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Neural Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138699/for-better-or-worse-the-effect-of-prismatic-adaptation-on-auditory-neglect
#1
Isabel Tissieres, Mona Elamly, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Patients with auditory neglect attend less to auditory stimuli on their left and/or make systematic directional errors when indicating sound positions. Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA) was repeatedly shown to alleviate symptoms of visuospatial neglect and once to restore partially spatial bias in dichotic listening. It is currently unknown whether R-PA affects only this ear-related symptom or also other aspects of auditory neglect. We have investigated the effect of R-PA on left ear extinction in dichotic listening, space-related inattention assessed by diotic listening, and directional errors in auditory localization in patients with auditory neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138698/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-and-14-15-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-facilitated-long-term-potentiation-through-camp-and-camkii-in-the-hippocampus
#2
Han-Fang Wu, Yi-Ju Chen, Su-Zhen Wu, Chi-Wei Lee, I-Tuan Chen, Yi-Chao Lee, Chi-Chen Huang, Chung-Hsi Hsing, Chih-Wei Tang, Hui-Ching Lin
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are derived from arachidonic acid and metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The role of EETs in synaptic function in the central nervous system is still largely unknown. We found that pharmacological inhibition of sEH to stabilize endogenous EETs and exogenous 14,15-EET significantly increased the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) response in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, while additionally enhancing high-frequency stimulation- (HFS-) induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and forskolin- (FSK-) induced LTP...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138697/following-spinal-cord-injury-transected-reticulospinal-tract-axons-develop-new-collateral-inputs-to-spinal-interneurons-in-parallel-with-locomotor-recovery
#3
Zacnicte May, Keith K Fenrich, Julia Dahlby, Nicholas J Batty, Abel Torres-Espín, Karim Fouad
The reticulospinal tract (RtST) descends from the reticular formation and terminates in the spinal cord. The RtST drives the initiation of locomotion and postural control. RtST axons form new contacts with propriospinal interneurons (PrINs) after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, it is unclear if injured or uninjured axons make these connections. We completely transected all traced RtST axons in rats using a staggered model, where a hemisection SCI at vertebra T10 is followed by a contralateral hemisection at vertebra T7...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123928/neuroplasticity-and-healthy-lifestyle-how-can-we-understand-this-relationship
#4
EDITORIAL
Azucena Begega, Luis J Santín, Pablo Galeano, Debora Cutuli, Patricia Sampedro Piquero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123927/locus-coeruleus-and-dopamine-dependent-memory-consolidation
#5
REVIEW
Miwako Yamasaki, Tomonori Takeuchi
Most everyday memories including many episodic-like memories that we may form automatically in the hippocampus (HPC) are forgotten, while some of them are retained for a long time by a memory stabilization process, called initial memory consolidation. Specifically, the retention of everyday memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after the time of encoding. Converging evidence has indicated that dopamine (DA) signaling via D1/D5 receptors in HPC is required for persistence of synaptic plasticity and memory, thereby playing an important role in the novelty-associated memory enhancement...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123926/spinal-excitability-changes-after-transspinal-and-transcortical-paired-associative-stimulation-in-humans
#6
Maria Knikou
Paired associative stimulation (PAS) produces enduring neuroplasticity based on Hebbian associative plasticity. This study established the changes in spinal motoneuronal excitability by pairing transcortical and transspinal stimulation. Transcortical stimulation was delivered after (transspinal-transcortical PAS) or before (transcortical-transspinal PAS) transspinal stimulation. Before and after 40 minutes of each PAS protocol, spinal neural excitability was assessed based on the amplitude of the transspinal-evoked potentials (TEPs) recorded from ankle muscles of both legs at different stimulation intensities (recruitment input-output curve)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119024/effects-of-propofol-treatment-in-neural-progenitors-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Bo Long, Shenglan Li, Haipeng Xue, Li Sun, Dong H Kim, Ying Liu
Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic that has been widely used in clinics. Besides its anesthetic effects, propofol has also been reported to influence the regulation of the autonomic system. Controversies exist with regard to whether propofol exposure is safe for pregnant women and young children. In this work, human-induced pluripotent stem cell- (hiPSC-) derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were treated with propofol at 20, 50, 100, or 300 μM for 6 h or 24 h, and acute and subacute cell injury, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104807/neural-vascular-mechanism-for-the-cerebral-blood-flow-autoregulation-after-hemorrhagic-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Ming Xiao, Qiang Li, Hua Feng, Le Zhang, Yujie Chen
During the initial stages of hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, the reflex mechanisms are activated to protect cerebral perfusion, but secondary dysfunction of cerebral flow autoregulation will eventually reduce global cerebral blood flow and the delivery of metabolic substrates, leading to generalized cerebral ischemia, hypoxia, and ultimately, neuronal cell death. Cerebral blood flow is controlled by various regulatory mechanisms, including prevailing arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, arterial blood gases, neural activity, and metabolic demand...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098091/functional-metaplasticity-of-hippocampal-schaffer-collateral-ca1-synapses-is-reversed-in-chronically-epileptic-rats
#9
Mirko Rehberg, Timo Kirschstein, Xiati Guli, Steffen Müller, Marco Rohde, Denise Franz, Tursonjan Tokay, Rüdiger Köhling
Spatial learning and associating spatial information with individual experience are crucial for rodents and higher mammals. Hence, studying the cellular and molecular cascades involved in the key mechanism of information storage in the brain, synaptic plasticity, has led to enormous knowledge in this field. A major open question applies to the interdependence between synaptic plasticity and its behavioral correlates. In this context, it has become clear that behavioral aspects may impact subsequent synaptic plasticity, a phenomenon termed behavioral metaplasticity...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098090/corrigendum-to-short-term-monocular-deprivation-enhances-physiological-pupillary-oscillations
#10
Paola Binda, Claudia Lunghi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/6724631.].
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098089/the-cardiovascular-effect-of-systemic-homocysteine-is-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla
#11
Mei-Fang Zhong, Yu-Hong Zhao, Hua Xu, Xing Tan, Yang-Kai Wang, Wei-Zhong Wang
It has been demonstrated that homocysteine (HCY) is a significant risk factor of hypertension, which is characterized by overactivity of sympathetic tone. Excessive oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region for control of sympathetic outflow, contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity in hypertension. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to determine the effect of systemic HCY on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the RVLM. In the rat model of the diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia (L-methionine, 1 g/kg/day, 8 weeks), we found that the HCY resulted in a significant increase (≈3...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075536/neural-plasticity-associated-with-hippocampal-pka-creb-and-nmda-signaling-is-involved-in-the-antidepressant-effect-of-repeated-low-dose-of-yueju-pill-on-chronic-mouse-model-of-learned-helplessness
#12
Zhilu Zou, Yin Chen, Qinqin Shen, Xiaoyan Guo, Yuxuan Zhang, Gang Chen
Yueju pill is a traditional Chinese medicine formulated to treat syndromes of mood disorders. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of repeated low dose of Yueju in the animal model mimicking clinical long-term depression condition and the role of neural plasticity associated with PKA- (protein kinase A-) CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) signaling. We showed that a single low dose of Yueju demonstrated antidepressant effects in tests of tail suspension, forced swim, and novelty-suppressed feeding...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075535/the-effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-pkmzeta-in-the-acc-in-regulating-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-rats-experiencing-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#13
Junying Du, Junfan Fang, Cun Wen, Xiaomei Shao, Yi Liang, Jianqiao Fang
Chronic inflammatory pain can induce emotional diseases. Electroacupuncture (EA) has effects on chronic pain and pain-related anxiety. Protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) has been proposed to be essential for the maintenance of pain and may interact with GluR1 to maintain CNS plasticity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We hypothesized that the PKMzeta-GluR1 pathway in the ACC may be involved in anxiety-like behaviors of chronic inflammatory pain and that the mechanism of EA regulation of pain emotion may involve the PKMzeta pathway in the ACC...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062576/does-the-somatosensory-temporal-discrimination-threshold-change-over-time-in-focal-dystonia
#14
Antonella Conte, Gina Ferrazzano, Daniele Belvisi, Nicoletta Manzo, Antonio Suppa, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
BACKGROUND: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is defined as the shortest interval at which an individual recognizes two stimuli as asynchronous. Some evidence suggests that STDT depends on cortical inhibitory interneurons in the basal ganglia and in primary somatosensory cortex. Several studies have reported that the STDT in patients with dystonia is abnormal. No longitudinal studies have yet investigated whether STDT values in different forms of focal dystonia change during the course of the disease...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057125/the-effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-people-with-neurological-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Christopher P Mackay, Suzanne S Kuys, Sandra G Brauer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in people with neurological disorders. DATA SOURCES: Six electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, and Web of Science) were searched until the end of December 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Experimental or observational studies of people with neurological disorders who undertook an exercise intervention with BDNF as an outcome measure...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038736/down-but-not-out-the-consequences-of-pretangle-tau-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#16
REVIEW
Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, David Weinshenker, Jacki M Rorabaugh
Degeneration of locus coeruleus (LC) is an underappreciated hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LC is the main source of norepinephrine (NE) in the forebrain, and its degeneration is highly correlated with cognitive impairment and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tangle pathology. Hyperphosphorylated tau in the LC is among the first detectable AD-like neuropathology in the brain, and while the LC/NE system impacts multiple aspects of AD (e.g., cognition, neuropathology, and neuroinflammation), the functional consequences of hyperphosphorylated tau accrual on LC neurons are not known...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951790/vagotomy-reduces-insulin-clearance-in-obese-mice-programmed-by-low-protein-diet-in-the-adolescence
#17
Camila Lubaczeuski, Luciana Mateus Gonçalves, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Mirian Ayumi Kurauti, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur, Antonio Carlos Boschero, José Maria Costa-Júnior, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on insulin sensitivity, secretion, and degradation in metabolic programmed mice, induced by a low-protein diet early in life, followed by exposure to a high-fat diet in adulthood. Weaned 30-day-old C57Bl/6 mice were submitted to a low-protein diet (6% protein). After 4 weeks, the mice were distributed into three groups: LP group, which continued receiving a low-protein diet; LP + HF group, which started to receive a high-fat diet; and LP + HFvag group, which underwent vagotomy and also was kept at a high-fat diet...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951789/neuronal-glial-interactions-maintain-chronic-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Young S Gwak, Claire E Hulsebosch, Joong Woo Leem
The hyperactive state of sensory neurons in the spinal cord enhances pain transmission. Spinal glial cells have also been implicated in enhanced excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons, resulting in pain amplification and distortions. Traumatic injuries of the neural system such as spinal cord injury (SCI) induce neuronal hyperactivity and glial activation, causing maladaptive synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord. Recent studies demonstrate that SCI causes persistent glial activation with concomitant neuronal hyperactivity, thus providing the substrate for central neuropathic pain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928988/the-effect-of-glucocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-interactions-on-brain-spinal-cord-and-glial-cell-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Kathryn M Madalena, Jessica K Lerch
Stress, injury, and disease trigger glucocorticoid (GC) elevation. Elevated GCs bind to the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While GRs are in every cell in the nervous system, the expression level varies, suggesting that diverse cell types react differently to GR activation. Stress/GCs induce structural plasticity in neurons, Schwann cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as affect neurotransmission by changing the release and reuptake of glutamate. While general nervous system plasticity is essential for adaptation and learning and memory, stress-induced plasticity is often maladaptive and contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and neuropathic pain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928987/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-depression-and-physical-activity-making-the-neuroplastic-connection
#20
REVIEW
Cristy Phillips
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is vital to the survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in key brain circuits involved in emotional and cognitive function. Convergent evidence indicates that neuroplastic mechanisms involving BDNF are deleteriously altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) and animal models of stress. Herein, clinical and preclinical evidence provided that stress-induced depressive pathology contributes to altered BDNF level and function in persons with MDD and, thereby, disruptions in neuroplasticity at the regional and circuit level...
2017: Neural Plasticity
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