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World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG

Xiao-Hui Zhao, Zai-Rui Wang, Chang-Long Chen, Ling Di, Zhuo-Fei Bi, Zhi-Hua Li, Yi-Min Liu
AIM: To evaluate the clinical properties of three subpopulations of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. METHODS: We identified CTCs for expression of the epithelial cell marker cytokeratin or epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (E-CTC), the mesenchymal cell markers vimentin and twist (M-CTC), or both (E/M-CTC) using the CanPatrol system. Between July 2014 and July 2016, 107 patients with PDAC were enrolled for CTC evaluation...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Dong-Lin Ren, Juan Li, Hui-Chuan Yu, Shao-Yong Peng, Wei-Da Lin, Xiao-Lin Wang, Roshan Ara Ghoorun, Yan-Xin Luo
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, neoadjuvant therapy (NT) has been the standardized treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Approximately 8%-35% of patients with LARC who received NT were reported to have achieved a complete pathological response (pCR). If the pathological response (PR) can be accurately predicted, these patients may not need surgery. In addition, no response after NT implies that the tumor is destructive, resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and prone to having a high metastatic potential...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hiroaki Yasuda, Keisho Kataoka, Yoshifumi Takeyama, Kazunori Takeda, Tetsuhide Ito, Toshihiko Mayumi, Shuji Isaji, Tetsuya Mine, Motoji Kitagawa, Seiki Kiriyama, Junichi Sakagami, Atsushi Masamune, Kazuo Inui, Kenji Hirano, Ryukichi Akashi, Masamichi Yokoe, Yoshio Sogame, Kazuichi Okazaki, Chie Morioka, Yasuyuki Kihara, Shigeyuki Kawa, Masao Tanaka, Akira Andoh, Wataru Kimura, Isao Nishimori, Junji Furuse, Isao Yokota, Tooru Shimosegawa
BACKGROUND: Rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test and levels of urinary trypsinogen-2 and trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) concentration have been reported as prognostic markers for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. AIM: To reconfirm the validity of all these markers in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis by undertaking a multi-center study in Japan. METHODS: Patients with acute abdominal pain were recruited from 17 medical institutions in Japan from April 2009 to December 2012...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Amaranath Karunanayake, Shaman Rajindrajith, Hitanadura Asita de Silva, Sampath Gunawardena, Niranga Manjuri Devanarayana
BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are the most common cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children. Despite its high prevalence, the underlying pathophysiology of this condition is poorly understood. AIM: To assess the role of gastric dysmotility and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of AP-FGIDs. METHODS: One hundred children, fulfilling Rome III criteria for AP-FGIDs, and 50 healthy controls, aged 5 to 12 years, were recruited after obtaining parental consent...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ying Xiong, Qian-Qian Chen, Ning-Li Chai, Shun-Chang Jiao, En-Qiang Ling Hu
AIM: To assess the efficiency of endoscopic trans-esophageal submucosal tunneling surgery (EESTS) technique for diseases located around the aorta ventralis. METHODS: Nine pigs were assigned to EESTs. The procedures were as follows: First, a long esophageal submucosal tunnel was established. Second, full-thickness myotomy was created. Third, an endoscope was entered into the abdominal cavity through a muscle incision and the endoscope was around the aorta ventralis...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Tomonori Aoki, Yoshihiro Hirata, Atsuo Yamada, Kazuhiko Koike
Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common indication for hospital admission. Patients with LGIB often experience persistent or recurrent bleeding and require blood transfusions and interventions, such as colonoscopic, radiological, and surgical treatments. Appropriate decision-making is needed to initially manage acute LGIB, including emergency hospitalization, timing of colonoscopy, and medication use. In this literature review, we summarize the evidence for initial management of acute LGIB...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Shiru L Liu, Winson Y Cheung
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a prevalent disease and represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Intensive post-treatment surveillance is routinely recommended by major expert groups for early stage (II and III) CRC survivors because previous meta-analyses showed a modest, but significant survival benefit. This practice has been recently challenged based on data emerging from several large phase III randomized trials that demonstrated a lack of survival benefit from intensive surveillance strategies...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Shahab Mahmoudvand, Somayeh Shokri, Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection plays a major role in HCC development. The molecular mechanisms by which HCV infection leads to HCC are varied. HCV core protein is an important risk factor in HCV-associated liver pathogenesis and can modulate several signaling pathways involved in cell cycle regulation, cell growth promotion, cell proliferation, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. The dysregulation of signaling pathways such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Wnt/β-catenin (WNT), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) by HCV core protein is implicated in the development of HCC...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Kenneth J Chang
In this paper, I reviewed the emerging field of endoscopic surgery and present data supporting the contention that endoscopy can now be used to treat many foregut diseases that have been traditionally treated surgically. Within each topic, the content will progress as follows: "lessons learned", "technical considerations" and "future opportunities". Lessons learned will provide a brief background and update on the most current literature. Technical considerations will include my personal experience, including tips and tricks that I have learned over the years...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ming Lei, Lu-Nan Yan, Jia-Yin Yang, Tian-Fu Wen, Bo Li, Wen-Tao Wang, Hong Wu, Ming-Qing Xu, Zhe-Yu Chen, Yong-Gang Wei
BACKGROUND: Given the shortage of suitable liver grafts for liver transplantation, proper use of hepatitis B core antibody-positive livers might be a possible way to enlarge the donor pool and to save patients with end-stage liver diseases. However, the safety of hepatitis B virus core antibody positive (HBcAb+ ) donors has been controversial. Initial studies were mainly conducted overseas with relatively small numbers of HBcAb+ liver recipients, and there are few relevant reports in the population of mainland China...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xing-Xin Yang, Jia-Di Wei, Jian-Kang Mu, Xin Liu, Jin-Cai Dong, Lin-Xi Zeng, Wen Gu, Jing-Ping Li, Jie Yu
AIM: To identify the effects and mechanism of action of Polygonatum kingianum ( P. kingianum ) on dyslipidemia in rats using an integrated untargeted metabolomic method. METHODS: A rat model of dyslipidemia was induced with a high-fat diet (HFD) and rats were given P. kingianum [4 g/(kg•d)] intragastrically for 14 wk. Changes in serum and hepatic lipid parameters were evaluated. Metabolites in serum, urine and liver samples were profiled using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry followed by multivariate statistical analysis to identify potential biomarkers and metabolic pathways...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Winn Aung, Atsushi B Tsuji, Aya Sugyo, Hiroki Takashima, Masahiro Yasunaga, Yasuhiro Matsumura, Tatsuya Higashi
AIM: To investigate near-infrared photoimmunotherapeutic effect mediated by an anti-tissue factor (TF) antibody conjugated to indocyanine green (ICG) in a pancreatic cancer model. METHODS: Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a highly selective tumor treatment that utilizes an antibody-photosensitizer conjugate administration, followed by NIR light exposure. Anti-TF antibody 1849-ICG conjugate was synthesized by labeling of rat IgG2b anti-TF monoclonal antibody 1849 (anti-TF 1849) to a NIR photosensitizer, ICG...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Waqar Khalid Saeed, Dae Won Jun, Kiseok Jang, Sang Bong Ahn, Ju Hee Oh, Yeon Ji Chae, Jai Sun Lee, Hyeon Tae Kang
AIM: To validate the effects of receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3) deletion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to clarify the mechanism of action. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and RIP3 knockout (KO) mice were fed normal chow and high fat (HF) diets for 12 wk. The body weight was assessed once weekly. After 12 wk, the liver and serum samples were extracted. The liver tissue expression levels of RIP3, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, protein disulfide isomerase, apolipoprotein-B, X-box binding protein-1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, cluster of differentiation-36, diglyceride acyltransferase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 were assessed...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Domagoj Drmic, Mariam Samara, Tinka Vidovic, Dominik Malekinusic, Marko Antunovic, Borna Vrdoljak, Jelena Ruzman, Marija Milkovic Perisa, Katarina Horvat Pavlov, Jerusha Jeyakumar, Sven Seiwerth, Predrag Sikiric
AIM: To study the counteraction of perforated cecum lesion using BPC 157 and nitric oxide (NO) system agents. METHODS: Alongside with the agents' application (after 1 min, medication (/kg, 10 mL/2 min bath/rat) includes: BPC 157 (10 μg), L-NAME (5 mg), L-arginine (100mg) alone or combined, and saline baths (controls)) on the rat perforate cecum injury, we continuously assessed the gross reappearance of the vessels (USB microcamera) quickly propagating toward the defect at the cecum surface, defect contraction, bleeding attenuation, MDA- and NO-levels in cecum tissue at 15 min, and severity of cecum lesions and adhesions at 1 and 7 d...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Rafael I Jaén, Patricia Prieto, Marta Casado, Paloma Martín-Sanz, Lisardo Boscá
The biosynthesis of prostanoids is involved in both physiological and pathological processes. The expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2; also known as COX-2) has been traditionally associated to the onset of several pathologies, from inflammation to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and oncologic events. For this reason, the search of selective PTGS2 inhibitors has been a focus for therapeutic interventions. In addition to the classic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective and specific PTGS2 inhibitors, termed coxibs, have been generated and widely used...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Lorenzo Ridola, Silvia Nardelli, Stefania Gioia, Oliviero Riggio
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) represents the mildest type of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This condition alters the performance of psychometric tests by impairing attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial ability, as well as electrophysiological and other functional brain measures. MHE is a frequent complication of liver disease, affecting up to 80% of tested patients, depending of the diagnostic tools used for the diagnosis. MHE is related to falls, to an impairment in fitness to drive and the development of overt HE, MHE severely affects the lives of patients and caregivers by altering their quality of life (QoL) and their socioeconomic status...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Tahrin Mahmood, Michael Anthony Scaffidi, Rishad Khan, Samir Chandra Grover
Virtual reality simulation is becoming the standard when beginning endoscopic training. It offers various benefits including learning in a low-stakes environment, improvement of patient safety and optimization of valuable endoscopy time. This is a review of the evidence surrounding virtual reality simulation and its efficacy in teaching endoscopic techniques. There have been 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated virtual reality simulation as a teaching tool in endoscopy. 10 RCTs studied virtual reality in colonoscopy, 3 in flexible sigmoidoscopy, 5 in esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and 3 in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Monjur Ahmed
Checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used in clinical practice. They can cause various gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects. As these side effects can be serious, appropriate management is essential. The different checkpoint inhibitors with their mechanisms of action and indications, as well as evaluation and management of gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects, are discussed in this article.
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Sandra Wagner, Christina S Mullins, Michael Linnebacher
Therapeutic options for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) are diverse but still not always satisfying. Recent success of immune checkpoint inhibition treatment for the subgroup of CRC patients suffering from hyper-mutated tumors suggests a permanent role of immune therapy in the clinical management of CRC. Substantial improvement in treatment outcome could be achieved by development of efficient patient-individual CRC vaccination strategies. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the two general classes of targets: tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and tumor-specific antigens...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Georgios Neokosmidis, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease in high-income countries and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Macrophages appear to play an important role in the development and progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Accordingly, modulation of macrophage trafficking might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy in this population. Cenicriviroc is an oral inhibitor of the chemokine ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor 2 pathway, which plays an important role in the hepatic recruitment of the macrophages...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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