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Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews

D Bogdanou, M Penna-Martinez, N Filmann, T L Chung, Y Moran-Auth, J Wehrle, C Cappel, S Huenecke, E Herrmann, U Koehl, K Badenhoop
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is mediated by autoaggressive T effector cells with an underlying regulatory T cell (Treg) defect. Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is highly prevalent in T1D which can aggravate immune dysfunction. High dose VD treatment may enhance Tregs and improve metabolism in T1D patients. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with cross-over design, patients received either for three months cholecalciferol 4000 IU/d, followed by three months placebo or the sequential alternative...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
M Incani, C Serafini, C Satta, L Perra, F Scano, P Frongia, R Ricciardi, C Ripoli, M Soro, A Strazzera, S Zampetti, R Buzzetti, M G Cavallo, E Cossu, M G Baroni
BACKGROUND: The incidence of T1DM In Sardinia is among the highest in the world (44.8 cases/100,000 person-years). Recommendations of the Immunology of Diabetes Society (IDS) advise evaluating autoantibody positivity in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T1DM, for their higher risk to develop the disease. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of beta-cell autoimmunity in first-degree relatives of T1DM patients in Sardinia. METHODS: 188 Sardinian families were recruited in collaboration between Diabetes and Paediatric Units of University and District Hospitals in Sardinia...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Bo Zhang, Jing Zhao, Wenying Yang
BACKGROUND: In some circumstances, the premixed insulin should be switched to alternative therapy. The effectiveness and safety of switching from premixed insulin to insulin glargine plus oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have not been clarified, and will be assessed in this study. METHODS: Chinese patients with T2DM (2,013 men and women aged 18 to 75 years) who had received premixed insulin ± OADs for ≥ 3 months with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤ 10% were enrolled in a prospective, observational study conducted at 53 hospitals across China...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Urszula Razny, Danuta Fedak, Beata Kiec-Wilk, Joanna Goralska, Anna Gruca, Anna Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Kiec-Klimczak, Bogdan Solnica, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Malgorzata Malczewska-Malec
BACKGROUND: Carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC) participates in bone remodeling, whereas the undercarboxylated form (Glu-OC) takes part in energy metabolism. This study was undertaken to compare the blood levels of Glu-OC and Gla-OC in non-obese, healthy obese as well as prediabetic volunteers and correlate it with the metabolic markers of insulin resistance and early markers of inflammation. METHODS: Non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m(2) , n = 34) and obese subjects (>30 BMI <40 kg/m(2) , n = 98), both sexes, aged 25-65 years were divided into: healthy control, normal weight subjects, healthy obese and obese with biochemical markers of prediabetes and subgroups with obesity and low or high Gla-OC or Glu-OC and considered for statistical analysis...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Junhong Leng, Peng Wang, Ping Shao, Cuiping Zhang, Weiqin Li, Nan Li, Leishen Wang, Hairong Nan, Zhijie Yu, Gang Hu, Juliana Cn Chan, Xilin Yang
BACKGROUND: Passive smoking increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk but it is uncertain whether it also increased gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. We aimed to examine the association of passive smoking during pregnancy and its interaction with maternal obesity for GDM. METHODS: From 2010 to 2012, 12,786 Chinese women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 weeks of gestation and further underwent a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if the GCT result was ≥7...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Yasue Omori, Keiko Yanagisawa, Asako Sato, Yasuko Uchigata
There are no reports of very long follow-up studies of pregnant women with type 2 diabetes after delivery. Here we describe cases of Japanese women that we treated for 20-50 years after deliveries to investigate the relationship between blood glucose control and diabetic complications. In Japan, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes is very low and we have very few long-term follow-up cases with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, we chose to describe subjects with type 2 diabetes only. We present data on a total of 80 deliveries, 68 cases, treated by one of us (Y...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Wai Gin Lee, Rinki Murphy, John L McCall, Edward J Gane, Mattias Soop, Andrea Tura, Lindsay D Plank
BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is frequently complicated by portal hypertension leading to increased mortality from variceal bleeding and hepatic decompensation. Non-cardioselective β-blockers reduce portal hypertension and prevent variceal bleeding in cirrhosis, but also impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in other settings. This study aimed to determine whether non-selective β-blockade with nadolol impairs glucose metabolism in liver cirrhosis. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of nadolol in cirrhotic patients examined insulin sensitivity, disposition index and glucose tolerance...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Denis Raccah, Engels Chou, Stephen Colagiuri, Zsolt Gaàl, Fernando Lavalle, Ashot Mkrtumyan, Elena Nikonova, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Josep Vidal, Melanie Davies
BACKGROUND: This study used data from different sources to identify the extent of the unmet need for postprandial glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after the initiation of basal insulin therapy in Europe, Asia Pacific, the United States, and Latin America. METHODS: Different levels of evidence were used as available for each country/region, with data extracted from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three clinical trial registries (CTRs), and three electronic medical record (EMR) databases...
September 8, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Yan Guo, Chao-Qian Liu, Cheng-Xiang Shan, Yue Chen, Hui-Hua Li, Zhi-Ping Huang, Da-Jin Zou
BACKGROUND: Recent work of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery is limited and the results have not been in agreement. Given the role of the gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism, we explored the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on the modifications of gut microbiota with regard to the potential influence of food intake and/or weight loss and examined their links with host metabolism. METHODS: Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into the following groups: RYGB, sham-operated with pair-fed as RYGB, sham-operated fed ad libitum and SG...
August 30, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Li Hao Richie Xu, Naim M Maalouf
BACKGROUND: Insulin may influence magnesium homeostasis through multiple mechanisms. Acutely, it stimulates the shift of magnesium from plasma into red blood cells and platelets, and in vitro, it stimulates the activity of the TRPM6 channel, a key regulator of renal magnesium reabsorption. We investigated the impact of hyperinsulinemia on magnesium handling in participants with a wide range of insulin sensitivity. METHOD: Forty-seven participants were recruited, including 34 nondiabetic controls and 13 with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
August 22, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Nana Wang, Zhen Xu, Ping Han, Tiegang Li
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between serum levels of glycated albumin (GA), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and GA/HbA1c ratio and the presence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: 206 consecutive patients with T2DM were enrolled from the endocrinology ward at Shengjing Hospital of the China Medical University, and classified into two groups: DN group (n =71) and diabetic non-nephropathy (non-DN) group (n = 135)...
August 18, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Clarissa Silva Martins, Daniel Elias, Leandro Machado Colli, Carlos Eduardo Couri, Manoel Carlos L A Souza, Ayrton C Moreira, Milton C Foss, Lucila L K Elias, Margaret de Castro
CONTEXT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) shares several similarities with hypercortisolism. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX), NR3C1 polymorphisms (SNPs), and expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms and cytokines in peripheral immune cells of MetS patients and controls. DESIGN: Prospective study with 40 MetS patients and 40 controls was conducted at the Ribeirao Preto Medical School University Hospital...
August 9, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Włodzimierz Łuczyński, Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska, Artur Bossowski
The exact cause of the obesity epidemic remains unknown; however, both environmental and genetic factors are involved. People at risk of developing obesity include children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which in turn increases their cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we discuss the clinical and genetic factors influencing weight in patients with T1DM. In children with T1DM, the presence of obesity depends mainly on sex, metabolic control, and disease duration. However, genetic factors, including the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, are also associated with body weight...
October 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Carl Grunfeld, Rachel Dankner
In the past, the increased prevalence of diabetes in HIV infection has been attributed to antiretroviral drugs. In this study, Cameroonians with HIV infection were shown in a paper in this issue of the Journal to be more likely to have diabetes if they were not on therapy. Future research should examine if the diabetes is related to the host response to infection or to socioeconomic factors that might both contribute to not being on anti-retroviral therapy and predispose to diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...
September 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
John Y Rhee, Tumi Divine Bahtila, Dennis Palmer, Pius Muffih Tih, Judith A Aberg, Derek LeRoith, Jennifer Jao
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and certain antiretrovirals are associated with diabetes. Few studies have examined the prevalence of and factors associated with diabetes among HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa; some report prevalence estimates between 3.5-26.5% for diabetes in Cameroon and 20.2-43.5% for prediabetes in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, HIV-infected individuals (16-65 years old) were screened for diabetes using haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c )...
September 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ying Shao, Chuan Lv, Can Wu, Yuehong Zhou, Qiuyue Wang
BACKGROUND: Silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) plays a protective role in kidney. Sirt1 suppresses activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), with MircroRNA-217 (Mir-217) being closely related to Sirt1. The relationship of Sirt1, HIF-1α and Mir-217, however, has never been reported in high glucose cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (RMCs). Thus, we explored the role of Mir-217 on inflammation and fibrosis in RMCs cultured with high glucose in vitro through Sirt1/HIF-1α signaling pathway...
September 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Insa Feinkohl, Georg Winterer, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction, a condition distinct from post-operative delirium (POD), occurs frequently after surgery, and is related to dementia and premature death. Obesity increases the risk of late-life cognitive impairment, but little is known about its role in post-operative cognitive dysfunction. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between obesity and risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched...
September 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Xinyuan Liu, Song Zhang, Xia Li, Peilin Zheng, Fang Hu, Zhiguang Zhou
BACKGROUND: The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a commonly used animal model for studying type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aims of our study were to explore the diabetes-preventive effect in NOD mice and the potential mechanisms of an optimized co-expression DNA vaccine containing GAD65 fragment gene with the IL-10 gene (SGAD65190-315 /IL-10). METHODS: Female NOD mice at the age of 3-4 weeks old were randomly divided into two groups and received intra-muscular injection of either blank pBudCE4...
September 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
G Kramer, N Kuniss, C Kloos, T Lehmann, N Müller, A Sämann, G Wolf, U A Müller
BACKGROUND: Multiple insulin injection therapy can easily be adapted to the patient's needs. Therefore, it is supposed that more intensive insulin therapy is associated with better metabolic control and less hypoglycaemia compared with a conventional insulin strategy in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: HbA1c and incidence of non-severe and severe hypoglycaemia were analysed with regard to the strategy of insulin therapy [multiple insulin injection therapy with preprandial insulin with or without basal insulin or conventional insulin therapy with twice-daily premix insulin] from 20 943 visits of 1417 people treated with insulin with type 2 diabetes in a university outpatient department for endocrinology and metabolic diseases over a period of 22 years...
September 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Qian Gao, Guo-Lin He, Li Zhang, Huai Bai, Xing-Hui Liu, Ping Fan
BACKGROUND: Abnormal activity and distribution of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) are associated with chronic inflammatory status. In this study, we investigate the activity and distribution of plasma PAF-AH and their association with metabolic components in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in their neonates. METHODS: Based on the International Association of Diabetes Pregnancy Study Group criteria, we performed a case-controlled study of 101 women with GDM, 98 women with uncomplicated pregnancies, 142 neonates of mothers with GDM and 121 neonates of mothers with uncomplicated pregnancies...
September 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
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