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Microbes and Infection

Shabina Parveen, Atish Roy Chowdhury, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Suchandra Bhattacharyya Majumdar, Bhaskar Saha, Subrata Majumdar
DUSP4, an inducible protein has a substrate specificity toward ERK1/2, a component of MAP kinase which is enhanced during Leishmania infection. The DUSP4(-/-) mice show increased susceptibility towards the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania mexicana. These observations emphatically established the fact that unlike DUSP1, DUSP4 has host protective role. In our study, it has been Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) significantly reduced the expression of DUSP4 during infection...
November 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Chantal Villeneuve, Henry H Kou, Henrik Eckermann, Antara Palkar, Lauren G Anderson, Erin A McKenney, R Randal Bollinger, William Parker
For thousands of years, changes in human cultures have altered the biota associated with the human body, and those alterations have strongly influenced human health. The hygiene hypothesis has evolved over the past 30 years into a nuanced biota alteration theory, but modern medical priorities and regulatory policies have resulted in tragic underutilization of the acquired knowledge.
November 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Wenqian Yang, Zhiwu Sun, Chen Hua, Qian Wang, Wei Xu, Qiwen Deng, Yanbin Pan, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
Although combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is highly effective in suppressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, it fails to eradicate the virus from HIV-1-infected individuals because HIV-1 integrates into the resting CD4(+) T cells, establishing latently infected reservoirs. Histone deacetylation is a key element in regulating HIV-1 latent infection. Chidamide, a new anticancer drug, is a novel type of selective histone deacetylase inhibitor. Here we showed that chidamide effectively reactivated HIV-1 latent provirus in different latently infected cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
November 8, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Peter J Hotez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Janeesh Plakkal Ayyappan, Christopher Vinnard, Selvakumar Subbian, Jyothi F Nagajyothi
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major threat to human health worldwide despite of the availability of standardized antibiotic therapy. One of the characteristic of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis is its ability to persist in the host in a dormant state and develop latent infection without clinical signs of active disease. However, the mechanisms involved in bacterial persistence and the establishment of latency is not well understood. Adipose tissue is emerging as an important niche that favors actively replicating as well as dormant Mtb during acute and latent infection...
November 8, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Majid S Jabir, Ghassan M Sulaiman, Zainab J Taqi, Dong Li
Autophagy is a cellular process for maintaining cellular homeostasis. This process can be induced by different factors, such as immune stimuli and pathogen-associated molecules. Autophagy has an important role in the control of IL-1β secretion by macrophages and other cell types. In present study, we describe a novel role for Iraqi propolis affecting autophagy in controlling the secretion of IL-1β in bone-marrow macrophages (BMDMs). After infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of propolis, the degradation of IL-1β was induced, and the activity of inflammasome was reduced...
November 8, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rubel Hoq, Naoshin Sharmin Nishat, Deena Al Mahbuba, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Kamrul Islam, Lazina Hossain, Jason B Harris, Edward T Ryan, Stephen B Calderwood, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, Firdausi Qadri
Antibody secreting cells (ASCs) generate antibodies in an antigen-specific manner as part of the adaptive immune response to infections, and these cells increase their surface expression of HLA-DR. We have studied this parameter (HLA-DR+ ASC) in patients with recent diarrheal infection using immuno-magnetic cell sorting and an enzyme linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique that requires only one milliliter of blood. We validated this approach in adult patients with cholera (n = 15) or ETEC diarrhea (n = 30) on days 2, 7 and 30 after showing clinical symptom at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) hospital in Dhaka, and we compared responses to age-matched healthy controls (n = 7)...
November 8, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Georg Häcker
Apoptosis is one of the principal responses that human cells have at their disposal when faced with changes in their environment. Microbial infection is a massive challenge to a cell, and it is unsurprising that the apoptosis apparatus has been implicated in numerous infections. However, looking at the available data, the impression is one of bewildering complexity. Microbial proteins and other molecules that are often poorly understood interact, with uncertain specificity, with host cell components of varying function, triggering signalling pathways that are ambiguously linked to the apoptotic machinery...
November 4, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Bjoern Meyer, Allison Groseth
In recent years there has been a greatly increased interest in the interactions of arenaviruses with the apoptotic machinery, and particularly the extent to which these interactions may be an important contributor to pathogenesis. Here we summarize the current state of our knowledge on this subject and address the potential for interplay with other immunological mechanisms known to be regulated by these viruses. We also compare and contrast what is known for arenavirus-induced apoptosis with observations from other segmented hemorrhagic fever viruses...
October 28, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Juliane Fornefett, Jaqueline Krause, Kristin Klose, Felix Fingas, Rayk Hassert, Tobias Eisenberg, Wieland Schrödl, Thomas Grunwald, Uwe Müller, Christoph G Baums
Streptobacillus (S.) moniliformis is a rat-associated zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes disease in other species. We investigated the working hypothesis that intranasal infection might lead to different immune responses in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice associated with distinct pathologies. This study confirmed with 75% mortality the known high susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to Streptobacillus moniliformis infection in comparison to BALB/c mice which did not develop signs of disease. Main pathologies in C57BL/6 mice were purulent to necrotizing lymphadenitis and pneumonia...
October 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Shu-Chen Hung, Pei-Rong Huang, Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Kalina R Atanasova, Ozlem Yilmaz, David M Ojcius
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) play a large role in regulation of host innate immunity, yet their role in periodontitis remains to be defined. NLRX1, a member of the NLR family that localizes to mitochondria, enhances mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation. mROS can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, yet the role of NLRX1 in NLRP3 inflammasome activation has not been examined. In this study, we revealed the mechanism by which NLRX1 positively regulates ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation through mROS in gingival epithelial cells (GECs)...
October 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Shibo Jiang, David M Ojcius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Huizhou Fan, Guangming Zhong
The First Chinese Chlamydia Research Meeting was held in Lanzhou, China in May 2017, 60 years after the disclosure of reproducible isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis by (Fei-fan Tang). We report current state of the Chlamydia research community in China, and briefly review recent progress in Chlamydia vaccinology. The meeting represents a new milestone for Chlamydia research in the country. The Chinese Chlamydia Research Society (CCRS) was formed during the meeting. Future meetings will be held biennially and should facilitate collaboration of Chinese researchers with their domestic and international colleagues...
October 6, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Partha Das, Dibyendu Paik, Ksudiram Naskar, Tapati Chakraborti
This study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of L. donovani intracellular serine protease (SP-Ld) in combination with Freund's adjuvant and liposomal formulations against experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The animals were immunized with SP-Ld in combination with adjuvant and evaluated for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against Leishmania donovani. The infection was initially assessed by microscopic examination. Immunogenicity of SP-Ld was measured by detecting protease specific-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a levels by ELISA...
September 29, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Keiji Okinaka, Yukihiro Akeda, Saiko Kurosawa, Shigeo Fuji, Kinuko Tajima, Kazunori Oishi, Takahiro Fukuda
Few studies have evaluated the response of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [allo-HSCT] recipients to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-23 [PPSV23] in the modern transplant era when more elderly patients undergo allo-HSCT. We administered a single dose of PPSV23 to 30 allo-HSCT recipients and evaluated serotype-specific antibody responses using IgG measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and opsonophagocytic assay [OPA] titers in a multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay. The median patient age was 54 years [range, 23-68], and the interval from allo-HSCT to vaccination was 756 days [range, 389-1903]...
September 29, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Soraia Machado Cordeiro, Cristiane Wanderley Cardoso, Lorena Galvão de Araújo, Luis Eduardo Ribeiro, Jailton Azevedo, Rita de Cassia Vilasboas Silva, Mitermayer Galvão Dos Reis, Albert Icksang Ko, Joice Neves Reis
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a major public health problem worldwide. An epidemic of serogroup C (NmC) IMD occurred in 2010 in the city of Salvador. In this study, we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of meningococcal isolates collected from meningitis cases in Salvador from 2001 to 2012. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed for the analysis of IMD isolates. A total of 733 cases were identified, and the serogroup was determined for 391 (53...
September 27, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Zhiyuan Qu, Shujie Ma, Huihui Kong, Guohua Deng, Jianzhong Shi, Liling Liu, Yasuo Suzuki, Hualan Chen
Binding exclusively to human-type receptors is a prerequisite for avian influenza viruses to transmit from human to human. We previously reported that 34% of H6 avian influenza viruses recognize the human-type receptor, but their affinity for the avian-type receptor remains higher than that for the human-type receptor. Here, we found that a single amino acid change from glutamine to leucine at position 226 of hemagglutinin caused a switch in receptor-binding preference from avian-type to human-type receptors and rendered A/chicken/Guangdong/S1312/2010(H6N2) capable of respiratory droplet transmission in guinea pigs...
September 23, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Grasielle Pereira Jannuzzi, Nicole de Araújo Souza, Kátia Sanches Françoso, Roney Henrique Pereira, Raquel Possemozer Santos, Gilberto Hideo Kaihami, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Wagner Luiz Batista, André Corrêa Amaral, Andrea Queiroz Maranhão, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Karen Spadari Ferreira
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis with lymphatic dissemination that is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Treatment of PCM consists of chemotherapeutics such as itraconazole, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole or amphotericin B. However, several studies are aiming to develop therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of fungal infection using new molecules as adjuvants. The single-chain variable fragments (scFv) from an antibody that mimics the main fungal component incorporated within poly(lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles helped treat the fungal disease...
September 23, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Mie Kurosawa, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Toshihito Isono, Yuki Nakamura, Issei Saitoh, Haruaki Hayasaki, Masaya Yamaguchi, Shigetada Kawabata, Yutaka Terao
Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacterium that causes systemic diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome, via oral- or nasal-cavity infection. S. pyogenes produces various molecules known to function with serum components that lead to bacterial adhesion and invasion in human tissues. In this study, we identified a novel S. pyogenes adhesin/invasin. Our results revealed that CAMP factor promoted streptococcal adhesion and invasion in pharyngeal epithelial Detroit562 cells without serum. Recombinant CAMP factor initially localized on the membranes of cells and then became internalized in the cytosol following S...
September 23, 2017: Microbes and Infection
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