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Microbes and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093320/activation-and-pathogenic-manipulation-of-the-sensors-of-the-innate-immune-system
#1
REVIEW
Charlotte Odendall, Jonathan C Kagan
The innate immune system detects the presence of microbes through different families of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs detect pathogens of all origins and trigger signaling events that activate innate and adaptive immunity. These signaling pathways are initiated by the recruitment of adaptor proteins and enzymes to the site of ligand encounter, in large complexes termed supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs). These events need to be tightly regulated in order to ensure optimal activation when required, and minimal signaling in the absence of microbial encounters...
January 13, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087455/correlation-between-antigenicity-and-variability-in-the-vls-antigenic-variation-system-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#2
Wei Zhou, Dustin Brisson
Many parasites have evolved antigenic variation systems that alter surface proteins in order to evade recognition by presently expressed antibodies and subsequent death. Although the amino acid positions in antigens to which antibodies most commonly target are expected to be the most variable, this assumption has not been investigated. Using the vls antigenic variation system of Borrelia burgdorferi as a model, we first investigated this assumption computationally and then developed a sensitive immunoassay to experimentally validate the computational results...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087454/an-observational-study-of-phagocytes-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-relationships-different-behaviors
#3
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Marion Delouche, Nathalie Quellard, Marie-Helene Rodier
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be in relation with free living amoebae like Acanthamoeba castellanii in natural environments such as soil and water. This pathogen, which is responsible for community-acquired pneumonia and for nosocomial infections, also has interactions with host defense mechanisms like macrophages. As it has been shown that A. castellanii shares some traits with macrophages, in particular the ability to phagocyte bacteria, we have studied the uptake and the fate of the bacteria after contact with the two phagocytic cells...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087453/the-impact-of-isgylation-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-mice
#4
Jacqueline M Kimmey, Jessica A Campbell, Leslie A Weiss, Kristen J Monte, Deborah J Lenschow, Christina L Stallings
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in 1.5 million deaths annually. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling through its receptor IFNAR correlates with increased severity of disease, although how this increases susceptibility to M. tuberculosis remains uncertain. ISG15 is one of the most highly induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) during M. tuberculosis infection. ISG15 functions by conjugation to target proteins (ISGylation), by noncovalent association with intracellular proteins, and by release from the cell...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025070/a-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-encoding-ccr5-tropic-hiv-1-receptors-targets-hiv-1-infected-cells-and-controls-hiv-1-infection
#5
Kazu Okuma, Koji Fukagawa, Takuya Kohma, Youichi Takahama, Yukio Hamaguchi, Mamoru Ito, Yuetsu Tanaka, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Isao Hamaguchi
Anti-retroviral therapy is useful to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, but has some major problems, such as the generation of multidrug-resistant viruses. To develop a novel supplemental or alternative therapeutic for CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 infection, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the gene encoding its envelope glycoprotein (G) was replaced with the genes encoding R5 HIV-1 receptors (human CD4 and CCR5), designated VSVΔG-CC5. Our present data demonstrate that this rVSV specifically infects cells that are transiently expressing R5 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, but does not infect those expressing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins...
December 24, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017850/highway-to-cell
#6
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012900/pathogenic-conversion-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#7
Wenqi Yu, Hwan Keun Kim, Sabine Rauch, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
Humans and animals are colonized by members of the genus Staphylococcus, however only some of these species evolved to cause invasive disease. The genetic basis for conversion of commensal staphylococci into pathogens is not known. We hypothesized that Staphylococcus aureus genes for coagulation and agglutination in vertebrate blood (coa, vwb and clfA) may support pathogenic conversion. Expression of coa and vwb in Staphylococcus epidermidis or Staphylococcus simulans supported a coagulase-positive phenotype but not the ability to cause disease in a mouse model of bloodstream infection...
December 21, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965147/murine-survival-of-infection-with-francisella-novicida-and-protection-against-secondary-challenge-is-critically-dependent-on-b-lymphocytes
#8
Alicia Y Chou, Nikki J Kennett, Amanda A Melillo, Karen L Elkins
Respiratory infection of mice with Francisella novicida has recently been used as a model for the highly virulent human pathogen Francisella tularensis. Similar to F. tularensis, even small doses of F. novicida administered by respiratory routes are lethal for inbred laboratory mice. This feature obviously limits study of infection-induced immunity. Parenteral sublethal infections of mice with F. novicida are feasible, but the resulting immune responses are incompletely characterized. Here we use parenteral intradermal (i...
December 10, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903434/hypoxia-and-hif-1-activation-in-bacterial-infections
#9
Gayatri Devraj, Christiane Beerlage, Bernhard Brüne, Volkhard A J Kempf
For most of the living beings, oxygen is one of the essential elements required to sustain life. Deprivation of oxygen causes tissue hypoxia and this severely affects host cell and organ functions. Tissue hypoxia is a prominent microenvironmental condition occurring in infections and there is a body of evidence that hypoxia and inflammation are interconnected with each other. The primary key factor mediating the mammalian hypoxic response is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, which regulates oxygen homeostasis on cellular, tissue and organism level...
November 27, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884799/the-infectious-hypoxia-occurrence-and-causes-during-shigella-infection
#10
Ellen T Arena, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti, Benoit S Marteyn
Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment.
November 21, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876527/imagine
#11
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871906/adenosine-but-not-guanosine-protects-vaginal-epithelial-cells-from-trichomonas-vaginalis-cytotoxicity
#12
Camila Braz Menezes, Amanda Piccoli Frasson, Lucia Collares Meirelles, Tiana Tasca
Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The cytoadherence and cytotoxicity upon the vaginal epithelial cells are crucial for the infection. Extracellular nucleotides are released during cell damage and, along with their nucleosides, can activate purinoceptors. The opposing effects of nucleotides versus nucleosides are regulated by ectonucleotidases. Herein we evaluated the hemolysis and cytolysis induced by T. vaginalis, as well as the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis along with the effects mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides on cytotoxicity...
November 18, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810563/impact-of-hif-1%C3%AE-and-hypoxia-on-fungal-growth-characteristics-and-fungal-immunity
#13
Dirk Friedrich, Roger A Fecher, Jan Rupp, George S Deepe
Human pathogenic fungi are highly adaptable to a changing environment. The ability to adjust to low oxygen conditions is crucial for colonization and infection of the host. Recently, the impact of mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on fungal immunity has emerged. In this review, the role of hypoxia and HIF-1α in fungal infections is discussed regarding the innate immune response.
October 31, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789256/hypoxic-regulation-of-neutrophil-function-and-consequences-for-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#14
Katharine M Lodge, A A Roger Thompson, Edwin R Chilvers, Alison M Condliffe
Staphylococcal infection and neutrophilic inflammation can act in concert to establish a profoundly hypoxic environment. In this review we summarise how neutrophils and Staphylococcus aureus are adapted to function under hypoxic conditions, with a particular focus on the impaired ability of hypoxic neutrophils to effect Staphylococcus aureus killing.
October 24, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780773/the-bacillary-and-macrophage-response-to-hypoxia-in-tuberculosis-and-the-consequences-for-t-cell-antigen-recognition
#15
Gareth Prosser, Julius Brandenburg, Norbert Reiling, Clifton Earl Barry, Robert J Wilkinson, Katalin A Wilkinson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative anaerobe and its characteristic pathological hallmark, the granuloma, exhibits hypoxia in humans and in most experimental models. Thus the host and bacillary adaptation to hypoxia is of central importance in understanding pathogenesis and thereby to derive new drug treatments and vaccines.
October 22, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671041/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-are-required-for-effective-infection-of-human-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-by-listeria-monocytogenes
#16
Stefanie Dinner, Julian Kaltschmidt, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Svetlana Hetjens, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk
Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium, can cause meningitis after invading the human central nervous system. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), located at the epithelium of the choroid plexus, is a possible entry site for L. monocytogenes into the brain, and in vitro L. monocytogenes invades human choroid plexus epithelial papilloma (HIBCPP) cells. Although host cell signal transduction subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes has been investigated, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is not clarified yet...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664045/shigellosis-murine-model-established-by-intraperitoneal-and-intranasal-route-of-administration-a-comparative-comprehension-overview
#17
Drashya Sharma, Bhrugu Yagnik, Ruma Baksi, Nirav Desai, Harish Padh, Priti Desai
Shigellosis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity, requires development of effective intervention strategy for which animal model mimicking human pathology is essential. Among various animal models for shigellosis, mice being more convenient have been used wherein intraperitoneal and intranasal routes are preferred. With the aim to comprehend the comparative pathophysiological indicators, we have examined relatively high and low dose of Shigella flexneri administered through intraperitoneal and intranasal routes in mice...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652980/a-6-amino-acid-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-in-the-mucin-domain-of-tim-1-confers-protections-against-hiv-1-infection
#18
Mara Biasin, Manuela Sironi, Irma Saulle, Chiara Pontremoli, Micaela Garziano, Rachele Cagliani, Daria Trabattoni, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesca Vichi, Francesco Mazzotta, Diego Forni, Stefania Riva, Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Samandhy Cedeño, Jorge Sanchez, Christian Brander, Wildeman Zapata, Maria Teresa Rugeles, Mario Clerici
We investigated whether a 6-amino acid insertion/deletion polymorphism in the mucin domain of TIM-1 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1), modulates susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The polymorphism was genotyped in three case/control cohorts of HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) and HIV-1 infected subjects from Italy, Peru, and Colombia; data from a Thai population were retrieved from the literature. Across all cohorts, homozygosity for the short TIM-1 allele was more common in HESNs than in HIV-1 infected subjects...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637463/mycobacterium-abscessus-esx-3-plays-an-important-role-in-host-inflammatory-and-pathological-responses-during-infection
#19
Yi Sak Kim, Chul-Su Yang, Loi T Nguyen, Jin Kyung Kim, Hyo Sun Jin, Jin Ho Choe, Soo Yeon Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Mingyu Jung, Jin-Man Kim, Myung Hee Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Ji-Chan Jang
Mycobacterial ESX systems are often related to pathogenesis during infection. However, little is known about the function of ESX systems of Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). This study focuses on the Mab ESX-3 cluster, which contains major genes such as esxH (Rv0288, low molecular weight protein antigen 7; CFP-7) and esxG (Rv0287, ESAT-6 like protein). An esx-3 (MAB 2224c-2234c)-deletional mutant of Mab (Δesx) was constructed and used to infect murine and human macrophages. We then investigated whether Mab Δesx modulated innate host immune responses in macrophages...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613488/the-last-of-the-organs
#20
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
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