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Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ

John P Whiteman, Henry J Harlow, George M Durner, Eric V Regehr, Steven C Amstrup, Merav Ben-David
Climate change is altering the distribution of some wildlife species while warming temperatures are facilitating the northward expansion of pathogens, potentially increasing disease risk. Melting of Arctic sea ice is increasingly causing polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) to spend summer on land, where they may encounter novel pathogens. Here, we tested whether SBS polar bears on shore during summer exhibited greater immune system activity than bears remaining on the sea ice. In addition, we tested whether the type of immune response correlated with body condition, because adaptive responses (slowly developing defenses against specific pathogens) often require less energy than innate responses (rapid defenses not based on pathogen identity)...
January 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Susannah S French
The field of ecoimmunology has made it clear that individual and ecological contexts are critical for interpreting an animal's immune response. In an effort to better understand the relevance of commonly used immunological assays, we tested how different metrics of immunity and physiological function were interrelated in naturally parasitized individuals of a well-studied reptile, the common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Overall, we found that bactericidal ability, an integrative measure of innate immunity, was often correlated with more specific immunological and physiological tests (lysis and oxidative stress) but was not related to tissue-level inflammation that was determined by histopathology...
January 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Sean C Lema, Paul G Carvalho, Jennifer N Egelston, John T Kelly, Stephen D McCormick
Pupfishes (genus Cyprinodon) evolved some of the broadest salinity tolerances of teleost fishes, with some taxa surviving in conditions from freshwater to nearly 160 ppt. In this study, we examined transcriptional dynamics of ion transporters and aquaporins in the gill of the desert Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) during rapid salinity change. Pupfish acclimated to 7.5 ppt were exposed to freshwater (0.3 ppt), seawater (35 ppt), or hypersaline (55 ppt) conditions over 4 h and sampled at these salinities over 14 d...
November 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Joshua M Hall, Andrew Buckelew, Matthew Lovern, Stephen M Secor, Daniel A Warner
The evolution of reproductive strategies depends on local environmental conditions. When environments are seasonal, selection favors individuals that align changes in key reproductive traits with seasonal shifts in habitat quality. Offspring habitat quality can decline through the season, and increased maternal provisioning to late-produced offspring may compensate. This shift, however, may depend on environmental factors that influence reproduction and are, themselves, subject to temporal changes (e.g., food abundance)...
November 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Reetta Väätäinen, Hannu Huuskonen, Pekka Hyvärinen, Jukka Kekäläinen, Raine Kortet, Marina Torrellas Arnedo, Anssi Vainikka
The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) concept predicts that individuals with high baseline metabolic rates demonstrate high boldness, aggressiveness, and activity, especially in food acquisition, with associated relatively greater energy requirements. In fishes, these behaviors may increase individual vulnerability to angling. To test the predictions of the POLS concept, we quantified individual standard metabolic rate (SMR) and boldness in both wild-caught and hatchery-reared Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)...
November 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jessica L Stubbs, Nicola J Mitchell
The thermal environment of sea turtle embryos has marked effects on many aspects of their development and energetics and has consequences for posthatching stages. Here we incubated Chelonia mydas embryos from Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia at a range of temperatures (27°, 29°, 30°, 31°, 32°, and 30° ± 5°C) to determine development rates and the pivotal temperature for sex determination. We also measured embryonic growth, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production throughout development at 27° and 31°C...
November 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Tillmann J Benfey, Robert H Devlin
Polyploidy is an important driver of evolutionary change (generally via tetraploidy) and also serves a practical role in aquaculture and fisheries management (via triploidy). Fundamental changes in cell size and number that accompany polyploidy are predicted to affect cellular and whole-animal physiology due to constraints placed on surface-mediated processes at the cellular level, potentially altering environmental tolerances and optima. The aim of this study was to determine whether the documented reduction in thermal tolerance of aquatic polyploids is a result of their being less hypoxia tolerant...
November 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Emily K Elderbrock, Thomas W Small, Stephan J Schoech
We studied Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) nestlings to examine the relationship between parental feeding rates and levels of corticosterone (CORT), a metabolic and stress-related steroid hormone hypothesized to play a role in mediating begging behavior. It has been documented that nutritional deficiency results in increased glucocorticoid levels in nestling birds. Further, previous studies have found that CORT levels of Florida scrub jay nestlings are negatively correlated with parental nest attendance and provisioning rates; however, the behavioral observations were made several days before the collection of samples to assess CORT levels...
November 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Gregory J Haenel, Victoria Del Gaizo Moore
Mitochondria play a key role in the ecology and evolution of species through their influence on aerobic metabolism. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear genomes must interact for optimal functioning of oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP, and breakdown of coadaptation components from each may have important evolutionary consequences for hybridization. Introgression of mitochondria in natural populations through hybridization with unidirectional backcrossing allows the testing of coadaptation of mitochondria to different nuclear backgrounds...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jan S Boratyński, Paulina A Szafrańska
The evolution of endothermic thermoregulation is rooted in the processes involving high metabolism, which allows the maintenance of high and stable body temperatures (Tb ). In turn, selection for high endothermic metabolism correlates with increased size of metabolically active organs and thus with high basal metabolic rate (BMR). Endothermic animals are characterized by an MR several times that of similar-sized ectotherms. However, many small mammals are temporally heterothermic and are able to temporally decrease Tb and MR by entering daily torpor or hibernation...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Bernard B Rees, Luis A Matute
The capacity of fishes to tolerate low oxygen (hypoxia) through behavioral and physiological adjustments varies among species in a fashion that correlates with oxygen availability in their natural habitats. Less is known about variation in hypoxia tolerance within a species, but it is expressly this interindividual variation that will determine which individuals will survive during severe hypoxia. Here, we measured aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and loss of equilibrium (LOE), two common indexes of hypoxia tolerance of fishes, in gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, subjected to multiple trials of a highly reproducible hypoxia protocol over a period of 6-8 wk...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Bain Gurley, John W Finger, Haruka Wada
In oviparous species, the embryonic environment-particularly temperature-can alter phenotype and survival of an individual by affecting its size as well as its metabolic rate. Previous studies have shown that incubation temperatures can affect sex ratio in birds; specifically, low incubation temperatures were shown to produce a male-biased sex ratio in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) possibly because of a higher pre- or postnatal mortality rate in females. We hypothesized that sexes respond differently to suboptimal incubation temperature, leading to a male-biased sex ratio...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Marco Parolini, Rocco Iacobuzio, Bruno Bassano, Roberta Pennati, Nicola Saino
In many vertebrate species, individuals exhibit large variation in the degree of melanin-based coloration on their body. Dark and pale individuals differ in diverse physiological and behavioral traits, suggesting that melanic coloration may reveal individual quality. However, research into the relationships between physiological and skin traits, in terms of melanin-based skin coloration, in wild fish is scant. Our correlative study aimed at investigating the relationships between physiology and melanin-based coloration of the skin of free-living brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758)...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Christopher D Robinson, Matthew E Gifford
Physiological changes in response to environmental cues are not uncommon. Temperature has strong, predictable effects on many traits, such that many traits in ectotherms follow stereotyped thermal performance curves in response to increasing temperature. The prairie lizard-an abundant lizard throughout the central United States-has thermally sensitive, blue abdominal and throat patches. Currently, the role of these patches is not well understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether individual plasticity in patch color paralleled individual plasticity in sprint speed (do they covary), and if the plasticity in these two patches signal redundant or independent information, testing competing hypotheses suggested for the evolution of multiple signals...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Natascha Wosnick, Carlos A Navas, Yuri V Niella, Emygdio L A Monteiro-Filho, Carolina Arruda Freire, Neil Hammerschlag
Fish physiology is significantly affected by temperature variability. During fisheries interactions, fish are often exposed to air and subjected to rapid temperature changes. Fish thermal dynamics during such exposure, and the possible outcomes to their physiology, depend on how heat is distributed across their bodies, the speed at which their body temperatures change, and the size of the individual. Nevertheless, such thermal patterns remain unknown for sharks. This study employed a novel application of thermal imaging to evaluate external body temperature profiles of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) above-water exposure after capture...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Kirstin Bilham, Chris Newman, Christina D Buesching, Michael J Noonan, Amy Boyd, Adrian L Smith, David W Macdonald
Wild-living animals are subject to weather variability that may cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress and tissue damage, potentially driving demographic responses. Our 3-yr field study investigated the effects of seasonal weather conditions on biomarkers for oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and antioxidant defense in the European badger (Meles meles). We found age class effects: cubs were more susceptible to oxidative stress and oxidative damage than adults, especially very young cubs in the spring, when they also exhibited lower antioxidant biomarkers than adults...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Ana T Silva, Jonathan D Midwood, Kim Aarestrup, Tom G Pottinger, Steffen S Madsen, Steven J Cooke
Migration of adult European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from freshwater feeding grounds to oceanic spawning grounds is an energetically demanding process and is accompanied by dramatic physiological and behavioral changes. Humans have altered the aquatic environment (e.g., dams) and made an inherently challenging migration even more difficult; human activity is regarded as the primary driver of the collapse in eel populations. The neuroendocrine stress response is central in coping with these challenging conditions, yet little is known about how various biotic factors such as sex, parasites, and ontogeny influence (singly and via interactions) the stress response of eels...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Scott Jarvie, Tim Jowett, Michael B Thompson, Philip J Seddon, Alison Cree
The thermal sensitivity of physiological rates is a key characteristic of organisms. For tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the last surviving member of the reptilian order Rhynchocephalia and an unusually cold-tolerant reptile, we aimed to clarify responses in indices of metabolic rate (oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]] and carbon dioxide production [[Formula: see text]]) as well as rates of total evaporative water loss (TEWL) to temperatures at the warmer end of the known tolerated range; currently, patterns for metabolic rate are unclear above 25°C, and TEWL has not been measured above 25°C...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Tim S Jessop, Meagan Lane, Robbie S Wilson, Edward J Narayan
Phenotypic plasticity, broadly defined as the capacity of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype, is a key mechanism for how animals adapt to environmental (including thermal) variation. Vertebrate glucocorticoid hormones exert broad-scale regulation of physiological, behavioral, and morphological traits that influence fitness under many life-history or environmental contexts. Yet the capacity for vertebrates to demonstrate different types of thermal plasticity, including rapid compensation or longer acclimation in glucocorticoid hormone function, when subject to different environmental temperature regimes remains poorly addressed...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jessica L Malisch, Daniel J Bennett, Brad A Davidson, Elizabeth E Wenker, Renee N Suzich, Erin E Johnson
Organisms experience stressors, and the physiological response to these stressors is highly conserved. Acute stress activates both the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucocorticoids, collectively promoting glucose mobilization. While this is well characterized in mammals, the hyperglycemic response to stress in avian and nonavian reptiles has received less attention. A number of factors, ranging from time of day to blood loss, are reported to influence the extent to which acute stress leads to hyperglycemia in birds...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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