretion of mature IL-18 (and IL-1β) is mediated by caspase-1 which is activated within an inflammasome following the engagement of inflammasome-initiating sensors...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Siddheshvar Bhela, Barry T Rouse
Ocular infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) can result in a chronic immune inflammatory lesion that is a significant cause of human blindness. A key to controlling stromal keratitis (SK) lesion severity is to identify cellular and molecular events responsible for tissue damage and to counteract them. One potentially useful approach to achieve such therapy is Retinoic Acid (RA). Here we show that RA therapy reduces the severity of SK by having inhibitory effects on the T effector subtypes responsible for orchestrating SK...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Jerry Kwame Ndzinu, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Hideki Saito, Takeshi Yoshida, Shoji Yamaoka
Host factors are required for efficient HIV-1 replication. To identify these factors, genome-wide RNA interference screening was performed using a human T cell line. In the present study, we assessed whether eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A isoform 2 (eIF4A2), a DEAD-box protein identified in our screen, is necessary for efficient HIV-1 replication. Exploiting MT4C5 cells depleted of eIF4A2 by stable expression of eIF4A2-specific short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) using a lentiviral system, we found that depletion of eIF4A2 markedly inhibited the infection of a replication-competent reporter HIV-1...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mads Lausen, Gunna Christiansen, Nichlas Karred, Robert Winther, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk Poulsen, Yaseelan Palarasah, Svend Birkelund
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes severe infections, which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Although both innate and adaptive immune responses are elicited during chlamydial infection the bacterium succeeds to evade host defense mechanisms establishing chronic infections. Thus, studying the host-pathogen interaction during chlamydial infection is of importance to understand how C. trachomatis can cause chronic infections. Both the complement system and monocytes play essential roles in anti-bacterial defense, and, therefore, we investigated the interaction between the complement system and the human pathogens C...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Phu Tran Vinh Pham, Kadir Turan, Kyosuke Nagata, Atsushi Kawaguchi
Adaptive mutations in viral polymerase, which is composed of PB1, PB2, and PA, of avian influenza viruses are major genetic determinants of the host range. In this study, to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mammalian adaptation of avian viral polymerase, we performed cell-based vRNP reconstitution assays and biochemical analyses using purified recombinant viral polymerase complexes. We found that avian viral polymerase from A/duck/Pennsylvania/10,218/84 (DkPen) enhances the viral polymerase activity in mammalian cells by replacing the PA or PB2 gene with that from human influenza virus A/WSN/33 (WSN)...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sophia J Häfner, David M Ojcius
The journal Microbes and Infection is celebrating its vigintennial anniversary and has reunited for this occasion two dozen reviews illustrating achievements of the past as well as future challenges in the field of infectious diseases. From top-notch vaccine development strategies, to high-throughput powered analysis of complex host-pathogen interactions, to innovative therapeutic designs, this issue covers the entire spectrum of pathogens and areas of their confrontation with the host.
May 30, 2018: Microbes and Infection
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