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Microbes and Infection

Ana Laura Grossi de Oliveira, Ana Thereza Chaves, Cristiane Alves Silva Menezes, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose disequilibrium in the host's genetic, immunological and clinical mechanisms lead to distinct manifestations defining the type of immunological response. This review focuses its attention on the influence of the Vitamin D Receptor and hepcidin expressions that can suggest the protection or severity of leprosy.
March 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jacques Y Bou Khalil, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
Chlamydiae are pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria, which form an important part of amoeba-associated microorganisms. In this paper, we report the isolation, developmental cycle and genome analysis of Protochlamydia phocaeensis sp. nov., an obligate intracellular parasite with a large host spectrum, able to infect Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. The genome size is 3,424,182 bp with a GC content of 42%. This bacterium displayed a particular developmental cycle depending on the infected host...
March 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Sophia Häfner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Hyo Sun Jin, Hye-Mi Lee, Da-Hye Lee, Guang-Ho Cha, Kyoung Sang Cho, Jichan Jang, Eun-Kyeong Jo
Mycobacterium marinum is a pathogenic mycobacterial species closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established a mycobacterial infection model of Drosophila melanogaster to characterize the role played by cg6568, a homolog of the human cathelicidin gene, in the innate defense against infection. Drosophila cg6568 was expressed at various levels during all developmental stages, and the expression levels were modulated by M. marinum in a time-dependent manner. 20-hydroxyecdysone induced Drosophila cg6568 transcription both in vitro and in vivo...
February 27, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Emma Lorenzen, Frank Follmann, Jan O Secher, Sandra Goericke-Pesch, Mette S Hansen, Hannah Zakariassen, Anja W Olsen, Peter Andersen, Gregers Jungersen, Jørgen S Agerholm
Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting the upper porcine genital tract by transcervical and transabdominal intrauterine inoculation, compared to previously performed vaginal inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the hormonal cycle, estrus vs...
February 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Etienne Ruppé, Gilbert Greub, Jacques Schrenzel
Metagenomics is recently entering in the clinical microbiology and an increasing number of diagnostic laboratories are now proposing the sequencing & annotation of bacterial genomes and/or the analysis of clinical samples by direct or PCR-based metagenomics with short time to results. In this context, the first International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg) was held in Geneva in October 2016 and several key aspects have been discussed including: i) the need for improved resolution, ii) the importance of interpretation given the common occurrence of sequence contaminants, iii) the need for improved bioinformatic pipelines, iv) the bottleneck of DNA extraction, v) the importance of gold standards, vi) the need to further reduce time to results, vii) how to improve data sharing, viii) the applications of bacterial genomics and clinical metagenomics in better adapting therapeutics and ix) the impact of metagenomics and new sequencing technologies in discovering new microbes...
February 1, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Emily C Woods, Shonna M McBride
Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are a subfamily of σ(70) sigma factors that activate genes involved in stress-response functions. In many bacteria, ECF sigma factors regulate resistance to antimicrobial compounds. This review will summarize the ECF sigma factors that regulate antimicrobial resistance in model organisms and clinically relevant pathogens.
January 30, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Silene Macedo, João Paulo Ferreira Rodrigues, Sergio Schenkman, Nobuko Yoshida
The involvement of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) in host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) is not known. We examined whether isoproterenol, an agonist of β-AR, or nonselective β-blocker propranolol affected MT internalization mediated the stage-specific surface molecule gp82. Treatment of HeLa cells with propranolol significantly inhibited MT invasion whereas isoproterenol had no effect. Propranolol, but not isoproterenol, also inhibited the lysosome spreading required for gp82-dependent MT invasion...
January 19, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jia-Wu Zhu, Feng-Liang Liu, Dan Mu, De-Yao Deng, Yong-Tang Zheng
Heroin use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV-1 infection, as a result of immunosuppression to a certain extent. Host restriction factors are recently identified cellular proteins with potent antiviral activities. Whether heroin use impacts on the in vivo expression of restriction factors that result in facilitating HIV-1 replication is poorly understood. Here we recruited 432 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 164 non-IDUs at high-risk behaviors. Based on serological tests, significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was observed among IDUs compared with non-IDUs...
January 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Charlotte Odendall, Jonathan C Kagan
The innate immune system detects the presence of microbes through different families of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs detect pathogens of all origins and trigger signaling events that activate innate and adaptive immunity. These signaling pathways are initiated by the recruitment of adaptor proteins and enzymes to the site of ligand encounter, in large complexes termed supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs). These events need to be tightly regulated in order to ensure optimal activation when required, and minimal signaling in the absence of microbial encounters...
January 14, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Wei Zhou, Dustin Brisson
Many parasites have evolved antigenic variation systems that alter surface proteins in order to evade recognition by presently expressed antibodies and subsequent death. Although the amino acid positions in antigens to which antibodies most commonly target are expected to be the most variable, this assumption has not been investigated. Using the vls antigenic variation system of Borrelia burgdorferi as a model, we first investigated this assumption computationally and then developed a sensitive immunoassay to experimentally validate the computational results...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Marion Delouche, Nathalie Quellard, Marie-Helene Rodier
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be in relation with free living amoebae like Acanthamoeba castellanii in natural environments such as soil and water. This pathogen, which is responsible for community-acquired pneumonia and for nosocomial infections, also has interactions with host defense mechanisms like macrophages. As it has been shown that A. castellanii shares some traits with macrophages, in particular the ability to phagocyte bacteria, we have studied the uptake and the fate of the bacteria after contact with the two phagocytic cells...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jacqueline M Kimmey, Jessica A Campbell, Leslie A Weiss, Kristen J Monte, Deborah J Lenschow, Christina L Stallings
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in 1.5 million deaths annually. Type I interferon (IFN) signaling through its receptor IFNAR correlates with increased severity of disease, although how this increases susceptibility to M. tuberculosis remains uncertain. ISG15 is one of the most highly induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) during M. tuberculosis infection. ISG15 functions by conjugation to target proteins (ISGylation), by noncovalent association with intracellular proteins, and by release from the cell...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Sarah R Walmsley, Jan Rupp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
Gayatri Devraj, Christiane Beerlage, Bernhard Brüne, Volkhard A J Kempf
For most of the living beings, oxygen is one of the essential elements required to sustain life. Deprivation of oxygen causes tissue hypoxia and this severely affects host cell and organ functions. Tissue hypoxia is a prominent microenvironmental condition occurring in infections and there is a body of evidence that hypoxia and inflammation are interconnected with each other. The primary key factor mediating the mammalian hypoxic response is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, which regulates oxygen homeostasis on cellular, tissue and organism level...
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
Ellen T Arena, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti, Benoit S Marteyn
Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment.
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
Dirk Friedrich, Roger A Fecher, Jan Rupp, George S Deepe
Human pathogenic fungi are highly adaptable to a changing environment. The ability to adjust to low oxygen conditions is crucial for colonization and infection of the host. Recently, the impact of mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on fungal immunity has emerged. In this review, the role of hypoxia and HIF-1α in fungal infections is discussed regarding the innate immune response.
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
Katharine M Lodge, A A Roger Thompson, Edwin R Chilvers, Alison M Condliffe
Staphylococcal infection and neutrophilic inflammation can act in concert to establish a profoundly hypoxic environment. In this review we summarise how neutrophils and Staphylococcus aureus are adapted to function under hypoxic conditions, with a particular focus on the impaired ability of hypoxic neutrophils to effect Staphylococcus aureus killing.
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
Gareth Prosser, Julius Brandenburg, Norbert Reiling, Clifton Earl Barry, Robert J Wilkinson, Katalin A Wilkinson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative anaerobe and its characteristic pathological hallmark, the granuloma, exhibits hypoxia in humans and in most experimental models. Thus the host and bacillary adaptation to hypoxia is of central importance in understanding pathogenesis and thereby to derive new drug treatments and vaccines.
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
Niki Vassilaki, Efseveia Frakolaki
Oxygen tension can exert a significant effect on viral propagation in vitro and possibly in vivo. In general, hypoxia restricts the replication of viruses that naturally infect tissues exposed to ambient oxygen and induces the growth of viruses that naturally target tissues exposed to low oxygen. Some viruses can reprogram cell bioenergetics towards lowering cellular respiration and therefore oxygen consumption in order to support their replication. Aim of this review is to summarize findings on the interplay between viral infection and oxygen levels, highlighting the implicated oxygen tension-sensitive elements and metabolic determinants and concluding with possible therapeutic approaches targeting these mediators...
March 2017: Microbes and Infection
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