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Current Opinion in Plant Biology

Rebecca C Burkart, Yvonne Stahl
Plant receptor complexes at the cell surface perceive many different external and internal signalling molecules and relay these signals into the cell to regulate development, growth and immunity. Recent progress in the analyses of receptor complexes using different live cell imaging approaches have shown that receptor complex formation and composition are dynamic and take place at specific microdomains at the plasma membrane. In this review we focus on three prominent examples of Arabidopsis thaliana receptor complexes and how their dynamic spatio-temporal distribution at the PM has been studied recently...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Yi Wang, Wei-Hua Wu
As an essential macronutrient, potassium (K(+)) plays crucial roles in diverse physiological processes during plant growth and development. The K(+) concentration in soils is relatively low and fluctuating. Plants are able to perceive external K(+) changes and generate chemical and physical signals in plant cells. The signals can be transducted across the plasma membrane and into the cytosol, and eventually regulates the downstream targets, particularly K(+) channels and transporters. As a result, K(+) homeostasis in plant cells is modulated, which facilitates plant adaptation to K(+) deficient conditions...
July 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Ren-Jie Tang, Sheng Luan
Calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) are the most abundant divalent cations in plants. As a nutrient and a signaling ion, Ca(2+) levels in the cell are tightly controlled by an array of channels and carriers that provide mechanistic basis for Ca(2+) homeostasis and the generation of Ca(2+) signals. Although a family of CorA-type Mg(2+) transporters plays a key role in controlling Mg(2+) homeostasis in plants, more components are yet to be identified. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) appear to have antagonistic interactions in plant cells, and therefore plants depend on a homeostatic balance between Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) for optimal growth and development...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Peiguo Yuan, Edgard Jauregui, Liqun Du, Kiwamu Tanaka, B W Poovaiah
Calcium (Ca(2+)) acts as an essential second messenger connecting the perception of microbe signals to the establishment of appropriate immune and symbiotic responses in plants. Accumulating evidence suggests that plants distinguish different microorganisms through plasma membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors. The particular recognition events are encoded into Ca(2+) signatures, which are sensed by diverse intracellular Ca(2+) binding proteins. The Ca(2+) signatures are eventually decoded to distinct downstream responses through transcriptional reprogramming of the defense or symbiosis-related genes...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Shai Saroussi, Emanuel Sanz-Luque, Rick G Kim, Arthur R Grossman
Photosynthetic organisms have evolved to modulate their metabolism to accommodate the highly dynamic light and nutrient conditions in nature. In this review we discuss ways in which the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to nitrogen and sulfur deprivation, conditions that would limit the anabolic use of excitation energy because of a markedly reduced capacity for cell growth and division. Major aspects of this acclimation process are stringently regulated and involve scavenging the limited nutrient from internal and external sources, and the redirection of fixed carbon toward energy storage (e...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Sarah Lebeis, Silke Robatzek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Jeeyon Jeong, Aleks Merkovich, Madeline Clyne, Erin L Connolly
Iron is essential for plant growth and development, but excess iron is cytotoxic. While iron is abundant in soil, it is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth. Consequentially, plants have evolved mechanisms to tightly regulate iron uptake, trafficking and storage. Recent work has contributed to a more comprehensive picture of iron uptake, further elucidating molecular and physiological processes that aid in solubilization of iron and modulation of the root system architecture in response to iron availability...
July 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Satoshi Naramoto
Directional cell-to-cell transport of functional molecules, called polar transport, enables plants to sense and respond to developmental and environmental signals. Transporters that localize to plasma membranes (PMs) in a polar manner are key components of these systems. PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers, which are the most studied polar-localized PM proteins, are implicated in the polar transport of auxin that in turn regulates plant development and tropic growth. In this review, the regulatory mechanisms underlying polar localization of PINs, control of auxin efflux activity, and PIN abundance at PMs are considered...
July 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Sabeeha S Merchant
As indispensable protein cofactors, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn are at the center of multifaceted acclimation mechanisms that have evolved to ensure extracellular supply meets intracellular demand. Starting with selective transport at the plasma membrane and ending in protein metalation, metal homeostasis in algae involves regulated trafficking of metal ions across membranes, intracellular compartmentalization by proteins and organelles, and metal-sparing/recycling mechanisms to optimize metal-use efficiency. Overlaid on these processes are additional circuits that respond to the metabolic state as well as to the prior metal status of the cell...
June 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Zaigham Shahzad, Anna Amtmann
The spatial arrangement of the plant root system (root system architecture, RSA) is very sensitive to edaphic and endogenous signals that report on the nutrient status of soil and plant. Signalling pathways underpinning RSA responses to individual nutrients, particularly nitrate and phosphate, have been unravelled. Researchers have now started to investigate interactive effects between two or more nutrients on RSA. Several proteins enabling crosstalk between signalling pathways have recently been identified...
June 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Pei-Shan Chien, Chih-Bin Chiang, Zhengrui Wang, Tzyy-Jen Chiou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small-RNA regulators, control diverse developmental processes and stress responses. Recent studies of nutrient-responsive miRNAs have offered novel insights into how plants regulate gene expression to coordinate endogenous demand and external availability of nutrients. Here, we review the mechanisms mediated by miRNAs to facilitate nutrient transport and utilization and show that miRNAs: first, control nutrient uptake and translocation by targeting nutrient transporters or their regulators; second, adjust nutrient metabolism by redistributing nutrients for biosynthesis of more essential compounds; and third, modulate root development and microbial symbiosis to exploit soil nutrients...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Dong Wook Lee, Junho Lee, Inhwan Hwang
Among the many organelles in eukaryotic cells, chloroplasts have the most complex structure, with multiple suborganellar membranes, making protein targeting to chloroplasts, particularly to various suborganellar membranes, highly challenging. Multiple mechanisms function in the biogenesis of chloroplast membrane proteins. Nuclear-encoded nascent proteins can be targeted to the outer envelope membrane directly from the cytosol after translation, but their targeting to the inner envelope and thylakoid membranes requires multiple steps, including cytosolic sorting, translocation across the envelope membranes, sorting in the stroma, and insertion into their target membranes...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Yi-Tze Chen, Ying Wang, Kuo-Chen Yeh
Plants acquire mineral nutrients mostly through the rhizosphere; they secrete a large number of metabolites into the rhizosphere to regulate nutrient availability and to detoxify undesirable metal pollutants in soils. The secreted metabolites are inorganic ions, gaseous molecules, and mainly carbon-based compounds. This review focuses on the mechanisms and regulation of low-molecular-weight organic-compound exudation in terms of metal acquisition. We summarize findings on riboflavin/phenolic-facilitated and phytosiderophore-facilitated iron acquisition and discuss recent studies of the functions and secretion mechanisms of low-molecular-weight organic acids in heavy-metal detoxification...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Alexandra M Shigenaga, Matthias L Berens, Kenichi Tsuda, Cristiana T Argueso
Plant hormones regulate physiological responses in plants, including responses to pathogens and beneficial microbes. The last decades have provided a vast amount of evidence about the contribution of different plant hormones to plant immunity, and also of how they cooperate to orchestrate immunity activation, in a process known as hormone crosstalk. In this review we highlight the complexity of hormonal crosstalk in immunity and approaches currently being used to further understand this process, as well as perspectives to engineer hormone crosstalk for enhanced pathogen resistance and overall plant fitness...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Omri M Finkel, Gabriel Castrillo, Sur Herrera Paredes, Isai Salas González, Jeffery L Dangl
After a century of incremental research, technological advances, coupled with a need for sustainable crop yield increases, have reinvigorated the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions with attention focused on how microbiomes alter plant phenotypes. We review recent advances in plant microbiome research, and describe potential applications for increasing crop productivity. The phylogenetic diversity of plant microbiomes is increasingly well characterized, and their functional diversity is becoming more accessible...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Hiroki Miwa, Shin Okazaki
Beneficial microbes such as rhizobia possess effector proteins that are secreted into the host cytoplasm where they modulate host-signaling pathways. Among these effectors, type 3 secreted effectors (T3Es) of rhizobia play roles in promoting nitrogen-fixing nodule symbiosis, suppressing host defenses and directly activating symbiosis-related processes. Rhizobia use the same strategy as pathogenic bacteria to suppress host defenses such as targeting the MAPK cascade. In addition, rhizobial T3E can promote root nodule symbiosis by directly activating Nod factor signaling, which bypasses Nod factor perception...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Wei Xuan, Tom Beeckman, Guohua Xu
In response to external fluctuations of nitrogen (N) supplies, plants can activate complex regulatory networks for optimizing N uptake and utilization. In this review, we highlight novel N-responsive sensors, transporters, and signaling molecules recently identified in the dicot Arabidopsis and the monocot rice, and discuss their potential roles in N sensing and signaling. Furthermore, over the last couple of years, N sensing has been shown to be affected by multiple external factors, which act as local signals to trigger systemic signaling coordinated by long-distance mobile signals...
June 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Krishna K Niyogi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Ronelle Roth, Uta Paszkowski
Reciprocal nutrient exchange between the majority of land plants and arbucular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is the cornerstone of a stable symbiosis. To date, a dogma in the comprehension of AM fungal nourishment has been delivery of host organic carbon in the form of sugars. More recently a role for lipids as alternative carbon source or as a signalling molecule during AM symbiosis was proposed. Here we review the symbiotic requirement for carbohydrates and lipids across developmental stages of the AM symbiosis...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
María Isabel Puga, Mónica Rojas-Triana, Laura de Lorenzo, Antonio Leyva, Vicente Rubio, Javier Paz-Ares
Plants have evolved numerous adaptive developmental and metabolic responses to cope with growth in conditions of limited phosphate (Pi). Regulation of these Pi starvation responses (PSR) at the organism level involves not only cellular Pi perception in different organs, but also inter-organ communication of Pi levels via systemic signaling. Here we summarize recent discoveries on Pi starvation sensing and signaling, with special emphasis on structure-function studies that showed a role for inositol polyphosphates (InsP) as intracellular Pi signals, and on genomic studies that identified a large number of mRNAs with inter-organ mobility, which provide an immense source of potential systemic signals in the control of PSR and other responses...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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