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Neural Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101381/loss-of-myh14-increases-susceptibility-to-noise-induced-hearing-loss-in-cba-caj-mice
#1
Xiaolong Fu, Linqing Zhang, Yecheng Jin, Xiaoyang Sun, Aizhen Zhang, Zongzhuang Wen, Yichen Zhou, Ming Xia, Jiangang Gao
MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14(-/-) mice) and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097024/synchronized-progression-of-prestin-expression-and-auditory-brainstem-response-during-postnatal-development-in-rats
#2
Jianfeng Hang, Wenlu Pan, Aoshuang Chang, Shun Li, Cuixian Li, Mingyu Fu, Jie Tang
Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090361/effect-of-endolymphatic-hydrops-on-sound-transmission-in-live-guinea-pigs-measured-with-a-laser-doppler-vibrometer
#3
Chen-Ru Ding, Xin-Da Xu, Xin-Wei Wang, Xian-Hao Jia, Xiang Cheng, Xiang Liu, Lin Yang, Bu-Sheng Tong, Fang-Lu Chi, Dong-Dong Ren
Objective. This study aimed at describing the mechanism of hearing loss in low frequency and the different dynamic behavior of the umbo, the stapes head, and the round window membrane (RWM) between normal guinea pigs and those with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Methods. Cochlear sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to evaluate the hydropic ratio (HR). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and whole-mount immunostaining were measured. Displacement of the umbo, stapes head, and RWM in response to ear-canal sound was evaluated using a LDV...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090360/neurosteroids-involvement-in-the-epigenetic-control-of-memory-formation-and-storage
#4
REVIEW
Alessandra Colciago, Valerio Magnaghi
Memory is our ability to store and remember past experiences; it is the result of changes in neuronal circuits of specific brain areas as the hippocampus. During memory formation, neurons integrate their functions and increase the strength of their connections, so that synaptic plasticity is improved and consolidated. All these processes recruit several proteins at the synapses, whose expression is highly regulated by DNA methylation and histone tails posttranslational modifications. Steroids are known to influence memory process, and, among them, neurosteroids are implicated in neurodegenerative disease related to memory loss and cognitive impairment...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090359/inhibition-of-the-camp-pka-creb-pathway-contributes-to-the-analgesic-effects-of-electroacupuncture-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-a-rat-pain-memory-model
#5
Xiao-Mei Shao, Jing Sun, Yong-Liang Jiang, Bo-Yi Liu, Zui Shen, Fang Fang, Jun-Ying Du, Yuan-Yuan Wu, Jia-Ling Wang, Jian-Qiao Fang
Pain memory is considered as endopathic factor underlying stubborn chronic pain. Our previous study demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) can alleviate retrieval of pain memory. This study was designed to observe the different effects between EA and indomethacin (a kind of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs) in a rat pain memory model. To explore the critical role of protein kinase A (PKA) in pain memory, a PKA inhibitor was microinjected into anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in model rats. We further investigated the roles of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), PKA, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in pain memory to explore the potential molecular mechanism...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090358/merging-and-fractionation-of-muscle-synergy-indicate-the-recovery-process-in-patients-with-hemiplegia-the-first-study-of-patients-after-subacute-stroke
#6
Yu Hashiguchi, Koji Ohata, Ryosuke Kitatani, Natsuki Yamakami, Kaoru Sakuma, Sayuri Osako, Yumi Aga, Aki Watanabe, Shigehito Yamada
Loss of motor coordination is one of the main problems for patients after stroke. Muscle synergy is widely accepted as an indicator of motor coordination. Recently, the characteristics of muscle synergy were quantitatively evaluated using nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF) with surface electromyography. Previous studies have identified that the number and structure of synergies were associated with motor function in patients after stroke. However, most of these studies had a cross-sectional design, and the changes in muscle synergy during recovery process are not clear...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090357/effects-of-a-home-based-family-centred-early-habilitation-program-on-neurobehavioural-outcomes-of-very-preterm-born-infants-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Michela Poggioli, Fabrizio Minichilli, Tiziana Bononi, Pasquina Meghi, Paolo Andre, Alessandra Crecchi, Bruno Rossi, Maria Chiara Carboncini, Alberto Ottolini, Luca Bonfiglio
Preterm children have an increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairments which include psychomotor and language retardation. The objectives of the present retrospective cohort study were to examine the effects of an individually adapted, home-based, and family-centred early developmental habilitation program on neurodevelopmental and behavioural outcomes of very preterm children compared with a standard follow-up at 2 years' corrected age. Enrolled infants were retrospectively assigned to the intervention group (61 subjects) or to the control group (62 subjects) depending on whether they had or had not carried out a home-based family-centred early developmental habilitation program focused on environmental enrichment, parent-guided environmental interaction, and infant development...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078144/progress-of-research-on-diffuse-axonal-injury-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Junwei Ma, Kai Zhang, Zhimin Wang, Gang Chen
The current work reviews the concept, pathological mechanism, and process of diagnosing of DAI. The pathological mechanism underlying DAI is complicated, including axonal breakage caused by axonal retraction balls, discontinued protein transport along the axonal axis, calcium influx, and calpain-mediated hydrolysis of structural protein, degradation of axonal cytoskeleton network, the changes of transport proteins such as amyloid precursor protein, and changes of glia cells. Based on the above pathological mechanism, the diagnosis of DAI is usually made using methods such as CT, traditional and new MRI, biochemical markers, and neuropsychological assessment...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074162/altered-effective-connectivity-of-hippocampus-dependent-episodic-memory-network-in-mtbi-survivors
#9
Hao Yan, Yanqin Feng, Qian Wang
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are generally recognized to affect episodic memory. However, less is known regarding how external force altered the way functionally connected brain structures of the episodic memory system interact. To address this issue, we adopted an effective connectivity based analysis, namely, multivariate Granger causality approach, to explore causal interactions within the brain network of interest. Results presented that TBI induced increased bilateral and decreased ipsilateral effective connectivity in the episodic memory network in comparison with that of normal controls...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074161/direct-current-induced-calcium-trafficking-in-different-neuronal-preparations
#10
Andrzej Wieraszko, Zaghloul Ahmed
The influence of direct current (DC) stimulation on radioactive calcium trafficking in sciatic nerve in vivo and in vitro, spinal cord, and synaptosomes was investigated. The exposure to DC enhanced calcium redistribution in all of these preparations. The effect was dependent on the strength of the stimulation and extended beyond the phase of exposure to DC. The DC-induced increase in calcium sequestration by synaptosomes was significantly reduced by cobalt and rupture of synaptosomes by osmotic shock. Although both anodal and cathodal currents were effective, the experiments with two electrodes of different areas revealed that cathodal stimulation exerted stronger effect...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074160/resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-children-with-perinatal-stroke
#11
Nigul Ilves, Pilvi Ilves, Rael Laugesaar, Julius Juurmaa, Mairi Männamaa, Silva Lõo, Dagmar Loorits, Tiiu Tomberg, Anneli Kolk, Inga Talvik, Tiina Talvik
Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of congenital hemiparesis and neurocognitive deficits in children. Dysfunctions in the large-scale resting-state functional networks may underlie cognitive and behavioral disability in these children. We studied resting-state functional connectivity in patients with perinatal stroke collected from the Estonian Pediatric Stroke Database. Neurodevelopment of children was assessed by the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measurement and the Kaufman Assessment Battery. The study included 36 children (age range 7...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070426/analysis-of-the-damage-mechanism-related-to-co2-laser-cochleostomy-on-guinea-pig-cochlea
#12
Xiang Liu, Xiao-Qing Qian, Rui Ma, Fang-Lu Chi, Dong-Dong Ren
Different types of lasers have been used in inner ear surgery. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to avoid damage to the inner ear (e.g., hyperthermia and acoustic effects) caused by the use of such lasers. The aim of this study was to use a high powered fibre-enabled CO2 laser (10 W, 606 J/cm(2)) to perform cochleostomies on guinea pig cochlea and to investigate the possible laser-induced damage mechanisms. The temperature changes in the round window membrane, auditory evoked brainstem response, and morphological of the hair cells were measured and recorded before and after laser application...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070425/coordinated-plasticity-between-barrel-cortical-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-during-associative-memory
#13
Fenxia Yan, Zilong Gao, Pin Chen, Li Huang, Dangui Wang, Na Chen, Ruixiang Wu, Jing Feng, Shan Cui, Wei Lu, Jin-Hui Wang
Neural plasticity is associated with memory formation. The coordinated refinement and interaction between cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons remain elusive in associative memory, which we examine in a mouse model of associative learning. In the mice that show odorant-induced whisker motion after pairing whisker and odor stimulations, the barrel cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons are recruited to encode the newly learnt odor signal alongside the innate whisker signal. These glutamatergic neurons are functionally upregulated, and GABAergic neurons are refined in a homeostatic manner...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053790/mutation-in-the-hair-cell-specific-gene-pou4f3-is-a-common-cause-for-autosomal-dominant-nonsyndromic-hearing-loss-in-chinese-hans
#14
Longxia He, Xiuhong Pang, Penghui Chen, Hao Wu, Tao Yang
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is extremely heterogeneous. So far the genetic etiological contribution of the gene POU4F3 associated with ADNSHL has been rarely reported. In our previous study, a c.603_604delGG mutation in the hair cell specific gene POU4F3 has been identified as the pathogenic cause in one of the seven Chinese Han ADNSHL families. In the present study, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing of 144 known deafness genes in another nine Chinese Han ADNSHL families and identified two more novel mutations in POU4F3, p...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053789/pain-induced-during-both-the-acquisition-and-retention-phases-of-locomotor-adaptation-does-not-interfere-with-improvements-in-motor-performance
#15
Jason Bouffard, Laurent J Bouyer, Jean-Sébastien Roy, Catherine Mercier
Cutaneous pain experienced during locomotor training was previously reported to interfere with retention assessed in pain-free conditions. To determine whether this interference reflects consolidation deficits or a difficulty to transfer motor skills acquired in the presence of pain to a pain-free context, this study evaluated the effect of pain induced during both the acquisition and retention phases of locomotor learning. Healthy participants performed a locomotor adaptation task (robotized orthosis perturbing ankle movements during swing) on two consecutive days...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053788/the-role-of-stress-regulation-on-neural-plasticity-in-pain-chronification
#16
REVIEW
Xiaoyun Li, Li Hu
Pain, especially chronic pain, is one of the most common clinical symptoms and has been considered as a worldwide healthcare problem. The transition from acute to chronic pain is accompanied by a chain of alterations in physiology, pathology, and psychology. Increasing clinical studies and complementary animal models have elucidated effects of stress regulation on the pain chronification via investigating activations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and changes in some crucial brain regions, including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050288/exercise-training-promotes-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
REVIEW
Juanjuan Fu, Hongxing Wang, Lingxiao Deng, Jianan Li
The exercise training is an effective therapy for spinal cord injury which has been applied to clinic. Traditionally, the exercise training has been considered to improve spinal cord function only through enhancement, compensation, and replacement of the remaining function of nerve and muscle. Recently, accumulating evidences indicated that exercise training can improve the function in different levels from end-effector organ such as skeletal muscle to cerebral cortex through reshaping skeletal muscle structure and muscle fiber type, regulating physiological and metabolic function of motor neurons in the spinal cord and remodeling function of the cerebral cortex...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050287/the-effects-of-urethane-on-rat-outer-hair-cells
#18
Mingyu Fu, Mengzi Chen, Xiao Yan, Xueying Yang, Jinfang Xiao, Jie Tang
The cochlea converts sound vibration into electrical impulses and amplifies the low-level sound signal. Urethane, a widely used anesthetic in animal research, has been shown to reduce the neural responses to auditory stimuli. However, the effects of urethane on cochlea, especially on the function of outer hair cells, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the cochlear microphonic responses between awake and urethane-anesthetized rats. The results revealed that the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic was decreased by urethane, resulting in an increase in the threshold at all of the sound frequencies examined...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050286/potential-role-of-synaptic-activity-to-inhibit-ltd-induction-in-rat-visual-cortex
#19
Matthew R Stewart, Hans C Dringenberg
Long-term depression (LTD), a widely studied form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, is typically induced by prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS). Interestingly, LFS is highly effective in eliciting LTD in vitro, but much less so under in vivo conditions; the reasons for the resistance of the intact brain to express LTD are not well understood. We examined if levels of background electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity influence LTD induction in the thalamocortical visual system of rats under very deep urethane anesthesia, inducing a brain state of reduced spontaneous cortical activity...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018680/distinctive-structural-and-effective-connectivity-changes-of-semantic-cognition-network-across-left-and-right-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#20
Xiaotong Fan, Hao Yan, Yi Shan, Kun Shang, Xiaocui Wang, Peipei Wang, Yongzhi Shan, Jie Lu, Guoguang Zhao
Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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