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Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews

Jocelyn J Drinkwater, Wendy A Davis, Timothy M E Davis
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for cataract development. With T2D prevalence increasing, the burden of cataract-associated vision loss will also increase. We aimed to characterise cataract diabetes-specific risk factors to assist prevention and management strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a systematic review, two investigators independently searched online electronic databases according to a predetermined protocol for relevant published data to end-March 2018...
September 12, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ying Xia, Zhiguo Xie, Gan Huang, Zhiguang Zhou
A wealth of epidemiological studies concerning the distribution of type 1 diabetes (T1D) around the world have pointed to the appreciable variation in the incidence of T1D among disparate age groups, ethnicities and geographical locations. On the whole, the incidence of childhood T1D has been on the rise and a plausible inverse relationship between the initial incidence rate and the following annual increase in incidence has been raised. Countries that used to exhibit lower incidences tend to have steep annual increase whereas those with already-established high incidences are more likely to show a modest increase or even stabilization in T1D incidence...
September 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Corinna Niersmann, Stefanie M Hauck, Julia M Kannenberg, Karin Röhrig, Christine von Toerne, Michael Roden, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg
AIMS: Experimental and epidemiological studies reported controversial data on the role of omentin in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to characterise the impact of omentin on the secretome of human adipocytes to analyse the enrichment of these proteins in metabolic and cellular signalling pathways underlying its physiological function. MATERIAL/METHODS: Differentiated primary human adipocytes were treated without or with 500 or 2000 ng/ml omentin for 24h...
September 9, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Miji Kim, Anam Basharat, Ramchandani Santosh, Syed F Mehdi, Zanali Razvi, Sun K Yoo, Barbara Lowell, Amrat Kumar, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Rachel Dankner, Michael Bergman, Valentin A Pavlov, Huan Yang, Jesse Roth
Over-nutrition and its late consequences are a dominant theme in medicine today. In addition to the health hazards brought on by over-nutrition, the medical community has recently accumulated a roster of health benefits with obesity, grouped under "obesity paradox". Throughout the world and throughout history until the 20th century, under-nutrition was a dominant evolutionary force. Under-nutrition brings with it a mix of benefits and detriments that are opposite to and continuous with those of over-nutrition...
September 1, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Michelle Teodoro Alves, Mylena Maira Ortiz, Guilherme Victor Oliveira Pimenta Dos Reis, Luci Maria Sant'Ana Dusse, Maria das Graças Carvalho, Ana Paula Fernandes, Karina Braga Gomes
C-peptide is a cleavage product of proinsulin that acts on different type of cells, such as blood and endothelium cells. C-peptide biological effects may be different in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Besides, there are further evidence for a functional interaction between C-peptide and insulin. In this way, this peptide has ambiguous effects, acting as an antithrombotic or thrombotic molecule, depending on the physiological environment and disease conditions. Moreover, its regulates interaction of leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets with the endothelium...
August 30, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Chao Ma, Huan Luo, Bing Liu, Feng Li, Carsten Tschöpe, Xianen Fa
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) can cause extensive necrosis of the heart muscle by metabolic disorders and microangiopathy, with subclinical cardiac dysfunction, and eventually progress to heart failure, arrhythmia, and cardiogenic shock; severe patients may even die suddenly. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of nonprotein-coding RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides. They have critical roles in various biological processes, including gene expression regulation, genomic imprinting, nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking, RNA splicing, and translational control...
August 29, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Xiaohong Niu, Shuoming Luo, Xia Li, Zhiguo Xie, Yufei Xiang, Gan Huang, Jian Lin, Lin Yang, Zhenqi Liu, Xiangbing Wang, R David Leslie, Zhiguang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) exhibits significant clinical heterogeneity but the underlying causes remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether age of onset of LADA contributes to the observed clinical heterogeneity by comparing the clinical, metabolic and immunogenetic characteristics between elderly and young LADA patients. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included a total of 579 patients with LADA which was further divided into elderly LADA (E-LADA) group (n=135, age of onset ≥ 60 years) and young LADA (Y-LADA) group (n=444, age of onset < 60 years)...
August 29, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Raffaella Gentilella, Valeria Pechtner, Antonella Corcos, Agostino Consoli
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RAs) are an important class of drugs with a well-established efficacy and safety profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Agents in this class are derived from either exendin-4 (a compound present in Gila monster venom) or modifications of human GLP-1 active fragment. Differences among these drugs in duration of action (i.e. short-acting vs long-acting), effects on glycaemic control and weight loss, immunogenicity, tolerability profiles and administration routes offer physicians several options when selecting the most appropriate agent for individual patients...
August 29, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Gaetano Leto, Luca D'Onofrio, Federica Lucantoni, Simona Zampetti, Giuseppe Campagna, Chiara Foffi, Chiara Moretti, Angela Carlone, Andrea Palermo, Martina Leopizzi, Natale Porta, Marco Massucci, Andrea Lenzi, Giovanni Battista Bertoletti, Carlo Della Rocca, Raffaella Buzzetti
BACKGROUND: Sclerostin (SC) is a monomeric glycoprotein expressed by osteocytes that affects bone formation. Recent studies have suggested a potential role for this protein in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate SC expression in atherosclerotic plaques of patients affected by severe atherosclerotic disease who underwent carotid endarterectomy. We also evaluated possible differences in SC expression between patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
August 24, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
H Stowe McMurry, Emily Mendenhall, L R Aravind, Lavanya Nambiar, Srinath Satyanarayana, Roopa Shivashankar
Increasing co-prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) indicates a rising threat to the decades of progress made against TB and requires global attention. This systematic review provides a summary of type 2 diabetes and tuberculosis co-prevalence in various LMICs. We searched PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase and PsychINFO databases for studies that provided estimates of TB-DM co-prevalence in LMICs published between 1990 and 2016. Studies that were non-English, exclusively conducted in multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis or type 1 diabetes and inpatient settings were excluded...
August 24, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Yun Shen, Wei Zhu, Lihua Lu, Fengdi Lu, Kai Kan, Yuqian Bao, Jian Zhou, Weiping Jia
AIM: To investigate the association between structured self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and diabetes self-efficacy in Chinese patients. METHODS: This study was a single-center, open-label, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and fifty patients were recruited and randomly assigned to the structured SMBG group and the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The main outcome observed in this subgroup analysis was a change in the diabetes self-efficacy scale (DSES) scores...
August 24, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Claudio Tiberti, Simona Zampetti, Danila Capoccia, Giuseppe Campagna, Federica Lucantoni, Emanuela Anastasi, Lucia Pallotta, Francesca Panimolle, Gaetano Leto, Andrea Lenzi, Frida Leonetti, Raffaella Buzzetti
BACKGROUND: Recently, significant attention has been paid to the possible activation of an autoimmune response in the presence of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the frequencies of autoantibodies typical of autoimmune diabetes in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and controls. We also evaluated the presence of immunoreactivity to Hashimoto's thyroiditis and autoimmune gastritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive sera from obese patients, 444 with NGT, 322 with T2D, and 212 controls were analysed by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for glutamic acid decarboxylase, protein tyrosine phosphatase islet antigen-2 (IA-2)IC and IA-2(256-760) , islet beta-cell zinc cation transporter (ZnT8), thyroid peroxidase, and anti-parietal cell autoantibodies...
August 20, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Juan Huang, Yang Xiao, Peilin Zheng, Wenzhi Zhou, Yanfei Wang, Gan Huang, Aimin Xu, Zhiguang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Recent discoveries from animal models demonstrated that neutrophils can induce type 1 diabetes (T1D) through infiltrating into the islets. However, the evidence of their actions in type 1 diabetes patients is relatively rare, and the change trend of neutrophil numbers and functions in different subtypes of diabetes have not been investigated. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed T1D (n = 189), latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) (n = 86), T2D (n = 235) and healthy controls (n = 709) were enrolled...
August 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Vincent Rigalleau, Julie Benoit, Léa Charret, Capucine Bertrand, Ninon Foussard, Laurence Blanco, Laure Alexandre, Marie Monlun, Kamel Mohammedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Tonia de Las Heras Gala, Christian Herder, Femke Rutters, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Cornelia Huth, Coen D A Stehouwer, Giel Nijpels, Casper Schalkwijk, Allan Flyvbjerg, Paul W Franks, Jacqueline Dekker, Christa Meisinger, Wolfgang Koenig, Michael Roden, Wolfgang Rathmann, Annette Peters, Barbara Thorand
AIMS: Subclinical systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, but its association with early progression of glycemic deterioration in persons without diabetes has not been fully investigated. Our primary aim was to assess longitudinal associations of changes in pro- (leukocytes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) and anti-inflammatory (adiponectin) markers with changes in markers that assessed glycemia, insulin resistance and secretion (HbA1c , HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß)...
August 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Xiao Mei Zhang, Peng Fei Li, Jia Ning Hou, Li Nong Ji
AIM: The primary objective of this study was to compare blood glucose (BG) excursions between East Asian and Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were injection-naive, had inadequate glycemic control with oral antihyperglycemic medications (OAMs), and who required initiation with injectable therapy. METHODS: This retrospective pooled analysis included individual patient data from completed clinical trials (Eli Lilly insulin lispro injection/dulaglutide development programs, first patient visit ≥1997)...
August 15, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ye Liu, Qing Tian, Jin Yang, Haining Wang, Tianpei Hong
AIMS: Evidence on the pancreatic safety of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy has been limited. The objective of the study was to investigate this issue by pooling data on the incidence of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer from four large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from four published cardiovascular outcome trials of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes, and pooled analysis was performed to evaluate the risk of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment...
August 14, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Zhenzhong Zheng, Fan Zhang, Dengpeng Gao, Yujing Wu, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells is one of the key factors in the process of diabetic cardiomyopathy, a common chronic complication of diabetes. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) is linked to apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response, all of which also occur in diabetes. Thus, we investigate the role of FGL 2 and other genes in the pathology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In the present study, we used high-throughput microarray to profile gene expression in rat myocardial microvascular endothelial cells (MMEC) with or without silencing the fgl2 gene and in different glucose environments...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Begum Gurel-Gokmen, Hazal Ipekci, Sehkar Oktay, Burcın Alev, Unsal Velı Ustundag, Esın Ak, Dılek Akakın, Goksel Sener, Ebru Emekli-Alturfan, Aysen Yarat, Tugba Tunali-Akbay
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder which is characterized by the development of resistance to the cellular activity of insulin or inadequate insulin production. It leads to hyperglycemia, prolonged inflammation, and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is assumed to play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. Melatonin is the hormone that interacts with insulin in diabetes. Therefore, in this study, the effects of melatonin treatment with or without insulin were examined in diabetic rat brain...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
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