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Evolution & Development

David A Gold, Clive Long Fung Lau, Holly Fuong, Gregory Kao, Volker Hartenstein, David K Jacobs
Stinging cells called cnidocytes are a defining trait of the cnidarians (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and their relatives). In hydrozoan cnidarians such as Hydra, cnidocytes develop from interstitial stem cells set aside in the ectoderm. It is less clear how cnidocytes develop outside the Hydrozoa, as other cnidarians appear to lack interstitial stem cells. We addressed this question by studying cnidogenesis in the moon jellyfish (Aurelia) through the visualization of minicollagen-a protein associated with cnidocyte development-as well as transmission electron microscopy...
January 8, 2019: Evolution & Development
Mark E Olson
Forty years ago, Gould and Lewontin used the metaphor of a building's "spandrels" to highlight that organismal traits could be the inevitable consequence of organismal construction, with no alternative configurations possible. Because adaptation by natural selection requires variation, regarding a trait incapable of variation as an adaptation could be a serious error. Gould and Lewontin's exhortation spurred biologists' efforts to investigate biases and limitations in development in their studies of adaptation, a major methodological advance...
January 8, 2019: Evolution & Development
Junpei Shinji, Hiroki Gotoh, Hiroshi Miyanishi, Mark D Lavine, Laura Corley Lavine
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, comprising over 80% of total animal species, have evolved regenerative abilities, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating this process. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling mediates a diverse set of essential processes in animals and is a good candidate pathway for regulation of regeneration in arthropods. In this study we investigated the role of activin signaling, a TGF-β superfamily pathway, in limb regeneration in the crayfish. We identified and cloned a downstream transcription factor in the activin pathway, Smox, and characterized its function with regard to other elements of the activin signaling pathway...
December 26, 2018: Evolution & Development
Samantha V Beck, Katja Räsänen, Ehsan P Ahi, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Skúli Skúlason, Zophonías O Jónsson, Camille A Leblanc
Gene expression during development shapes the phenotypes of individuals. Although embryonic gene expression can have lasting effects on developmental trajectories, few studies consider the role of maternal effects, such as egg size, on gene expression. Using qPCR, we characterize relative expression of 14 growth and/or skeletal promoting genes across embryonic development in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). We test to what extent their relative expression is correlated with egg size and size at early life-stages within the study population...
November 26, 2018: Evolution & Development
Craig Albertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Eduardo Moreno, Maša Lenuzzi, Christian Rödelsperger, Neel Prabh, Hanh Witte, Waltraud Roeseler, Metta Riebesell, Ralf J Sommer
Cilia are complex organelles involved in sensory perception and motility with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins being essential for cilia assembly and function, but little is known about cilia in an evo-devo context. For example, recent comparisons revealed conservation and divergence of IFT components in the regulation of social feeding behaviors between the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. Here, we focus on the P. pacificus RFX transcription factor daf-19, the master regulator of ciliogenesis in C...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Logan E March, Rachel M Smaby, Emily V W Setton, Prashant P Sharma
The transcription factors spineless (ss) and tiptop/teashirt (tio/tsh) have been shown to be selectors of distal appendage identity in an insect, but it is unknown how they regulate one another. Here, we examined the regulatory relationships between these two determinants in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus faciatus, using maternal RNA interference (RNAi). We show that Ofas-ss RNAi embryos bear distally transformed antennal buds with heterogeneous Ofas-tio/tsh expression domains comparable to wild type legs. In the reciprocal experiment, Ofas-tio/tsh RNAi embryos bear distally transformed walking limb buds with ectopic expression of Ofas-ss in the distal leg primordia...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Cynthia Dick, Jeff Arendt, David N Reznick, Cheryl Y Hayashi
Examining the association between trait variation and development is crucial for understanding the evolution of phenotypic differences. Male guppy ornamental caudal fin coloration is one trait that shows a striking degree of variation within and between guppy populations. Males initially have no caudal fin coloration, then gradually develop it as they reach sexual maturity. For males, there is a trade-off between female preference for caudal fin coloration and increased visibility to predators. This trade-off may reach unique endpoints in males from different predation regimes...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Paul Lukas, Lennart Olsson
The acquisition of a movable jaw and a jaw joint are key events in gnathostome evolution. Jaws are derived from the neural crest derived pharyngeal skeleton and the transition from jawless to jawed vertebrates consists of major morphological changes, which must have a genetic foundation. Recent studies on the effects of bapx1 knockdown in fish and chicken indicate that bapx1 has acquired such a role in primary jaw joint development during vertebrate evolution, but evidence from amphibians is missing so far...
November 2018: Evolution & Development
Takayuki Onai
In bilaterians, animal/vegetal axial (A/V) patterning is a fundamental early developmental event for establishment of animal/vegetal polarity and following specification of the germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm), of which the evolutionary origin is enigmatic. Understanding A/V axial patterning in a basal animal from each phylum would help to reconstruct the ancestral state of germ layer specification in bilaterians and thus, the evolution of mesoderm, the third intermediate cell layer. Herein, data show that the canonical Wnt/β-catenin (cWnt) and Notch signaling pathways control mesoderm specification from the early endomesoderm in the basal chordate amphioxus...
October 4, 2018: Evolution & Development
Denis V Prazdnikov, Fedor N Shkil
The Mesoamerican cichlids display a spectacular diversity of pigment patterns, which serve a variety of functions and serve as a strong selective trait for this lineage. The development and variation of coloration in the Mesoamerican cichlids have been detailed by several groups. In particular, Říčan, Musilová, Muška, and Novák () and Říčan, Piálek, Dragová, and Novák () determined homology of pattern and revealed four alternative types of coloration and their ontogeny. In this work, this group posed an "ontogenetic timing hypothesis" proposing heterochronic shifts underlying major transitions in the evolution of the Mesoamerican cichlids...
September 21, 2018: Evolution & Development
Nicole B Webster, A Richard Palmer
Shell morphology is a well-suited and underused system to examine the development of novel forms. The three-dimensional structure produced (the shell) is separate from the largely two-dimensional tissue that secretes it (the mantle), allowing us to disentangle the pattern from the process. Despite knowing a great deal about the mechanics of shell secretion (process), and the variety of shell shapes that exist (pattern), no effort has been made to understand how the mantle changes to produce different shell shapes...
September 2018: Evolution & Development
Rudy Raff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Evolution & Development
Guillermo Ponz-Segrelles, Christoph Bleidorn, M Teresa Aguado
Although model species have proven to be crucial for developmental biology, the evo-devo approach requires a broader picture across phylogeny. Herein, we try to expand the range of studied annelids by presenting a transcriptome of Typosyllis antoni as a tool for the study of developmental and evolutionary processes in Syllidae. Moreover, we provide homologs of the stem-cell markers vasa, piwi, and nanos, and investigate their expression patterns in gamete-producing individuals for the first time in this group...
September 2018: Evolution & Development
Gerardo A Cordero, Haibo Liu, Kokulapalan Wimalanathan, Rachel Weber, Kevin Quinteros, Fredric J Janzen
Diversification of the turtle's shell comprises remarkable phenotypic transformations. For instance, two divergent species convergently evolved shell-closing systems with shoulder blade (scapula) segments that enable coordinated movements with the shell. We expected these unusual structures to originate via similar changes in underlying gene networks, as skeletal segment formation is an evolutionarily conserved developmental process. We tested this hypothesis by comparing transcriptomes of scapula tissue across three stages of embryonic development in three emydid turtles from natural populations...
September 2018: Evolution & Development
Alyssa Phen, Justine Greer, Jasmene Uppal, Jasmine Der, Julia C Boughner
In p63-null mice (p63-/- ), teeth fail to form but the mandible forms normally; conversely, the upper jaw skeleton is malformed. Here we explored whether lack of dental tissues contributed to midfacial dysmorphologies in p63-/- mice by testing if facial prominence defects appeared before odontogenesis failed. We also investigated gene dose effects by testing if one wild type (WT) p63 allele (p63+/- ) was sufficient for normal upper jaw skeleton formation. We micro-CT scanned PFA-fixed p63-/- , p63+/- , and WT (p63+/+ ) adult and embryonic mice aged E10-E14...
September 2018: Evolution & Development
Mami Kasahara, Chiaki Kobayashi, Chikara Sakaguchi, Chisato Miyahara, Akira Yamanaka, Chisato Kitazawa
Adult rudiment formation in some temnopleurids begins with the formation of a cell mass that is pinched off the left ectoderm in early larval development. The cell mass forms the adult rudiment with the left coelomic pouch of the mesodermal region. However, details of the mechanisms to establish position of the cell mass are still unknown. We analyzed the inhibiting effect of Nodal, a factor for morphogenesis of the oral region and right side, for location of the cell mass, in four temnopleurids. Pulse inhibition, at least 5 min inhibition, during coelomic pouch formation allowed a cell mass to form on both sides, whereas treatments after that period did not...
May 2018: Evolution & Development
Xiaohua Xia, Weiran Huo, Ruyan Wan, Peijin Wang, Linxia Zhang, Zhongjie Chang
A number of studies have established that in vertebrates, Sox3 is involved in a wide range of developmental processes, including sex differentiation and neurogenesis. However, the exact functions of the Sox3 gene have not been documented so far in teleosts. Here, we cloned the full length cDNA of Sox3 from the teleost fish, Paramisgurnus dabryanus, which we designated PdSox3. Sequence analysis revealed that PdSox3 encodes a hydrophilic protein, and shares high homology with Sox3 in other species, ranging from mammals to fishes...
May 2018: Evolution & Development
Ryan R Kerney, James Hanken, David C Blackburn
Direct-developing amphibians form limbs during early embryonic stages, as opposed to the later, often postembryonic limb formation of metamorphosing species. Limb patterning is dramatically altered in direct-developing frogs, but little attention has been given to direct-developing salamanders. We use expression patterns of two genes, sox9 and col2a1, to assess skeletal patterning during embryonic limb development in the direct-developing salamander Plethodon cinereus. Limb patterning in P. cinereus partially resembles that described in other urodele species, with early formation of digit II and a generally anterior-to-posterior formation of preaxial digits...
May 2018: Evolution & Development
Sylvine Durand, Vincent Loiseau, Cybèle Prigot, Christine Braquart-Varnier, Sophie Beltran-Bech
Genetic diversity is known to be correlated to fitness traits, and inbred individuals often display lower values for life history traits. In this study, we attempt to quantify how inbreeding affects such traits in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare by performing inbred and non-inbred crosses under laboratory conditions. We estimated genetic characteristics of parents and offspring, and related them to fecundity and fertility measures, as well as offspring growth and survival. Our study shows that a decrease in offspring number might result from mortality around birth, but not to changes in fecundity, fertilization rate, or developmental failure between inbred and non-inbred crosses...
March 2018: Evolution & Development
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