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Microbes and Infection

Ana María Vásquez, Silvia Blair, Luis F García, Cesar Segura
The ability of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (Pf-IEs) to activate endothelial cells has been described; however, the interaction of the endothelium with Pf-IEs field isolates from patients has been less characterized. Previous reports have shown that isolates alter the endothelial permeability and apoptosis. In this study, the adhesion of 19 uncomplicated malaria isolates to Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HDMEC), and their effect on the expression of ICAM-1 and proinflammatory molecules (sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1) was evaluated...
October 4, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Stefanie Dinner, Julian Kaltschmidt, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Svetlana Hetjens, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk
Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium, can cause meningitis after invading the human central nervous system. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), located at the epithelium of the choroid plexus, is a possible entry site for L. monocytogenes into the brain, and in vitro L. monocytogenes invades human choroid plexus epithelial papilloma (HIBCPP) cells. Although host cell signal transduction subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes has been investigated, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is not clarified yet...
September 23, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Eoin P Cummins, Daniel Crean
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term to describe inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD affects approximately 1 in 200 individuals and exerts a significant health and quality of life burden on patients. Surgical intervention can be curative in ulcerative colitis but there is currently no cure for Crohn's disease. Since this is the case, and the fact that patients are often diagnosed at a young age, IBD exerts a significant financial burden on the health care system, and society as a whole...
September 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Drashya Sharma, Bhrugu Yagnik, Ruma Baksi, Nirav Desai, Harish Padh, Priti Desai
Shigellosis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity, requires development of effective intervention strategy for which animal model mimicking human pathology is essential. Among various animal models for shigellosis, mice being more convenient have been used wherein intraperitoneal and intranasal routes are preferred. With the aim to comprehend the comparative pathophysiological indicators, we have examined relatively high and low dose of Shigella flexneri administered through intraperitoneal and intranasal routes in mice...
September 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Mara Biasin, Manuela Sironi, Irma Saulle, Chiara Pontremoli, Micaela Garziano, Rachele Cagliani, Daria Trabattoni, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesca Vichi, Francesco Mazzotta, Diego Forni, Stefania Riva, Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Samandhy Cedeño, Jorge Sanchez, Christian Brander, Wildeman Zapata, Maria Teresa Rugeles, Mario Clerici
We investigated whether a 6-amino acid insertion/deletion polymorphism in the mucin domain of TIM-1 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1), modulates susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The polymorphism was genotyped in three case/control cohorts of HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) and HIV-1 infected subjects from Italy, Peru, and Colombia; data from a Thai population were retrieved from the literature. Across all cohorts, homozygosity for the short TIM-1 allele was more common in HESNs than in HIV-1 infected subjects...
September 18, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Yi Sak Kim, Chul-Su Yang, Loi T Nguyen, Jin Kyung Kim, Hyo Sun Jin, Jin Ho Choe, Soo Yeon Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Mingyu Jung, Jin-Man Kim, Myung Hee Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Ji-Chan Jang
Mycobacterial ESX systems are often related to pathogenesis during infection. However, little is known about the function of ESX systems of Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). This study focuses on the Mab ESX-3 cluster, which contains major genes such as esxH (Rv0288, low molecular weight protein antigen 7; CFP-7) and esxG (Rv0287, ESAT-6 like protein). An esx-3 (MAB 2224c-2234c)-deletional mutant of Mab (Δesx) was constructed and used to infect murine and human macrophages. We then investigated whether Mab Δesx modulated innate host immune responses in macrophages...
September 13, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo, Victor Edgar Fiestas Solórzano, Débora Batista de Oliveira, Cintia Ferreira Marinho, Luiz José de Souza, Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha, Paulo Vieira Damasco, Claire Fernandes Kubelka, Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto
Tissue Factor (TF) is the initiator of coagulation and Tissue Factor Inhibitor (TFPI) is the physiological inhibitor of the TF/FVIIa complex. Circulating levels of TF and TFPI were quantified in dengue patients and the relationships with disease severity and infecting serotype analysed. A significant decrease in TF and TPFI plasma levels was observed in mild DF patients compared with severe dengue. Furthermore, both factors were associated with haemorrhagic manifestations. Finally, TF levels were significantly increased in DENV-1/2 infected patients as compared with DENV-4...
August 31, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Alison F A Chaves, Daniele G Castilho, Marina V Navarro, Ana K Oliveira, Solange M T Serrano, Alexandre K Tashima, Wagner L Batista
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis that is widespread in Latin America. This fungus is a facultative intracellular pathogen able to survive and replicate inside non-activated macrophages. Therefore, the survival of P. brasiliensis inside the host depends on the ability to adapt to oxidative stress induced by immune cells, especially alveolar macrophages. For several years, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were only associated with pathological processes...
August 30, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Yanli Huang, Jin Zeng, Guoqing Chen, Xudong Xie, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which periodontitis affects the inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance in the white adipose and liver tissues in an obese rat model. The obese model was generated by feeding rats a high fat diet. The periodontitis model was induced by ligatures and injection of "red complex", which consisted of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, for two weeks. When compared with rats without periodontitis, fasting glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment index were significantly increased in rats with periodontitis, suggesting that periodontitis promotes the development of insulin resistance in obese rats...
August 23, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Juan San Francisco, Iván Barría, Bessy Gutiérrez, Iván Neira, Christian Muñoz, Hernán Sagua, Jorge E Araya, Juan Carlos Andrade, Anibal Zailberger, Alejandro Catalán, Francisco Remonsellez, José Luis Vega, Jorge González
Two cell lines derived from a single Trypanosoma cruzi clone by long-term passaging generated a highly virulent (C8C3hvir) and a low virulent (C8C3lvir) cell line. The C8C3hvir cell line was highly infective and lethal to Balb/c mice, and the C8C3lvir cell line was three- to five-fold less infective to mouse cardiomyocytes than C8C3hvir. The highly virulent T. cruzi cell line abundantly expressed the major cysteine proteinase cruzipain (Czp), complement regulatory protein (CRP) and trans-sialidase (TS), all of which are known to act as virulence factors in this parasite...
August 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Vanessa Noal, Suelen Santos, Karen Spadari Ferreira, Sandro Rogerio Almeida
: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. The infection is initiated by inhalation of conidia into the lung and may develop as localized or disseminated disease depending on the depression of cellular immunity. In the present study, we observed that intratracheal infection with P.b. caused the percentage of resident B-1 cells to decrease. Using xid mice reconstituted with B-1 cells, we observed that B-1 cells migrate to the spleen and stimulate increases in the regulatory T cell subpopulation in response to P...
August 10, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Karan Singh, Mohammad Zulkifli, N G Prasad
Drosophila melanogaster is an emerging model system for the study of evolutionary ecology of immunity. However, a large number of studies have used non natural pathogens as very few natural pathogens have been isolated and identified. Our aim was to isolate and characterise natural pathogen/s of D. melanogaster. A bacterial pathogen was isolated from wild caught Drosophila spp., identified as a new strain of Staphylococcus succinus subsp. succinus and named PK-1. PK-1 strain induced substantial mortality (36-62%) in adults of several laboratory populations of D...
August 1, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Solange C Martins, Danielle Lazarin-Bidóia, Vânia C Desoti, Hugo Falzirolli, Cleuza C da Silva, Tania Ueda-Nakamura, Sueli de O Silva, Celso V Nakamura
This work evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of TDZ 2 on Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes and determined the possible mechanism of action of this compound on T. cruzi death. TDZ 2 inhibited T. cruzi proliferation in vitro and had low haemolytic potential. It also induced morphological and ultrastructural alterations. We observed a reduction of cell volume, the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, an increase in ROS production, lipoperoxidation of the cell membrane, lipid bodies formation and production of nitric oxide, a decrease in reduced thiols levels and, presence of autophagic vacuoles,...
July 30, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Alexis García, Anthony Mannion, Yan Feng, Carolyn M Madden, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Zeli Shen, Zhongming Ge, James G Fox
Escherichia coli strains have not been fully characterized in laboratory mice and are not currently excluded from mouse colonies. Colibactin (Clb), a cytotoxin, has been associated with inflammation and cancer in humans and animals. We performed bacterial cultures utilizing rectal swab, fecal, and extra intestinal samples from clinically unaffected or affected laboratory mice. Fifty-one E. coli were isolated from 45 laboratory mice, identified biochemically, and selected isolates were serotyped. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced for specific isolates, PCR used for clbA and clbQ gene amplification, and phylogenetic group identification was performed on all 51 E...
July 29, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Mateja Ozanic, Valentina Marecic, Marie Lindgren, Anders Sjöstedt, Marina Santic
Several bacterial pathogens interact with their host through protein secretion effectuated by a type VI secretion system (T6SS). Francisella tularensis is a highly pathogenic intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia. Proteins encoded by the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), which constitute a type VI secretion system, are essential for the virulence of the bacterium and a key mechanism behind this is the escape from the phagosome followed by productive cytosolic replication. It has been shown that T6SS in Francisella is distinct since all putative substrates of F...
July 29, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Shuchao Wang, Zedong Wang, Yi Gu, Zhongyu Li, Zhongyuan Li, Feng Wei, Quan Liu
Toxoplasma gondii can activate the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins NLRP1/3 inflammasomes, which mediate host resistance to the infection. Here we showed that deletion of mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPK1 and MAPK2 of type I parasite decreases acute virulence in mice, characterized by low levels of interleukin (IL)-18, NLRP1/3, ASC, and caspase-1, and high levels of IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-β transcripts. Additionally, the mutants increased phosphorylation of STAT1, and decreased phosphorylation of STAT3...
July 27, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Sherry L Kurtz, Catharine M Bosio, Roberto De Pascalis, Karen L Elkins
Our laboratory has employed in vitro and in vivo mouse models based on Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS)-induced protection to elucidate immune correlates for intracellular bacteria. Among the effectors found was GM-CSF, a pleiotropic cytokine that is integral to the development and proliferation of myeloid cells, including alveolar macrophages. GM-CSF has roles in resistance to primary murine infection with several intracellular pathogens, but its role during Francisella infection is unknown...
July 27, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Microbes and Infection
Peter J Hotez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Microbes and Infection
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