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Neural Plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203464/unilateral-laryngeal-pacing-system-and-its-functional-evaluation
#1
Taiping Zeng, Zhiping Zhang, Weiwei Peng, Fei Zhang, Baker Y Shi, Fangyi Chen
Goal. To establish a reliable instrumental system for synchronized reactivation of a unilaterally paralyzed vocal fold and evaluate its functional feasibility. Methods. Unilateral vocal fold paralysis model was induced by destruction of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in anesthetized dogs. With a micro controller-based electronic system, electromyography (EMG) signals from cricothyroid (CT) muscle on the ipsilateral side were recorded and used to trigger pacing of paralyzed vocalis muscles. The dynamic movement of vocal folds was continuously monitored using an endoscope, and the opening and closing of the glottis were quantified with customized imaging processing software...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203463/the-relative-weight-of-temporal-envelope-cues-in-different-frequency-regions-for-mandarin-sentence-recognition
#2
Yang Guo, Yuanyuan Sun, Yanmei Feng, Yujun Zhang, Shankai Yin
Acoustic temporal envelope (E) cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80-7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197343/chronic-social-defeat-stress-modulates-dendritic-spines-structural-plasticity-in-adult-mouse-frontal-association-cortex
#3
Yu Shu, Tonghui Xu
Chronic stress is associated with occurrence of many mental disorders. Previous studies have shown that dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex undergo drastic reorganization following chronic stress experience. So the prefrontal cortex is believed to play a key role in response of neural system to chronic stress. However, how stress induces dynamic structural changes in neural circuit of prefrontal cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress on dendritic spine structural plasticity in the mouse frontal association (FrA) cortex in vivo using two-photon microscopy...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197342/the-function-of-fgfr1-signalling-in-the-spinal-cord-therapeutic-approaches-using-fgfr1-ligands-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Barbara Haenzi, Lawrence D F Moon
Extensive research is ongoing that concentrates on finding therapies to enhance CNS regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to cure paralysis. This review sheds light on the role of the FGFR pathway in the injured spinal cord and discusses various therapies that use FGFR activating ligands to promote regeneration after SCI. We discuss studies that use peripheral nerve grafts or Schwann cell grafts in combination with FGF1 or FGF2 supplementation. Most of these studies show evidence that these therapies successfully enhance axon regeneration into the graft...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194282/localizing-age-related-changes-in-brain-structure-using-voxel-based-morphometry
#5
Shu Hua Mu, Min Xu, Jun Xiu Duan, Jian Zhang, Li Hai Tan
Aim. We report the dynamic anatomical sequence of human cortical gray matter development from late childhood to young adults using VBM and ROI-based methods. Method. The structural MRI of 91 normal individuals ranging in age from 6 to 26 years was obtained and the GMV for each region was measured. Results. Our results showed that the earliest loss of GMV occurred in left olfactory, right precuneus, caudate, left putamen, pallidum, and left middle temporal gyrus. In addition, the trajectory of maturational and aging showed a linear decline in GMV on both cortical lobes and subcortical regions...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191353/alterations-in-cortical-thickness-and-white-matter-integrity-in-mild-to-moderate-communicating-hydrocephalic-school-aged-children-measured-by-whole-brain-cortical-thickness-mapping-and-dti
#6
Siyu Zhang, Xinjian Ye, Guanghui Bai, Yuchuan Fu, Chuanwan Mao, Aiqin Wu, Xiaozheng Liu, Zhihan Yan
Follow-up observation is required for mild-to-moderate hydrocephalic patients because of the potential damage to brain. However, effects of mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus on gray and white matter remain unclear in vivo. Using structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), current study compared the cortical thickness and white matter integrity between children with mild-to-moderate communicating hydrocephalus and healthy controls. The relationships between cortical changes and intelligence quota were also examined in patients...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191352/hybrid-assistive-neuromuscular-dynamic-stimulation-therapy-a-new-strategy-for-improving-upper-extremity-function-in-patients-with-hemiparesis-following-stroke
#7
REVIEW
Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Michiyuki Kawakami, Kaoru Honaga, Michi Tochikura, Kaoru Abe
Hybrid Assistive Neuromuscular Dynamic Stimulation (HANDS) therapy is one of the neurorehabilitation therapeutic approaches that facilitates the use of the paretic upper extremity (UE) in daily life by combining closed-loop electromyography- (EMG-) controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with a wrist-hand splint. This closed-loop EMG-controlled NMES can change its stimulation intensity in direct proportion to the changes in voluntary generated EMG amplitudes recorded with surface electrodes placed on the target muscle...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182105/neuroplastic-correlates-in-the-mpfc-underlying-the-impairment-of-stress-coping-ability-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress-during-adolescence
#8
Yu Zhang, Feng Shao, Qiong Wang, Xi Xie, Weiwen Wang
Using a valid chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, we found that adolescent (postnatal days [PND] 28-41) CMS induced transient alterations in anhedonia that did not persist into adulthood after a 3-week recovery period. Previously stressed adult rats exhibited more immobility/despair behaviors in the forced swimming test and a greater number of trials to reach criterion in the set-shifting task, suggesting the impaired ability to cope with stressors and the cognitive flexibility that allows adaptation to dynamic environments during adulthood...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168061/right-hemisphere-remapping-of-naming-functions-depends-on-lesion-size-and-location-in-poststroke-aphasia
#9
Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Elizabeth H Lacey, Shihui Xing, Peter E Turkeltaub
The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163935/short-term-monocular-deprivation-enhances-physiological-pupillary-oscillations
#10
Paola Binda, Claudia Lunghi
Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163934/enhancing-nmda-receptor-function-recent-progress-on-allosteric-modulators
#11
REVIEW
Lulu Yao, Qiang Zhou
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are subtype glutamate receptors that play important roles in excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Their hypo- or hyperactivation are proposed to contribute to the genesis or progression of various brain diseases, including stroke, schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Past efforts in targeting NMDARs for therapeutic intervention have largely been on inhibitors of NMDARs. In light of the discovery of NMDAR hypofunction in psychiatric disorders and perhaps Alzheimer's disease, efforts in boosting NMDAR activity/functions have surged in recent years...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154762/pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-is-associated-with-changes-in-the-actin-modulating-protein-synaptopodin-and-alterations-in-long-term-potentiation-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#12
Maximilian Lenz, Marina Ben Shimon, Thomas Deller, Andreas Vlachos, Nicola Maggio
Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder which can severely affect neuronal function. Some patients may experience status epilepticus, a life-threatening state of ongoing seizure activity associated with postictal cognitive dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms by which status epilepticus influences brain function beyond seizure activity remain not well understood. Here, we addressed the question of whether pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus affects synaptopodin (SP), an actin-binding protein, which regulates the ability of neurons to express synaptic plasticity...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133550/the-contribution-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-spreading-to-parkinson-s-disease-synaptopathy
#13
REVIEW
Francesca Longhena, Gaia Faustini, Cristina Missale, Marina Pizzi, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Synaptopathies are diseases with synapse defects as shared pathogenic features, encompassing neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, the most common age-related neurodegenerative movement disorder, nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficits are responsible for the onset of motor symptoms that have been related to α-synuclein deposition at synaptic sites. Indeed, α-synuclein accumulation can impair synaptic dopamine release and induces the death of nigrostriatal neurons. While in physiological conditions the protein can interact with and modulate synaptic vesicle proteins and membranes, numerous experimental evidences have confirmed that its pathological aggregation can compromise correct neuronal functioning...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116173/electroacupuncture-regulates-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-via-mir-134-mediated-limk1-function-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke
#14
Weilin Liu, Jie Wu, Jia Huang, Peiyuan Zhuo, Yunjiao Lin, Lulu Wang, Ruhui Lin, Lidian Chen, Jing Tao
MircoRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in learning and memory, by regulating LIM domain kinase (LIMK1) to induce synaptic-dendritic plasticity. The study aimed to investigate whether miRNAs/LIMK1 signaling was involved in electroacupuncture- (EA-) mediated synaptic-dendritic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion induced cognitive deficit (MICD). Compared to untreatment or non-acupoint-EA treatment, EA at DU20 and DU24 acupoints could shorten escape latency and increase the frequency of crossing platform in Morris water maze test...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119786/transcriptomic-modification-in-the-cerebral-cortex-following-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-rna-sequencing-approach
#15
Ben Holmes, Seung Ho Jung, Jing Lu, Jessica A Wagner, Liudmilla Rubbi, Matteo Pellegrini, Ryan Jankord
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate neuroplasticity. Beneficial effects are observed in patients with psychiatric disorders and enhancement of brain performance in healthy individuals has been observed following tDCS. However, few studies have attempted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of tDCS in the brain. This study was conducted to assess the impact of tDCS on gene expression within the rat cerebral cortex. Anodal tDCS was applied at 3 different intensities followed by RNA-sequencing and analysis...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119785/mammalian-cochlear-hair-cell-regeneration-and-ribbon-synapse-reformation
#16
REVIEW
Xiaoling Lu, Yilai Shu, Mingliang Tang, Huawei Li
Hair cells (HCs) are the sensory preceptor cells in the inner ear, which play an important role in hearing and balance. The HCs of organ of Corti are susceptible to noise, ototoxic drugs, and infections, thus resulting in permanent hearing loss. Recent approaches of HCs regeneration provide new directions for finding the treatment of sensor neural deafness. To have normal hearing function, the regenerated HCs must be reinnervated by nerve fibers and reform ribbon synapse with the dendrite of spiral ganglion neuron through nerve regeneration...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116172/adenovirus-vectors-target-several-cell-subtypes-of-mammalian-inner-ear-in-vivo
#17
Yilai Shu, Yong Tao, Wenyan Li, Jun Shen, Zhengmin Wang, Zheng-Yi Chen
Mammalian inner ear harbors diverse cell types that are essential for hearing and balance. Adenovirus is one of the major vectors to deliver genes into the inner ear for functional studies and hair cell regeneration. To identify adenovirus vectors that target specific cell subtypes in the inner ear, we studied three adenovirus vectors, carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) from two vendors or with a genome editing gene Cre recombinase (Cre), by injection into postnatal days 0 (P0) and 4 (P4) mouse cochlea through scala media by cochleostomy in vivo...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116171/neural-network-underlying-recovery-from-disowned-bodily-states-induced-by-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#18
In-Seon Lee, Younbyoung Chae
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how causal influences between brain regions during the rubber hand illusion (RHI) are modulated by tactile and visual stimuli. We applied needle rotations during the RHI in two different ways: one was with the real hand (reinstantiation by tactile stimuli, R-TS) and the other was with the rubber hand (reinstantiation by visual stimuli, R-VS). We used dynamic causal modeling to investigate interactions among four relevant brain regions: the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), and the lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOC)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116170/cortical-reorganization-in-patients-recovered-from-bell-s-palsy-an-orofacial-and-finger-movements-task-state-fmri-study
#19
Jaeyoun Lee, Jun Yang, Chuanfu Li, Aihong Yuan, Hongli Wu, Anqin Wang, Qiuju Xue, Tao Wang, Linying Wang, Ting Gao
Objective. To explore cortical reorganization of patients recovered from Bell's palsy (BP) by task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during finger and orofacial movements and provide more evidence for acupuncture clinical treatment of BP. Methods. We collected 17 BP patients with complete clinical recovery (BP group) and 20 healthy volunteers (control group) accepted the task-state fMRI scans with lip pursing movements and finger movements, respectively. Results. It was found that there were significant differences of brain functional status between the two groups...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116169/massively-parallel-sequencing-of-a-chinese-family-with-dfna9-identified-a-novel-missense-mutation-in-the-lccl-domain-of-coch
#20
Xiaodong Gu, Wenling Su, Mingliang Tang, Luo Guo, Liping Zhao, Huawei Li
DFNA9 is a late-onset, progressive, autosomal dominantly inherited sensorineural hearing loss with vestibular dysfunction, which is caused by mutations in the COCH (coagulation factor C homology) gene. In this study, we investigated a Chinese family segregating autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. We identified a missense mutation c.T275A p.V92D in the LCCL domain of COCH cosegregating with the disease and absent in 100 normal hearing controls. This mutation leads to substitution of the hydrophobic valine to an acidic amino acid aspartic acid...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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