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Culture, Health & Sexuality

Anna M Leddy, Deanna Kerrigan, Caitlin E Kennedy, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Carol R Underwood
Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania...
March 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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March 15, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Cynthia Khamala Wangamati, Johanne Sundby, Ruth Jane Prince
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major global health concern. Although it is prevalent in Kenya, scant literature on factors contributing to CSA vulnerability exists. Using qualitative data from 28 focus groups and ethnographic field notes, we explored and assessed community perceptions of factors contributing to CSA vulnerability in Homa Bay County, Western Kenya. Findings suggest that people living in these communities perceived CSA as being influenced by multiple factors: developmental stage, peer pressure, huge gender disparities exacerbated by negative social norms and cultural practices, the HIV epidemic and social media platforms that circulate sexualised images...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jennifer L Glick, Katherine Theall, Katherine Andrinopoulos, Carl Kendall
Gender-minority health disparity research is limited by binary gender measurement practices. This study seeks to broaden current discourse on gender identity measurement in the USA, including measurement adoption challenges and mitigation strategies, thereby allowing for better data collection to understand and address health disparities for people of all genders. Three data sources were used to triangulate findings: expert interviews with gender and sexuality research leaders; key-informant interviews with gender minorities in New Orleans, LA; and document analysis of relevant surveys, guides and commentaries...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jennifer Kuzara, Anne Woodriff Sprinkel, Feven Tassew Mekuria, Marcie Rubardt, Fodié Maguiraga, Koman Sissoko, Philip Hastings
This study examines the design and implementation of a maternal mortality prevention intervention in central Mali. It uses Project Hope for Mothers and Newborns (PEMN) as a case study to examine the context around implementation, with special emphasis on the role of social, gender and power norms in meeting programme objectives. Interventions to strengthen the health system and workforce were coupled with a social norms change approach to catalyse the personal transformation of staff, community-level health workers and communities via critical reflection and dialogue on gender and social power norms related to maternal health...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Barbara Sutton, Elizabeth Borland
In recent years, there have been calls in activist spaces to 'queer' abortion rights advocacy and to incorporate non-normative notions of gender identity and sexuality into abortion struggles and services. Argentina provides an interesting site in which to examine these developments, since there is a longstanding movement for abortion rights in a context of illegal abortion and a recent ground-breaking Gender Identity Law that recognises key trans rights. In this paper, we analyse public documents from the abortion rights movement's main coalition - the National Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion - alongside interviews with 19 Campaign activists to examine shifts and tensions in contemporary abortion rights activism...
March 6, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Nakia Lee-Foon, Clemon George, Jacqueline Gahagan, Josephine Etowa, Robert Weaver
Health and social care providers' perceptions of Black-Canadian parent-youth sexual health communication has important implications for addressing knowledge gaps in the provision of services to young people and their parents. Providers' perceptions are crucial as they often act as advisers in tailoring programmes or services to the perceived needs of parents and youth. To understand these perceptions, 17 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with providers who worked with African, Caribbean or Black (ACB) parents and youth in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
March 6, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Heather Julie Wallace, Susan McDonald, Suzanne Belton, Agueda Isolina Miranda, Eurico da Costa, Livio da Conceicao Matos, Helen Henderson, Angela Taft
Timor-Leste's Maternal Mortality Ratio remains one of the highest in Asia. There is ample evidence that maternal deaths may be reduced substantially through the provision of good-quality modern methods of contraception. Many Timorese women wish to stop or delay having children. However, even when health services make contraception available, it does not mean that people will use it. Collaborating with Marie Stopes Timor-Leste, this qualitative research project used decolonising methodology to explore perceived influences contributing to contraceptive choices, and gain insight into how women's decisions to access contraception in Timor-Leste occur...
March 6, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Pamela Musoke, Abigail Hatcher, Anna Joy Rogers, Lillian Achiro, Elizabeth Bukusi, Lynae Darbes, Zachary Kwena, Patrick Oyaro, Elly Weke, Janet M Turan
Male involvement in antenatal care has been shown to improve health outcomes for women and infants. However, little is known about how best to encourage male partners to support essential perinatal health activities. We explored men's perceptions of facilitators and barriers to involvement in antenatal care and HIV prevention including fears, hopes and challenges. Forty in-depth interviews were conducted with the male partners of HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in southwest Kenya. Most male partners believed engaging in pregnancy health-related activities was beneficial for keeping families healthy...
February 21, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Tyler M Woods, Claire E Altman, Sergio Chávez, Bridget K Gorman
This study examines the role that duty plays in men's and women's perceptions of HIV-related risk in Mexico, and how gender and migration influence these perceptions. We draw on qualitative data from the 2014 Study of Health and Migration in Mexico (SHMM), which included 24 in-depth interviews with migrant men and non-migrant women living in a medium-sized city in Guanajuato, Mexico. While men report migrating out of responsibility to provide for their families, this sense of duty also had implications for their sexual health behaviours...
February 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jonathan Stadler, Hayley MacGregor, Eirik Saethre, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
During a five-day workshop, former clinical trial participants and local musicians wrote the lyrics and recorded a song about an HIV prevention trial. Born of concerns about misconceptions regarding experimental drug trials, the aim was to engender engagement with medical researchers and open dialogue about the risks and benefits of trial participation. Composing lyrics that highlighted their credibility as communicators of medical scientific knowledge and their selfless sacrifice to stem the transmission of HIV, women performed their social positioning and cultural authority in contrast to men as well as other women not part of the trial...
February 8, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jill Owczarzak, Sarah D Phillips, Woojeong Cho
International best practices call for a gender-responsive approach to HIV prevention for women, including those who use drugs and those who engage in sex work. This paper draws on multiple qualitative data sources collected over five years in Ukraine to explore the notions of gender, women and family that buttress HIV-related programmes for women. Our analysis reveals that service providers often cast women as hapless victims of unfortunate family circumstances and troubled personal relationships that produce sudden poverty, or social strivers who seek access to wealth and privilege at the expense of their health...
February 8, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Catherine O Adegoke, Miemsie G Steyn
Although there is a growing body of research exploring the influence of culture on the resilience of African youth, few studies have examined how culture constrains or enables resilience among HIV-positive adolescent girls from the perspective of the young women themselves. This paper reports on the findings from a qualitative study of five purposively selected girls living with HIV in Ibadan, Nigeria. By analysing data drawn mainly from interviews and observations, we explored how cultural influences promote or limit resilience in participants...
February 1, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Halima Freudberg, Sana Contractor, Abhijit Das, Christopher G Kemp, Paul E Nevin, Ashima Phadiyal, Jagdish Lal, Deepa Rao
This paper reports on the results of a process and impact evaluation to assess the effects of a project aiming to engage men in changing gender stereotypes and improving health outcomes for women in villages in Rajasthan, India. We conducted seven focus group discussions with participants in the programme and six in-depth interviews with intervention group leaders. We also conducted 137 pre- and 70 post-intervention surveys to assess participant and community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours surrounding gender, violence and sexuality...
February 1, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Michelle O'Connor, Patrick Rawstorne, Rachel Devi, Dennie Iniakwala, Husna Razee
Well-being is a term commonly used in discussions of sexuality, reproduction and sexual health, yet the meaning of the term is elusive and often disregarded. As an example, the 'well-being' component of sexual and reproductive health and well-being is often not explicitly addressed in research, policy and programme development. The goal of this paper is to explore the meanings of sexual and reproductive well-being among young people in Fiji and their implications. Fourteen focus group discussions with young people aged 15 to 19 years and 40 key informant interviews were held in four Fijian settings...
February 1, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Langelihle Mlotshwa, Lenore Manderson, Charles Chasela, Sonja Merten
Qualitative research with close engagement in the field allows researchers and participants to build relationships and establish trust, enabling researchers to collect meaningful and sensitive information. Drawing on findings from a study conducted in an urban setting in South Africa, we discuss the challenges faced when interviewing pregnant women with HIV infection, retaining them in the study, and extending the study to include their partners. We discuss the dynamics of pregnancy and draw lessons from interviews concerned with personal, sensitive issues...
January 30, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Eileen Wang, Therese Hesketh
In 2016, China officially ended the 'one-child' policy permitting all couples to have two children for the first time since 1979. While the policy was relaxed due to demographic concerns, it simultaneously provided many women with a new reproductive opportunity. The goal of this study was to qualitatively understand the childbearing decision process in the new era of the two-child policy. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 45 postpartum women at two hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China...
January 30, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Mance E Buttram
Limited data suggest that some gay and other men who have sex with men are using antiretroviral medications informally, without a prescription, for HIV prevention. This qualitative study examined this phenomenon among gay and other men who have sex with men in South Florida. Participants initiated informal antiretroviral medication use as a means of protecting each other and because of the confidence in knowledge of antiretroviral medications shared by their friends and sex partners. The most commonly used medications included Truvada and Stribild...
January 23, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Joanna Semlyen, Atif Ali, Paul Flowers
Individual interviews were conducted with six self-identified Muslim gay men living in London focusing on their experience of health service use. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Analysis identified two major themes: the close(d) community and self-management with healthcare professionals, detailing participants' concerns regarding the risks of disclosing sexuality; and the authentic identity - 'you're either a Muslim or you're gay, you can't be both' - which delineated notions of incommensurate identity...
December 22, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Dorothy Yu, Andrew R Hatala, Joss Reimer, Rob Lorway
Despite decreased rates of HIV infection in Winnipeg, syphilis incidence continues to rise. Communities of men who have sex with men shoulder much of this burden of illness. This qualitative study aimed to better understand the co-evolution of HIV and syphilis in Winnipeg through a series of interviews with gay men. Eighteen individuals were recruited through advertising in sexual health centres and through subsequent snowball sampling. Thematic interpretive analysis and inductive reasoning were used to find individual and shared group meanings...
December 22, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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