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Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ

Gregory J Haenel, Victoria Del Gaizo Moore
Mitochondria play a key role in the ecology and evolution of species through their influence on aerobic metabolism. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear genomes must interact for optimal functioning of oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP, and breakdown of coadaptation components from each may have important evolutionary consequences for hybridization. Introgression of mitochondria in natural populations through hybridization with unidirectional backcrossing allows the testing of coadaptation of mitochondria to different nuclear backgrounds...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jan S Boratyński, Paulina A Szafrańska
The evolution of endothermic thermoregulation is rooted in the processes involving high metabolism, which allows the maintenance of high and stable body temperatures (Tb ). In turn, selection for high endothermic metabolism correlates with increased size of metabolically active organs and thus with high basal metabolic rate (BMR). Endothermic animals are characterized by an MR several times that of similar-sized ectotherms. However, many small mammals are temporally heterothermic and are able to temporally decrease Tb and MR by entering daily torpor or hibernation...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Bernard B Rees, Luis A Matute
The capacity of fishes to tolerate low oxygen (hypoxia) through behavioral and physiological adjustments varies among species in a fashion that correlates with oxygen availability in their natural habitats. Less is known about variation in hypoxia tolerance within a species, but it is expressly this interindividual variation that will determine which individuals will survive during severe hypoxia. Here, we measured aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and loss of equilibrium (LOE), two common indexes of hypoxia tolerance of fishes, in gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, subjected to multiple trials of a highly reproducible hypoxia protocol over a period of 6-8 wk...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Bain Gurley, John W Finger, Haruka Wada
In oviparous species, the embryonic environment-particularly temperature-can alter phenotype and survival of an individual by affecting its size as well as its metabolic rate. Previous studies have shown that incubation temperatures can affect sex ratio in birds; specifically, low incubation temperatures were shown to produce a male-biased sex ratio in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) possibly because of a higher pre- or postnatal mortality rate in females. We hypothesized that sexes respond differently to suboptimal incubation temperature, leading to a male-biased sex ratio...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Marco Parolini, Rocco Iacobuzio, Bruno Bassano, Roberta Pennati, Nicola Saino
In many vertebrate species, individuals exhibit large variation in the degree of melanin-based coloration on their body. Dark and pale individuals differ in diverse physiological and behavioral traits, suggesting that melanic coloration may reveal individual quality. However, research into the relationships between physiological and skin traits, in terms of melanin-based skin coloration, in wild fish is scant. Our correlative study aimed at investigating the relationships between physiology and melanin-based coloration of the skin of free-living brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758)...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Christopher D Robinson, Matthew E Gifford
Physiological changes in response to environmental cues are not uncommon. Temperature has strong, predictable effects on many traits, such that many traits in ectotherms follow stereotyped thermal performance curves in response to increasing temperature. The prairie lizard-an abundant lizard throughout the central United States-has thermally sensitive, blue abdominal and throat patches. Currently, the role of these patches is not well understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether individual plasticity in patch color paralleled individual plasticity in sprint speed (do they covary), and if the plasticity in these two patches signal redundant or independent information, testing competing hypotheses suggested for the evolution of multiple signals...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Natascha Wosnick, Carlos A Navas, Yuri V Niella, Emygdio L A Monteiro-Filho, Carolina Arruda Freire, Neil Hammerschlag
Fish physiology is significantly affected by temperature variability. During fisheries interactions, fish are often exposed to air and subjected to rapid temperature changes. Fish thermal dynamics during such exposure, and the possible outcomes to their physiology, depend on how heat is distributed across their bodies, the speed at which their body temperatures change, and the size of the individual. Nevertheless, such thermal patterns remain unknown for sharks. This study employed a novel application of thermal imaging to evaluate external body temperature profiles of blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) above-water exposure after capture...
September 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Kirstin Bilham, Chris Newman, Christina D Buesching, Michael J Noonan, Amy Boyd, Adrian L Smith, David W Macdonald
Wild-living animals are subject to weather variability that may cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress and tissue damage, potentially driving demographic responses. Our 3-yr field study investigated the effects of seasonal weather conditions on biomarkers for oxidative stress, oxidative damage, and antioxidant defense in the European badger (Meles meles). We found age class effects: cubs were more susceptible to oxidative stress and oxidative damage than adults, especially very young cubs in the spring, when they also exhibited lower antioxidant biomarkers than adults...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Ana T Silva, Jonathan D Midwood, Kim Aarestrup, Tom G Pottinger, Steffen S Madsen, Steven J Cooke
Migration of adult European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from freshwater feeding grounds to oceanic spawning grounds is an energetically demanding process and is accompanied by dramatic physiological and behavioral changes. Humans have altered the aquatic environment (e.g., dams) and made an inherently challenging migration even more difficult; human activity is regarded as the primary driver of the collapse in eel populations. The neuroendocrine stress response is central in coping with these challenging conditions, yet little is known about how various biotic factors such as sex, parasites, and ontogeny influence (singly and via interactions) the stress response of eels...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Scott Jarvie, Tim Jowett, Michael B Thompson, Philip J Seddon, Alison Cree
The thermal sensitivity of physiological rates is a key characteristic of organisms. For tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the last surviving member of the reptilian order Rhynchocephalia and an unusually cold-tolerant reptile, we aimed to clarify responses in indices of metabolic rate (oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]] and carbon dioxide production [[Formula: see text]]) as well as rates of total evaporative water loss (TEWL) to temperatures at the warmer end of the known tolerated range; currently, patterns for metabolic rate are unclear above 25°C, and TEWL has not been measured above 25°C...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Tim S Jessop, Meagan Lane, Robbie S Wilson, Edward J Narayan
Phenotypic plasticity, broadly defined as the capacity of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype, is a key mechanism for how animals adapt to environmental (including thermal) variation. Vertebrate glucocorticoid hormones exert broad-scale regulation of physiological, behavioral, and morphological traits that influence fitness under many life-history or environmental contexts. Yet the capacity for vertebrates to demonstrate different types of thermal plasticity, including rapid compensation or longer acclimation in glucocorticoid hormone function, when subject to different environmental temperature regimes remains poorly addressed...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jessica L Malisch, Daniel J Bennett, Brad A Davidson, Elizabeth E Wenker, Renee N Suzich, Erin E Johnson
Organisms experience stressors, and the physiological response to these stressors is highly conserved. Acute stress activates both the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucocorticoids, collectively promoting glucose mobilization. While this is well characterized in mammals, the hyperglycemic response to stress in avian and nonavian reptiles has received less attention. A number of factors, ranging from time of day to blood loss, are reported to influence the extent to which acute stress leads to hyperglycemia in birds...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Neil Hammerschlag, Rachel A Skubel, James Sulikowski, Duncan J Irschick, Austin J Gallagher
To fuel the high energetic demands of reproduction, vertebrates employ different tactics of resource use. Large sharks exhibit long gestation periods and have relatively few well-developed young, which likely incurs high energetic costs. However, information on the relationship between the reproductive and energetic states for most shark species is lacking. In the present study, we used a noninvasive approach to assess relationships among reproductive stage, plasma triglyceride levels, body condition, and circulating reproductive hormones in free-ranging female tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier)...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Julita Sadowska, Andrzej K Gębczyński, Marek Konarzewski
The majority of studies show that metabolic rates are usually repeatable at the individual level, although their repeatabilities tend to decline with time and to be strongly affected by physiological changes. Changes in individual repeatabilities may therefore affect putative differences between experimental groups or populations. This problem is particularly relevant to artificial selection experiments that apply the selection protocol at early life stages, running the risk of a poor correlation of the trait with itself throughout the life cycle of individuals...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Alistair Dawson
Photoperiodic control of reproduction in birds is based on two processes, a positive effect leading to gonadal maturation and an inhibitory effect subsequently inducing regression. Nonphotoperiodic cues can modulate photoperiodic control, particularly the inhibitory process. In previous studies of common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), (1) restriction of food availability to 8 h after dawn had little effect on testicular maturation but dramatically delayed subsequent regression and (2) lower ambient temperature also had little effect during maturation but delayed regression...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Suvi Ruuskanen, Bin-Yan Hsu
Maternal effects are currently acknowledged as important causes of transgenerational phenotypic variation and a potential mechanism to adapt offspring to predicted environments, thus having a pivotal role in ecology and evolution. Research in hormonal mechanism underlying maternal effects has focused heavily on steroid hormones. Other hormones, such as thyroid hormones (THs; thyroxine and triiodothyronine), have been largely ignored in ecological research until recently. We summarize the recent findings, identify knowledge gaps, and provide future research directions investigating the role of TH-mediated maternal effects in ecological context across taxa...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Collin J Horn, Monika K Mierzejewski, Lien T Luong
Host bioenergetics and energy fluxes can be applied to measure the ecological and physiological effects of parasitism. By measuring changes in host metabolic rate, one can estimate the physiological costs of infection. Additionally, metabolic rate dictates the rate of resource conversion within a host and, by extension, the resources available to a parasite. We hypothesize that parasites are selected to respond to cues that indicate high resource availability, that is, host metabolic state. We investigated whether an ectoparasite mite (Macrocheles subbadius) can differentiate between potential hosts (Drosophilia nigrospiracula) on the basis of relative carbon dioxide output as measured by respirometry...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Konstantinos Feidantsis, Hans O Pörtner, Elisavet Vlachonikola, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Basile Michaelidis
Seasonal temperature changes may take organisms to the upper and lower limit of their thermal range, with respective variations in their biochemical and metabolic profile. To elucidate these traits, we investigated metabolic and antioxidant patterns in tissues of sea bream Sparus aurata during seasonal acclimatization for 1 yr in the field. Metabolic patterns were assessed by determining lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities, their kinetic properties and plasma levels of glucose, lactate, and triglycerides and tissue succinate levels...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Jimena López-Arrabé, Pat Monaghan, Alejandro Cantarero, Winnie Boner, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Juan Moreno
Oxidative stress can contribute to an acceleration of telomere erosion, leading to cellular senescence and aging. Increased investment in reproduction is known to accelerate senescence, generally resulting in reduced future reproductive potential and survival. To better understand the role played by oxidative status and telomere dynamics in the conflict between maintenance and reproduction, it is important to determine how these factors are related in parents and their offspring. We investigated the relationship between oxidative status and telomere measurements in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca)...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Catherine M Ivy, Julia M York, Sabine L Lague, Beverly A Chua, Luis Alza, Kevin G McCracken, William K Milsom, Graham R Scott
Hypoxia at high altitudes constrains O2 supply to support metabolism, thermoregulation in the cold, and exercise. High-altitude natives that somehow overcome this challenge-who live, reproduce, and sometimes perform impressive feats of exercise at high altitudes-are a powerful group in which to study the evolution of physiological systems underlying hypoxia resistance. Here, we sought to determine whether a common pulse oximetry system for rodents (MouseOx Plus) can be used reliably in studies of high-altitude birds by examining the hypoxia responses of the Andean goose...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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