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Neural Plasticity

Yun Qin, Yanan Li, Bo Sun, Hui He, Rui Peng, Tao Zhang, Jianfu Li, Cheng Luo, Chengyan Sun, Dezhong Yao
Cerebral palsy (CP) has long been investigated to be associated with a range of motor and cognitive dysfunction. As the two most common CP subtypes, spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) and dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP) may share common and distinct elements in their pathophysiology. However, the common and distinct dysfunctional characteristics between SCP and DCP on the brain network level are less known. This study aims to detect the alteration of brain functional connectivity in children with SCP and DCP based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Fushun Wang, Fang Pan, Lee A Shapiro, Jason H Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neural Plasticity
Cristine de Paula Nascimento-Castro, Ana Claudia Wink, Victor Silva da Fônseca, Claudia Daniele Bianco, Elisa C Winkelmann-Duarte, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Patricia S Brocardo
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a trinucleotide expansion in the HD gene, resulting in an extended polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin. HD is traditionally viewed as a movement disorder, but cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms also contribute to the clinical presentation. Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disturbances in HD, present even before manifestation of motor symptoms. Diagnosis and treatment of depression in HD-affected individuals are essential aspects of clinical management in this population, especially owing to the high risk of suicide...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Monica Christova, Hannes Aftenberger, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Gallasch
Posttraining consolidation, also known as offline learning, refers to neuroplastic processes and systemic reorganization by which newly acquired skills are converted from an initially transient state into a more permanent state. An extensive amount of research on cognitive and fine motor tasks has shown that sleep is able to enhance these processes, resulting in more stable declarative and procedural memory traces. On the other hand, limited evidence exists concerning the relationship between sleep and learning of gross motor skills...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Yingli Li, Qingguo Ding, Yuancun Zhao, Yanan Bu, Xiaoyan Tang, Peiguo Wang, Genhua Zhang, Mengling Chen, Pei Liang
Visual information may convey different affective valences and induce our brain into different affective perceptions. Many studies have found that unpleasant stimuli could produce stronger emotional effects than pleasant stimuli could. Although there has been a notion that triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive, there has been no systematic study to map the degrees of valence of shapes with different affective perceptions. Here, we employed four shapes (ellipse, triangle, and line-drawn happy and angry faces) to investigate the behavior and electrophysiological responses, in order to systematically study shape-induced affective perception...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Priscila Marques Sosa, Mauren Assis de Souza, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes
Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a well-established neuroprotective role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the other teas of the same plant do not have their properties well understood; but they can be as effective as green tea as an alternative therapy. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementation with green tea and red tea from Camellia sinensis on motor deficits and striatum oxidative damage in rats submitted to hemorrhagic stroke (ICH)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Edith Durand, Pierre Berroir, Ana Inés Ansaldo
The impact of sensorimotor strategies on aphasia recovery has rarely been explored. This paper reports on the efficacy of personalized observation, execution, and mental imagery (POEM) therapy, a new approach designed to integrate sensorimotor and language-based strategies to treat verb anomia, a frequent aphasia sign. Two participants with verb anomia were followed up in a pre-/posttherapy fMRI study. POEM was administered in a massed stimulation schedule, with personalized stimuli, resulting in significant improvement in both participants, with both trained and untrained items...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Cinzia Mallozzi, Alida Spalloni, Patrizia Longone, Maria Rosaria Domenici
Degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons is the typical feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease for which a pathogenetic role for the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been demonstrated. Mice overexpressing a mutated form of the SOD1 gene (SOD1G93A ) develop a syndrome that closely resembles the human disease. The SOD1 mutations confer to this enzyme a "gain-of-function," leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. Several oxidants induce tyrosine phosphorylation through direct stimulation of kinases and/or phosphatases...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Penghui Chen, Yongchuan Chai, Haijin Liu, Gen Li, Longhao Wang, Tao Yang, Hao Wu
Microglial cells are involved in surveillance and cleaning of the central nervous system. Recently, microglial-like cells (MLC) have been found in an adult cochlea and investigated for their role in cochlear inflammation. The presence and potential roles of MLCs during the development of the cochlea, however, remain unclear. In this study, immunostaining was performed using the MLC-specific marker IBA1 to characterize the presence, distribution, and morphology of MLCs in the developing cochlea. From P0 to P14, MLCs were present in a variety of cochlear regions including the modiolus, spiral lamina, spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and the organ of Corti...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Elisabeth Sens, Marcel Franz, Christoph Preul, Winfried Meissner, Otto W Witte, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Weiss
Temporary functional deafferentation (TFD) by an anesthetic cream on the stroke-affected forearm was shown to improve sensorimotor abilities of stroke patients. The present study investigated different predictors for sensorimotor improvements during TFD and indicated outcome differences between patients grouped in subcortical lesions only and lesions with any cortical involvement. Thirty-four chronic stroke patients were temporarily deafferented on the more affected forearm by an anesthetic cream. Somatosensory performance was assessed using von Frey Hair and grating orientation task; motor performance was assessed by a shape-sorter-drum task...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jenna Bloemer, Priyanka D Pinky, Manoj Govindarajulu, Hao Hong, Robert Judd, Rajesh H Amin, Timothy Moore, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Miranda N Reed, Vishnu Suppiramaniam
Adiponectin, the most abundant plasma adipokine, plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin also possesses insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and vasodilatory properties which may influence central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Although initially not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier, adiponectin enters the brain through peripheral circulation. In the brain, adiponectin signaling through its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, directly influences important brain functions such as energy homeostasis, hippocampal neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Giuseppina Sgandurra, Laura Biagi, Leonardo Fogassi, Elisa Sicola, Adriano Ferrari, Andrea Guzzetta, Michela Tosetti, Giovanni Cioni
Little is known about the action observation network (AON) in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Using fMRI, we aimed to explore AON and sensory-motor network (SMN) in UCP children and compare them to typically developed (TD) children and analyse the relationship between AON (re-)organization and several neurophysiological and clinical measures. Twelve UCP children were assessed with clinical scales and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). For the fMRI study, they underwent a paradigm based on observation of complex and simple object-manipulation tasks executed by dominant and nondominant hand...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Krzysztof Miazga, Hanna Fabczak, Ewa Joachimiak, Małgorzata Zawadzka, Łucja Krzemień-Ojak, Marek Bekisz, Anna Bejrowska, Larry M Jordan, Urszula Sławińska
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) plays an important role in control of locomotion, partly through direct effects on motoneurons. Spinal cord complete transection (SCI) results in changes in 5-HT receptors on motoneurons that influence functional recovery. Activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors improves locomotor hindlimb movements in paraplegic rats. Here, we analyzed the mRNA of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors (encoded by Htr2a and Htr7 genes, resp.) in motoneurons innervating tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GM) hindlimb muscles and the tail extensor caudae medialis (ECM) muscle in intact as well as spinal rats...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Fangyi Chen, Dingjun Zha, Xiaojie Yang, Allyn Hubbard, Alfred Nuttall
The discovery that an apparent forward-propagating otoacoustic emission (OAE) induced basilar membrane vibration has created a serious debate in the field of cochlear mechanics. The traditional theory predicts that OAE will propagate to the ear canal via a backward traveling wave on the basilar membrane, while the opponent theory proposed that the OAE will reach the ear canal via a compression wave. Although accepted by most people, the basic phenomenon of the backward traveling wave theory has not been experimentally demonstrated...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Lisa M D'Alessandro, Robert V Harrison
Sensory brain regions show neuroplastic changes following deficits or experimental augmentation of peripheral input during a neonatal period. We have previously shown reorganization of cortical tonotopic maps after neonatal cochlear lesions or exposure to an enhanced acoustic environment. Such experiments probe the cortex and show reorganization, but it is unclear if such changes are intrinsically cortical or reflect projections from modified subcortical regions. Here, we ask whether an enhanced neonatal acoustic environment can induce midbrain (inferior colliculus (IC)) changes...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Louise P Kirsch, Nadine Diersch, Dilini K Sumanapala, Emily S Cross
How we perceive others in action is shaped by our prior experience. Many factors influence brain responses when observing others in action, including training in a particular physical skill, such as sport or dance, and also general development and aging processes. Here, we investigate how learning a complex motor skill shapes neural and behavioural responses among a dance-naïve sample of 20 young and 19 older adults. Across four days, participants physically rehearsed one set of dance sequences, observed a second set, and a third set remained untrained...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jamileth More, María Mercedes Casas, Gina Sánchez, Cecilia Hidalgo, Paola Haeger
Hippocampus-dependent spatial and aversive memory processes entail Ca2+ signals generated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ channels residing in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Rodents exposed to different spatial memory tasks exhibit significant hippocampal RyR upregulation. Contextual fear conditioning generates robust hippocampal memories through an associative learning process, but the effects of contextual fear memory acquisition, consolidation, or extinction on hippocampal RyR protein levels remain unreported...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Songqun Hu, Feifei Sun, Jie Zhang, Yan Tang, Jinhong Qiu, Zhixia Wang, Luping Zhang
Nonsyndromic hearing loss has been shown to have high genetic heterogeneity. In this report, we aimed to disclose the genetic causes of the subjects from the ten Chinese deaf families who did not have pathogenic common genes/mutation. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 142 known deafness genes was performed in the probands of ten families followed by cosegregation analysis of all family members. We identified novel pathogenic variants in six families including p.D1806E/p.R1588W, p.R964W/p.R1588W, and p.G17C/p...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Giovanni Buccino, Anna Molinaro, Claudia Ambrosi, Daniele Arisi, Lorella Mascaro, Chiara Pinardi, Andrea Rossi, Roberto Gasparotti, Elisa Fazzi, Jessica Galli
The aim of the present study was to assess the role of action observation treatment (AOT) in the rehabilitation of upper limb motor functions in children with cerebral palsy. We carried out a two-group, parallel randomized controlled trial. Eighteen children (aged 5-11 yr) entered the study: 11 were treated children, and 7 served as controls. Outcome measures were scores on two functional scales: Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function Scale (MUUL) and the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA). We collected functional scores before treatment (T1), at the end of treatment (T2), and at two months of follow-up (T3)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Aiko K Thompson, Briana M Favale, Jacqueline Velez, Patricia Falivena
Damage to the corticospinal pathway often results in weak dorsiflexion of the ankle, thereby limiting the mobility of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, strengthening corticospinal connectivity may improve locomotion. Here, we investigated the feasibility of tibialis anterior (TA) motor-evoked potential (MEP) operant conditioning and whether it can enhance corticospinal excitability and alleviate locomotor problems in people with chronic stable MS. The protocol consisted of 6 baseline and 24 up-conditioning sessions over 10 weeks...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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