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Microbes and Infection

Dan Li, Pei Li, Nianping Song, Yuting Jiang, Yang Zeng, Guangyu Zhao, Yunzhi Fa, Huahu Ye, Yuchun Lone, Yusen Zhou, Shihui Sun, Lin Zeng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a very contagious virus that is highly fatal in humans and animals. The largest epidemic was in West Africa in 2014, in which over 11,000 people died. However, to date, there are no licensed vaccines against it. Studies show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, play key roles in protecting individuals from EBOV infection. Since HLA-restricted epitope vaccines are likely to be effective and safe immunization strategies for infectious diseases, the present study screened for CTL epitopes in the EBOV-nucleoprotein that are restricted by HLA-A11 (a common allele in Chinese people)...
May 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Wanessa C Lima, Trestan Pillonel, Claire Bertelli, Estelle Ifrid, Gilbert Greub, Pierre Cosson
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an extensively studied human pathogen responsible for a wide variety of infections. Dictyostelium discoideum is a model host organism employed to study many facets of the complex interactions between phagocytic cells and bacteria. Historically, a non-pathogenic strain of K. pneumoniae has been used to feed Dictyostelium amoebae, and more recently to study cellular mechanisms involved in bacterial recognition, ingestion and killing. Here we provide the full genome sequence and functional characterization of this non-pathogenic KpGe strain...
May 10, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mads Lausen, Gunna Christiansen, Nichlas Karred, Robert Winther, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk Poulsen, Yaseelan Palarasah, Svend Birkelund
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes severe infections, which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Although both innate and adaptive immune responses are elicited during chlamydial infection the bacterium succeeds to evade host defense mechanisms establishing chronic infections. Thus, studying the host-pathogen interaction during chlamydial infection is of importance to understand how C. trachomatis can cause chronic infections. Both the complement system and monocytes play essential roles in anti-bacterial defense, and, therefore, we investigated the interaction between the complement system and the human pathogens C...
May 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Phu Tran Vinh Pham, Kadir Turan, Kyosuke Nagata, Atsushi Kawaguchi
Adaptive mutations in viral polymerase, which is composed of PB1, PB2, and PA, of avian influenza viruses are major genetic determinants of the host range. In this study, to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mammalian adaptation of avian viral polymerase, we performed cell-based vRNP reconstitution assays and biochemical analyses using purified recombinant viral polymerase complexes. We found that avian viral polymerase from A/duck/Pennsylvania/10218/84 (DkPen) enhances the viral polymerase activity in mammalian cells by replacing the PA or PB2 gene with that from human influenza virus A/WSN/33 (WSN)...
May 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Julia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Jeffrey Downey, Erwan Pernet, François Coulombe, Maziar Divangahi
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a pulmonary pathogen, responsible for significant yearly morbidity and mortality. Due to the absence of highly effective antiviral therapies and vaccine, as well as the constant threat of an emerging pandemic strain, there is considerable need to better understand the host-pathogen interactions and the factors that dictate a protective versus detrimental immune response to IAV. Even though evidence of IAV-induced cell death in human pulmonary epithelial and immune cells has been observed for almost a century, very little is known about the consequences of cell death on viral pathogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Bogdan Popescu, Leontina Banica, Ionelia Nicolae, Eugen Radu, Iulia Niculescu, Adrian Abagiu, Dan Otelea, Simona Paraschiv
Dual HIV infections are possible and likely in people who inject drugs (PWID). Thirty-eight newly diagnosed patients, 19 PWID and 19 heterosexually HIV infected were analysed. V2-V3 loop of HIV-1 env gene was sequenced on the NGS platform 454 GSJunior (Roche). HIV-1 dual/multiple infections were identified in five PWID. For three of these patients, the reconstructed variants belonged to pure F1 subtype and CRF14_BG strains according to phylogenetic analysis. New recombinant forms between these parental strains were identified in two PWID samples...
April 4, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mariana T Q de Magalhães, Fábio S Mambelli, Bruno P O Santos, Suellen B Morais, Sergio C Oliveira
Proteins containing a Kunitz domain have the typical serine protease inhibition function ranging from sea anemone to man. Protease inhibitors play major roles in infection, inflammation disorders and cancer. This review discusses the role of serine proteases containing a Kunitz domain in immunomodulation induced by helminth parasites. Helminth parasites are associated with protection from inflammatory conditions. Therefore, interest has raised whether worm parasites or their products hold potential as drugs for treatment of immunological disorders...
March 31, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Jônatas Abrahão, Lorena Silva, Danilo Oliveira, Gabriel Almeida
The Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was first isolated during a pneumonia outbreak in Bradford, England, and since its discovery many research groups devoted efforts to understand whether this virus could be associated to human diseases, in particular clinical signs and symptoms of pneumonia. In 2013, we observed cytopathic effect in amoebas (rounding and lysis) inoculated with APMV inoculated PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cell) extracts, and at that point we interpreted those results as mimivirus replication in human PBMCs...
March 28, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Leonardo da Silva Lara, Leonardo Andrade-Lima, Claudia Magalhães Calvet, Juliana Borsoi, Thabata Lopes Alberto Duque, Andrea Henriques-Pons, Mirian Claudia Souza Pereira, Lygia Veiga Pereira
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important global public health problem which, despite partial efficacy of benznidazole (Bz) in acute phase, urgently needs an effective treatment. Cardiotoxicity is a major safety concern for conduction of more accurate preclinical drug screening platforms. Human induced pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) are a reliable model to study genetic and infectious cardiac alterations and may improve drug development. Herein, we introduce hiPSC-CM as a suitable model to study T...
March 22, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective new vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 17, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Yair Motro, João André Carriço, Alexander W Friedrich, John W A Rossen, Jacob Moran-Gilad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Cheryl Yi-Pin Lee, Lisa F P Ng
Despite being discovered approximately 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV) has received little attention, until the occurrence of alarming epidemics in the Pacific Islands and Latin America between 2013 and 2016. These series of outbreaks resulted in crippling neurological complications in adults, and congenital deformities in new-borns. The dire outcomes marked ZIKV as a re-emerging pathogen of public health concern. Over a period of two years, extensive studies have been conducted to understand different aspects of ZIKV from pathogen biology to infection, including the immune response during virus-host interplay in established animal models, as well as potential therapeutics against ZIKV infection...
March 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Maria Laura Costa, Carla C Judice, Fabio Trindade Maranhão Costa
Zika virus (ZIKV) greatly impacted the international scientific and public health communities in the last two years due to its association with microcephaly and other neonatal alterations. This review will discuss lessons learned from viral pathogenesis, epidemiology and clinical findings observed during the ZIKV outbreak occurred between 2014 and 2016 in Brazil.
March 6, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Saskia Lehr, Juliane Vier, Georg Häcker, Susanne Kirschnek
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial agent of sexually transmitted disease world-wide. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily infects epithelial cells of the genital tract but the infection may be associated with ascending infection. Infection-associated inflammation can cause tissue damage resulting in female infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The precise mechanism of inflammatory tissue damage is unclear but earlier studies implicate the chlamydial cryptic plasmid as well as responding neutrophils...
March 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sébastien Boyer, Elodie Calvez, Thais Chouin-Carneiro, Diawo Diallo, Anna-Bella Failloux
The mosquito-borne arbovirus Zika virus (ZIKV, Flavivirus, Flaviviridae), has caused an outbreak impressive by its magnitude and rapid spread. First detected in Uganda in Africa in 1947, from where it spread to Asia in the 1960s, it emerged in 2007 on the Yap Island in Micronesia and hit most islands in the Pacific region in 2013. Subsequently, ZIKV was detected in the Caribbean, and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infections are in general asymptomatic or causing mild self-limiting illness, severe symptoms have been described including neurological disorders and microcephaly in newborns...
March 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sarawut Khongwichit, Nitwara Wikan, Prasert Auewarakul, Duncan R Smith
This review examines the historic reports of the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Thailand, as well as collates such information as exists on the current situation in Thailand with regards to ZIKV. We suggest that considerable caution must be applied in interpreting early serological studies, but that ZIKV is presently circulating over much of Thailand, with increasing numbers of cases being reported.
March 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Etienne Ruppé, Jacques Schrenzel
Clinical metagenomics (CMg) refers to as the application of metagenomic sequencing of clinical samples in order to recover clinically-relevant information. Due to the increasing access to next-generation sequencing (NGS) facilities, CMg is a gast-growing field. In this context, we held the second International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg2) in Geneva in October 2017. During the two days of the conference, several aspects of CMg were addressed, which we propose to summarize in the present manuscript...
April 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner, Erik Fumi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Microbes and Infection
Shijun Li, Ming Wang, David M Ojcius, Bijun Zhou, Weilin Hu, Ying Liu, Qing Ma, Guangpeng Tang, Dingming Wang, Jie Yan
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. Although there is a large diversity of clinical signs and symptoms, a severe inflammatory response is common to all leptospirosis patients. The mechanism of IL-1β secretion during Leptospira infection has been previously studied in mouse macrophages. However, the outcome of Leptospira infection is very different in human and murine macrophages, and the mechanisms responsible for IL-1β secretion in human macrophages had not been investigated...
April 2018: Microbes and Infection
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