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Evidence-based Mental Health

Rajender R Aparasu, Sanika Rege
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Toshi A Furukawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Matthew Large, Sascha Swaraj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Leah D Fryml, Gregory Sahlem, James Fox, Edward B Short
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf
With the increase in the number of risk assessment tools and clinical algorithms in many areas of science and medicine, this Perspective article provides an overview of research findings that can assist in informing the choice of an instrument for practical use. We take the example of violence risk assessment tools in criminal justice and forensic psychiatry, where there are more than 200 such instruments and their use is typically mandated. We outline 10 key questions that researchers, clinicians and other professionals should ask when deciding what tool to use, which are also relevant for public policy and commissioners of services...
December 21, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Taryn Williams, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser
QUESTION: Network meta-analyses (NMAs) of treatment efficacy across different pharmacological treatments help inform clinical decision-making, but their methodological quality may vary a lot depending also on the quality of the included primary studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological treatment for common mental disorders in order to assess the methodological quality of these NMAs, and to relate study characteristics to the rankings of efficacy and tolerability...
February 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Stefan Leucht, Lauren Z Atkinson, Yusuke Ogawa, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti
It had long been believed that placebo response rates in antidepressant trials have been increasing and that they were responsible for rising numbers of so-called failed antidepressant trials. Two recent systematic reviews examined this issue and reached completely opposite findings. Furukawa and colleagues in a paper published in 2016 found that the placebo response rates are stable since 1991 and the apparent increase up to 2000 was confounded by changes in trial design features. By contrast, Khan and colleagues more recently concluded that placebo response rates had grown steadily in the past 30 years...
February 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Shilpa Aggarwal, George Patton
Adolescent self-harm is an emerging public health challenge. It is associated with later psychiatric and substance use disorders, unemployment and suicide. Family interventions have been effective in a range of adolescent mental health problems and for that reason were reviewed for their effectiveness in the management of adolescent self-harm. The search identified 10 randomised and 2 non-randomised controlled trial conducted in the high-income countries. For the most part the evidence is of low quality. The interventions were classified as brief single session, intermediate-level and intensive family interventions depending on the intensity and duration of treatment...
February 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Marcel Zwahlen, Geogia Salanti
Results from well-conducted randomised controlled studies should ideally inform on the comparative merits of treatment choices for a health condition. In the absence of this, one attempts to use evidence from the impact of treatment when administered according to decisions of the physicians and the patients (observational evidence). Naïve comparisons between treatment options using observational evidence will lead to biased results. Under certain conditions, however, it is possible to obtain valid estimates of the comparative merits of different treatments from observational data...
February 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Anya Topiwala, Klaus Peter Ebmeier
Alcohol consumption is common in Western countries and has been increasing in older adults. Latest figures from Great Britain suggest 75% of those over 65 years drink, an increase from 71% 10 years ago. Chronic heavy intake is a well-established cause of brain atrophy and dementia, with a recent long-term prospective study from the USA reporting a doubling of the odds of later severe memory impairment in those with a history of an alcohol use disorder. Drinking of moderate amounts has been reported to be protective for brain health in a number of epidemiological studies, including some claims of possibly reducing dementia risk...
February 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Oliver Carr, Maarten de Vos, Kate E A Saunders
Heart rate variability (HRV) in psychiatric disorders has become an increasing area of interest in recent years following technological advances that enable non-invasive monitoring of autonomic nervous system regulation. However, the clinical interpretation of HRV features remain widely debated or unknown. Standardisation within studies of HRV in psychiatric disorders is poor, making it difficult to reproduce or build on previous work. Recently, a Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability checklist has been proposed to address this issue...
February 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Błażej Misiak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Alyson L Dodd, Sara Mallinson, Martin Griffiths, Richard Morriss, Steven H Jones, Fiona Lobban
BACKGROUND: The evidence base for digital interventions for physical and mental health, including severe and enduring mental health difficulties, is increasing. In a feasibility trial, web-based Enhanced Relapse Prevention (ERPonline) for bipolar disorder demonstrated high recruitment and retention rates. Relative to participants in the waitlist control group, those who received ERPonline showed increased monitoring for early warning signs of relapse and had developed more positive illness models...
November 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Caroline J Falconer, Penny Cutting, E Bethan Davies, Chris Hollis, Paul Stallard, Paul Moran
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterised by severe instability in emotions, identity, relationships and impulsive behaviour. One contributing factor to BPD is deficient mentalizing-our ability to understand the mental states of others and ourselves. Psychotherapies can be effective at reducing symptoms of BPD but effects are small. Innovative ways of enhancing existing therapies are therefore essential. OBJECTIVE: In a mixed-methods, feasibility and acceptability study, we adjuncted conventional mentalization-based treatment (MBT) for BPD with avatar software (avatar-MBT)...
November 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Jenny Chum, Min Suk Kim, Laura Zielinski, Meha Bhatt, Douglas Chung, Sharon Yeung, Kathryn Litke, Kathleen McCabe, Jeff Whattam, Laura Garrick, Laura O'Neill, Stefanie Goyert, Colleen Merrifield, Yogita Patel, Zainab Samaan
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder is characterised by low mood and poor motivation. Literature suggests that increased physical activity has positive effects on alleviating depression. Fitness-tracking devices may complement behavioural activation (BA) therapy to improve physical activity and mental health in patients with depression. OBJECTIVES: To understand patients' perceived benefit from the Fitbit and explore themes associated with patient experiences...
November 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Lisa Marzano, Chris Hollis, Andrea Cipriani, Gin S Malhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Gin S Malhi, Amber Hamilton, Grace Morris, Zola Mannie, Pritha Das, Tim Outhred
The growing understanding that mood disorders are dynamic in nature and fluctuate over variable epochs of time has compelled researchers to develop innovative methods of monitoring mood. Technological advancement now allows for the detection of minute-to-minute changes while also capturing a longitudinal perspective of an individual's illness. Traditionally, assessments of mood have been conducted by means of clinical interviews and paper surveys. However, these methods are often inaccurate due to recall bias and compliance issues, and are limited in their capacity to collect and process data over long periods of time...
November 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Roberta Murphy, Elliot Clissold, Roxanne C Keynejad
BACKGROUND: WHO's mental health gap action programme intervention guide (mhGAP-IG) is an evidence-based tool aimed at front-line health workers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Its potential to improve global mental health education, especially through digital technologies, has been little studied. Problem-based learning (PBL) is usually conducted face-to-face, but its remote application could facilitate cross-cultural education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate PBL, applied to peer-to-peer global mental health e-learning (Aqoon), using mhGAP-IG...
October 22, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
Craig Mackie, Nicole Dunn, Sarah MacLean, Valerie Testa, Marnin Heisel, Simon Hatcher
BACKGROUND: Blended therapy describes the use of computerised therapy combined with face-to-face therapy to extend the depth, range and nature of the face-to-face therapy. We wanted to develop a treatment manual for a randomised trial of blended therapy combining face-to-face problem solving and a smartphone app in men who present to hospital with self-harm. OBJECTIVE: To develop a treatment manual and to describe the experience of receiving and delivering a blended therapy...
October 13, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
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