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Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews

Teresa Vanessa Fiorentino, Elena Succurro, Francesco Andreozzi, Angela Sciacqua, Francesco Perticone, Giorgio Sesti
AIMS: A value of 1-hour post-load plasma glucose (PG) ≥155 mg/dl combined with the recently established HbA1c diagnostic thresholds for prediabetes increases the ability to predict diabetes and to detect subclinical cardiovascular organ damage. Herein, we evaluated whether a value of 1-hour PG ≥155 mg/dl may recognize non-diabetic individuals with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) within HbA1c-defined glycemic categories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of composite and individual CVD, including coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease was assessed in 1010 non-diabetic individuals...
October 30, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Dong Hoon Lee, Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Frank B Hu, Justin Y Jeon, Edward L Giovannucci
BACKGROUND: Positive association between resting heart rate (RHR) and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been documented in several studies. However, whether RHR is an independent predictor of T2D and its potential interaction with other risk factors of T2D remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,156 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1992-2012). Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine the association between RHR and T2D risk...
October 30, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Avivit Cahn, Talya Altaras, Tal Agami, Ori Liran, Colette E Touaty, Michel Drahy, Rena Pollack, Itamar Raz, Gabriel Chodick, Inbar Zucker
AIMS: To assess the validity of the diagnostic codes relating to diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in the electronic medical records of a large integrated care provider and to assess the prevalence of DFU among its members. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the diabetes registry of Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), a 2.1-million-member sick-fund in Israel, which included 125,665 patients in 2015. We randomly selected and reviewed ~400 patient files from each of the following categories during study period: 1) had a diagnostic code of DFU; 2) had a diagnostic code, or clinical condition suggestive of DFU including: leg-ulcer, amputation, DFU in quartiles proximate to 2015 or abnormality reported by nurse; 3) patients at high risk for DFU (age >35 and one of the following: peripheral artery disease, neuropathy, DFU during 2011-2014, eGFR<30 ml/min/m2 or foot deformity)...
October 30, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Kathryn C B Tan, Ching-Lung Cheung, Alan C H Lee, Joanne K Y Lam, Ying Wong, Sammy W M Shiu
AIMS: Recent clinical studies have shown that galectin-3 is a prognostic indicator in patients with coronary heart disease and in patients with heart failure. Experimental data suggest that galectin-3 may play a role in atherogenesis. We have evaluated whether serum galectin-3 level is associated with cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Galectin-3 was measured in baseline samples in 1495persons with type 2 diabetes. The primary cardiovascular outcome, incident cardiovascular events, was defined as first non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, coronary revascularization or death from cardiovascular cause...
October 30, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ji Eun Jun, Seung-Eun Lee, You-Bin Lee, Ji Yeon Ahn, Gyuri Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Moon-Kyu Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to establish the association between continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-defined glycemic variability (GV) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 1 diabetes independent of mean glucose and to examine the relative contribution of each internationally standardized CGM parameter to this association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 80 adults with type 1 diabetes who underwent 3-day CGM and autonomic function tests within 3 months...
October 21, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Michael Christensen, Tomas A Schiffer, Håkan Gustafsson, Søren Palmelund Krag, Rikke Nørregaard, Fredrik Palm
AIMS: To examine the effect of the hypoglycemic drug metformin on oxygen metabolism and mitochondrial function, in the kidney of an animal model of insulinopenic diabetes in order to isolate any renoprotective effect from any concomitant effect on blood glucose homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) and when stable started on metformin treatment (250 mg/kg) in the drinking water. Rats were prepared for In Vivo measurements 25-30 days after STZ injection, where renal function, including glomerular filtration rate and sodium transport were estimated in anesthetized rats...
October 21, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Shihab Kochumon, Fatema Al-Rashed, Mohamed Abu-Farha, Sriraman Devarajan, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Chemokines produced by adipose tissue (AT) are involved in the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in obese humans and rodents. AT CCL19 expression in obesity and its association with metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCL19 gene expression on inflammatory markers in subcutaneous AT and insulin resistance. METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose samples were collected from 56 non-diabetic (26-obese, 21-overweight, and 9-lean) individuals...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Nick S R Lan, P Gerry Fegan, Bu B Yeap, Damon A Bell, Gerald F Watts
Dyslipidaemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. However, determining when to initiate statin therapy in young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) can often be challenging. This is due to a relative paucity of data in this area to guide management and for developing T1DM specific risk engines. Current recommendations from international guidelines offer differing approaches to cardiovascular risk stratification and management of dyslipidaemia in T1DM...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Lía Nattero-Chávez, Sandra Redondo López, Sara Alonso Díaz, Marta Garnica Ureña, Elena Fernández-Durán, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale, Manuel Luque-Ramírez
AIMS: Epidemiological data on subclinical atherosclerotic disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) are scarce. We aimed to estimate the subclinical atherosclerosis profile of asymptomatic patients with DM1 and an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional design ( Identifier: NCT02910271), we estimated ABI in 289 consecutive asymptomatic patients with DM1. An abnormal ABI led to measurements of toe-brachial index (TBI) and peripheral doppler ultrasound (DUS) to diagnose peripheral artery disease (PAD) and/or atherosclerotic carotid plaques (ACP)...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Stacey L Gorniak, Fangmei Yoshimi Lu, Beom Chan Lee, Paul J Massman, Jing Wang
BACKGROUND: Pathology induced by metabolic disorders, eg. Type 2 Diabetes, has recently been linked to both sensory and motor deficits in the absence of a formal clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. Studies have demonstrated mild cognitive impairment in diabetes patients, which also plays a role in one's loss of ability to successfully perform basic motor activities. This project focused on evaluating cognitive function while maintaining balance. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive and motor deficits would occur among adults with Type 2 Diabetes versus healthy age- and sex-matched control during a balance task...
October 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Katarzyna Piechowiak, Agnieszka Szypowska
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the physiological factors influencing diabetes control in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from diabetes diagnosis. METHODS: This study focused on 163 children (81 boys) initiated with CSII within 2 weeks after T1D recognition and treated for at least 3 years. We analysed fasting C-peptide, GADA, ICA, IA2A, BMI z-score, total daily dose, and basal insulin...
October 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Renato Casana, Chiara Malloggi, Valerio Stefano Tolva, Andrea Odero, Richard Bulbulia, Alison Halliday, Vincenzo Silani
AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is composed of a cluster of related cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine how MetS contributes to short- (30-day) and long-term complications and restenosis after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or stenting (CAS). METHODS: A consecutive cohort of 752 patients undergoing CEA (n = 314) and CAS (n = 438) in a single institution were examined, of which 296 (39.4%) were identified as having MetS. All patients were followed-up with carotid duplex ultrasound scan of the supraaortic vessels and a neurological assessment of symptoms status at 30 days post-procedure and at 3, 6 and 12 months, with annual follow-up thereafter for 3 years...
October 12, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Qiao Mi, Yanxin Li, Miao Wang, Gangyi Yang, Xili Zhao, Hua Liu, Hongting Zheng, Ling Li
BACKGROUND: C1q/TNF-related protein isoform 15 (CTRP15) has been reported to be related to glucose and lipid metabolism, but the results are inconsistent. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders. The aim of this study is to determine circulating CTRP15 levels in individuals with MetS and investigate the association among circulating CTRP15 and markers for MetS as well as insulin resistance. METHODS: A total of 341 individuals were recruited for this cross-sectional study...
October 10, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Jiyin Zhou, Zuo Zhang, Guisheng Qian
Diabetes impairs the bone marrow (BM) architecture and function as well as the mobilization of immature cells into the bloodstream and number of potential regenerative cells. Circadian regulation of bone immature cell migration is regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, which are expressed on hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts in BM. Diabetes is associated with a substantially lower number of sympathetic nerve terminal endings in BM; thus, diabetic neuropathy plays a critical role in BM dysfunction...
October 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Marco Castellana, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Brescia, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that antihyperglycaemic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving the HbA1c target on basal insulin should be intensified with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) or basal-plus/basal-bolus (BP/BB) insulin regimen. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effects of GLP-1RA/insulin combinations versus BP/BB. METHODS: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017079547)...
September 30, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Poon-Wing Wong, Heung-Man Lee, Eric S H Lau, Cadmon Lim, Ronald C W Ma, Alice P S Kong, Juliana C N Chan, Andrea O Y Luk
AIM: Current evidence relating testosterone to cardiovascular disease and mortality is inconclusive. Cellular effects of testosterone are mediated by androgen receptor and longer receptor gene CAG repeat length correlates with reduced transcriptional activity. We investigated the independent and interactive association of total testosterone and CAG repeat length with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality in Chinese men with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2008 and February 2009, 474 men with diabetes underwent structured clinical assessment including genotyping for CAG repeat length...
September 27, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ernesto Maddaloni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Lei Xu, Rui He, Xiaohan Hua, Jun Zhao, Jungong Zhao, Hui Zeng, Lianxi Li, Fang Liu, Weiping Jia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between ankle-branchial index (ABI) and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: A total of 634 inpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited in this cross-sectional study. All patients were measured with ABI and computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan for coronary artery disease (CAD). According to ABI values, patients were divided into three groups: low-ABI group (ABI < 0.9, n = 259), normal-ABI group (ABI = 0...
September 25, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Jocelyn J Drinkwater, Wendy A Davis, Timothy M E Davis
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for cataract development. With T2D prevalence increasing, the burden of cataract-associated vision loss will also increase. We aimed to characterise cataract diabetes-specific risk factors to assist prevention and management strategies. As part of a systematic review, two investigators independently searched online electronic databases according to a predetermined protocol for relevant published data to end-March 2018. Studies were included if they were longitudinal with ≥100 participants, diabetes was defined, a description of cataract assessment was provided, data were from humans, and the reports were in English...
September 12, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ying Xia, Zhiguo Xie, Gan Huang, Zhiguang Zhou
A wealth of epidemiological studies concerning the distribution of type 1 diabetes (T1D) around the world have pointed to the appreciable variation in the incidence of T1D among disparate age groups, ethnicities and geographical locations. On the whole, the incidence of childhood T1D has been on the rise and a plausible inverse relationship between the initial incidence rate and the following annual increase in incidence has been raised. Countries that used to exhibit lower incidences tend to have steep annual increase whereas those with already-established high incidences are more likely to show a modest increase or even stabilization in T1D incidence...
September 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
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