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Neural Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529806/increased-alpha-rhythm-dynamic-range-promotes-recovery-from-visuospatial-neglect-a-neurofeedback-study
#1
Tomas Ros, Abele Michela, Anne Bellman, Philippe Vuadens, Arnaud Saj, Patrik Vuilleumier
Despite recent attempts to use electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) as a tool for rehabilitation of motor stroke, its potential for improving neurological impairments of attention-such as visuospatial neglect-remains underexplored. It is also unclear to what extent changes in cortical oscillations contribute to the pathophysiology of neglect, or its recovery. Utilizing EEG-NFB, we sought to causally manipulate alpha oscillations in 5 right-hemisphere stroke patients in order to explore their role in visuospatial neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529805/physical-activity-modulates-common-neuroplasticity-substrates-in-major-depressive-and-bipolar-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Cristy Phillips
Mood disorders (MDs) are chronic, recurrent mental diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide. Although the biogenic amine model has provided some clinical utility, a need remains to better understand the interrelated mechanisms that contribute to neuroplasticity deficits in MDs and the means by which various therapeutics mitigate them. Of those therapeutics being investigated, physical activity (PA) has shown clear and consistent promise. Accordingly, the aims of this review are to (1) explicate key modulators, processes, and interactions that impinge upon multiple susceptibility points to effectuate neuroplasticity deficits in MDs; (2) explore the putative mechanisms by which PA mitigates these features; (3) review protocols used to induce the positive effects of PA in MDs; and (4) highlight implications for clinicians and researchers...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523193/mechanisms-underlying-the-antidepressant-response-of-acupuncture-via-pka-creb-signaling-pathway
#3
Huili Jiang, Xuhui Zhang, Yu Wang, Huimin Zhang, Jing Li, Xinjing Yang, Bingcong Zhao, Chuntao Zhang, Miao Yu, Mingmin Xu, Qiuyun Yu, Xingchen Liang, Xiang Li, Peng Shi, Tuya Bao
Protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway, contributing to impaired neurogenesis parallel to depressive-like behaviors, has been identified as the crucial factor involved in the antidepressant response of acupuncture. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with antidepressant response of acupuncture, neurogenesis, and depressive-like behaviors ameliorating remain unexplored. The objective was to identify the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response of acupuncture through PKA signaling pathway in depression rats by employing the PKA signaling pathway inhibitor H89 in in vivo experiments...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512585/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-recovery-and-or-compensation-following-injury
#4
REVIEW
Michael J Hylin, Abigail L Kerr, Ryan Holden
Injury due to stroke and traumatic brain injury result in significant long-term effects upon behavioral functioning. One central question to rehabilitation research is whether the nature of behavioral improvement observed is due to recovery or the development of compensatory mechanisms. The nature of functional improvement can be viewed from the perspective of behavioral changes or changes in neuroanatomical plasticity that follows. Research suggests that these changes correspond to each other in a bidirectional manner...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512584/neurorehabilitation-neural-plasticity-and-functional-recovery
#5
EDITORIAL
Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Nam-Jong Paik, Thomas Platz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503331/exercise-modality-is-differentially-associated-with-neurocognition-in-older-adults
#6
Yu-Kai Chang, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu, Chih-Han Wu, Chien-Heng Chu, Kao-Teng Yang, Ai-Guo Chen
This study explored the effects of exercise modality and type of fitness index on cognitive function in the older adults as assessed via behavioral and neuroelectrical approaches. Sixty older adults were assigned to an aerobic exercise, a coordination exercise, or a control group based on their previous exercise experience. The participants completed congruent and incongruent trials of a modified Stroop Test, during which, event-related potentials were recorded. The participants also completed multiple physical tests that assessed health- and skill-related fitness...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491480/new-treatment-strategies-of-depression-based-on-mechanisms-related-to-neuroplasticity
#7
REVIEW
Yu-Jhen Huang, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Major depressive disorder is a severe and complex mental disorder. Impaired neurotransmission and disrupted signalling pathways may influence neuroplasticity, which is involved in the brain dysfunction in depression. Traditional neurobiological theories of depression, such as monoamine hypothesis, cannot fully explain the whole picture of depressive disorders. In this review, we discussed new treatment directions of depression, including modulation of glutamatergic system and noninvasive brain stimulation. Dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491479/therapeutic-potentials-of-synapses-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Zunjia Wen, Dong Li, Meifen Shen, Gang Chen
Massive studies have focused on the understanding of the pathobiology of cellular and molecular changes and injury mechanisms after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but very few studies have specially discussed the role of synapses in the context of TBI. This paper specifically highlights the role and therapeutic potentials of synapses after TBI. First, we review and conclude how synapses interact with constant structural, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and inflammatory mechanisms after TBI. Second, we briefly describe several key synaptic proteins involved in neuroplasticity, which may be novel neuronal targets for specific intervention...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491478/rehabilitation-treatment-and-progress-of-traumatic-brain-injury-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Baoqi Dang, Wenli Chen, Weichun He, Gang Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of chronic disability. Worldwide, it is the leading cause of disability in the under 40s. Behavioral problems, mood, cognition, particularly memory, attention, and executive function are commonly impaired by TBI. Spending to assist, TBI survivors with disabilities are estimated to be costly per year. Such impaired functional outcomes following TBI can be improved via various rehabilitative approaches. The objective of the present paper is to review the current rehabilitation treatment of traumatic brain injury in adults...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458926/motor-imagery-impairment-in-postacute-stroke-patients
#10
Niclas Braun, Cornelia Kranczioch, Joachim Liepert, Christian Dettmers, Catharina Zich, Imke Büsching, Stefan Debener
Not much is known about how well stroke patients are able to perform motor imagery (MI) and which MI abilities are preserved after stroke. We therefore applied three different MI tasks (one mental chronometry task, one mental rotation task, and one EEG-based neurofeedback task) to a sample of postacute stroke patients (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) for addressing the following questions: First, which of the MI tasks indicate impairment in stroke patients and are impairments restricted to the paretic side? Second, is there a relationship between MI impairment and sensory loss or paresis severity? And third, do the results of the different MI tasks converge? Significant differences between the stroke and control groups were found in all three MI tasks...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458925/pathological-role-of-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-disruption-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Lingyan Xu, Zhiyun Ren, Frances E Chow, Richard Tsai, Tongzheng Liu, Flavio Rizzolio, Silvia Boffo, Yungen Xu, Shaohui Huang, Carol F Lippa, Yuesong Gong
Synaptic loss is the structural basis for memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the underlying pathological mechanism remains elusive, it is known that misfolded proteins accumulate as β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and hyperphosphorylated Tau tangles decades before the onset of clinical disease. The loss of Pin1 facilitates the formation of these misfolded proteins in AD. Pin1 protein controls cell-cycle progression and determines the fate of proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system. The activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system directly affects the functional and structural plasticity of the synapse...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421147/electrophysiological-morphological-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-injured-spinal-cord-tissue-after-transplantation-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-genetically-modified-with-the-vegf-and-gdnf-genes
#12
Y O Mukhamedshina, Z E Gilazieva, S S Arkhipova, L R Galieva, E E Garanina, A A Shulman, G G Yafarova, Y A Chelyshev, N V Shamsutdinova, A A Rizvanov
In this study, we examined the efficacy of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), genetically modified with the VEGF and GDNF genes using adenoviral vectors, on posttraumatic regeneration after transplantation into the site of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Thirty days after SCI, followed by transplantation of nontransduced hUCB-MCs, we observed an improvement in H (latency period, LP) and M(Amax) waves, compared to the group without therapy after SCI. For genetically modified hUCB-MCs, there was improvement in Amax of M wave and LP of both the M and H waves...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409032/distinct-pattern-of-microgliosis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-neurodegenerative-proteinopathies
#13
Zacharias Kohl, Johannes C M Schlachetzki, Judith Feldewerth, Philipp Hornauer, Martina Münch, Anthony Adame, Markus J Riemenschneider, Jürgen Winkler, Eliezer Masliah
The olfactory bulb (OB) shows early neuropathological hallmarks in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, for example, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The glomerular and granular cell layer of the OB is characterized by preserved cellular plasticity in the adult brain. In turn, alterations of this cellular plasticity are related to neuroinflammation such as microglia activation, implicated in the pathogenesis of AD and PD, as well as frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD). To determine microglia proliferation and activation we analyzed ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) expressing microglia in the glomerular and granular cell layer, and the olfactory tract of the OB from patients with AD, PD dementia/dementia with Lewy bodies (PDD/DLB), and FTLD compared to age-matched controls...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386486/thalamocortical-connectivity-and-microstructural-changes-in-congenital-and-late-blindness
#14
N H Reislev, T B Dyrby, H R Siebner, H Lundell, M Ptito, R Kupers
There is ample evidence that the occipital cortex of congenitally blind individuals processes nonvisual information. It remains a debate whether the cross-modal activation of the occipital cortex is mediated through the modulation of preexisting corticocortical projections or the reorganisation of thalamocortical connectivity. Current knowledge on this topic largely stems from anatomical studies in animal models. The aim of this study was to test whether purported changes in thalamocortical connectivity in blindness can be revealed by tractography based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373915/assessed-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-stroke-and-training-mediated-stroke-recovery-state-of-the-art
#15
REVIEW
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Nicola Smania, Antonio Vella, Alessandro Picelli, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Since the increasing update of the biomolecular scientific literature, biomarkers in stroke have reached an outstanding and remarkable revision in the very recent years. Besides the diagnostic and prognostic role of some inflammatory markers, many further molecules and biological factors have been added to the list, including tissue derived cytokines, growth factor-like molecules, hormones, and microRNAs. The literatures on brain derived growth factor and other neuroimmune mediators, bone-skeletal muscle biomarkers, cellular and immunity biomarkers, and the role of microRNAs in stroke recovery were reviewed...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367336/evidence-of-presynaptic-localization-and-function-of-the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase
#16
Silvia Biggi, Lucia Buccarello, Alessandra Sclip, Pellegrino Lippiello, Noemi Tonna, Cristiano Rumio, Daniele Di Marino, Maria Concetta Miniaci, Tiziana Borsello
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is part of a stress signalling pathway strongly activated by NMDA-stimulation and involved in synaptic plasticity. Many studies have been focused on the post-synaptic mechanism of JNK action, and less is known about JNK presynaptic localization and its physiological role at this site. Here we examined whether JNK is present at the presynaptic site and its activity after presynaptic NMDA receptors stimulation. By using N-SIM Structured Super Resolution Microscopy as well as biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that presynaptic fractions contained significant amount of JNK protein and its activated form...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367335/circadian-plasticity-of-mammalian-inhibitory-interneurons
#17
REVIEW
Malgorzata Jasinska, Elzbieta Pyza
Inhibitory interneurons participate in all neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including the circadian clock system, and are indispensable for their effective function. Although the clock neurons have different molecular and electrical properties, their main function is the generation of circadian oscillations. Here we review the circadian plasticity of GABAergic interneurons in several areas of the mammalian brain, suprachiasmatic nucleus, neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, cerebellum, striatum, and in the retina...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367334/changes-in-cortical-activation-patterns-in-language-areas-following-an-aerobic-exercise-intervention-in-older-adults
#18
Joe Nocera, Bruce Crosson, Kevin Mammino, Keith M McGregor
Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic "Spin" exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357142/aerobic-exercise-effects-on-ocular-dominance-plasticity-with-a-phase-combination-task-in-human-adults
#19
Jiawei Zhou, Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Several studies have shown that short-term monocular patching can induce ocular dominance plasticity in normal adults, in which the patched eye becomes stronger in binocular viewing. There is a recent study showing that exercise enhances this plasticity effect when assessed with binocular rivalry. We address one question, is this enhancement from exercise a general effect such that it is seen for measures of binocular processing other than that revealed using binocular rivalry? Using a binocular phase combination task in which we directly measure each eye's contribution to the binocularly fused percept, we show no additional effect of exercise after short-term monocular occlusion and argue that the enhancement of ocular dominance plasticity from exercise could not be demonstrated with our approach...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357141/intrahemispheric-perfusion-in-chronic-stroke-induced-aphasia
#20
Cynthia K Thompson, Matthew Walenski, YuFen Chen, David Caplan, Swathi Kiran, Brenda Rapp, Kristin Grunewald, Mia Nunez, Richard Zinbarg, Todd B Parrish
Stroke-induced alterations in cerebral blood flow (perfusion) may contribute to functional language impairments and recovery in chronic aphasia. Using MRI, we examined perfusion in the right and left hemispheres of 35 aphasic and 16 healthy control participants. Across 76 regions (38 per hemisphere), no significant between-subjects differences were found in the left, whereas blood flow in the right was increased in the aphasic compared to the control participants. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses showed a varied pattern of hypo- and hyperperfused regions across hemispheres in the aphasic participants; however, there were no significant correlations between perfusion values and language abilities in these regions...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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