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Neural Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421147/electrophysiological-morphological-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-injured-spinal-cord-tissue-after-transplantation-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-genetically-modified-with-the-vegf-and-gdnf-genes
#1
Y O Mukhamedshina, Z E Gilazieva, S S Arkhipova, L R Galieva, E E Garanina, A A Shulman, G G Yafarova, Y A Chelyshev, N V Shamsutdinova, A A Rizvanov
In this study, we examined the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), genetically modified with the VEGF and GDNF genes using adenoviral vectors, on posttraumatic regeneration after transplantation into the site of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Thirty days after SCI, followed by transplantation of nontransduced hUCB-MCs, we observed an improvement in H (latency period, LP) and M(Amax) waves, compared to the group without therapy after SCI. For genetically modified hUCB-MCs, there was improvement in Amax of M wave and LP of both the M and H waves...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409032/distinct-pattern-of-microgliosis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-neurodegenerative-proteinopathies
#2
Zacharias Kohl, Johannes C M Schlachetzki, Judith Feldewerth, Philipp Hornauer, Martina Münch, Anthony Adame, Markus J Riemenschneider, Jürgen Winkler, Eliezer Masliah
The olfactory bulb (OB) shows early neuropathological hallmarks in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, for example, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The glomerular and granular cell layer of the OB is characterized by preserved cellular plasticity in the adult brain. In turn, alterations of this cellular plasticity are related to neuroinflammation such as microglia activation, implicated in the pathogenesis of AD and PD, as well as frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD). To determine microglia proliferation and activation we analyzed ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) expressing microglia in the glomerular and granular cell layer, and the olfactory tract of the OB from patients with AD, PD dementia/dementia with Lewy bodies (PDD/DLB), and FTLD compared to age-matched controls...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386486/thalamocortical-connectivity-and-microstructural-changes-in-congenital-and-late-blindness
#3
N H Reislev, T B Dyrby, H R Siebner, H Lundell, M Ptito, R Kupers
There is ample evidence that the occipital cortex of congenitally blind individuals processes nonvisual information. It remains a debate whether the cross-modal activation of the occipital cortex is mediated through the modulation of preexisting corticocortical projections or the reorganisation of thalamocortical connectivity. Current knowledge on this topic largely stems from anatomical studies in animal models. The aim of this study was to test whether purported changes in thalamocortical connectivity in blindness can be revealed by tractography based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373915/assessed-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-stroke-and-training-mediated-stroke-recovery-state-of-the-art
#4
REVIEW
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Nicola Smania, Antonio Vella, Alessandro Picelli, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Since the increasing update of the biomolecular scientific literature, biomarkers in stroke have reached an outstanding and remarkable revision in the very recent years. Besides the diagnostic and prognostic role of some inflammatory markers, many further molecules and biological factors have been added to the list, including tissue derived cytokines, growth factor-like molecules, hormones, and microRNAs. The literatures on brain derived growth factor and other neuroimmune mediators, bone-skeletal muscle biomarkers, cellular and immunity biomarkers, and the role of microRNAs in stroke recovery were reviewed...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367336/evidence-of-presynaptic-localization-and-function-of-the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase
#5
Silvia Biggi, Lucia Buccarello, Alessandra Sclip, Pellegrino Lippiello, Noemi Tonna, Cristiano Rumio, Daniele Di Marino, Maria Concetta Miniaci, Tiziana Borsello
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is part of a stress signalling pathway strongly activated by NMDA-stimulation and involved in synaptic plasticity. Many studies have been focused on the post-synaptic mechanism of JNK action, and less is known about JNK presynaptic localization and its physiological role at this site. Here we examined whether JNK is present at the presynaptic site and its activity after presynaptic NMDA receptors stimulation. By using N-SIM Structured Super Resolution Microscopy as well as biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that presynaptic fractions contained significant amount of JNK protein and its activated form...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367335/circadian-plasticity-of-mammalian-inhibitory-interneurons
#6
REVIEW
Malgorzata Jasinska, Elzbieta Pyza
Inhibitory interneurons participate in all neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including the circadian clock system, and are indispensable for their effective function. Although the clock neurons have different molecular and electrical properties, their main function is the generation of circadian oscillations. Here we review the circadian plasticity of GABAergic interneurons in several areas of the mammalian brain, suprachiasmatic nucleus, neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, cerebellum, striatum, and in the retina...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367334/changes-in-cortical-activation-patterns-in-language-areas-following-an-aerobic-exercise-intervention-in-older-adults
#7
Joe Nocera, Bruce Crosson, Kevin Mammino, Keith M McGregor
Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic "Spin" exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357142/aerobic-exercise-effects-on-ocular-dominance-plasticity-with-a-phase-combination-task-in-human-adults
#8
Jiawei Zhou, Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Several studies have shown that short-term monocular patching can induce ocular dominance plasticity in normal adults, in which the patched eye becomes stronger in binocular viewing. There is a recent study showing that exercise enhances this plasticity effect when assessed with binocular rivalry. We address one question, is this enhancement from exercise a general effect such that it is seen for measures of binocular processing other than that revealed using binocular rivalry? Using a binocular phase combination task in which we directly measure each eye's contribution to the binocularly fused percept, we show no additional effect of exercise after short-term monocular occlusion and argue that the enhancement of ocular dominance plasticity from exercise could not be demonstrated with our approach...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357141/intrahemispheric-perfusion-in-chronic-stroke-induced-aphasia
#9
Cynthia K Thompson, Matthew Walenski, YuFen Chen, David Caplan, Swathi Kiran, Brenda Rapp, Kristin Grunewald, Mia Nunez, Richard Zinbarg, Todd B Parrish
Stroke-induced alterations in cerebral blood flow (perfusion) may contribute to functional language impairments and recovery in chronic aphasia. Using MRI, we examined perfusion in the right and left hemispheres of 35 aphasic and 16 healthy control participants. Across 76 regions (38 per hemisphere), no significant between-subjects differences were found in the left, whereas blood flow in the right was increased in the aphasic compared to the control participants. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses showed a varied pattern of hypo- and hyperperfused regions across hemispheres in the aphasic participants; however, there were no significant correlations between perfusion values and language abilities in these regions...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352479/effects-of-traumatic-stress-induced-in-the-juvenile-period-on-the-expression-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor-type-a-subunits-in-adult-rat-brain
#10
Cui Yan Lu, De Xiang Liu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan, Cyrus S H Ho, Roger C M Ho
Studies have found that early traumatic experience significantly increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits were proposed to be implicated in development of PTSD, but the alterations of GABA receptor A (GABAAR) subunits induced by early traumatic stress have not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, previous studies suggested that exercise could be more effective than medications in reducing severity of anxiety and depression but the mechanism is unclear...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352478/corrigendum-to-dopaminergic-modulation-of-striatal-inhibitory-transmission-and-long-term-plasticity
#11
Elizabeth Nieto-Mendoza, Elizabeth Hernández-Echeagaray
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/789502.].
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352477/understanding-neuromuscular-system-plasticity-to-improve-motor-function-in-health-disease-and-injury
#12
EDITORIAL
Guang H Yue, Brian C Clark, Sheng Li, David E Vaillancourt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348894/imaging-neural-plasticity-following-brain-injury
#13
EDITORIAL
Lijun Bai, Lin Ai, Kevin K W Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348893/effect-of-illumination-on-ocular-status-modifications-induced-by-short-term-3d-tv-viewing
#14
Yuanyuan Chen, Yuwen Wang, Xinping Yu, Aiqin Xu, Jian Jiang, Hao Chen
Objectives. This study aimed to compare changes in ocular status after 3D TV viewing under three modes of illumination and thereby identify optimal illumination for 3D TV viewing. Methods. The following measures of ocular status were assessed: the accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, phoria, and fusional vergence. The observers watched 3D television for 90 minutes through 3D shutter glasses under three illumination modes: A, complete darkness; B, back illumination (50 lx); and C, front illumination (130 lx)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331639/emerging-synaptic-molecules-as-candidates-in-the-etiology-of-neurological-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Viviana I Torres, Daniela Vallejo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Synapses are complex structures that allow communication between neurons in the central nervous system. Studies conducted in vertebrate and invertebrate models have contributed to the knowledge of the function of synaptic proteins. The functional synapse requires numerous protein complexes with specialized functions that are regulated in space and time to allow synaptic plasticity. However, their interplay during neuronal development, learning, and memory is poorly understood. Accumulating evidence links synapse proteins to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326199/predictors-of-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-prolonged-consciousness-disorder
#16
Hiroaki Abe, Keigo Shimoji, Yoshihide Nagamine, Satoru Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi Izumi
We investigated the clinical predictors of the degree of recovery in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDC) caused by traumatic brain injury. Fourteen patients with PDC underwent two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies; the first and second scans were performed at 345.6 ± 192.6 and 689.1 ± 272.2 days after the injury, respectively. In addition to the temporal changes in each of these diffusion parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity were assessed over a 1-year period...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326198/could-perinatal-asphyxia-induce-a-synaptopathy-new-highlights-from-an-experimental-model
#17
REVIEW
María Inés Herrera, Matilde Otero-Losada, Lucas Daniel Udovin, Carlos Kusnier, Rodolfo Kölliker-Frers, Wanderley de Souza, Francisco Capani
Birth asphyxia also termed perinatal asphyxia is an obstetric complication that strongly affects brain structure and function. Central nervous system is highly susceptible to oxidative damage caused by perinatal asphyxia while activation and maturity of the proper pathways are relevant to avoiding abnormal neural development. Perinatal asphyxia is associated with high morbimortality in term and preterm neonates. Although several studies have demonstrated a variety of biochemical and molecular pathways involved in perinatal asphyxia physiopathology, little is known about the synaptic alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321339/fatigue-and-muscle-strength-involving-walking-speed-in-parkinson-s-disease-insights-for-developing-rehabilitation-strategy-for-pd
#18
Ying-Zu Huang, Fang-Yu Chang, Wei-Chia Liu, Yu-Fen Chuang, Li-Ling Chuang, Ya-Ju Chang
Background. Problems with gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) are a challenge in neurorehabilitation, partly because the mechanisms causing the walking disability are unclear. Weakness and fatigue, which may significantly influence gait, are commonly reported by patients with PD. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between weakness and fatigue and walking ability in patients with PD. Methods. We recruited 25 patients with idiopathic PD and 25 age-matched healthy adults. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), twitch force, and voluntary activation levels were measured before and after a knee fatigue exercise...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316842/neural-energy-supply-consumption-properties-based-on-hodgkin-huxley-model
#19
Yihong Wang, Rubin Wang, Xuying Xu
Electrical activity is the foundation of the neural system. Coding theories that describe neural electrical activity by the roles of action potential timing or frequency have been thoroughly studied. However, an alternative method to study coding questions is the energy method, which is more global and economical. In this study, we clearly defined and calculated neural energy supply and consumption based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, during firing action potentials and subthreshold activities using ion-counting and power-integral model...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316841/the-impact-of-feedback-on-the-different-time-courses-of-multisensory-temporal-recalibration
#20
Matthew A De Niear, Jean-Paul Noel, Mark T Wallace
The capacity to rapidly adjust perceptual representations confers a fundamental advantage when confronted with a constantly changing world. Unexplored is how feedback regarding sensory judgments (top-down factors) interacts with sensory statistics (bottom-up factors) to drive long- and short-term recalibration of multisensory perceptual representations. Here, we examined the time course of both cumulative and rapid temporal perceptual recalibration for individuals completing an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task in which they were provided with varying degrees of feedback...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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