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Microbes and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981934/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-acyl-carrier-protein-inhibits-macrophage-apoptotic-death-by-modulating-the-reactive-oxygen-species-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-pathway
#1
Seungwha Paik, Seunga Choi, Kang-In Lee, Yong Woo Back, Yeo-Jin Son, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Hwa-Jung Kim
Mycobacterial acyl carrier protein (AcpM; Rv2244) is a meromycolate extension acyl carrier protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which participates in multistep mycolic acid biosynthesis. However, the function of AcpM in host-mycobacterium interactions during infection remains largely uncharacterized. Here we show that AcpM inhibits host cell apoptosis during mycobacterial infection. To examine the function of AcpM during infection, we generated a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) strain overexpressing AcpM (Ms_AcpM) and a strain transformed with an empty vector (Ms_Vec)...
July 5, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959096/chlamydial-plasmid-encoded-virulence-factor-pgp3-interacts-with-human-cathelicidin-peptide-ll-37-to-modulate-immune-response
#2
Shuping Hou, Xin Sun, Xiaohua Dong, Hui Lin, Lingli Tang, Min Xue, Guangming Zhong
We have previously reported that Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid-encoded Pgp3 is able to neutralize anti-chlamydial activity of human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 by binding to and forming stable complex with LL-37. Besides its microbicidal activity, LL-37 also modulates immune response, including inducing cytokine/chemokine production in fibroblast/epithelial cells and recruitment of inflammatory cells. We now report that LL-37 was significantly induced in the genital tracts of women diagnosed positive for C. trachomatis...
June 26, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959095/from-hidden-outbreaks-to-epidemic-emergencies-the-threat-associated-with-neglecting-emerging-pathogens
#3
Jason A Tetro
Not all infectious disease outbreaks undergo full epidemiological investigations. In certain situations, the resultant lack of knowledge has led to the development of epidemics and public health emergencies. This review will examine six emerging pathogens including their history, present status, and potential to expand to epidemics. Recommendations to improve our understanding of these hidden outbreaks and others also will be provided in the context of health systems policy.
June 26, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953921/organelle-dynamics-and-viral-infections-at-cross-roads
#4
Sahaya Glingston R, Rachayeeta Deb, Sachin Kumar, Shirisha Nagotu
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites of the host cells. A commonly accepted view is the requirement of internal membranous structures for various aspects of viral life cycle. Organelles enable favourable intracellular environment for several viruses. However, studies reporting organelle dynamics upon viral infections are scant. In this review, we aim to summarize and highlight modulations caused to various organelles upon viral infection or expression of its proteins.
June 25, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913297/zoonoses-under-our-noses
#5
Alice R Cross, Victoria M Baldwin, Sumita Roy, Angela E Essex-Lopresti, Joann L Prior, Nicholas J Harmer
One Health is an effective approach for the management of zoonotic disease in humans, animals and environments. Examples of the management of bacterial zoonoses in Europe and across the globe demonstrate that One Health approaches of international surveillance, information-sharing and appropriate intervention methods are required to successfully prevent and control disease outbreaks in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Additionally, a One Health approach enables effective preparation and response to bioterrorism threats...
June 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886263/granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-alone-reduces-toxoplasma-gondii-replication-in-microglial-culture-by-superoxide-and-nitric-oxide-without-ifn-%C3%AE-production-a-preliminary-report
#6
Tamirys Simão Pimenta, Natalie Ferreira Chaves, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz, Renato Augusto DaMatta, José Antônio Picanço Diniz Junior
In vitro studies have demonstrated that GM-CSF in combination with other stimulatory factors induces a microbicidal response that control T. gondii infection. We assessed whether GM-CSF alone can control T. gondiireplication in murine microglial cultures. Microglia were collected and cultured with or without GM-CSF and the half of each group was infected with T. gondii. We determined the T. gondii infectivity, cytokines levels, NO and superoxide detection.GM-CSF alone primes microglia, which after infection induces the production of TNF-α and IL-6, leading to NO and superoxide production, without any stimulus from IL-12p70 and IFN-γ...
June 7, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886262/nonstructural-protein-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-phlebovirus-targets-stat2-and-not-stat1-to-inhibit-type-i-interferon-stimulated-jak-stat-signaling
#7
Yoshinori Kitagawa, Madoka Sakai, Masayuki Shimojima, Masayuki Saijo, Masae Itoh, Bin Gotoh
The nonstructural protein NSs of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus blocks type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling. However, there is continuing controversy as to whether NSs targets STAT1 or STAT2 or both for this blockade. The present study was designed to gain a further understanding of the blockade mechanism. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a stronger interaction of NSs with STAT2 than with any other component constituting the JAK-STAT pathway. Expression of NSs resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs), and affected cytoplasmic distribution of STAT2...
June 7, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857123/microbes-and-infection-turns-20
#8
EDITORIAL
Sophia J Häfner, David M Ojcius
The journal Microbes and Infection is celebrating its vigintennial anniversary and has reunited for this occasion two dozen reviews illustrating achievements of the past as well as future challenges in the field of infectious diseases. From top-notch vaccine development strategies, to high-throughput powered analysis of complex host-pathogen interactions, to innovative therapeutic designs, this issue covers the entire spectrum of pathogens and areas of their confrontation with the host.
May 30, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775667/identification-of-novel-hla-a11-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-in-the-ebola-virus-nucleoprotein
#9
Dan Li, Pei Li, Nianping Song, Yuting Jiang, Yang Zeng, Guangyu Zhao, Yunzhi Fa, Huahu Ye, Yuchun Lone, Yusen Zhou, Shihui Sun, Lin Zeng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a very contagious virus that is highly fatal in humans and animals. The largest epidemic was in West Africa in 2014, in which over 11,000 people died. However, to date, there are no licensed vaccines against it. Studies show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, play key roles in protecting individuals from EBOV infection. Since HLA-restricted epitope vaccines are likely to be effective and safe immunization strategies for infectious diseases, the present study screened for CTL epitopes in the EBOV-nucleoprotein that are restricted by HLA-A11 (a common allele in Chinese people)...
May 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729435/complement-c3-opsonization-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-facilitates-uptake-in-human-monocytes
#10
Mads Lausen, Gunna Christiansen, Nichlas Karred, Robert Winther, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk Poulsen, Yaseelan Palarasah, Svend Birkelund
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes severe infections, which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Although both innate and adaptive immune responses are elicited during chlamydial infection the bacterium succeeds to evade host defense mechanisms establishing chronic infections. Thus, studying the host-pathogen interaction during chlamydial infection is of importance to understand how C. trachomatis can cause chronic infections. Both the complement system and monocytes play essential roles in anti-bacterial defense, and, therefore, we investigated the interaction between the complement system and the human pathogens C...
May 3, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729434/biochemical-characterization-of-avian-influenza-viral-polymerase-containing-pa-or-pb2-subunit-from-human-influenza-a-virus
#11
Phu Tran Vinh Pham, Kadir Turan, Kyosuke Nagata, Atsushi Kawaguchi
Adaptive mutations in viral polymerase, which is composed of PB1, PB2, and PA, of avian influenza viruses are major genetic determinants of the host range. In this study, to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mammalian adaptation of avian viral polymerase, we performed cell-based vRNP reconstitution assays and biochemical analyses using purified recombinant viral polymerase complexes. We found that avian viral polymerase from A/duck/Pennsylvania/10,218/84 (DkPen) enhances the viral polymerase activity in mammalian cells by replacing the PA or PB2 gene with that from human influenza virus A/WSN/33 (WSN)...
May 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679740/dissecting-host-cell-death-programs-in-the-pathogenesis-of-influenza
#12
Jeffrey Downey, Erwan Pernet, François Coulombe, Maziar Divangahi
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a pulmonary pathogen, responsible for significant yearly morbidity and mortality. Due to the absence of highly effective antiviral therapies and vaccine, as well as the constant threat of an emerging pandemic strain, there is considerable need to better understand the host-pathogen interactions and the factors that dictate a protective versus detrimental immune response to IAV. Even though evidence of IAV-induced cell death in human pulmonary epithelial and immune cells has been observed for almost a century, very little is known about the consequences of cell death on viral pathogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859938/blt1-mediated-o-glcnacylation-is-required-for-nox2-dependent-migration-exocytotic-degranulation-and-il-8-release-of-human-mast-cell-induced-by-trichomonas-vaginalis-secreted-ltb-4
#13
Arim Min, Young Ah Lee, Kyeong Ah Kim, Myeong Heon Shin
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis. Although mast cell activation is important for provoking tissue inflammation during infection with parasites, information regarding the signaling mechanisms in mast cell activation and T. vaginalis infection is limited. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues that functions as a critical regulator of intracellular signaling, regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA)...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859252/geographic-distribution-of-livestock-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-united-states
#14
Tara C Smith, Dipendra Thapaliya, Sabana Bhatta, Samantha Mackey, Jean Engohang-Ndong, Margaret Carrel
Sampling for livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-SA) in the United States is haphazard. The diversity of LA-S. aureus in the U.S. appears to be greater than in other countries. We review the epidemiology of LA-S. aureus in U.S. pigs, occupationally-exposed individuals, and environmental samples to assess the diversity and abundance of U.S. LA-S. aureus.
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852240/control-of-pathogens-and-microbiota-by-innate-lymphoid-cells
#15
Sascha Cording, Jasna Medvedovic, Emelyne Lecuyer, Tegest Aychek, Gérard Eberl
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the innate counterpart of T cells. Upon infection or injury, ILCs react promptly to direct the developing immune response to the one most adapted to the threat facing the organism. Therefore, ILCs play an important role early in resistance to infection, but also to maintain homeostasis with the symbiotic microbiota following perturbations induced by diet and pathogens. Such roles of ILCs have been best characterized in the intestine and lung, mucosal sites that are exposed to the environment and are therefore colonized with diverse but specific types of microbes...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842985/inflammasome-components-caspase-1-and-adaptor-protein-apoptosis-associated-speck-like-proteins-are-important-in-resistance-to-cryptosporidium-parvum
#16
Nina N McNair, Chetna Bedi, Dmitry M Shayakhmetov, Michael J Arrowood, Jan R Mead
Cryptosporidium spp. are opportunistic protozoan parasites that infect epithelial cells in the intestinal tract and cause a flu-like diarrheal illness. Innate immunity is key to limiting the expansion of parasitic stages early in infection. One mechanism in which it does this is through the generation of early cytokines, such as IL-18. The processing and secretion of mature IL-18 (and IL-1β) is mediated by caspase-1 which is activated within an inflammasome following the engagement of inflammasome-initiating sensors...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842984/on-the-role-of-retinoic-acid-in-virus-induced-inflammatory-response-in-cornea
#17
Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Siva Karthik Varanasi, Siddheshvar Bhela, Barry T Rouse
Ocular infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) can result in a chronic immune inflammatory lesion that is a significant cause of human blindness. A key to controlling stromal keratitis (SK) lesion severity is to identify cellular and molecular events responsible for tissue damage and to counteract them. One potentially useful approach to achieve such therapy is Retinoic Acid (RA). Here we show that RA therapy reduces the severity of SK by having inhibitory effects on the T effector subtypes responsible for orchestrating SK...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842983/eif4a2-is-a-host-factor-required-for-efficient-hiv-1-replication
#18
Jerry Kwame Ndzinu, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Hideki Saito, Takeshi Yoshida, Shoji Yamaoka
Host factors are required for efficient HIV-1 replication. To identify these factors, genome-wide RNA interference screening was performed using a human T cell line. In the present study, we assessed whether eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A isoform 2 (eIF4A2), a DEAD-box protein identified in our screen, is necessary for efficient HIV-1 replication. Exploiting MT4C5 cells depleted of eIF4A2 by stable expression of eIF4A2-specific short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) using a lentiviral system, we found that depletion of eIF4A2 markedly inhibited the infection of a replication-competent reporter HIV-1...
June 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753816/genome-sequencing-and-functional-characterization-of-the-non-pathogenic-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpge-bacteria
#19
Wanessa C Lima, Trestan Pillonel, Claire Bertelli, Estelle Ifrid, Gilbert Greub, Pierre Cosson
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an extensively studied human pathogen responsible for a wide variety of infections. Dictyostelium discoideum is a model host organism employed to study many facets of the complex interactions between phagocytic cells and bacteria. Historically, a non-pathogenic strain of K. pneumoniae has been used to feed Dictyostelium amoebae, and more recently to study cellular mechanisms involved in bacterial recognition, ingestion and killing. Here we provide the full genome sequence and functional characterization of this non-pathogenic KpGe strain...
May 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684572/big-browser-is-watching-you
#20
EDITORIAL
Sophia Julia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Microbes and Infection
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