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Microbes and Infection

Gayatri Devraj, Christiane Beerlage, Bernhard Brüne, Volkhard A J Kempf
For most of the living being, oxygen is one of the essential elements required to sustain life. Deprivation of oxygen causes tissue hypoxia and this affects host cell and organ functions severely. Tissue hypoxia is a prominent microenvironmental condition occurring in infections and there is a body of evidence that hypoxia and inflammation are interconnected with each other. The primary key factor mediating the mammalian hypoxic response is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, which regulates oxygen homeostasis on cellular, tissue and organism levels...
November 27, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Ellen T Arena, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti, Benoit S Marteyn
Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment.
November 21, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Alice Lebreton, Fabrizia Stavru, Sylvain Brisse, Pascale Cossart
ISOPOL meetings - for "International Symposium on Problems of Listeria and Listeriosis" meetings - gather every three years since 1957 participants from all over the world and allow exchange and update on a wide array of topics concerning Listeria and listeriosis, ranging from epidemiology, diagnostic, and typing methods, to genomics, post-genomics, fundamental microbiology, cell biology and pathogenesis. The XIXth ISOPOL meeting took place in Paris from June 14th to 17th, 2016 at Institut Pasteur. We provide here a report of the talks that were given during the meeting, which represents an up-to-date overview of ongoing research on this important pathogen and biological model...
November 19, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Camila Braz Menezes, Amanda Piccoli Frasson, Lucia Collares Meirelles, Tiana Tasca
Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The cytoadherence and cytotoxicity upon the vaginal epithelial cells are crucial for the infection. Extracellular nucleotides are released during cell damage and, along with their nucleosides, can activate purinoceptors. The opposing effects of nucleotides versus nucleosides are regulated by ectonucleotidases. Herein we evaluated the hemolysis and cytolysis induced by T. vaginalis, as well as the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis along with the effects mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides on cytotoxicity...
November 18, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
CD8(+) T cells play an important role in controlling numerous virus infections and some tumors and therefore several strategies have been adopted to modulate CD8(+) T cell responses. One such approach includes treatment with IL-2 bound to a monoclonal antibody against IL-2 (IL-2 complex) which was shown to enhance CD8(+) T cell responses and provide protection against some cancers and pathogens. This report analyses the value of IL-2 complex therapy to protect against a cutaneous virus infection as occurs with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection...
November 17, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Dirk Friedrich, Roger A Fecher, Jan Rupp, George S Deepe
Human pathogenic fungi are highly adaptable to a changing environment. The ability to adjust to low oxygen conditions is crucial for colonization and infection of the host. Recently, the impact of mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on fungal immunity has emerged. In this review, the role of hypoxia and HIF-1α in fungal infections is discussed regarding the innate immune response.
October 31, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Katharine M Lodge, A A Roger Thompson, Edwin R Chilvers, Alison M Condliffe
Staphylococcal infection and neutrophilic inflammation can act in concert to establish a profoundly hypoxic environment. In this review we summarise how neutrophils and Staphylococcus aureus are adapted to function under hypoxic conditions, with a particular focus on the impaired ability of hypoxic neutrophils to effect Staphylococcus aureus killing.
October 24, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Gareth Prosser, Brandenburg Julius, Norbert Reiling, Clifton Earl Barry, Robert J Wilkinson, Katalin A Wilkinson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative anaerobe and its characteristic pathological hallmark, the granuloma, exhibits hypoxia in humans and in most experimental models. Thus the host and bacillary adaptation to hypoxia is of central importance in understanding pathogenesis and thereby to derive new drug treatments and vaccines.
October 22, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Delphine Maret, Ove A Peters, Emmanuelle Vigarios, Joel B Epstein, Lucas van der Sluis
The primary purpose of preoperative dental screening of medical patients is to detect acute or chronic oral conditions that may require management prior to planned medical interventions. The aim of this communication is to discuss the background of preoperative dental screening and the link between dental pathologies and systemic diseases.
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Seong-Hwan Park, Mira Yu, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
NSAID-activated Gene 1 (NAG-1) is a prognostic indicator of chronic inflammatory diseases and aggressive tumors. Among the stress sentinels in response to infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) or other pathogenic E. coli, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a representative stress-regulated transcription factor, was prominently increased and assessed for its involvement in NAG-1-mediated pathogenic cellular responses. NAG-1 expression was transcriptionally upregulated by CHOP, which promoted chemokine production through stained NF-κB activation...
October 19, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Niki Vassilaki, Efseveia Frakolaki
Oxygen tension can exert a significant effect on viral propagation in vitro and possibly in vivo. In general, hypoxia restricts the replication of viruses that naturally infect tissues exposed to ambient oxygen and induces the growth of viruses that naturally target tissues exposed to low oxygen. Some viruses can reprogram cell bioenergetics towards lowering cellular respiration and therefore oxygen consumption in order to support their replication. Aim of this review is to summarize findings on the interplay between viral infection and oxygen levels, highlighting the implicated oxygen tension-sensitive elements and metabolic determinants and concluding with possible therapeutic approaches targeting these mediators...
October 19, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Ana María Vásquez, Silvia Blair, Luis F García, Cesar Segura
The ability of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (Pf-IEs) to activate endothelial cells has been described; however, the interaction of the endothelium with Pf-IEs field isolates from patients has been less characterized. Previous reports have shown that isolates alter the endothelial permeability and apoptosis. In this study, the adhesion of 19 uncomplicated malaria isolates to Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HDMEC), and their effect on the expression of ICAM-1 and proinflammatory molecules (sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1) was evaluated...
October 4, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Stefanie Dinner, Julian Kaltschmidt, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Svetlana Hetjens, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Tobias Tenenbaum, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk
Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium, can cause meningitis after invading the human central nervous system. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), located at the epithelium of the choroid plexus, is a possible entry site for L. monocytogenes into the brain, and in vitro L. monocytogenes invades human choroid plexus epithelial papilloma (HIBCPP) cells. Although host cell signal transduction subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes has been investigated, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) is not clarified yet...
September 23, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Eoin P Cummins, Daniel Crean
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term to describe inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. IBD affects approximately 1 in 200 individuals and exerts a significant health and quality of life burden on patients. Surgical intervention can be curative in ulcerative colitis but there is currently no cure for Crohn's disease. Since this is the case, and the fact that patients are often diagnosed at a young age, IBD exerts a significant financial burden on the health care system, and society as a whole...
September 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Drashya Sharma, Bhrugu Yagnik, Ruma Baksi, Nirav Desai, Harish Padh, Priti Desai
Shigellosis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity, requires development of effective intervention strategy for which animal model mimicking human pathology is essential. Among various animal models for shigellosis, mice being more convenient have been used wherein intraperitoneal and intranasal routes are preferred. With the aim to comprehend the comparative pathophysiological indicators, we have examined relatively high and low dose of Shigella flexneri administered through intraperitoneal and intranasal routes in mice...
September 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Mara Biasin, Manuela Sironi, Irma Saulle, Chiara Pontremoli, Micaela Garziano, Rachele Cagliani, Daria Trabattoni, Sergio Lo Caputo, Francesca Vichi, Francesco Mazzotta, Diego Forni, Stefania Riva, Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Samandhy Cedeño, Jorge Sanchez, Christian Brander, Wildeman Zapata, Maria Teresa Rugeles, Mario Clerici
We investigated whether a 6-amino acid insertion/deletion polymorphism in the mucin domain of TIM-1 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1), modulates susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The polymorphism was genotyped in three case/control cohorts of HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) and HIV-1 infected subjects from Italy, Peru, and Colombia; data from a Thai population were retrieved from the literature. Across all cohorts, homozygosity for the short TIM-1 allele was more common in HESNs than in HIV-1 infected subjects...
September 18, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Yi Sak Kim, Chul-Su Yang, Loi T Nguyen, Jin Kyung Kim, Hyo Sun Jin, Jin Ho Choe, Soo Yeon Kim, Hye-Mi Lee, Mingyu Jung, Jin-Man Kim, Myung Hee Kim, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Ji-Chan Jang
Mycobacterial ESX systems are often related to pathogenesis during infection. However, little is known about the function of ESX systems of Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). This study focuses on the Mab ESX-3 cluster, which contains major genes such as esxH (Rv0288, low molecular weight protein antigen 7; CFP-7) and esxG (Rv0287, ESAT-6 like protein). An esx-3 (MAB 2224c-2234c)-deletional mutant of Mab (Δesx) was constructed and used to infect murine and human macrophages. We then investigated whether Mab Δesx modulated innate host immune responses in macrophages...
September 13, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Dazhi Zhao, Kezia Lizardo, Min Hui Cui, Kamalakar Ambadipudi, Jose Lora, Linda A Jelicks, Jyothi F Nagajyothi
Chagasic cardiomyopathy, which is seen in Chagas disease, is the most severe and life-threatening manifestation of infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. Adipose tissue and diet play a major role in maintaining lipid homeostasis and regulating cardiac pathogenesis during the development of Chagas cardiomyopathy. We have previously reported that T. cruzi has a high affinity for lipoproteins and that the invasion rate of this parasite increases in the presence of cholesterol, suggesting that drugs that inhibit cholesterol synthesis, such as statins, could affect infection and the development of Chagasic cardiomyopathy...
November 2016: Microbes and Infection
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