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Neural Plasticity

Giuseppina Martella, Paola Bonsi, Steven W Johnson, Angelo Quartarone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neural Plasticity
Hannah Brauer, Navah Ester Kadish, Anya Pedersen, Michael Siniatchkin, Vera Moliadze
Response inhibition is the cognitive process required to cancel an intended action. During that process, a "go" reaction is intercepted particularly by the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA). After the commission of inhibition errors, theta activity (4-8 Hz) is related to the adaption processes. In this study, we intend to examine whether the boosting of theta activity by electrical stimulation over rIFG reduces the number of errors and the reaction times in a response inhibition task (Go/NoGo paradigm) during and after stimulation...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Juan Du, Jianping Hu, Jingze Hu, Qiang Xu, Qirui Zhang, Ling Liu, Minmin Ma, Gelin Xu, Yong Zhang, Xinfeng Liu, Guangming Lu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Fang Yang
Purpose: This study was aimed at evaluating the motor cortical excitability and connectivity underlying the neural mechanism of motor deficit in acute stroke by the combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiological measures. Methods: Twenty-five patients with motor deficit after acute ischemic stroke were involved. General linear model and dynamic causal model analyses were applied to fMRI data for detecting motor-related activation and effective connectivity of the motor cortices...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Shaofeng Liu, Yunfeng Wang, Yongtian Lu, Wen Li, Wenjing Liu, Jun Ma, Fuqin Sun, Mao Li, Zheng-Yi Chen, Kaiming Su, Wenyan Li
Inner ear formation requires that a series of cell fate decisions and morphogenetic events occur in a precise temporal and spatial pattern. Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, including Pax2, Sox2, and Prox1, play important roles during the inner ear development. However, the temporospatial expression patterns among these transcription factors are poorly understood. In the current study, we present a comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial expression profiles of Pax2, Sox2, and Prox1 during auditory and vestibular sensory organ development in mice...
2018: Neural Plasticity
A Ahnaou, R Biermans, W H I M Drinkenburg
Event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillations (EROs) provide powerful tools for studying the brain's synaptic function underlying information processing. The P300 component of ERPs indexing attention and working memory shows abnormal amplitude and latency in neurological and psychiatric diseases that are sensitive to pharmacological agents. In the active auditory oddball discriminant paradigm, behavior and auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) were simultaneously recorded in awake rats to investigate whether P300-like potentials generated in rats responding to rare target oddball tones are sensitive to subcutaneous modulation of the cholinergic tone by donepezil (1 mg/kg) and scopolamine (0...
2018: Neural Plasticity
C Terranova, V Rizzo, F Morgante, R Maggio, A Calamuneri, G Chillemi, P Girlanda, A Quartarone
Background: Surround inhibition is a system that sharpens sensation by creating an inhibitory zone around the central core of activation. In the motor system, this mechanism probably contributes to the selection of voluntary movements, and it seems to be lost in dystonia . Objectives. To explore if sensory information is abnormally processed and integrated in focal hand dystonia (FHD) and if surround inhibition phenomena are operating during sensory-motor plasticity and somatosensory integration in normal humans and in patients with FHD ...
2018: Neural Plasticity
María Alejandra Cerquera-Jaramillo, Mauricio O Nava-Mesa, Rodrigo E González-Reyes, Carlos Tellez-Conti, Alejandra de-la-Torre
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. It compromises patients' daily activities owing to progressive cognitive deterioration, which has elevated direct and indirect costs. Although AD has several risk factors, aging is considered the most important. Unfortunately, clinical diagnosis is usually performed at an advanced disease stage when dementia is established, making implementation of successful therapeutic interventions difficult. Current biomarkers tend to be expensive, insufficient, or invasive, raising the need for novel, improved tools aimed at early disease detection...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Fei Gao, Lijun Qi, Zhongzhen Yang, Tao Yang, Yan Zhang, Hui Xu, Huan Zhao
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inheritable neuropsychological disease caused by silence of the fmr1 gene and the deficiency of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Patients present neuronal alterations that lead to severe intellectual disability and altered sleep rhythms. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying FXS remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that metabolic glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors/circuits are two counter-balanced factors involved in FXS pathophysiology...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jessica Monaco, Lorenzo Rocchi, Francesca Ginatempo, Egidio D'Angelo, John C Rothwell
Associative learning of sensorimotor contingences, as it occurs in eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), is known to involve the cerebellum, but its mechanism remains controversial. EBCC involves a sequence of learning processes which are thought to occur in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Recently, the extinction phase of EBCC has been shown to be modulated after one week by cerebellar continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Here, we asked whether cerebellar cTBS could affect retention and reacquisition of conditioned responses (CRs) tested immediately after conditioning...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Svend Sparre Geertsen, Henrik Kirk, Jens Bo Nielsen
We recently showed that impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with reduced rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors. Here, we explore potential mechanisms. We investigated the suppression of antagonist excitability, calculated as the amount of soleus H-reflex depression at the onset of ankle dorsiflexion compared to rest, in 24 adults with CP (34.3 years, range 18-57; GMFCS 1.95, range 1-3) and 15 healthy, age-matched controls. Furthermore, the central common drive to dorsiflexor motoneurons during a static contraction in the two groups was examined by coherence analyses...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jeremy J Walsh, Amedeo D'Angiulli, Jameason D Cameron, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny, Martin Holcik, Steve Doucette, Angela S Alberga, Denis Prud'homme, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Katie Gunnell, Gary S Goldfield
Obesity in youth increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and both are risk factors for neurocognitive deficits. Exercise attenuates the risk of obesity and T2D while improving cognitive function. In adults, these benefits are associated with the actions of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein critical in modulating neuroplasticity, glucose regulation, fat oxidation, and appetite regulation in adults. However, little research exists in youth. This study examined the associations between changes in diabetes risk factors and changes in BDNF levels after 6 months of exercise training in adolescents with obesity...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Qi Zhang, Ying-Ying Tan, Xiao-Hua Liu, Fan-Rong Yao, Dong-Yuan Cao
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to benefit hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesized that EA attenuates hypertension, in part, through modulation of γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). In the present study, the long-term effect of EA on GABA receptor function and expression was examined in the NTS of two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats. EA (0.1-0.4 mA, 2 and 15 Hz) was applied at Zusanli (ST36) acupoints overlying the deep fibular nerve for 30 min once a day for two weeks...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Cristina Simon-Martinez, Ellen Jaspers, Lisa Mailleux, Els Ortibus, Katrijn Klingels, Nicole Wenderoth, Hilde Feys
Brain lesion characteristics (timing, location, and extent) and the type of corticospinal tract (CST) wiring have been proposed as determinants of upper limb (UL) motor function in unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP), yet an investigation of the relative combined impact of these factors on both motor and sensory functions is still lacking. Here, we first investigated whether structural brain lesion characteristics could predict the underlying CST wiring and we explored the role of CST wiring and brain lesion characteristics to predict UL motor and sensory functions in uCP...
2018: Neural Plasticity
M R Pereira-Jorge, K C Andrade, F X Palhano-Fontes, P R B Diniz, M Sturzbecher, A C Santos, D B Araujo
Hearing aids (HAs) are an effective strategy for auditory rehabilitation in patients with peripheral hearing deficits. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms behind HA use are still unclear. Thus far, most studies have focused on changes in the auditory system, although it is expected that hearing deficits affect a number of cognitive systems, notably speech. In the present study, we used audiometric evaluations in 14 patients with bilateral hearing loss before and after one year of continuous HA use and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cortical thickness analysis in 12 and 10 of them compared with a normal hearing control group...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Camila Oliveira Goulart, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Julia Teixeira Oliveira, Laura Maria Savoldi, Luiza Dos Santos Heringer, Alexandre Dos Santos Rodrigues, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
The regenerative capacity of CNS tracts has ever been a great hurdle to regenerative medicine. Although recent studies have described strategies to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to regenerate axons through the optic nerve, it still remains to be elucidated how these therapies modulate the inhibitory environment of CNS. Thus, the present work investigated the environmental content of the repulsive axon guidance cues, such as Sema3D and its receptors, myelin debris, and astrogliosis, within the regenerating optic nerve of mice submitted to intraocular inflammation + cAMP combined to conditional deletion of PTEN in RGC after optic nerve crush...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Marcel Irintchev, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Andrey Irintchev
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known for their ability to influence synaptic inputs to neurons. Here, we tested if these drugs can modulate the deafferentation of motoneurons following nerve section/suture and, as a consequence, modify the outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration. We applied drug solutions to the proximal stump of the freshly cut femoral nerve of adult rats to achieve drug uptake and transport to the neuronal perikarya. The most marked effect of this application was a significant reduction of the axotomy-induced loss of perisomatic cholinergic terminals by BoNT at one week and two months post injury...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Matthew S Sherwood, Aaron T Madaris, Casserly R Mullenger, R Andy McKinley
The use of transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) as a method to augment neural activity has increased in popularity in the last decade and a half. The specific application of TES to the left prefrontal cortex has been shown to produce broad cognitive effects; however, the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. In this work, we evaluated the effect of repetitive TES on cerebral perfusion. Stimulation was applied to the left prefrontal cortex on three consecutive days, and resting cerebral perfusion was quantified before and after stimulation using arterial spin labeling...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Stuart I Hodgetts, Jun Han Yoon, Alysia Fogliani, Emmanuel A Akinpelu, Danii Baron-Heeris, Imke G J Houwers, Lachlan P G Wheeler, Bernadette T Majda, Sreya Santhakumar, Sarah J Lovett, Emma Duce, Margaret A Pollett, Tylie M Wiseman, Brooke Fehily, Alan R Harvey
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes survival and enhances long-distance regeneration of injured axons in parts of the adult CNS. Here we tested whether CNTF gene therapy targeting corticospinal neurons (CSN) in motor-related regions of the cerebral cortex promotes plasticity and regrowth of axons projecting into the female adult F344 rat spinal cord after moderate thoracic (T10) contusion injury (SCI). Cortical neurons were transduced with a bi cis tronic adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1) expressing a secretory form of CNTF coupled to mCHERRY (AAV-CNTFmCherry ) or with control AAV only (AAV-GFP) two weeks prior to SCI...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Yun Qin, Yanan Li, Bo Sun, Hui He, Rui Peng, Tao Zhang, Jianfu Li, Cheng Luo, Chengyan Sun, Dezhong Yao
Cerebral palsy (CP) has long been investigated to be associated with a range of motor and cognitive dysfunction. As the two most common CP subtypes, spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) and dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP) may share common and distinct elements in their pathophysiology. However, the common and distinct dysfunctional characteristics between SCP and DCP on the brain network level are less known. This study aims to detect the alteration of brain functional connectivity in children with SCP and DCP based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Fushun Wang, Fang Pan, Lee A Shapiro, Jason H Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neural Plasticity
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