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Current Opinion in Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445834/light-harvesting-antenna-complexes-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens-implications-for-the-evolutionary-transition-from-green-algae-to-land-plants
#1
REVIEW
Masakazu Iwai, Makio Yokono
Plants have successfully adapted to a vast range of terrestrial environments during their evolution. To elucidate the evolutionary transition of light-harvesting antenna proteins from green algae to land plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens is ideally placed basally among land plants. Compared to the genomes of green algae and land plants, the P. patens genome codes for more diverse and redundant light-harvesting antenna proteins. It also encodes Lhcb9, which has characteristics not found in other light-harvesting antenna proteins...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445833/phytochrome-diversification-in-cyanobacteria-and-eukaryotic-algae
#2
REVIEW
Nathan C Rockwell, J Clark Lagarias
Phytochromes control almost every aspect of plant biology, including germination, growth, development, and flowering, in response to red and far-red light. These photoreceptors thus hold considerable promise for engineering crop plant responses to light. Recently, structural research has shed new light on how phytochromes work. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have improved our understanding of phytochrome loss, retention, and diversification during evolution. We are also beginning to understand phytochrome function in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441589/nutrient-stress-induced-chromatin-changes-in-plants
#3
REVIEW
David Secco, James Whelan, Hatem Rouached, Ryan Lister
The ability of plants to appropriately respond to the soil nutrient availability is of primary importance for their development and to complete their life cycle. Deciphering these multifaceted adaptive mechanisms remains a major challenge for scientists to date. Recent technological breakthroughs now enable to assess the dynamism and complexity of these processes at unprecedented resolution. In this review, we present some of the most recent findings on the involvement of histone modifications, histone variants and DNA methylation in response to nutrient stresses as well as discussing the potential roles these chromatin changes could serve as priming or as trans-generational stress memory mechanisms...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433946/the-activities-of-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-cop1-spa-a-key-repressor-in-light-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Ute Hoecker
Light is a critical signal to integrate plant growth and development with the environment. Downstream of photoreceptors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis which targets many positive regulators of light signaling, mainly transcription factors, for degradation in darkness. In light-grown plants COP1/SPA activity is repressed, allowing light responses to occur. This review provides an overview on our current knowledge on COP1/SPA repressor function, focusing in particular on the roles of the respective protein domains and the mechanisms of light-induced inactivation of COP1/SPA...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426976/alternative-electron-transport-pathways-in-photosynthesis-a-confluence-of-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Jean Alric, Xenie Johnson
Photosynthetic reactions proceed along a linear electron transfer chain linking water oxidation at photosystem II (PSII) to CO2 reduction in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Alternative pathways poise the electron carriers along the chain in response to changing light, temperature and CO2 inputs, under prolonged hydration stress and during development. We describe recent literature that reports the physiological functions of new molecular players. Such highlights include the flavodiiron proteins and their important role in the green lineage...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426975/the-regulation-of-the-chloroplast-proton-motive-force-plays-a-key-role-for-photosynthesis-in-fluctuating-light
#6
REVIEW
Ute Armbruster, Viviana Correa Galvis, Hans-Henning Kunz, Deserah D Strand
Plants use sunlight as their primary energy source. During photosynthesis, absorbed light energy generates reducing power by driving electron transfer reactions. These are coupled to the transfer of protons into the thylakoid lumen, generating a proton motive force (pmf) required for ATP synthesis. Sudden alterations in light availability have to be met by regulatory mechanisms to avoid the over-accumulation of reactive intermediates and maximize energy efficiency. Here, the acidification of the lumen, as an intermediate product of photosynthesis, plays an important role by regulating photosynthesis in response to excitation energy levels...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416370/editorial-overview-genome-studies-and-molecular-genetics
#7
EDITORIAL
Korbinian Schneeberger, Ian Henderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411584/illuminating-colors-regulation-of-carotenoid-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-by-light
#8
REVIEW
Briardo Llorente, Jaime F Martinez-Garcia, Claudia Stange, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion
Light stimulates the biosynthesis of carotenoids and regulates the development of plastid structures to accommodate these photoprotective pigments. Work with Arabidopsis revealed molecular factors coordinating carotenoid biosynthesis and storage with photosynthetic development during deetiolation, when underground seedlings emerge to the light. Some of these factors also adjust carotenoid biosynthesis in response to plant proximity (i.e., shade), a mechanism that was readapted in tomato to monitor fruit ripening progression...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411583/how-plants-cope-with-uv-b-from-perception-to-response
#9
REVIEW
Ruohe Yin, Roman Ulm
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is an intrinsic part of the solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface and affects the biosphere. Plants have evolved a specific UV-B signaling pathway mediated by the UVR8 photoreceptor that regulates growth, development, and acclimation. Major recent advances have contributed to our understanding of the UVR8 photocycle, UV-B-responsive protein-protein interactions, regulation of UVR8 subcellular localization, and UVR8-regulated physiological responses. Here, we review the latest progress in our understanding of UVR8 signaling and UV-B responses, which includes studies in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the flowering plant Arabidopsis...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411416/%C3%A2-plant-centromeres%C3%A2
#10
REVIEW
Luca Comai, Shamoni Maheshwari, Mohan P A Marimuthu
Plant centromeres, which are determined epigenetically by centromeric histone 3 (CENH3) have revealed surprising structural diversity, ranging from the canonical monocentric seen in vertebrates, to polycentric, and holocentric. Normally stable, centromeres can change position over evolutionary times or upon genomic stress, such as when chromosomes are broken. At the DNA level, centromeres can be based on single copy DNA or more commonly on repeats. Rapid evolution of centromeric sequences and of CENH3 protein remains a mystery, as evidence of co-adaptation is lacking...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411415/chromosome-conformation-capture-based-studies-reveal-novel-features-of-plant-nuclear-architecture
#11
REVIEW
Stefan Grob, Ueli Grossniklaus
Nuclear genome organization has recently received increasing attention due to its manifold functions in basic nuclear processes, such as replication, transcription, and the maintenance of genome integrity. Using technologies based on chromosome conformation capture, such as Hi-C, we now have the possibility to study the three-dimensional organization of the genome at unprecedented resolution, shedding light onto a previously unexplored level of nuclear architecture. In plants, research in this field is still in its infancy but a number of publications provided first insights into basic principles of nuclear genome organization and the factors that influence it...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410523/environmental-regulation-of-intrinsic-photosynthetic-capacity-an-integrated-view
#12
REVIEW
Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, William W Adams
Environmental modulation of photosynthetic capacity is reviewed in the context of its assessment and its regulation, genetic differences among species and ecotypes, and links to plant stress tolerance and productivity. Modulation of intrinsic photosynthetic capacity matches investment in photosynthetic components to opportunity for CO2 uptake and productivity in specific environments, with exceptionally high rates during particularly narrow windows of opportunity. Response varies among species and ecotypes and should be evaluated on multiple reference bases as well as chloroplast, leaf, and whole plant scales...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391049/light-regulation-of-pigment-and-photosystem-biosynthesis-in-cyanobacteria
#13
REVIEW
Ming-Yang Ho, Nathan T Soulier, Daniel P Canniffe, Gaozhong Shen, Donald A Bryant
Most cyanobacteria are obligate oxygenic photoautotrophs, and thus their growth and survival is highly dependent on effective utilization of incident light. Cyanobacteria have evolved a diverse set of phytochromes and cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) that allow cells to respond to light in the range from ∼300nm to ∼750nm. Together with associated response regulators, these photosensory proteins control many aspects of cyanobacterial physiology and metabolism. These include far-red light photoacclimation (FaRLiP), complementary chromatic acclimation (CCA), low-light photoacclimation (LoLiP), photosystem content and stoichiometry (long-term adaptation), short-term acclimation (state transitions), circadian rhythm, phototaxis, photomorphogenesis/development, and cellular aggregation...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391048/seeing-new-light-recent-insights-into-the-occurrence-and-regulation-of-chromatic-acclimation-in-cyanobacteria
#14
REVIEW
Beronda L Montgomery
Cyanobacteria exhibit a form of photomorphogenesis termed chromatic acclimation (CA), which involves tuning metabolism and physiology to external light cues, with the most readily recognized acclimation being the alteration of pigmentation. Historically, CA has been represented by three types that occur in organisms which synthesize green-light-absorbing phycoerythrin (PE) and red-light-absorbing phycocyanin (PC). The distinct CA types depend upon whether organisms adjust levels of PE (type II), both PE and PC (type III, also complementary chromatic acclimation), or neither (type I) in response to red or green wavelengths...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391047/evolution-of-photoperiod-sensing-in-plants-and-algae
#15
REVIEW
Gloria Serrano-Bueno, Francisco J Romero-Campero, Eva Lucas-Reina, Jose M Romero, Federico Valverde
Measuring day length confers a strong fitness improvement to photosynthetic organisms as it allows them to anticipate light phases and take the best decisions preceding diurnal transitions. In close association with signals from the circadian clock and the photoreceptors, photoperiodic sensing constitutes also a precise way to determine the passing of the seasons and to take annual decisions such as the best time to flower or the beginning of dormancy. Photoperiodic sensing in photosynthetic organisms is ancient and two major stages in its evolution could be identified, the cyanobacterial time sensing and the evolutionary tool kit that arose in green algae and developed into the photoperiodic system of modern plants...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391046/structure-and-functions-of-orange-carotenoid-protein-homologs-in-cyanobacteria
#16
REVIEW
Han Bao, Matthew R Melnicki, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Rapidly-induced photoprotection in cyanobacteria involves thermal dissipation of excess energy absorbed by the phycobilisome (PBS), the primary light-harvesting antenna. This process is called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and is mediated by a water-soluble photoactive protein, the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP). The OCP is structurally and functionally modular, consisting of a sensor domain, an effector domain, and a carotenoid. Blue-green light induces a structural transition of the OCP from the orange inactive form, OCP(o), to the red active form, OCP(R)...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346895/wheat-genomics-comes-of-age
#17
REVIEW
Cristobal Uauy
Advances in wheat genomics have lagged behind other major cereals (e.g., rice and maize) due to its highly repetitive and large polyploid genome. Recent technological developments in sequencing and assembly methods, however, have largely overcome these barriers. The community now moves to an era centred on functional characterisation of the genome. This includes understanding sequence and structural variation as well as how information is integrated across multiple homoeologous genomes. This understanding promises to uncover variation previously hidden from natural and human selection due to the often observed functional redundancy between homoeologs...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343122/genetic-and-epigenetic-variation-of-transposable-elements-in-arabidopsis
#18
REVIEW
Charles J Underwood, Ian R Henderson, Robert A Martienssen
Transposable elements are mobile genetic elements that are prevalent in plant genomes and are silenced by epigenetic modification. Different epigenetic modification pathways play distinct roles in the control of transposable element transcription, replication and recombination. The Arabidopsis genome contains families of all of the major transposable element classes, which are differentially enriched in particular genomic regions. Whole genome sequencing and DNA methylation profiling of hundreds of natural Arabidopsis accessions has revealed that transposable elements exhibit significant intraspecific genetic and epigenetic variation, and that genetic variation often underlies epigenetic variation...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327435/network-approaches-for-plant-phylogenomic-synteny-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Tao Zhao, M Eric Schranz
Network analysis approaches have been widely applied across disciplines. In biology, network analysis is now frequently adopted to organize protein-protein interactions, organize pathways and/or to interpret gene co-expression patterns. However, comparative genomic analyses still largely rely on pairwise comparisons and linear visualizations between genomes. In this article, we discuss the challenges and prospects for establishing a generalized plant phylogenomic synteny network approach needed to interpret the wealth of new and emerging genomic data...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285128/using-mustard-genomes-to-explore-the-genetic-basis-of-evolutionary-change
#20
REVIEW
Lachezar A Nikolov, Miltos Tsiantis
Recent advances in sequencing technologies and gene manipulation tools have driven mustard species into the spotlight of comparative research and have offered powerful insight how phenotypic space is explored during evolution. Evidence emerged for genome-wide signal of transcription factors and gene duplication contributing to trait divergence, e.g., PLETHORA5/7 in leaf complexity. Trait divergence is often manifested in differential expression due to cis-regulatory divergence, as in KNOX genes and REDUCED COMPLEXITY, and can be coupled with protein divergence...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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