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Current Opinion in Plant Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223189/plant-mrna-decay-extended-roles-and-potential-determinants
#1
REVIEW
Bosheng Li, Huihui Wu, Hongwei Guo
The decay of mRNA in plants is tightly controlled and shapes the transcriptome. The roles of this process are to digest RNA as well as to suppress exogenous and endogenous gene silencing by preventing siRNA generation. Recent evidence suggests that mRNA decay also regulates the accumulation of the putative 3' fragment-derived long non-coding RNAs (3'lncRNAs). The generation of siRNA or 3'lncRNA from a selective subset of mRNAs raises a fundamental question of how the mRNA decay machineries select and determine their substrate transcripts for distinctive decay destiny...
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223186/molecular-cartography-of-leaf-development-role-of-transcription-factors
#2
REVIEW
Kavitha Sarvepalli, Mainak Das Gupta, Krishna Reddy Challa, Utpal Nath
Organ elaboration in plants occurs almost exclusively by an increase in cell number and size. Leaves, the planar lateral appendages of plants, are no exception. Forward and reverse genetic approaches have identified several genes whose role in leaf morphogenesis has been inferred from their primary effect on cell number and size, thereby distinguishing them as either promoters or inhibitors of cell proliferation and expansion. While such classification is useful in studying size control, a similar link between genes and shape generation is poorly understood...
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223185/new-cues-for-body-axis-formation-in-plant-embryos
#3
REVIEW
Minako Ueda, Frédéric Berger
Plant embryogenesis initiates with the fusion of sperm and egg cell, and completes the generation of the basic outline of the future plant. Here, we summarize the recent findings about the signaling cascade triggering the zygotic transcription, and the intracellular events and regulatory factors involved in the formation of the two major body axes. We highlight the lack of systematic de novo transcriptional activation in the zygote, and emphasize the importance of cytoskeletal reorganization to polarize the zygote and control the first asymmetric division that establishes the apical-basal axis...
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212737/sizing-up-the-cell-cycle-systems-and-quantitative-approaches-in-chlamydomonas
#4
REVIEW
James G Umen
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas provides a simplified model for defining core cell cycle functions conserved in the green lineage and for understanding multiple fission, a common cell cycle variation found in many algae. Systems-level approaches including a recent groundbreaking screen for conditional lethal cell cycle mutants and genome-wide transcriptome analyses are revealing the complex relationships among cell cycle regulators and helping define roles for CDKA/CDK1 and CDKB, the latter of which is unique to the green lineage and plays a central role in mitotic regulation...
September 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173065/the-makings-of-a-gradient-spatiotemporal-distribution-of-gibberellins-in-plant-development
#5
REVIEW
Annalisa Rizza, Alexander M Jones
The gibberellin phytohormones regulate growth and development throughout the plant lifecycle. Upstream regulation and downstream responses to gibberellins vary across cells and tissues, developmental stages, environmental conditions, and plant species. The spatiotemporal distribution of gibberellins is the result of an ensemble of biosynthetic, catabolic and transport activities, each of which can be targeted to influence gibberellin levels in space and time. Understanding gibberellin distributions has recently benefited from discovery of transport proteins capable of importing gibberellins as well as novel methods for detecting gibberellins with high spatiotemporal resolution...
August 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170216/mechanics-geometry-and-genetics-of-epidermal-cell-shape-regulation-different-pieces-of-the-same-puzzle
#6
REVIEW
Aleksandra Sapala, Adam Runions, Richard S Smith
Pavement cells in the leaf epidermis of many plant species have intricate shapes that fit together much like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. They provide an accessible system to understand the development of complex cell shape. Since a protrusion in one cell must fit into the indentation in its neighbor, puzzle cells are also a good system to study how cell shape is coordinated across a plant tissue. Although molecular mechanisms have been proposed for both the patterning and coordination of puzzle cells, evidence is accumulating that mechanical and/or geometric cues may play a more significant role than previously thought...
August 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149191/er-the-silk-road-of-interorganellar-communication
#7
REVIEW
Jin-Zheng Wang, Katayoon Dehesh
Cellular adaptive responses arise from an array of spatially and temporally distinct biochemical interactions that modulate biological processes and reorganize subcellular structures tailored to the nature of stimulus. As such, cells have evolved elegantly and tightly regulated mechanisms to enable interorganellar communication in part through the dynamic readjustment of physical distance enabling the tethering between two closely apposed membranous organelles and thus formation of Membrane Contact Sites (MCSs)...
August 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142487/nanoscale-structure-mechanics-and-growth-of-epidermal-cell-walls
#8
REVIEW
Daniel J Cosgrove
This article briefly reviews recent advances in nano-scale and micro-scale assessments of primary cell wall structure, mechanical behaviors and expansive growth. Cellulose microfibrils have hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces which may selectively bind different matrix polysaccharides and adjacent microfibrils. These distinctive binding interactions may guide partially aligned cellulose microfibrils in primary cell walls to form a planar, load-bearing network within each lamella of polylamellate walls. Consideration of expansive growth of cross-lamellate walls leads to a surprising inference: side-by-side sliding of microfibrils may be a key rate-limiting physical step, potentially targeted by specific wall loosening agents...
August 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138845/stomata-in-a-saline-world
#9
REVIEW
Rainer Hedrich, Sergey Shabala
Salt stress results in a dramatic increase in ABA biosynthesis, H2 O2 accumulation, and reduced K+ availability in the shoot. Each of these factors leads to stomata closure, so reducing CO2 assimilation and imposing yield penalties. However, halophytes, naturally salt tolerant plant species, flourish under saline conditions that would cause massive yield penalties in glycophytic crops. Is there anything special about the stomata of halophytes, why is guard cell function in these salt tolerant species not affected by the above factors? This opinion paper addresses these questions by providing a comprehensive assessment of the molecular identity and operational modes of major plasma membrane transporters that mediate stomata movements...
August 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138844/plants-fighting-back-to-transport-or-not-to-transport-this-is-a-structural-question
#10
REVIEW
Maria Hrmova, Matthew Gilliham
Membrane-embedded transport proteins are fundamental to life; their co-ordinated action controls the movement and distribution of solutes into, around and out of cells for signalling, metabolism, nutrition, stress tolerance and development. Here we outline two case studies of transport systems that plants use to tolerate soil elemental toxicity, demonstrating how iterative studies of protein structure and function result in unparalleled insights into transport mechanics. Further, we propose that integrative platforms of biological, biochemical and biophysical tools can provide quantitative data on substrate specificity and transport rates, which are important in understanding transporter evolution and their roles in cell biology and whole plant physiology...
August 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107305/finding-order-in-a-bustling-construction-zone-quantitative-imaging-and-analysis-of-cell-wall-assembly-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
Charles T Anderson
Assembly of polysaccharide-based walls by plant cells involves the rapid synthesis, trafficking, and deposition of complex biopolymers, but how these events are controlled and coordinated to achieve a strong, resilient extracellular matrix has remained obscure for decades. Recent quantitative analyses of fluorescence microscopy data have revealed details of the trafficking and synthetic activity of cellulose synthases, and new methods for labeling matrix polymers have unveiled aspects of their regulated deposition in the wall...
August 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081386/lessons-from-optical-tweezers-quantifying-organelle-interactions-dynamics-and-modelling-subcellular-events
#12
REVIEW
Imogen Sparkes
Optical tweezers enable users to physically trap organelles and move them laterally within the plant cell. Recent advances have highlighted physical interactions between functionally related organelle pairs, such as ER-Golgi and peroxisome-chloroplast, and have shown how organelle positioning affects plant growth. Quantification of these processes has provided insight into the force components which ultimately drive organelle movement and positioning in plant cells. Application of optical tweezers has therefore revolutionised our understanding of plant organelle dynamics...
August 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078739/can-n-management-affect-the-magnitude-of-yield-loss-due-to-heat-waves-in-wheat-and-maize
#13
REVIEW
Gustavo A Slafer, Roxana Savin
Deleterious effects of heat on crop yields are well documented and the occurrence of heat stresses will likely be a major constraint to achieving increased yields of major crops. Thus, agronomic and genetic strategies for increased resilience to high temperatures will be necessary. Much of the work done on this area has been focused to identify genetic sources of increased resilience and much less has been done on the crop ecology side. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is within the most common management practices used in cereal production, however, there have been limited efforts to elucidate to what degree the level of soil fertility may affect the magnitude of the high temperature effect on crop yield...
August 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072118/phragmoplast-expansion-the-four-stroke-engine-that-powers-plant-cytokinesis
#14
REVIEW
Andrei Smertenko
The phragmoplast is a plant-specific secretory module that partitions daughter cells during cytokinesis by constructing a cell plate from membranes and oligosaccharides. The cell plate is typically a long structure, which requires the phragmoplast to expand to complete cytokinesis. The phragmoplast expands by coordinating microtubule dynamics with membrane trafficking. Each step in phragmoplast expansion involves the establishment of anti-parallel microtubule overlaps that are enriched with the protein MAP65, which recruits cytokinetic vesicles through interaction with the tethering factor, TRAPPII...
July 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064038/regulation-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-signalling-by-phosphorylation-and-ubiquitination
#15
REVIEW
Sharon C Mithoe, Frank Lh Menke
Our understanding of how plant innate immunity is triggered and regulated has seen tremendous progress over the last decade, with many important players identified in the model systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). Identification of these components has come from both genetic screens as well as from proteomics approaches. While genetic approaches are powerful tools of discovery to identify key components in a signalling pathway, the application of genetics is limited when dealing with redundancy or when mutations cause lethal phenotypes...
July 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060992/activation-of-rice-wrky-transcription-factors-an-army-of-stress-fighting-soldiers
#16
REVIEW
Vívian Ebeling Viana, Carlos Busanello, Luciano Carlos da Maia, Camila Pegoraro, Antonio Costa de Oliveira
Rice WRKYs comprise a large family of transcription factors and present remarkable structure features and a unique DNA binding site. Their importance in plants goes beyond the response to stressful stimuli, since they participate in hormonal pathways and developmental processes. Indeed, the majority of WRKYs present an independent activation since they are able to perform self-transcriptional regulation. However, some WRKY activation depends on epigenetic and transcript regulation by micro RNAs. Their protein function depends, almost always, on the posttranslational changes...
July 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041102/shaping-plastid-stromules-principles-of-in-vitro-membrane-tubulation-applied-in-planta
#17
REVIEW
Jessica Lee Erickson, Martin Hartmut Schattat
Plastids undergo drastic shape changes under stress, including the formation of stroma-filled tubules, or `stromules'. Stromules are dynamic, and may extend, branch and retract within minutes. There are two prerequisites for stromule extension: excess plastid membrane and a force(s) that shapes the membrane into a tubule. In vitro studies provide insight into the basic molecular machinery for tubulation, and are often cited when discussing stromule formation. In this review, we evaluate in vitro modes of tubulation in the context of stromule dynamics, and find that most mechanisms fail to explain stromule morphology and behavior observed in planta...
July 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041101/sense-and-sensibility-the-use-of-fluorescent-protein-based-genetically-encoded-biosensors-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Richard Hilleary, Won-Gyu Choi, Su-Hwa Kim, Sung Don Lim, Simon Gilroy
Fluorescent protein-based biosensors are providing us with an unprecedented, quantitative view of the dynamic nature of the cellular networks that lie at the heart of plant biology. Such bioreporters can visualize the spatial and temporal kinetics of cellular regulators such as Ca2+ and H+ , plant hormones and even allow membrane transport activities to be monitored in real time in living plant cells. The fast pace of their development is making these tools increasingly sensitive and easy to use and the rapidly expanding biosensor toolkit offers great potential for new insights into a wide range of plant regulatory processes...
July 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036707/quantitative-moss-cell-biology
#19
REVIEW
Ralf Reski
Research on mosses has provided answers to many fundamental questions in the life sciences, with the model moss Physcomitrella patens spearheading the field. Recent breakthroughs in cell biology were obtained in the quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence, signalling via calcium waves, the creation of designer organelles, gene identification in cellular reprogramming, reproduction via motile sperm and egg cells, asymmetric cell division, visualization of the actin cytoskeleton, identification of genes responsible for the shift from 2D to 3D growth, the structure and importance of the cell wall, and in the live imaging and modelling of protein networks in general...
July 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036706/getting-into-shape-the-mechanics-behind-plant-morphogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Ryan Christopher Eng, Arun Sampathkumar
The process of shape change in cells and tissues inevitably involves the modification of structural elements, therefore it is necessary to integrate mechanics with biochemistry to develop a full understanding of morphogenesis. Here, we discuss recent findings on the role of biomechanics and biochemical processes in plant cell growth and development. In particular, we focus on how the plant cytoskeleton components, which are known to regulate morphogenesis, are influenced by biomechanical stress. We also discuss new insights into the role that pectin plays in biomechanics and morphogenesis...
July 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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