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Microbes and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438705/tigr4-strain-causes-more-severe-disease-than-wu2-strain-in-a-mouse-model-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-a-common-pathogenic-role-for-interferon-%C3%AE
#1
Belinda Yau, Lay Khoon Too, Helen J Ball, Nicholas H Hunt
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis causes debilitating neurological symptoms and acute fatalities in patients, and long-term neurological sequelae in some survivors. Current vaccines do not protect against all 94 known S. pneumoniae capsular serotypes, many of which are capable of causing pneumococcal meningitis (PM). We here compare the pathogenic outcomes of two clinically virulent isolates of S. pneumoniae, serotype 3 strain WU2 and serotype 4 strain TIGR4, in a murine model of PM. At an identical infectious dosage of 10(3) CFU administered via the intracerebroventricular route, significantly greater mortality, interleukin (IL)1β and IL6 production, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction occurred in TIGR4-induced PM compared to PM caused by WU2...
April 21, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408270/transcriptional-organization-of-pneumococcal-psrp-secy2a2-and-impact-of-gtfa-and-gtfb-deletion-on-psrp-associated-virulence-properties
#2
Anel Lizcano, Ramya Akula Suresh Babu, Anukul T Shenoy, Alison Maren Saville, Nikhil Kumar, Adonis D'Mello, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Ryan P Gilley, Jesus Segovia, Timothy J Mitchell, Hervé Tettelin, Carlos J Orihuela
Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP) is a glycoprotein that mediates Streptococcus pneumoniae attachment to lung cells and promotes biofilm formation. Herein, we investigated the transcriptional organization of psrP-secY2A2, the 37-kbp pathogenicity island encoding PsrP and its accessory genes. PCR amplification of cDNA and RNA-seq analysis found psrP-secY2A2 to be minimally composed of three operons: psrP-glyA, glyB, and glyC-asp5. Transcription of all three operons was greatest during biofilm growth and immunoblot analyses confirmed increased PsrP production by biofilm pneumococci...
April 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392408/3-amino-1-8-naphthalimide-a-structural-analog-of-the-anti-cholera-drug-virstatin-inhibits-chemically-biased-swimming-and-swarming-motility-in-vibrios
#3
Hongxia Wang, Anisia J Silva, Jorge A Benitez
A screen for inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae motility identified the compound 3-amino 1,8-naphthalimide (3-A18NI), a structural analog of the cholera drug virstatin. Similar to virstatin, 3-A18NI diminished cholera toxin production. In contrast, 3-A18NI impeded swimming and/or swarming motility of V. cholerae and V. parahemolyticus suggesting that it could target the chemotaxis pathway shared by the polar and lateral flagellar system of vibrios. 3-A18NI did not inhibit the expression of V. cholerae major flagellin FlaA or the assembly of its polar flagellum...
April 6, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373107/immuno-informatics-based-approaches-to-identify-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-within-the-leishmania-donovani-3-ectonucleotidase-in-cured-visceral-leishmaniasis-subjects
#4
Vijaya Mahantesh, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Ashish K Singh, T Venkateshwaran, V N R Das, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases for which no vaccine exists. These diseases are caused by the Leishmania species complex. Activation of the CD8(+) T cell is crucial for protection against intracellular pathogens, and peptide antigens are attractive strategies for the precise activation of CD8(+) T in vaccine development against intracellular infections. The traditional approach to mine the epitopes is an arduous task. However, with the advent of immunoinformatics, in silico epitope prediction tools are available to expedite epitope identification...
April 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323068/vitamin-d-receptor-expression-and-hepcidin-levels-in-the-protection-or-severity-of-leprosy-a-systematic-review
#5
Ana Laura Grossi de Oliveira, Ana Thereza Chaves, Cristiane Alves Silva Menezes, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose disequilibrium in the host's genetic, immunological and clinical mechanisms leads to distinct manifestations defining the type of immunological response. This review focuses its attention on the influence of the Vitamin D Receptor and hepcidin expressions that can suggest the protection or severity of leprosy.
March 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279734/protochlamydia-phocaeensis-sp-nov-a-new-chlamydiales-species-with-host-dependent-replication-cycle
#6
Jacques Y Bou Khalil, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
Chlamydiae are pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria, which form an important part of amoeba-associated microorganisms. In this paper, we report the isolation, developmental cycle and genome analysis of Protochlamydia phocaeensis sp. nov., an obligate intracellular parasite with a large host spectrum, able to infect Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. The genome size is 3,424,182 bp with a GC content of 42%. This bacterium displayed a particular developmental cycle depending on the infected host...
March 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259611/il-second-counts
#7
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245983/functional-characterisation-of-the-drosophila-cg6568-gene-in-host-defence-against-mycobacterium-marinum
#8
Hyo Sun Jin, Hye-Mi Lee, Da-Hye Lee, Guang-Ho Cha, Kyoung Sang Cho, Jichan Jang, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Mycobacterium marinum is a pathogenic mycobacterial species closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established a mycobacterial infection model of Drosophila melanogaster to characterize the role played by cg6568, a homolog of the human cathelicidin gene, in the innate defense against infection. Drosophila cg6568 was expressed at various levels during all developmental stages, and the expression levels were modulated by M. marinum in a time-dependent manner. 20-hydroxyecdysone induced Drosophila cg6568 transcription both in vitro and in vivo...
February 27, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189786/intrauterine-inoculation-of-minipigs-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-during-diestrus-establishes-a-longer-lasting-infection-compared-to-vaginal-inoculation-during-estrus
#9
Emma Lorenzen, Frank Follmann, Jan O Secher, Sandra Goericke-Pesch, Mette S Hansen, Hannah Zakariassen, Anja W Olsen, Peter Andersen, Gregers Jungersen, Jørgen S Agerholm
Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting the upper porcine genital tract by transcervical and transabdominal intrauterine inoculation, compared to previously performed vaginal inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the hormonal cycle, estrus vs...
February 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161601/messages-from-the-first-international-conference-on-clinical-metagenomics-iccmg
#10
Etienne Ruppé, Gilbert Greub, Jacques Schrenzel
Metagenomics is recently entering in the clinical microbiology and an increasing number of diagnostic laboratories are now proposing the sequencing & annotation of bacterial genomes and/or the analysis of clinical samples by direct or PCR-based metagenomics with short time to results. In this context, the first International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg) was held in Geneva in October 2016 and several key aspects have been discussed including: i) the need for improved resolution, ii) the importance of interpretation given the common occurrence of sequence contaminants, iii) the need for improved bioinformatic pipelines, iv) the bottleneck of DNA extraction, v) the importance of gold standards, vi) the need to further reduce time to results, vii) how to improve data sharing, viii) the applications of bacterial genomics and clinical metagenomics in better adapting therapeutics and ix) the impact of metagenomics and new sequencing technologies in discovering new microbes...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153747/regulation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-by-extracytoplasmic-function-ecf-sigma-factors
#11
Emily C Woods, Shonna M McBride
Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are a subfamily of σ(70) sigma factors that activate genes involved in stress-response functions. In many bacteria, ECF sigma factors regulate resistance to antimicrobial compounds. This review will summarize the ECF sigma factors that regulate antimicrobial resistance in model organisms and clinically relevant pathogens.
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111357/beta-adrenergic-antagonist-propranolol-inhibits-mammalian-cell-lysosome-spreading-and-invasion-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-metacyclic-forms
#12
Silene Macedo, João Paulo Ferreira Rodrigues, Sergio Schenkman, Nobuko Yoshida
The involvement of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) in host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) is not known. We examined whether isoproterenol, an agonist of β-AR, or nonselective β-blocker propranolol affected MT internalization mediated the stage-specific surface molecule gp82. Treatment of HeLa cells with propranolol significantly inhibited MT invasion whereas isoproterenol had no effect. Propranolol, but not isoproterenol, also inhibited the lysosome spreading required for gp82-dependent MT invasion...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104465/heroin-use-is-associated-with-lower-levels-of-restriction-factors-and-type-i-interferon-expression-and-facilitates-hiv-1-replication
#13
Jia-Wu Zhu, Feng-Liang Liu, Dan Mu, De-Yao Deng, Yong-Tang Zheng
Heroin use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV-1 infection, as a result of immunosuppression to a certain extent. Host restriction factors are recently identified cellular proteins with potent antiviral activities. Whether heroin use impacts on the in vivo expression of restriction factors that result in facilitating HIV-1 replication is poorly understood. Here we recruited 432 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 164 non-IDUs at high-risk behaviors. Based on serological tests, significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was observed among IDUs compared with non-IDUs...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093320/activation-and-pathogenic-manipulation-of-the-sensors-of-the-innate-immune-system
#14
Charlotte Odendall, Jonathan C Kagan
The innate immune system detects the presence of microbes through different families of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs detect pathogens of all origins and trigger signaling events that activate innate and adaptive immunity. These events need to be tightly regulated in order to ensure optimal activation when required, and minimal signaling in the absence of microbial encounters. This regulation is achieved, at least in part, through the precise subcellular positioning of receptors and downstream signaling proteins...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087455/correlation-between-antigenicity-and-variability-in-the-vls-antigenic-variation-system-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#15
Wei Zhou, Dustin Brisson
Many parasites have evolved antigenic variation systems that alter surface proteins in order to evade recognition by presently expressed antibodies and subsequent death. Although the amino acid positions in antigens to which antibodies most commonly target are expected to be the most variable, this assumption has not been investigated. Using the vls antigenic variation system of Borrelia burgdorferi as a model, we first investigated this assumption computationally and then developed a sensitive immunoassay to experimentally validate the computational results...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087454/an-observational-study-of-phagocytes-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-relationships-different-behaviors
#16
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Marion Delouche, Nathalie Quellard, Marie-Helene Rodier
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be in relation with free living amoebae like Acanthamoeba castellanii in natural environments such as soil and water. This pathogen, which is responsible for community-acquired pneumonia and for nosocomial infections, also has interactions with host defense mechanisms like macrophages. As it has been shown that A. castellanii shares some traits with macrophages, in particular the ability to phagocyte bacteria, we have studied the uptake and the fate of the bacteria after contact with the two phagocytic cells...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087453/the-impact-of-isgylation-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-mice
#17
Jacqueline M Kimmey, Jessica A Campbell, Leslie A Weiss, Kristen J Monte, Deborah J Lenschow, Christina L Stallings
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in 1.5 million deaths annually. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling through its receptor IFNAR correlates with increased severity of disease, although how this increases susceptibility to M. tuberculosis remains uncertain. ISG15 is one of the most highly induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) during M. tuberculosis infection. ISG15 functions by conjugation to target proteins (ISGylation), by noncovalent association with intracellular proteins, and by release from the cell...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025070/a-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-encoding-ccr5-tropic-hiv-1-receptors-targets-hiv-1-infected-cells-and-controls-hiv-1-infection
#18
Kazu Okuma, Koji Fukagawa, Takuya Kohma, Youichi Takahama, Yukio Hamaguchi, Mamoru Ito, Yuetsu Tanaka, Linda Buonocore, John K Rose, Isao Hamaguchi
Anti-retroviral therapy is useful to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, but has some major problems, such as the generation of multidrug-resistant viruses. To develop a novel supplemental or alternative therapeutic for CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 infection, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the gene encoding its envelope glycoprotein (G) was replaced with the genes encoding R5 HIV-1 receptors (human CD4 and CCR5), designated VSVΔG-CC5. Our present data demonstrate that this rVSV specifically infects cells that are transiently expressing R5 HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, but does not infect those expressing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115212/hypoxia-and-host-pathogen-responses
#19
EDITORIAL
Sarah R Walmsley, Jan Rupp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903434/hypoxia-and-hif-1-activation-in-bacterial-infections
#20
Gayatri Devraj, Christiane Beerlage, Bernhard Brüne, Volkhard A J Kempf
For most of the living beings, oxygen is one of the essential elements required to sustain life. Deprivation of oxygen causes tissue hypoxia and this severely affects host cell and organ functions. Tissue hypoxia is a prominent microenvironmental condition occurring in infections and there is a body of evidence that hypoxia and inflammation are interconnected with each other. The primary key factor mediating the mammalian hypoxic response is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, which regulates oxygen homeostasis on cellular, tissue and organism level...
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
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