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Microbes and Infection

Zhiyuan An, Jianrong Su
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a Gram-negative bacterium, which acts as an opportunistic pathogen and causes hospital-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia by infecting the alveoli of epithelial cells and macrophages. Evidence reveals that A. baumannii outer membrane protein 34 (Omp34) elicits cellular immune responses and inflammation. The innate immunity NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome exerts critical function against pneumonia caused by A. baumannii infection, however, the role of Omp34 in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its corresponding regulatory mechanism are not clearly elucidated...
November 12, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Bruno Périchon, Julie Guignot, Noémi Szili, Cherry Gao, Claire Poyart, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Shaynoor Dramsi
The core PI-2b pilus present in "hypervirulent" ST-17 S. agalactiae strains consists of three pilin subunits (Spb1, Ap1 and Ap2) assembled by sortase SrtC1 and cell-wall anchored by Srt2. Spb1 was shown to be the major pilin and Ap2 the anchor pilin. Ap1 is a putative adhesin. Two additional genes, orf and lep, are part of this operon. The contribution of Lep and Ap1 to the biogenesis of the PI-2b pilus was investigated. Concerning the role of PI-2b, we found that higher PI-2b expression resulted in higher adherence to human brain endothelial cells and higher phagocytosis by human THP1 macrophages...
November 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mayume Shibuya, Giovana Bergheme, Sara Passos, Ivonete Queiroz, Jamile Rêgo, Lucas P Carvalho, Paulo R L Machado
Understanding host immune pathways associated with tissue damage during reactions are of upmost importance to the development of immune intervention strategies. The participation of monocytes in leprosy reactions was evaluated by determining the frequency of monocyte subsets and the degree of cellular activation through the expression of MHCII and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, CD86. Leprosy subjects with or without reactions were included in this cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell were isolated and stained ex vivo to determine monocyte subsets and the degree of cellular activation by flow cytometry...
October 30, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Naofumi Takahashi, Saori Matsuoka, Tam Tran Thi Minh, Hien Pham Ba, Taeko K Naruse, Akinori Kimura, Teiichiro Shiino, Ai Kawana-Tachikawa, Koichi Ishikawa, Tetsuro Matano, Lan Anh Nguyen Thi
Numbers of HLA-associated polymorphisms have been reported on HIV-1 subtypes B and C, but few on other subtypes. Here, we analyzed HLA-associated gag and nef polymorphisms in HIV-1 subtype A/E prevalent in Vietnam. We determined HLA-A, B and C genotypes in 179 HIV-1-infected Vietnamese by next generation sequencing and analyzed proviral genome sequences in 144 of them, showing that 142 of the 144 were subtype A/E. Analysis revealed HLA-associated subtype A/E gag and nef polymorphisms at nineteen residues including those newly determined...
October 29, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Roberta De Grandi, Pasquale Capaccio, Alessandro Bidossi, Marta Bottagisio, Lorenzo Drago, Sara Torretta, Lorenzo Pignataro, Elena De Vecchi
Sialolithiasis represents the most common disorders of salivary glands in middle-aged patients. It has been hypothesized that the retrograde migration of bacteria from the oral cavity to gland ducts may facilitate the formation of stones. Thus, in the present study, a microbiome characterization of salivary calculi was performed to evaluate the abundance and the potential correlations between microorganisms constituting the salivary calculi microbiota. Our data supported the presence of a core microbiota of sialoliths constituted principally by Streptococcus spp...
October 29, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Carole Kebbi-Beghdadi, Gilbert Greub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Sayuri Sakuragi, Tatsuo Shioda, Jun-Ichi Sakuragi
About the relationship between retroviral genome packaging and translation, three possible modes (random-, trans-, and cis-) of packaging process could be assumed. In this report, we developed an assay system based on the RT-qPCR to measure the packaging efficiency of primate lentiviruses. With this system, we analyzed the genome packaging modes of primate lentiviruses such as HIV-1, 2, SIVmac and SIVagm. The data suggested that the modes of all viruses analyzed were very similar. In addition, we observed that the Gag-AUG sequences of them played important roles for maintaining efficient packaging, other than the initiation of translation...
October 4, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mark T Zafiratos, Jonathan T Cottrell, Srikanth Manam, Kyle K Henderson, Kyle H Ramsey, Ashlesh K Murthy
The host immune responses that mediate Chlamydia-induced chronic disease sequelae are incompletely understood. The role of TNF-α, TNF receptor 1(TNFR1), and TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2), in Chlamydia pneumoniae (CPN)-induced atherosclerosis was studied using the high-fat diet-fed male C57BL/6J mouse model. Following intranasal CPN infection, TNF-α knockout (KO), TNFR1 KO, TNFR2 KO, and TNFR 1/2 double-knockout, displayed comparable serum anti-chlamydial antibody response, splenic antigen-specific cytokine response, and serum cholesterol profiles compared to wild type (WT) animals...
October 4, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Miriam Maria Silva Costa Franco, Fernanda Martins Marim, Juliana Alves-Silva, Daiane Cerqueira, M Rungue, Isabela P Tavares, Sergio C Oliveira
Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a sensor of cytosolic dsDNA and is responsible for the activation of inflammatory and host immune responses to DNA viruses and intracellular bacteria. AIM2 is a member of the hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear proteins with a 200 amino-acid repeat (HIN200) family, containing a pyrin domain (PYD) at the N-terminus. Several studies have demonstrated that AIM2 is responsible for host defense against intracellular bacteria such as Francisella tularensis, Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacerium tuberculosis...
September 22, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mikashmi Kohli, Paulami Sen, Madhukar Pai
Recently, WHO published the first ever Essential Diagnostics List (EDL), which includes 113 tests, including tests for HIV, TB, malaria, hepatitis B and C, human papillomavirus (HPV) and syphilis. The EDL is a welcome first step in ensuring that diagnostics are a key part of all health systems. The impact of the list, however, will depend greatly on how countries adopt and implement the EDL.
September 11, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Gilbert Greub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Mostafa Rahnama, Kenneth A Fields
The intonation "The king is dead, long live the king" aptly describes the state of Chlamydia research. Genetic-based approaches are rapidly replacing correlative strategies to provide new insights. We describe how current transformation technologies are enhancing progress in understanding Chlamydia infection biology and present key opportunities for further development.
August 2018: Microbes and Infection
Kezia Lizardo, Janeesh Plakkal Ayyappan, Min-Hui Cui, Rashmi Balasubramanya, Linda A Jelicks, Jyothi F Nagajyothi
Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent in Chagas disease, may result in heart disease. Over the last decades, Chagas disease endemic areas in Latin America have seen a dietary transition from the traditional regional diet to a Western style, fat rich diet. Previously, we demonstrated that during acute infection high fat diet (HFD) protects mice from the consequences of infection-induced myocardial damage through effects on adipogenesis in adipose tissue and reduced cardiac lipidopathy. However, the effect of HFD on the subsequent stages of infection - the indeterminate and chronic stages - has not been investigated...
July 31, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Yasushi Shibue, Soichiro Kimura, Chiaki Kajiwara, Yoichiro Iwakura, Keizo Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro Tateda
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a key member of the Th17 cytokines and has been reported to be involved in the pathomechanisms underlying various diseases, including infectious diseases. Infections with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have garnered worldwide attention, and the representative USA300 strain is known to cause pneumonia in healthy people, which can be lethal. However, little is known about the role of IL-17 in CA-MRSA pneumonia. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-17 in a CA-MRSA pneumonia animal model...
July 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Seungwha Paik, Seunga Choi, Kang-In Lee, Yong Woo Back, Yeo-Jin Son, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Hwa-Jung Kim
Mycobacterial acyl carrier protein (AcpM; Rv2244) is a meromycolate extension acyl carrier protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which participates in multistep mycolic acid biosynthesis. However, the function of AcpM in host-mycobacterium interactions during infection remains largely uncharacterized. Here we show that AcpM inhibits host cell apoptosis during mycobacterial infection. To examine the function of AcpM during infection, we generated a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) strain overexpressing AcpM (Ms_AcpM) and a strain transformed with an empty vector (Ms_Vec)...
July 5, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Jason A Tetro
Not all infectious disease outbreaks undergo full epidemiological investigations. In certain situations, the resultant lack of knowledge has led to the development of epidemics and public health emergencies. This review will examine six emerging pathogens including their history, present status, and potential to expand to epidemics. Recommendations to improve our understanding of these hidden outbreaks and others also will be provided in the context of health systems policy.
June 27, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Shuping Hou, Xin Sun, Xiaohua Dong, Hui Lin, Lingli Tang, Min Xue, Guangming Zhong
We have previously reported that Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid-encoded Pgp3 is able to neutralize anti-chlamydial activity of human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 by binding to and forming stable complex with LL-37. Besides its microbicidal activity, LL-37 also modulates immune response, including inducing cytokine/chemokine production in fibroblast/epithelial cells and recruitment of inflammatory cells. We now report that LL-37 was significantly induced in the genital tracts of women diagnosed positive for C. trachomatis...
June 26, 2018: Microbes and Infection
R Sahaya Glingston, Rachayeeta Deb, Sachin Kumar, Shirisha Nagotu
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites of the host cells. A commonly accepted view is the requirement of internal membranous structures for various aspects of viral life cycle. Organelles enable favourable intracellular environment for several viruses. However, studies reporting organelle dynamics upon viral infections are scant. In this review, we aim to summarize and highlight modulations caused to various organelles upon viral infection or expression of its proteins.
June 25, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Alice R Cross, Victoria M Baldwin, Sumita Roy, Angela E Essex-Lopresti, Joann L Prior, Nicholas J Harmer
One Health is an effective approach for the management of zoonotic disease in humans, animals and environments. Examples of the management of bacterial zoonoses in Europe and across the globe demonstrate that One Health approaches of international surveillance, information-sharing and appropriate intervention methods are required to successfully prevent and control disease outbreaks in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Additionally, a One Health approach enables effective preparation and response to bioterrorism threats...
June 18, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Tamirys Simão Pimenta, Natalie Ferreira Chaves, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz, Renato Augusto DaMatta, José Antônio Picanço Diniz Junior
In vitro studies have demonstrated that GM-CSF in combination with other stimulatory factors induces a microbicidal response that control T. gondii infection. We assessed whether GM-CSF alone can control T. gondii replication in murine microglial cultures. Microglia were collected and cultured with or without GM-CSF and the half of each group was infected with T. gondii. We determined the T. gondii infectivity, cytokines levels, NO and superoxide detection. GM-CSF alone primes microglia, which after infection induces the production of TNF-α and IL-6, leading to NO and superoxide production, without any stimulus from IL-12p70 and IFN-γ...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
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