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Evolution & Development

Alyssa Phen, Justine Greer, Jasmene Uppal, Jasmine Der, Julia C Boughner
In p63-null mice (p63-/- ), teeth fail to form but the mandible forms normally; conversely, the upper jaw skeleton is malformed. Here we explored whether lack of dental tissues contributed to midfacial dysmorphologies in p63-/- mice by testing if facial prominence defects appeared before odontogenesis failed. We also investigated gene dose effects by testing if one wild type (WT) p63 allele (p63+/- ) was sufficient for normal upper jaw skeleton formation. We micro-CT scanned PFA-fixed p63-/- , p63+/- , and WT (p63+/+ ) adult and embryonic mice aged E10-E14...
July 11, 2018: Evolution & Development
Mami Kasahara, Chiaki Kobayashi, Chikara Sakaguchi, Chisato Miyahara, Akira Yamanaka, Chisato Kitazawa
Adult rudiment formation in some temnopleurids begins with the formation of a cell mass that is pinched off the left ectoderm in early larval development. The cell mass forms the adult rudiment with the left coelomic pouch of the mesodermal region. However, details of the mechanisms to establish position of the cell mass are still unknown. We analyzed the inhibiting effect of Nodal, a factor for morphogenesis of the oral region and right side, for location of the cell mass, in four temnopleurids. Pulse inhibition, at least 5 min inhibition, during coelomic pouch formation allowed a cell mass to form on both sides, whereas treatments after that period did not...
May 28, 2018: Evolution & Development
Xiaohua Xia, Weiran Huo, Ruyan Wan, Peijin Wang, Linxia Zhang, Zhongjie Chang
A number of studies have established that in vertebrates, Sox3 is involved in a wide range of developmental processes, including sex differentiation and neurogenesis. However, the exact functions of the Sox3 gene have not been documented so far in teleosts. Here, we cloned the full length cDNA of Sox3 from the teleost fish, Paramisgurnus dabryanus, which we designated PdSox3. Sequence analysis revealed that PdSox3 encodes a hydrophilic protein, and shares high homology with Sox3 in other species, ranging from mammals to fishes...
March 23, 2018: Evolution & Development
Ryan R Kerney, James Hanken, David C Blackburn
Direct-developing amphibians form limbs during early embryonic stages, as opposed to the later, often postembryonic limb formation of metamorphosing species. Limb patterning is dramatically altered in direct-developing frogs, but little attention has been given to direct-developing salamanders. We use expression patterns of two genes, sox9 and col2a1, to assess skeletal patterning during embryonic limb development in the direct-developing salamander Plethodon cinereus. Limb patterning in P. cinereus partially resembles that described in other urodele species, with early formation of digit II and a generally anterior-to-posterior formation of preaxial digits...
March 12, 2018: Evolution & Development
Sylvine Durand, Vincent Loiseau, Cybèle Prigot, Christine Braquart-Varnier, Sophie Beltran-Bech
Genetic diversity is known to be correlated to fitness traits, and inbred individuals often display lower values for life history traits. In this study, we attempt to quantify how inbreeding affects such traits in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare by performing inbred and non-inbred crosses under laboratory conditions. We estimated genetic characteristics of parents and offspring, and related them to fecundity and fertility measures, as well as offspring growth and survival. Our study shows that a decrease in offspring number might result from mortality around birth, but not to changes in fecundity, fertilization rate, or developmental failure between inbred and non-inbred crosses...
March 2018: Evolution & Development
Gavin Rice, Olga Barmina, Kevin Hu, Artyom Kopp
Male ornaments and other sex-specific traits present some of the most dramatic examples of evolutionary innovations. Comparative studies of similar but independently evolved traits are particularly important for identifying repeated patterns in the evolution of these traits. Male-specific modifications of the front legs have evolved repeatedly in Drosophilidae and other Diptera. The best understood of these novel structures is the sex comb of Drosophila melanogaster and its close relatives. Here, we examine the evolution of another male foreleg modification, the sex brush, found in the distantly related Drosophila immigrans species group...
March 2018: Evolution & Development
Theresa M Grieco, Joy M Richman
We performed a test of how function impacts a genetically programmed process that continues into postnatal life. Using the dentition of the polyphyodont gecko as our model, tooth shedding was recorded longitudinally across the jaw. We compared two time periods: one in which teeth were patterned symmetrically in ovo and a later period when teeth were initiated post-hatching. By pairing shedding events on the right and left sides, we found the patterns of tooth loss are symmetrical and stable between periods, with only subtle deviations...
March 2018: Evolution & Development
Marina Micaela Strelin, Santiago Benitez-Vieyra, Juan Fornoni, Christian Peter Klingenberg, Andrea Cocucci
The astounding variety of angiosperm flower morphologies has evolved in response to many selective forces. Flower development is highly coordinated and involves developmental associations between size and shape, ontogenetic allometry, which in turn affect the morphology of mature flowers. Although ontogenetic allometries can act as a developmental constraint and may influence adaptive evolution, allometries can evolve themselves and may change rapidly in response to selection. We explored the evolution of ontogenetic allometry in the flowers of 11 species of Loasoideae...
January 2018: Evolution & Development
Emanuel Redl, Maik Scherholz, Tim Wollesen, Christiane Todt, Andreas Wanninger
The homeodomain transcription factors six3 and otx are involved in patterning the anterior body and parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in bilaterians. Their similar expression patterns have been used as an argument for homology of heads, brains, segmentation, and ciliated larvae. We investigated the developmental expression of six3 and otx in the aplacophoran mollusk Wirenia argentea. Six3 is expressed in subepithelial cells delimiting the apical organ of the solenogaster pericalymma larva. Otx is expressed in cells of the prototroch and adjacent regions as well as in posterior extensions of the prototrochal expression domain...
January 2018: Evolution & Development
Gerardo A Cordero, Rory S Telemeco, Eric J Gangloff
Reptile embryos have recently been observed moving within the egg in response to temperature, raising the exciting possibility that embryos might behaviorally thermoregulate analogous to adults. However, the conjecture that reptile embryos have ample opportunity and capacity to adaptively control their body temperature warrants further discussion. Using turtles as a model, we discuss the spatiotemporal constraints to movement in reptile embryos. We demonstrate that, as embryos grow, the internal egg space rapidly diminishes such that the temporal window for appreciable displacement is confined to stages that feature incomplete neuromuscular differentiation...
January 2018: Evolution & Development
Tian Wu, Gurpreet K Dhami, Graham J Thompson
In a termite colony, reproduction is typically monopolized by a small number of sexuals that are supported by reproductively altruistic soldiers and workers. We expect caste differentiation to be associated with clear-cut differences in gene expression, and for these differences to reflect caste function and development. Here, we use RNA-Sequencing to compare the gene expression profiles of sexual nymphs and two non-reproductive helper castes (i.e., workers and soldiers) of the Eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes...
January 2018: Evolution & Development
Mark C Currey, Susan Bassham, Stephen Perry, William A Cresko
Comparing ontogenetic patterns within a well-described evolutionary context aids in inferring mechanisms of change, including heterochronies or deletion of developmental pathways. Because selection acts on phenotypes throughout ontogeny, any within-taxon developmental variation has implications for evolvability. We compare ontogenetic order and timing of locomotion and defensive traits in three populations of threespine stickleback that have evolutionarily divergent adult forms. This analysis adds to the growing understanding of developmental genetic mechanisms of adaptive change in this evolutionary model species by delineating when chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in two derived populations begin to deviate from the developmental pattern in their immediate ancestors...
November 2017: Evolution & Development
Simon Hellemans, Denis Fournier, Robert Hanus, Yves Roisin
In termite species with asexual queen succession (AQS), parthenogenetically produced immatures mostly differentiate into secondary queens, called "neotenics." In order to elucidate the ontogenetic origin of neotenics in Cavitermes tuberosus (Termitidae: Termitinae), a neotropical termite with AQS, we investigated developmental pathways of offspring according to their sex and genetic origin using both morphometric and genetic tools. The caste system of C. tuberosus follows the classical pathway of Termitidae...
November 2017: Evolution & Development
Benjamin Naumann, Peter Warth, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The vertebrate head/trunk interface is the region of the body where the different developmental programs of the head and trunk come in contact. Many anatomical structures that develop in this transition zone differ from similar structures in the head or the trunk. This is best exemplified by the cucullaris/trapezius muscle, spanning the head/trunk interface by connecting the head to the pectoral girdle. The source of this muscle has been claimed to be either the unsegmented head mesoderm or the somites of the trunk...
November 2017: Evolution & Development
Marko M Lazić, Dennis Rödder, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou
Canalization and developmental stability (DS) are important organismal properties involved in determining the level of phenotypic variation. Ontogenetic patterns of phenotypic variance components can shed light on the mechanistic basis of developmental buffering (DB). Here, we analyze how individual FA and among-individual variation in head shape change in ontogenetic series of three lizard species raised in laboratory. The degree of asymmetry increased slightly with size, suggesting that developmental mechanisms hypothesized to correct for deviations either do not exist, or that their efficiency is truncated with increasing size...
November 2017: Evolution & Development
Xiaohong Su, Xiaojuan Yang, Jing Li, Lianxi Xing, He Liu, Jiaoling Chen
Termite workers are characterized by unique flexibility in that a worker can develop in one of three ways: remain a worker, become a soldier within two successive moults, or become a neotenic reproductive (NR) within a single moult. However, is it true that workers can transform into NRs within a single moult? Actually, the developmental pathways of workers turning into NRs remains unclear. In this study, we show for the first time that the female workers of Reticulitermes labralis develop into NRs after a pre-NRs stage...
July 2017: Evolution & Development
Liisa K Heikkinen, Jenni E Kesäniemi, K Emily Knott
Species with multiple different larval developmental modes are interesting models for the study of mechanisms underlying developmental mode transitions and life history evolution. Pygospio elegans, a small, tube-dwelling polychaete worm commonly found in estuarine and marine habitats around the northern hemisphere, is one species with variable developmental modes. To provide new genomic resources for studying P. elegans and to address the differences in gene expression between individuals producing offspring with different larval developmental modes, we performed whole transcriptome Illumina RNA sequencing of adult worms from two populations and prepared a de novo assembly of the P...
July 2017: Evolution & Development
Elena N Temereva
Nervous system organization differs greatly in larvae and adults of many species, but has nevertheless been traditionally used for phylogenetic studies. In phoronids, the organization of the larval nervous system depends on the type of development. With the goal of understanding the ground plan of the nervous system in phoronid larvae, the development and organization of the larval nervous system were studied in a viviparous phoronid species. The ground plan of the phoronid larval nervous system includes an apical organ, a continuous nerve tract under the preoral and postoral ciliated bands, and two lateral nerves extending between the apical organ and the nerve tract...
July 2017: Evolution & Development
Emily A Buchholtz, Jessica K Gee
Axial morphology was dramatically transformed during the transition from terrestrial to aquatic environments by archaeocete cetaceans, and again during the subsequent odontocete radiation. Here, we reconstruct the sequence of developmental events that underlie these phenotypic transitions. Archaeocete innovations include the loss of primaxial/abaxial interaction at the sacral/pelvic articulation and the modular dissociation of the fluke from the remainder of the tail. Odontocetes subsequently integrated lumbar, sacral, and anterior caudal vertebrae into a single torso module, and underwent multiple series-specific changes in vertebral count...
July 2017: Evolution & Development
Patrick T Rohner, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Martin A Schäfer
Ultimate factors driving insect body size are rather well understood, while-apart from a few model species-the underlying physiological and developmental mechanisms received less attention. We investigate the physiological basis of adaptive size variation in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria, which shows pronounced male-biased sexual size dimorphism and strong body size plasticity. We estimate variation of a major physiological threshold, the critical weight, which is the mass at which a larva initiates pupariation...
May 2017: Evolution & Development
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