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Microbes and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918004/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-influenza-virus-infection
#1
Miaomiao Liu, Fangzhao Chen, Teng Liu, Feimin Chen, Shuwen Liu, Jie Yang
Virus-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in the regulation of the host immune system. In this review, we provide backgrounds of the pathogenic mechanism of oxidative stress induced by influenza virus and the specific oxidant-sensitive pathways, and highlight that antioxidant is one of the effective strategies against influenza virus infection.
September 13, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903072/the-role-of-nuclear-ns1-protein-in-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#2
Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Honglian Liu, Pin Chen, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Xiaofeng Huang, Yen-Chin Liu, Pui Wang, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
The non-structural protein (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) performs multiple functions during viral infection. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLS): NLS1 and NLS2. The NS1 protein is located predominantly in the nucleus during the early stages of infection and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm. A nonsense mutation that results in a large deletion in the carboxy-terminal region of the NS1 protein that contains the NLS2 domain was found in some IAV subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 viruses...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903071/highly-conserved-m2e-and-hemagglutinin-epitope-based-recombinant-proteins-induce-protection-against-influenza-virus-infection
#3
Yan Guo, Lei He, Nianping Song, Pei Li, Shihui Sun, Guangyu Zhao, Wanbo Tai, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Highly pathogenic influenza viruses continue to cause serious threat to public health due to their pandemic potential, calling for an urgent need to develop effective, safe, convenient, and universal vaccines against influenza virus infection. In this study, we constructed two recombinant protein vaccines, 2H5M2e-2H7M2e-H5FP-H7FP (hereinafter M2e-FP-1) and 2H5M2e-H5FP-2H7M2e-H7FP (hereinafter M2e-FP-2), by respectively linking highly conserved sequences of two molecules of ectodomain of M2 (M2e) and one molecule of fusion peptide (FP) epitope of hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses in different orders...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899815/blockage-of-regulatory-t-cells-augments-induction-of-protective-immune-responses-by-influenza-virus-like-particles-in-aged-mice
#4
Zhiyuan Wen, Xi Wang, Ke Dong, Huizhong Zhang, Zhigao Bu, Ling Ye, Chinglai Yang
Elderly humans over 65 years old are at great risk to pathogenesis by influenza virus infection. However, although influenza vaccines provide effective protection in healthy young adults, protection of elderly adults is substantially lower even with a good match between the vaccine and the circulating influenza virus. To gain insight of the underlying mechanism for the reduced immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the aged population, we investigated immunogenicity of influenza virus-like particle vaccines in aged mice, which represent a useful model for studying aging associated impairment in immune responses...
September 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899814/single-immunization-with-mf59-adjuvanted-inactivated-whole-virion-h7n9-influenza-vaccine-provides-early-protection-against-h7n9-virus-challenge-in-mice
#5
Haiyan Chang, Jie Duan, Peng Zhou, Ling Su, Dan Zheng, Fenghua Zhang, Fang Fang, Xiaoman Li, Ze Chen
H7N9 influenza infection in humans would result in severe respiratory illness. Vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza virus. In this paper, we investigated the effect of early protection provided by inactivated whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine in a mouse model. Mice were immunized intramuscularly once with different doses of inactivated whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine alone or in combination with MF59 adjuvant. Specific IgM and IgG antibody titers in sera of mice were detected by ELISA 3, 5 and 7days after immunization...
September 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889971/host-and-pathogen-interface-micrornas-are-modulators-of-disease-outcome
#6
Michael R Eledge, Laxmi Yeruva
Chlamydiae are a group of intracellular bacterium that infect a range of hosts and are responsible for the most common sexual transmitted infections, which could be the result of a plethora of factors leading to varied pathological outcomes. This review aims to show that Chlamydia possibly manipulates host defenses through microRNAs interaction.
September 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889970/genomic-signature-analysis-of-the-recently-emerged-highly-pathogenic-a-h5n8-avian-influenza-virus-implying-an-evolutionary-trend-for-bird-to-human-transmission
#7
Wei Xu, Yanyan Dai, Chen Hua, Qian Wang, Peng Zou, Qiwen Deng, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
In early 2014, a novel subclade (2.3.4.4) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused the first outbreak in domestic ducks and migratory birds in South Korea. Since then, it has spread to 44 countries and regions. To date, no human infections with A(H5N8) virus have been reported, but the possibility cannot be excluded. By analyzing the genomic signatures of A(H5N8) strains, we found that among the 47 species-associated signature positions, three positions exhibited human-like signatures (HLS), including PA-404S, PB2-613I and PB2-702R and that mutation trend of host signatures of avian A(H5N8) is different before and after 2014...
September 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889969/andrographolide-inhibits-influenza-a-virus-induced-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-signaling-pathway
#8
Yi Ding, Lizhu Chen, Wenjiao Wu, Jie Yang, Zifeng Yang, Shuwen Liu
Influenza viruses, the main cause of respiratory tract diseases, cause high morbidity and mortality in humans. Excessive inflammation in the lungs is proposed to be a hallmark for the severe influenza virus infection, especially influenza A virus infection. Strategies against inflammation induced by influenza A virus infection could be a potential anti-influenza therapy. Here, lethal dose of mouse-adapted H1N1 strain PR8A/PR/8/34 was inoculated C57BL/6 mice to detect the anti-influenza activity of andrographolide, the active component of traditional Chinese medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata, with or without influenza virus entry inhibitor CL-385319...
September 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864426/il-6-mediated-signaling-pathways-limit-chlamydia-muridarum-infection-and-exacerbate-its-pathogenicity-in-the-mouse-genital-tract
#9
Xin Sun, Qi Tian, Luying Wang, Min Xue, Guangming Zhong
Chlamydia muridarum induction of mouse hydrosalpinx, depending on both tubal infection and inflammation, has been used for investigating Chlamydia trachomatis pathogenesis. We now report that IL-6 both inhibits C. muridarum infection and exacerbates pathogenicity in the mouse genital tract. When intravaginally inoculated with a high dose of C. muridarum, IL-6-deficient mice developed more extensive genital tract infection with severe hydrosalpinx, suggesting that IL-6 is required for controlling the high dose infection but not essential for C...
August 31, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859896/hiv-1-mutates-to-adapt-in-fluxing-environments
#10
Masako Nomaguchi, Naoya Doi, Takaaki Koma, Akio Adachi
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is specifically adapted for replication, persistence, transmission, and survival in humans. HIV-1 is highly mutable in nature, and well responds to a variety of environmental pressures by altering its genome sequences. In this review, we have described experimental evidence that demonstrates this phantasmagoric property of HIV-1.
August 28, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859895/construction-and-comparison-of-different-source-neuraminidase-candidate-vaccine-strains-for-human-infection-with-eurasian-avian-like-influenza-h1n1-virus
#11
Liqi Liu, Jian Lu, Jianfang Zhou, Zi Li, Heng Zhang, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
Human infections with Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses have been reported in China in past years. One case resulted in death and others were mild case. In 2016, the World Health Organization recommended the use of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus to construct the first candidate vaccine strain for Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses. Previous reports showed that the neuraminidase of A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) might improve the viral yield of reassortant viruses. Therefore, we constructed two reassortant candidate vaccine viruses of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) by reverse genetic technology, with (6+2) and (7+1) gene constitution, respectively...
August 28, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802586/nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-nthi-directly-interfere-with-the-regulation-of-e-cadherin-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#12
Inga Kaufhold, Sünja Osbahr, Kensuke Shima, Sebastian Marwitz, Kristina Rohmann, Daniel Drömann, Torsten Goldmann, Klaus Dalhoff, Jan Rupp
Loss of epithelial barriers characterized by reduction of E-cadherin is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the effects of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections, associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, on the regulation of E-cadherin in host cells. NTHi infection decreased E-cadherin mRNA and protein-levels in lung epithelial cells. E-cadherin reduction was mediated by activation of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Slug...
August 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802585/genomics-of-the-new-species-kingella-negevensis-diagnostic-issues-identification-of-a-locus-encoding-a-rtx-toxin
#13
Onya Opota, Sacha Laurent, Trestan Pillonel, Marie Léger, Sabrina Trachsel, Guy Prod'hom, Katia Jaton, Gilbert Greub
Kingella kingae, producing the cytotoxic RTX protein, is a causative agent of serious infections in humans such as bacteremia, endocarditis and osteoarticular infection, especially in young children. Recently, Kingella negevensis, a related species, has been isolated from the oral cavity of healthy children. In this study, we report the isolation of K. negevensis strain eburonensis, initially misidentified as K. kingae with MALDI-TOF MS, from a vaginal specimen of a patient suffering of vaginosis. The genome sequencing and analysis of this strain together with comparative genomics of the Kingella genus revealed that K...
August 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754345/ross-river-virus-disease-clinical-presentation-pathogenesis-and-current-therapeutic-strategies
#14
Xiang Liu, Kothila Tharmarajah, Adam Taylor
Ross River virus (RRV) is an arthitogenic alphavirus capable of causing outbreaks of debilitating musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans. RRV is the most common mosquito-borne disease in Australia, with outbreaks of RRV generally occurring during seasonal wet and warm conditions. Patients with Ross River virus disease (RRVD) typically present with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia and a maculopapular erythematous rash. Treatment of the disease is usually palliative with no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available...
July 25, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690082/regulation-and-functions-of-inflammasome-mediated-cytokines-in-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#15
REVIEW
Le Son Tran, Michelle Chonwerawong, Richard L Ferrero
Persistent stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori causes chronic mucosal inflammation (gastritis), which is widely recognized as an essential precursor to gastric cancer. The IL-1interleukin family cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 have emerged as central mediators of mucosal inflammation. Here, we review the regulation and functions of these cytokines in H. pylori-induced inflammation and carcinogenesis.
July 6, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689010/the-walking-bugs
#16
EDITORIAL
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689009/survival-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-in-lysosomes-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Varadharajan Sundaramurthy, Hannelie Korf, Ashima Singla, Nicole Scherr, Liem Nguyen, Giorgio Ferrari, Regine Landmann, Kris Huygen, Jean Pieters
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most successful pathogens known, having infected more than a third of the global population. An important strategy for intracellular survival of pathogenic mycobacteria relies on their capacity to resist delivery to lysosomes, instead surviving within macrophage phagosomes. Several factors of both mycobacterial and host origin have been implicated in this process. However, whether or not this strategy is employed in vivo is not clear. Here we show that in vivo, following intravenous infection, M...
July 6, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684130/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-iron-are-required-for-mycobacterium-leprae-survival
#18
Mayara Garcia de Mattos Barbosa, Rhana Berto da Silva Prata, Priscila Ribeiro Andrade, Helen Ferreira, Bruno Jorge de Andrade Silva, Jéssica Araújo da Paixão de Oliveira, Tayná Quintella Assis, Thiago Gomes de Toledo-Pinto, Ohanna Cavalcanti de Lima Bezerra, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Marcelo Torres Bozza, Flávio Alves Lara, Milton Ozório Moraes, Veronica Schmitz, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro
Our previous study has demonstrated that IL-10 may modulate both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and CD163 expression in lepromatous leprosy (LL) cells, favoring Mycobacterium leprae persistence through induction of regulatory pathways and iron storage. Here, we observed that in LL lesion cells there is an increase in the expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism such as hemoglobin (Hb), haptoglobin, heme oxygenase 1 and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) when compared to tuberculoid leprosy (BT) cells...
July 3, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669790/escmid-postgraduate-education-course-applications-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-in-clinical-microbiology
#19
Gilbert Greub, Jacob Moran-Gilad, John Rossen, Adrian Egli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666807/anesthetic-agents-neurodevelopmental-risk-and-the-connection-to-bacterial-infections
#20
LETTER
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
This short communication identifies a significant flaw in research investigating the neurodevelopmental consequences of general anesthesia exposure. We have identified that chronic environmental exposure to pervasive air pollutants that are also widely used as anesthetic agents, specifically nitrous oxide (N2O), may contribute to the rising prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Consistent with the emerging link between microbes and psychiatric illness risk, this epidemiological analysis extends our prior conclusions by proposing that such exposures may alter host immunity so as to enhance vulnerability to certain pathogenic microbes that have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium difficile...
June 28, 2017: Microbes and Infection
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