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Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315031/osmolyte-adjustments-as-a-pressure-adaptation-in-deep-sea-chondrichthyan-fishes-an-intraspecific-test-in-arctic-skates-amblyraja-hyperborea-along-a-depth-gradient
#1
Paul H Yancey, Ben Speers-Roesch, Sheila Atchinson, James D Reist, Andrew R Majewski, Jason R Treberg
Accumulation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by deep-sea animals is proposed to protect proteins against the destabilizing effects of high hydrostatic pressure (the piezolyte hypothesis). Chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) provide a unique test of this hypothesis because shallow-living species have elevated TMAO levels to counteract the destabilizing effects of high urea levels accumulated for osmoregulation. Limited interspecific studies of chondrichthyans reveal that increasing depth correlates with decreased urea and increased TMAO levels, suggesting a dynamic balance between destabilizing forces on proteins (high urea, hydrostatic pressure) and TMAO to counteract these forces...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315013/on-the-evolution-of-bile-salts-and-the-farnesoid-x-receptor-in-vertebrates
#2
Kim Frisch, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup
In recent decades, our knowledge of bile salts has undergone a vast development, and bile salts are now known not only for their detergent properties that aid in the absorption of dietary lipids but also for their interaction with specific nuclear and membrane receptors. In particular, it has been realized that the response of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) to bile acids provides a signal bridge between the liver and small intestine, controlling the intracellular levels, biosynthesis, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309248/faster-development-covaries-with-higher-dna-damage-in-grasshoppers-chorthippus-albomarginatus-from-chernobyl
#3
Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati, Shanna Ostermiller, De Anna E Beasley, Shane M Welch, Anders P Møller, Timothy A Mousseau
In Chernobyl, chronic exposure to radioactive contaminants has a variety of deleterious effects on exposed organisms, including genetic damage and mutation accumulation. However, the potential for such effects to be transmitted to the next generation is poorly understood. We captured lesser marsh grasshoppers (Chorthippus albomarginatus) in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone from sites varying in levels of environmental radiation by more than three orders of magnitude. We then raised their offspring in a common garden experiment in order to assess the effects of parental exposure to radiation on offspring development and DNA damage...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286254/patterns-of-circulating-corticosterone-in-a-population-of-rattlesnakes-afflicted-with-snake-fungal-disease-stress-hormones-as-a-potential-mediator-of-seasonal-cycles-in-disease-severity-and-outcomes
#4
Craig Lind, Ignacio T Moore, Çağlar Akçay, Ben J Vernasco, Jeffrey M Lorch, Terence M Farrell
Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284093/notice
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220205/hematocrit-is-associated-with-thermal-tolerance-and-modulated-by-developmental-temperature-in-juvenile-chinook-salmon
#6
Nicolas J Muñoz, Anthony P Farrell, John W Heath, Bryan D Neff
To evaluate whether oxygen-carrying capacity influences thermal tolerance in fishes, we reared four Chinook salmon families in present-day (+0°C) and possible future (+4°C) temperatures and assessed the response of hematocrit (Hct) to acute temperature stress. In the +4°C treatment, Hct increased above control levels when juvenile fish were exposed to their critical thermal maximum (CTmax). Conversely, no effect of temperature stress on Hct was found in the +0°C treatment. Hct was positively associated with CTmax ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), contributing to the CTmax of the +4°C treatment being significantly higher than that of the +0°C treatment (mean ± SD, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively)...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211619/life-on-the-edge-a-comparative-study-of-ecophysiological-adaptations-of-frogs-to-tropical-semiarid-environments
#7
Catalina Cruz-Piedrahita, Carlos A Navas, Andrew J Crawford
A key goal of ecology and evolution is to understand the relative contributions of environment and history in determining the geographic distribution of organisms. For the Neotropical lowlands, where temperatures are similar across landscapes, we hypothesize that water balance may be a critical but understudied factor in determining the distribution of species. Amphibians are especially sensitive to variation in precipitation due to their permeable skin. Here we focused on lowland frogs of northwestern South America and investigated variation among 17 species in potentially important ecologically relevant performance variables related to water balance, testing for possible adaptations to semiarid conditions within species...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206569/application-of-miniature-heart-rate-data-loggers-for-use-in-large-free-moving-decapod-crustaceans-method-development-and-validation
#8
Iain J McGaw, S Clay Steell, Travis E Van Leeuwen, Erika J Eliason, Steven J Cooke
Cardiovascular responses of decapod crustaceans to environmental challenges have received extensive attention. However, nearly all of these studies have been restricted to lab-based experiments; here we describe a methodology that will enable measurement of heart rate (HR) in free-moving decapods in the field. Data storage tag heart rate and temperature loggers (DST micro-HRT; Star-Oddi) were used to record electrocardiograms (ECG) and HR in large decapod crustaceans. These loggers were originally designed for use in vertebrates and must be surgically implanted in the body cavity near the heart in order to function...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200361/among-individual-variation-in-desert-iguanas-squamata-dipsosaurus-dorsalis-endurance-capacity-is-positively-related-to-home-range-size
#9
Jennifer M Singleton, Theodore Garland
Among species of lizards, endurance capacity measured on a motorized treadmill is positively related to daily movement distance and time spent moving, but few studies have addressed such relationships at the level of individual variation within a sex and age category in a single population. Both endurance capacity and home range size show substantial individual variation in lizards, rendering them suitable for such studies. We predicted that these traits would be positively related because endurance capacity is one of the factors that has the potential to limit home range size...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185851/the-preference-for-social-affiliation-renders-fish-willing-to-accept-lower-o2-levels
#10
Brittney G Borowiec, Constance M O'Connor, Kelsey Goodick, Graham R Scott, Sigal Balshine
Animals are bombarded with information about their environment and must select and interpret the relevant cues to make behavioral adjustments critical to survival. How animals integrate and balance the many signals they receive about their environment is rarely assessed. We investigated how signals from the social and physical environment interact to influence environmental preferences in the endemic Tanganyikan cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher. Specifically, we explored how fish respond to the physiological challenge of declining O2 levels in light of embedded social preferences using a modified shuttle box apparatus to test O2 preferences...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155610/seasonal-and-sexual-variation-in-metabolism-thermoregulation-and-hormones-in-the-big-brown-bat-eptesicus-fuscus
#11
Christopher S Richardson, Tim Heeren, Thomas H Kunz
In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T3), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase)...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125799/body-growth-and-rapid-hematological-development-support-breath-hold-of-baby-belugas-delphinapterus-leucas-during-subice-transit
#12
Shawn R Noren, Caryn P Poll, Matthew S Edwards
Body size and oxygen stores in the blood and muscle set breath-hold limits in marine mammals, yet these characteristics are understudied in immature cetaceans. We examined body mass and hematology from birth through adulthood in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). At birth, body mass was 8% and 6% of the maximum mass recorded for adult females and males, respectively. Body mass then increased rapidly, approaching an asymptote around 12 yr for females and 18 yr for males. Interestingly, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin content, and hematocrit levels decreased after birth; this neonatal anemia was reversed as levels increased after 2 mo postpartum...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120695/hypoxia-and-sprint-swimming-performance-of-juvenile-striped-bass-morone-saxatilis
#13
Krista Kraskura, Jay A Nelson
Annual hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay has expanded to the point where Darwinian fitness of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) may depend on their ability to perform in low-oxygen environments. The locomotion they use in predator/prey dynamics relies primarily on white (type II) muscle that is powered by anaerobic metabolic pathways and has generally been thought to be immune to aquatic hypoxia. We tested the sprint performance of 15 juvenile striped bass twice under acute hypoxia (20% air saturation [AS]) 5 wk apart and once under normoxia (>85% AS) in between...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116881/latitudinal-and-temperature-dependent-variation-in-embryonic-development-rate-and-offspring-performance-in-a-freshwater-turtle
#14
Teng Li, Peng Cao, Yong-Jian Bei, Wei-Guo Du
The thermal environment of embryos differs significantly along a latitudinal cline, and the mechanism by which embryos respond to this geographic temperature variation has attracted increasing attention recently. Here, we carried out a common-garden experiment of egg incubation at two fluctuating temperature regimes to elucidate the latitudinal pattern and thermal dependence of the embryonic development rate and offspring performance in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis). Our results demonstrated significant temperature-by-population interactions on variations in the incubation period and hatchling righting response...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068263/hydric-costs-of-reproduction-pregnancy-increases-evaporative-water-loss-in-the-snake-vipera-aspis
#15
Olivier Lourdais, Andréaz Dupoué, Michaël Guillon, Gaëtan Guiller, Bruno Michaud, Dale F DeNardo
Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048992/eurasian-red-squirrels-show-little-seasonal-variation-in-metabolism-in-food-enriched-habitat
#16
James M Turner, Stephanie Reher, Lisa Warnecke, Kathrin H Dausmann
Energy expenditure and ambient temperature (Ta) are intrinsically linked through changes in an animal's metabolic rate. While the nature of this relationship is stable, the breadth of change in thermoregulatory cost varies with body size and physiological acclimatization to season. To explore seasonal metabolic changes of small mammals, we studied a population of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in a seminatural environment with a year-round supply of natural and supplemented food. In each season we measured the metabolic rate of wild-caught red squirrels, using open-flow respirometry, and hypothesized that individuals would make adjustments to contend with seasonal weather conditions...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991507/a-mountain-or-a-plateau-hematological-traits-vary-nonlinearly-with-altitude-in-a-highland-lizard
#17
Juan Carlos González-Morales, Rene Beamonte-Barrientos, Elizabeth Bastiaans, Palestina Guevara-Fiore, Erendira Quintana, Victor Fajardo
High-altitude organisms exhibit hematological adaptations to augment blood transport of oxygen. One common mechanism is through increased values of blood traits such as erythrocyte count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration. However, a positive relationship between altitude and blood traits is not observed in all high-altitude systems. To understand how organisms adapt to high altitudes, it is important to document physiological patterns related to hypoxia gradients from a greater variety of species. Here, we present an extensive hematological description for three populations of Sceloporus grammicus living at 2,500, 3,400, and 4,300 m...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991506/reproduction-alters-hydration-state-but-does-not-impact-the-positive-effects-of-dehydration-on-innate-immune-function-in-children-s-pythons-antaresia-childreni
#18
George A Brusch, Gopal Billy, Joseph N Blattman, Dale F DeNardo
Resource availability can impact immune function, with the majority of studies of such influences focusing on the allocation of energy investment into immune versus other physiological functions. When energy is a limited resource, performance trade-offs can result, compromising immunity. Dehydration is also considered a physiological challenge resulting from the limitation of a vital resource, yet previous research has found a positive relationship between dehydration and innate immune performance. However, these studies did not examine the effects of dehydration on immunity when there was another concurrent, substantial physiological challenge...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972451/differential-effects-of-temperature-on-oxygen-consumption-and-branchial-fluxes-of-urea-ammonia-and-water-in-the-dogfish-shark-squalus-acanthias-suckleyi
#19
Marina Giacomin, Patricia M Schulte, Chris M Wood
Environmental temperature can greatly influence the homeostasis of ectotherms through its effects on biochemical reactions and whole-animal physiology. Elasmobranchs tend to be N limited and are osmoconformers, retaining ammonia and urea-N at the gills and using the latter as a key osmolyte to maintain high blood osmolality. However, the effects of temperature on these key processes remain largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of acute exposure to different temperatures (7°, 12°, 15°, 18°, 22°C) on oxygen consumption, ammonia, urea-N, and diffusive water fluxes at the gills of Squalus acanthias suckleyi...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937855/eggshell-biliverdin-and-protoporphyrin-pigments-in-a-songbird-are-they-derived-from-erythrocytes-blood-plasma-or-the-shell-gland
#20
Rita Hargitai, Nóra Boross, Susanne Hámori, Eszter Neuberger, Zoltán Nyiri
Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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