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Microbes and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189786/intrauterine-inoculation-of-minipigs-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-during-diestrus-establishes-a-longer-lasting-infection-compared-to-vaginal-inoculation-during-estrus
#1
Emma Lorenzen, Frank Follmann, Jan O Secher, Sandra Goericke-Pesch, Mette S Hansen, Hannah Zakariassen, Anja W Olsen, Peter Andersen, Gregers Jungersen, Jørgen S Agerholm
Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting the upper porcine genital tract by transcervical and transabdominal intrauterine inoculation, compared to previously performed vaginal inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the hormonal cycle, estrus vs...
February 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161601/messages-from-the-first-international-conference-on-clinical-metagenomics-iccmg
#2
Etienne Ruppé, Gilbert Greub, Jacques Schrenzel
Metagenomics is recently entering in the clinical microbiology and an increasing number of diagnostic laboratories are now proposing the sequencing & annotation of bacterial genomes and/or the analysis of clinical samples by direct or PCR-based metagenomics with short time to results. In this context, the first International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg) was held in Geneva in October 2016 and several key aspects have been discussed including: i) the need for improved resolution, ii) the importance of interpretation given the common occurrence of sequence contaminants, iii) the need for improved bioinformatic pipelines, iv) the bottleneck of DNA extraction, v) the importance of gold standards, vi) the need to further reduce time to results, vii) how to improve data sharing, viii) the applications of bacterial genomics and clinical metagenomics in better adapting therapeutics and ix) the impact of metagenomics and new sequencing technologies in discovering new microbes...
February 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153747/regulation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-by-extracytoplasmic-function-ecf-sigma-factors
#3
Emily C Woods, Shonna M McBride
Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are a subfamily of σ(70) sigma factors that activate genes involved in stress-response functions. In many bacteria, ECF sigma factors regulate resistance to antimicrobial compounds. This review will summarize the ECF sigma factors that regulate antimicrobial resistance in model organisms and clinically relevant pathogens.
January 30, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115212/hypoxia-and-host-pathogen-responses
#4
EDITORIAL
Sarah R Walmsley, Jan Rupp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111357/beta-adrenergic-antagonist-propranolol-inhibits-mammalian-cell-lysosome-spreading-and-invasion-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-metacyclic-forms
#5
Silene Macedo, João Paulo Ferreira Rodrigues, Sergio Schenkman, Nobuko Yoshida
The involvement of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) in host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) is not known. We examined whether isoproterenol, an agonist of β-AR, or nonselective β-blocker propranolol affected MT internalization mediated the stage-specific surface molecule gp82. Treatment of HeLa cells with propranolol significantly inhibited MT invasion whereas isoproterenol had no effect. Propranolol, but not isoproterenol, also inhibited the lysosome spreading required for gp82-dependent MT invasion...
January 19, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104465/heroin-use-is-associated-with-lower-levels-of-restriction-factors-and-type-i-interferon-expression-and-facilitates-hiv-1-replication
#6
Jia-Wu Zhu, Feng-Liang Liu, Dan Mu, De-Yao Deng, Yong-Tang Zheng
Heroin use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV-1 infection, as a result of immunosuppression to a certain extent. Host restriction factors are recently identified cellular proteins with potent antiviral activities. Whether heroin use impacts on the in vivo expression of restriction factors that result in facilitating HIV-1 replication is poorly understood. Here we recruited 432 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 164 non-IDUs at high-risk behaviors. Based on serological tests, significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was observed among IDUs compared with non-IDUs...
January 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093320/activation-and-pathogenic-manipulation-of-the-sensors-of-the-innate-immune-system
#7
REVIEW
Charlotte Odendall, Jonathan C Kagan
The innate immune system detects the presence of microbes through different families of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs detect pathogens of all origins and trigger signaling events that activate innate and adaptive immunity. These signaling pathways are initiated by the recruitment of adaptor proteins and enzymes to the site of ligand encounter, in large complexes termed supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs). These events need to be tightly regulated in order to ensure optimal activation when required, and minimal signaling in the absence of microbial encounters...
January 13, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087455/correlation-between-antigenicity-and-variability-in-the-vls-antigenic-variation-system-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#8
Wei Zhou, Dustin Brisson
Many parasites have evolved antigenic variation systems that alter surface proteins in order to evade recognition by presently expressed antibodies and subsequent death. Although the amino acid positions in antigens to which antibodies most commonly target are expected to be the most variable, this assumption has not been investigated. Using the vls antigenic variation system of Borrelia burgdorferi as a model, we first investigated this assumption computationally and then developed a sensitive immunoassay to experimentally validate the computational results...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087454/an-observational-study-of-phagocytes-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-relationships-different-behaviors
#9
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Marion Delouche, Nathalie Quellard, Marie-Helene Rodier
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be in relation with free living amoebae like Acanthamoeba castellanii in natural environments such as soil and water. This pathogen, which is responsible for community-acquired pneumonia and for nosocomial infections, also has interactions with host defense mechanisms like macrophages. As it has been shown that A. castellanii shares some traits with macrophages, in particular the ability to phagocyte bacteria, we have studied the uptake and the fate of the bacteria after contact with the two phagocytic cells...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087453/the-impact-of-isgylation-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-mice
#10
Jacqueline M Kimmey, Jessica A Campbell, Leslie A Weiss, Kristen J Monte, Deborah J Lenschow, Christina L Stallings
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in 1.5 million deaths annually. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling through its receptor IFNAR correlates with increased severity of disease, although how this increases susceptibility to M. tuberculosis remains uncertain. ISG15 is one of the most highly induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) during M. tuberculosis infection. ISG15 functions by conjugation to target proteins (ISGylation), by noncovalent association with intracellular proteins, and by release from the cell...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025070/a-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-encoding-ccr5-tropic-hiv-1-receptors-targets-hiv-1-infected-cells-and-controls-hiv-1-infection
#11
Kazu Okuma, Koji Fukagawa, Takuya Kohma, Youichi Takahama, Yukio Hamaguchi, Mamoru Ito, Yuetsu Tanaka, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Isao Hamaguchi
Anti-retroviral therapy is useful to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, but has some major problems, such as the generation of multidrug-resistant viruses. To develop a novel supplemental or alternative therapeutic for CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 infection, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the gene encoding its envelope glycoprotein (G) was replaced with the genes encoding R5 HIV-1 receptors (human CD4 and CCR5), designated VSVΔG-CC5. Our present data demonstrate that this rVSV specifically infects cells that are transiently expressing R5 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, but does not infect those expressing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins...
December 24, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017850/highway-to-cell
#12
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965147/murine-survival-of-infection-with-francisella-novicida-and-protection-against-secondary-challenge-is-critically-dependent-on-b-lymphocytes
#13
Alicia Y Chou, Nikki J Kennett, Amanda A Melillo, Karen L Elkins
Respiratory infection of mice with Francisella novicida has recently been used as a model for the highly virulent human pathogen Francisella tularensis. Similar to F. tularensis, even small doses of F. novicida administered by respiratory routes are lethal for inbred laboratory mice. This feature obviously limits study of infection-induced immunity. Parenteral sublethal infections of mice with F. novicida are feasible, but the resulting immune responses are incompletely characterized. Here we use parenteral intradermal (i...
December 10, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664046/hypoxia-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Eoin P Cummins, Daniel Crean
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term to describe inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD affects approximately 1 in 200 individuals and exerts a significant health and quality of life burden on patients. Surgical intervention can be curative in ulcerative colitis but there is currently no cure for Crohn's disease. Since this is the case, and the fact that patients are often diagnosed at a young age, IBD exerts a significant financial burden on the health care system, and society as a whole...
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012900/pathogenic-conversion-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#15
Wenqi Yu, Hwan Keun Kim, Sabine Rauch, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
Humans and animals are colonized by members of the genus Staphylococcus, however only some of these species evolved to cause invasive disease. The genetic basis for conversion of commensal staphylococci into pathogens is not known. We hypothesized that Staphylococcus aureus genes for coagulation and agglutination in vertebrate blood (coa, vwb and clfA) may support pathogenic conversion. Expression of coa and vwb in Staphylococcus epidermidis or Staphylococcus simulans supported a coagulase-positive phenotype but not the ability to cause disease in a mouse model of bloodstream infection...
February 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671041/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-are-required-for-effective-infection-of-human-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-by-listeria-monocytogenes
#16
Stefanie Dinner, Julian Kaltschmidt, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Svetlana Hetjens, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk
Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium, can cause meningitis after invading the human central nervous system. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), located at the epithelium of the choroid plexus, is a possible entry site for L. monocytogenes into the brain, and in vitro L. monocytogenes invades human choroid plexus epithelial papilloma (HIBCPP) cells. Although host cell signal transduction subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes has been investigated, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is not clarified yet...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664045/shigellosis-murine-model-established-by-intraperitoneal-and-intranasal-route-of-administration-a-comparative-comprehension-overview
#17
Drashya Sharma, Bhrugu Yagnik, Ruma Baksi, Nirav Desai, Harish Padh, Priti Desai
Shigellosis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity, requires development of effective intervention strategy for which animal model mimicking human pathology is essential. Among various animal models for shigellosis, mice being more convenient have been used wherein intraperitoneal and intranasal routes are preferred. With the aim to comprehend the comparative pathophysiological indicators, we have examined relatively high and low dose of Shigella flexneri administered through intraperitoneal and intranasal routes in mice...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652980/a-6-amino-acid-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-in-the-mucin-domain-of-tim-1-confers-protections-against-hiv-1-infection
#18
Mara Biasin, Manuela Sironi, Irma Saulle, Chiara Pontremoli, Micaela Garziano, Rachele Cagliani, Daria Trabattoni, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesca Vichi, Francesco Mazzotta, Diego Forni, Stefania Riva, Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Samandhy Cedeño, Jorge Sanchez, Christian Brander, Wildeman Zapata, Maria Teresa Rugeles, Mario Clerici
We investigated whether a 6-amino acid insertion/deletion polymorphism in the mucin domain of TIM-1 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1), modulates susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The polymorphism was genotyped in three case/control cohorts of HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) and HIV-1 infected subjects from Italy, Peru, and Colombia; data from a Thai population were retrieved from the literature. Across all cohorts, homozygosity for the short TIM-1 allele was more common in HESNs than in HIV-1 infected subjects...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637463/mycobacterium-abscessus-esx-3-plays-an-important-role-in-host-inflammatory-and-pathological-responses-during-infection
#19
Yi Sak Kim, Chul-Su Yang, Loi T Nguyen, Jin Kyung Kim, Hyo Sun Jin, Jin Ho Choe, Soo Yeon Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Mingyu Jung, Jin-Man Kim, Myung Hee Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Ji-Chan Jang
Mycobacterial ESX systems are often related to pathogenesis during infection. However, little is known about the function of ESX systems of Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). This study focuses on the Mab ESX-3 cluster, which contains major genes such as esxH (Rv0288, low molecular weight protein antigen 7; CFP-7) and esxG (Rv0287, ESAT-6 like protein). An esx-3 (MAB 2224c-2234c)-deletional mutant of Mab (Δesx) was constructed and used to infect murine and human macrophages. We then investigated whether Mab Δesx modulated innate host immune responses in macrophages...
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613488/the-last-of-the-organs
#20
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Microbes and Infection
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