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Neural Plasticity

Efrat Shavit Stein, Marina Ben Shimon, Avital Artan Furman, Valery Golderman, Joab Chapman, Nicola Maggio
Systemic inflammation and brain pathologies are known to be linked. In the periphery, the inflammation and coagulation systems are simultaneously activated upon diseases and infections. Whether this well-established interrelation also counts for neuroinflammation and coagulation factor expression in the brain is still an open question. Our aim was to study whether the interrelationship between coagulation and inflammation factors may occur in the brain in the setting of systemic inflammation. The results indicate that systemic injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upregulate the expression of both inflammatory and coagulation factors in the brain...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jun Zhan, Jingyuan Ren, Pei Sun, Jin Fan, Chang Liu, Jing Luo
In contrast to cognitive emotion regulation theories that emphasize top-down control of prefrontal-mediated regulation of emotion, in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, different emotions are considered to have mutual promotion and counteraction relationships. Our previous studies have provided behavioral evidence supporting the hypotheses that "fear promotes anger" and "sadness counteracts anger"; this study further investigated the corresponding neural correlates. A basic hypothesis we made is the "internal versus external orientation" assumption proposing that fear could promote anger as its external orientation associated with motivated action, whereas sadness could counteract anger as its internal or homeostatic orientation to somatic or visceral experience...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Guangfei Li, Dan You, Jiaoyao Ma, Wen Li, Huawei Li, Shan Sun
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is a clinically common acute symptom in otolaryngology. Although the incidence of SSHL has increased around the world in recent years, the etiology of the disease is still unclear. It has been reported that infections, ototoxic drugs, membrane labyrinth rupture, carcinomas, circulatory system diseases, autoimmune diseases, brain lesions, mental diseases, congenital or inherited diseases, and so on, are all risk factors for SSHL. Here, we discuss the autoimmune mechanisms behind SSHL, which might be induced by type II-IV allergic reactions...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Kristian N Mortensen, Albert Gjedde, Garth J Thompson, Peter Herman, Maxime J Parent, Douglas L Rothman, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito, Johan Stender, Steven Laureys, Valentin Riedl, Michael T Alkire, Fahmeed Hyder
Because the human brain consumes a disproportionate fraction of the resting body's energy, positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of absolute glucose metabolism (CMRglc ) can serve as disease biomarkers. Global mean normalization (GMN) of PET data reveals disease-based differences from healthy individuals as fractional changes across regions relative to a global mean. To assess the impact of GMN applied to metabolic data, we compared CMRglc with and without GMN in healthy awake volunteers with eyes closed (i...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Olga Borodovitsyna, Neal Joshi, Daniel Chandler
Neural plasticity plays a critical role in mediating short- and long-term brain responses to environmental stimuli. A major effector of plasticity throughout many regions of the brain is stress. Activation of the locus coeruleus (LC) is a critical step in mediating the neuroendocrine and behavioral limbs of the stress response. During stressor exposure, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis promotes release of corticotropin-releasing factor in LC, where its signaling promotes a number of physiological and cellular changes...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Sonia Betti, Andrea Spoto, Umberto Castiello, Luisa Sartori
Focal hand dystonia in musicians is a neurological motor disorder in which aberrant plasticity is caused by excessive repetitive use. This work's purposes were to induce plasticity changes in a dystonic musician through five daily thirty-minute sessions of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left M1 by using neuronavigated stimulation and to reliably measure the effect of these changes. To this aim, the relationship between neuroplasticity changes and motor recovery was investigated using fine-grained kinematic analysis...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Zbyněk Bureš, Kateryna Pysanenko, Jiří Lindovský, Josef Syka
It is well known that auditory experience during early development shapes response properties of auditory cortex (AC) neurons, influencing, for example, tonotopical arrangement, response thresholds and strength, or frequency selectivity. Here, we show that rearing rat pups in a complex acoustically enriched environment leads to an increased reliability of responses of AC neurons, affecting both the rate and the temporal codes. For a repetitive stimulus, the neurons exhibit a lower spike count variance, indicating a more stable rate coding...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Xiaozheng Liu, Jiuzun Chen, Bangli Shen, Gang Wang, Jiapeng Li, Hongtao Hou, Xingli Chen, Zhongwei Guo, Chuanwan Mao
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that major depressive disorder increases the risk of dementia in older individuals with mild cognitive impairment. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the intrinsic coupling patterns between the amplitude and synchronisation of low-frequency brain fluctuations using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the functional connectivity density (FCD) in 16 patients who had mild cognitive impairment with depressive symptoms (D-MCI) (mean age: 69...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Sook-Lei Liew, Kathleen A Garrison, Kaori L Ito, Panthea Heydari, Mona Sobhani, Julie Werner, Hanna Damasio, Carolee J Winstein, Lisa Aziz-Zadeh
Background: Increased activity in the lesioned hemisphere has been related to improved poststroke motor recovery. However, the role of the dominant hemisphere-and its relationship to activity in the lesioned hemisphere-has not been widely explored. Objective: Here, we examined whether the dominant hemisphere drives the lateralization of brain activity after stroke and whether this changes based on if the lesioned hemisphere is the dominant hemisphere or not. Methods: We used fMRI to compare cortical motor activity in the action observation network (AON), motor-related regions that are active both during the observation and execution of an action, in 36 left hemisphere dominant individuals...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Mi Kyoung Seo, Young Hoon Kim, Roger S McIntyre, Rodrigo B Mansur, Yena Lee, Nicole E Carmona, Ah Jeong Choi, Gyung-Mee Kim, Jung Goo Lee, Sung Woo Park
Recent studies have shown that antipsychotic drugs have epigenetic effects. However, the effects of antipsychotic drugs on histone modification remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the epigenetic modification of the BDNF gene in the rat hippocampus. Rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (6 h/d for 21 d) and then were administered with either olanzapine (2 mg/kg) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg). The levels of histone H3 acetylation and MeCP2 binding at BDNF promoter IV were assessed with chromatin immunoprecipitation assays...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Yinan Zhao, Yanguo Xin, Zhiyi He, Wenyu Hu
Neuronal signaling together with synapse activity in the central nervous system requires a precisely regulated microenvironment. Recently, the blood-brain barrier is considered as a "neuro-glia-vascular unit," a structural and functional compound composed of capillary endothelial cells, glial cells, pericytes, and neurons, which plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of the microenvironment in and out of the brain. Tight junctions and adherens junctions, which function as barriers of the blood-brain barrier, are two well-known kinds in the endothelial cell junctions...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Tribikram Thapa, Siobhan M Schabrun
Homeostatic plasticity regulates synaptic activity by preventing uncontrolled increases (long-term potentiation) or decreases (long-term depression) in synaptic efficacy. Homeostatic plasticity can be induced and assessed in the human primary motor cortex (M1) using noninvasive brain stimulation. However, the reliability of this methodology has not been investigated. Here, we examined the test-retest reliability of homeostatic plasticity induced and assessed in M1 using noninvasive brain stimulation in ten, right-handed, healthy volunteers on days 0, 2, 7, and 14...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Claudia Fuchs, Laura Gennaccaro, Stefania Trazzi, Stefano Bastianini, Simone Bettini, Viviana Lo Martire, Elisa Ren, Giorgio Medici, Giovanna Zoccoli, Roberto Rimondini, Elisabetta Ciani
CDKL5 disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like five) gene. CDKL5 disorder primarily affects girls and is characterized by early-onset epileptic seizures, gross motor impairment, intellectual disability, and autistic features. Although all CDKL5 female patients are heterozygous, the most valid disease-related model, the heterozygous female Cdkl5 knockout ( Cdkl5 +/-) mouse, has been little characterized. The lack of detailed behavioral profiling of this model remains a crucial gap that must be addressed in order to advance preclinical studies...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Najah Alhajri, Nicola J Hodges, Jill G Zwicker, Naznin Virji-Babul
Research has shown the effectiveness of observational practice for motor learning, but there continues to be debate about the mechanisms underlying effectiveness. Although cortical processes can be moderated during observation, after both physical and observational practice, how these processes change with respect to behavioural measures of learning has not been studied. Here we compared short-term physical and observational practice during the acquisition and retention of a novel motor task to evaluate how each type of practice modulates EEG mu rhythm (8-13 Hz)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Elisa Pelosin, Roberta Barella, Cristina Bet, Elisabetta Magioncalda, Martina Putzolu, Francesca Di Biasio, Cecilia Cerulli, Mauro Casaleggio, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Laura Avanzino
Freezing of gait (FoG) is among the most disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Recent studies showed that action observation training (AOT) with repetitive practice of the observed actions represents a strategy to induce longer-lasting effects compared with standard physiotherapy. We investigated whether AOT may improve FoG and mobility in PD, when AOT is applied in a group-based setting. Sixty-four participants with PD and FoG were assigned to the experimental (AO) or control groups and underwent a 45-minute training session, twice a week, for 5 weeks...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Anna-Sophia Wahl
Current experimental stroke research faces the same challenge as neuroscience: to transform correlative findings in causative ones. Research of recent years has shown the tremendous potential of the central nervous system to react to noxious stimuli such as a stroke: Increased plastic changes leading to reorganization in form of neuronal rewiring, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis, accompanied by transcriptional and translational turnover in the affected cells, have been described both clinically and in experimental stroke research...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, María Del Ángel Ocaña-Fernández, Leonardo Ortiz-López
Neurogenesis in the hippocampus is influenced by several factors including external stimuli. In addition to their involvement in learning and memory processes, newborn neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG) buffer against the effects of stress. Although the response of these cells to environmental stimuli has been shown, the age of the cells that respond to a brief spatial exploration or a stressful situation produced by forced-swim stress in adult female Balb/C mice is still unknown. Here, we investigated the activation of newborn neurons after three (IdU) or six weeks (CldU) postlabelling with the expression of Arc in the same mice but exposed to different environmental stimuli...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Harry Pantazopoulos, Karen Gamble, Oliver Stork, Shimon Amir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neural Plasticity
Hidehiko Okamoto
Neurophysiological and neuroimaging data suggest that the brains of not only children but also adults are reorganized based on sensory inputs and behaviors. Plastic changes in the brain are generally beneficial; however, maladaptive cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex may lead to hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. Recent studies attempted to noninvasively visualize pathological neural activity in the living human brain and reverse maladaptive cortical reorganization by the suitable manipulation of auditory inputs in order to alleviate detrimental auditory symptoms...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Norio Saito, Rei Shima, Yurika Yamada, Masaru Nagaoka, Etsuro Ito, Tohru Yoshioka
Although pain is indispensable for survival, chronic pain places a heavy burden on humans. As the efficacy of opioid treatment is limited, the development of alternative methods of pain relief without medication is desirable. Recently, we have developed a novel method of physical analgesia using an adhesive "pyramidal thorn patch." When we apply about 3 trials of these patches on the skin of a pain region, the pain region moves toward the spinal cord like a "cutaneous rabbit," and finally, the pain vanishes...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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