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Evolution & Development

Savvas J Constantinou, Ryan M Pace, A J Stangl, Lisa M Nagy, Terri A Williams
Wnt genes are a family of conserved glycoprotein ligands that play a role in a wide variety of cell and developmental processes, from cell proliferation to axis elongation. There are 13 Wnt subfamilies found among metazoans. Eleven of these appear conserved in arthropods with a pattern of loss during evolution of as many as six subfamilies among hexapods. Here we report on Wnt genes in the branchiopod crustacean, Thamnocephalus platyurus, including the first documentation of the expression of the complete Wnt gene family in a crustacean...
October 3, 2016: Evolution & Development
Tara Fresques, Steven Zachary Swartz, Celina Juliano, Yoshiaki Morino, Mani Kikuchi, Koji Akasaka, Hiroshi Wada, Mamiko Yajima, Gary M Wessel
Specification of the germ cell lineage is required for sexual reproduction in all animals. However, the timing and mechanisms of germ cell specification is remarkably diverse in animal development. Echinoderms, such as sea urchins and sea stars, are excellent model systems to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to germ cell specification. In several echinoderm embryos tested, the germ cell factor Vasa accumulates broadly during early development and is restricted after gastrulation to cells that contribute to the germ cell lineage...
July 2016: Evolution & Development
Kimberly Suk-Ying Wong, Cesar Arenas-Mena
The expression of transcription factors with endodermal and mesodermal roles in bilaterians is characterized during the development of Hydroides elegans, a serpulid polychaete with planktotrophic trochophore. GATA 4/5/6 is expressed in endodermal and mesodermal precursors during embryogenesis and in the midgut of trochophore larvae. HeGATA1/2/3a is expressed in animal hemisphere blastomeres 1d121 and 1d122, in dorsal ectoderm and in 4d endomesodermal derivatives that maintain their expression in trochophore larvae...
July 2016: Evolution & Development
Tessa K Solomon-Lane, Polina Shvidkaya, Alma Thomas, Megan M Williams, Andrew Rhyne, Lock Rogers, Matthew S Grober
Both individual sex and population sex ratio can affect lifetime reproductive success. As a result, multiple mechanisms have evolved to regulate sexual phenotype, including adult sex change in fishes. While adult sex change is typically socially regulated, few studies focus on the non-chromosomal mechanisms regulating primary sex allocation. We investigated primary sex determination in the bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli), a bidirectionally sex-changing fish. Of the studies investigating primary sex determination in species with adult sex change, this is the first to incorporate the roles of social status and size, key factors for determining adult sex allocation...
July 2016: Evolution & Development
Ingmar Werneburg, Michel Laurin, Daisuke Koyabu, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra
Mammals feature not only great phenotypic disparity, but also diverse growth and life history patterns, especially in maturity level at birth, ranging from altriciality to precocity. Gestation length, morphology at birth, and other markers of life history are fundamental to our understanding of mammalian evolution. Based on the first synthesis of embryological data and the study of new ontogenetic series, we reconstructed estimates of the ancestral chronology of organogenesis and life-history modes in placental mammals...
July 2016: Evolution & Development
Nadine Stecher, Annette Stowasser, Aaron Stahl, Elke K Buschbeck
Stemmata, the larval eyes of holometabolous insects are extremely diverse, ranging from full compound eyes, to a few ommatidial units as are typical in compound eyes, to sophisticated and functionally specialized image-forming camera-type eyes. Stemmata evolved from a compound eye ommatidial ancestor, an eye type that is morphologically well conserved in regards to cellular composition, and well studied in regards to development. However, despite this evolutionary origin it remains largely unknown how stemmata develop...
July 2016: Evolution & Development
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Evolution & Development
Sarah A Signor, Michelle N Arbeitman, Sergey V Nuzhdin
Animal development is the product of distinct components and interactions-genes, regulatory networks, and cells-and it exhibits emergent properties that cannot be inferred from the components in isolation. Often the focus is on the genotype-to-phenotype map, overlooking the process of development that turns one into the other. We propose a move toward micro-evolutionary analysis of development, incorporating new tools that enable cell type resolution and single-cell microscopy. Using the sex determination pathway in Drosophila to illustrate potential avenues of research, we highlight some of the questions that these emerging technologies can address...
May 2016: Evolution & Development
P Piras, L Teresi, L Traversetti, V Varano, S Gabriele, T Kotsakis, P Raia, P E Puddu, M Scalici
Ontogeny is usually studied by analyzing a deformation series spanning over juvenile to adult shapes. In geometric morphometrics, this approach implies applying generalized Procrustes analysis coupled with principal component analysis on multiple individuals or multiple species datasets. The trouble with such a procedure is that it mixes intra- and inter-group variation. While MANCOVA models are relevant statistical/mathematical tools to draw inferences about the similarities of trajectories, if one wants to observe and interpret the morphological deformation alone by filtering inter-group variability, a particular tool, namely parallel transport, is necessary...
May 2016: Evolution & Development
Philip S L Anderson, Danielle C Smith, S N Patek
Related species that share similar biomechanical systems and segmentation patterns may exhibit different patterns of morphological covariation. We examined morphological covariation of the potent prey capture appendage of two mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) species-a spearer (Squilla empusa) and smasher (Gonodactylaceus falcatus). We assessed three frameworks for modularity, two based on the biomechanics of the appendage and one based on its segmentation as a proxy for shared developmental pathways. We collected morphometric data from S...
May 2016: Evolution & Development
Caleb Jones, Theodore Stankowich, Bruno Pernet
Evolutionary transitions between feeding and nonfeeding larval development have occurred many times in marine invertebrates, but the developmental changes underlying these frequent and ecologically important transitions are poorly known, especially in spiralians. We use phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypothesis that evolutionary changes in egg size and larval nutritional mode are associated with parallel changes in allocation of cytoplasm to macromere cell lineages in diverse annelids and molluscs...
May 2016: Evolution & Development
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Evolution & Development
Valentina Franco-Trecu, Carolina Abud, Matías Feijoo, Guillermo Kloetzer, Marcelo Casacuberta, Paula Costa-Urrutia
A species, according to the biological concept, is a natural group of potentially interbreeding individuals isolated by diverse mechanisms. Hybridization is considered the production of offspring resulting from the interbreeding of two genetically distinct taxa. It has been documented in over 10% of wild animals, and at least in 34 cases for Artic marine mammals. In Otariids, intergeneric hybridization has been reported though neither confirming it through genetic analyses nor presenting evidence of fertile offspring...
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Ayako Gotoh, Johan Billen, Rosli Hashim, Fuminori Ito
Reproductive division of labor is one of the crucial features in social insects, however, the developmental mechanisms leading to modifications in the reproductive apparatus of workers are still not very clear. Ants show a remarkable diversity in the morphological specialization of the worker's reproductive apparatus, that allows to distinguish four types, type 1: workers that have ovaries and a functional spermatheca, and that reproduce like queens, type 2: workers have ovaries and a vestigial spermatheca, type 3: workers have ovaries but no spermatheca, and type 4: workers lost both ovaries and spermatheca...
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Maryna P Lesoway
What is the future of evolutionary developmental biology? This question and more were discussed at the inaugural meeting for the Pan American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology, held August 5-9, 2015, in Berkeley, California, USA. More than 300 participants attended the first meeting of the new society, representing the current diversity of Evo-Devo. Speakers came from throughout the Americas, presenting work using an impressive range of study systems, techniques, and approaches. Current research draws from themes including the role of gene regulatory networks, plasticity and the role of the environment, novelty, population genetics, and regeneration, using new and emerging techniques as well as traditional tools...
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Yoshiaki Morino, Hiroyuki Koga, Hiroshi Wada
Echinoderm pluteus larvae are considered a classical example of convergent evolution that occurred in sea urchins and brittle stars. Several genes are known to be involved in the development of pluteus arms in sea urchins, including fgfA, pax2/5/8, pea3, otp, wnt5, and tet. To determine whether the convergent evolution of larval arms also involves these genes in brittle stars, their expression patterns were determined in brittle star. We found that all genes showed similar expression in the arms of ophiopluteus to that seen in echinopluteus, suggesting that convergent evolution of pluteus arms occurred by recruitment of a similar set of genes...
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Christopher M Martinez, F James Rohlf, Michael G Frisk
Instances of sexual dimorphism occur in a great variety of forms and manifestations. Most skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) display some level of body shape dimorphism in which the pectoral fins of mature males develop to create a distinct bell-shaped body not found in females. This particular form of dimorphism is present in each of the sister species Leucoraja erinacea and Leucoraja ocellata, but differences between sexes are much greater in the former. In order to understand the nature and potential causes of pectoral dimorphism, we used geometric morphometrics to investigate allometry of fin shape in L...
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Veronica Hinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Tomonari Kaji, Jonas Keiler, Thomas Bourguignon, Toru Miura
The origins of evolutionary novelties are often deeply puzzling. They are generally associated with new functions that were absent in ancestors. The new functional configuration should arise via intermediate stages without any loss of function or impediment to the whole organism during the transitions. Therefore, understanding of the functional configurations of transitional states can shed light on how novel forms arise. Here we infer the evolutionary origin of a highly specialized termite defensive organ "nasus" where different functions overlap in different structural configurations at intermediate evolutionary stages to ensure that each phase is functional...
March 2016: Evolution & Development
Cédric Finet, Sandra K Floyd, Stephanie J Conway, Bojian Zhong, Charles P Scutt, John L Bowman
Members of the YABBY gene family of transcription factors in angiosperms have been shown to be involved in the initiation of outgrowth of the lamina, the maintenance of polarity, and establishment of the leaf margin. Although most of the dorsal-ventral polarity genes in seed plants have homologs in non-spermatophyte lineages, the presence of YABBY genes is restricted to seed plants. To gain insight into the origin and diversification of this gene family, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of YABBY gene lineages in seed plants...
March 2016: Evolution & Development
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