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Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125799/body-growth-and-rapid-hematological-development-support-breath-hold-of-baby-belugas-delphinapterus-leucas-during-subice-transit
#1
Shawn R Noren, Caryn P Poll, Matthew S Edwards
Body size and oxygen stores in the blood and muscle set breath-hold limits in marine mammals, yet these characteristics are understudied in immature cetaceans. We examined body mass and hematology from birth through adulthood in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). At birth, body mass was 8% and 6% of the maximum mass recorded for adult females and males, respectively. Body mass then increased rapidly, approaching an asymptote around 12 yr for females and 18 yr for males. Interestingly, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin content, and hematocrit levels decreased after birth; this neonatal anemia was reversed as levels increased after 2 mo postpartum...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120695/hypoxia-and-sprint-swimming-performance-of-juvenile-striped-bass-morone-saxatilis
#2
Krista Kraskura, Jay A Nelson
Annual hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay has expanded to the point where Darwinian fitness of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) may depend on their ability to perform in low-oxygen environments. The locomotion they use in predator/prey dynamics relies primarily on white (type II) muscle that is powered by anaerobic metabolic pathways and has generally been thought to be immune to aquatic hypoxia. We tested the sprint performance of 15 juvenile striped bass twice under acute hypoxia (20% air saturation [AS]) 5 wk apart and once under normoxia (>85% AS) in between...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116881/latitudinal-and-temperature-dependent-variation-in-embryonic-development-rate-and-offspring-performance-in-a-freshwater-turtle
#3
Teng Li, Peng Cao, Yong-Jian Bei, Wei-Guo Du
The thermal environment of embryos differs significantly along a latitudinal cline, and the mechanism by which embryos respond to this geographic temperature variation has attracted increasing attention recently. Here, we carried out a common-garden experiment of egg incubation at two fluctuating temperature regimes to elucidate the latitudinal pattern and thermal dependence of the embryonic development rate and offspring performance in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis). Our results demonstrated significant temperature-by-population interactions on variations in the incubation period and hatchling righting response...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068263/hydric-costs-of-reproduction-pregnancy-increases-evaporative-water-loss-in-the-snake-vipera-aspis
#4
Olivier Lourdais, Andréaz Dupoué, Michaël Guillon, Gaëtan Guiller, Bruno Michaud, Dale F DeNardo
Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048992/eurasian-red-squirrels-show-little-seasonal-variation-in-metabolism-in-food-enriched-habitat
#5
James M Turner, Stephanie Reher, Lisa Warnecke, Kathrin H Dausmann
Energy expenditure and ambient temperature (Ta) are intrinsically linked through changes in an animal's metabolic rate. While the nature of this relationship is stable, the breadth of change in thermoregulatory cost varies with body size and physiological acclimatization to season. To explore seasonal metabolic changes of small mammals, we studied a population of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in a seminatural environment with a year-round supply of natural and supplemented food. In each season we measured the metabolic rate of wild-caught red squirrels, using open-flow respirometry, and hypothesized that individuals would make adjustments to contend with seasonal weather conditions...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991507/a-mountain-or-a-plateau-hematological-traits-vary-nonlinearly-with-altitude-in-a-highland-lizard
#6
Juan Carlos González-Morales, Rene Beamonte-Barrientos, Elizabeth Bastiaans, Palestina Guevara-Fiore, Erendira Quintana, Victor Fajardo
High-altitude organisms exhibit hematological adaptations to augment blood transport of oxygen. One common mechanism is through increased values of blood traits such as erythrocyte count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration. However, a positive relationship between altitude and blood traits is not observed in all high-altitude systems. To understand how organisms adapt to high altitudes, it is important to document physiological patterns related to hypoxia gradients from a greater variety of species. Here, we present an extensive hematological description for three populations of Sceloporus grammicus living at 2,500, 3,400, and 4,300 m...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991506/reproduction-alters-hydration-state-but-does-not-impact-the-positive-effects-of-dehydration-on-innate-immune-function-in-children-s-pythons-antaresia-childreni
#7
George A Brusch, Gopal Billy, Joseph N Blattman, Dale F DeNardo
Resource availability can impact immune function, with the majority of studies of such influences focusing on the allocation of energy investment into immune versus other physiological functions. When energy is a limited resource, performance trade-offs can result, compromising immunity. Dehydration is also considered a physiological challenge resulting from the limitation of a vital resource, yet previous research has found a positive relationship between dehydration and innate immune performance. However, these studies did not examine the effects of dehydration on immunity when there was another concurrent, substantial physiological challenge...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972451/differential-effects-of-temperature-on-oxygen-consumption-and-branchial-fluxes-of-urea-ammonia-and-water-in-the-dogfish-shark-squalus-acanthias-suckleyi
#8
Marina Giacomin, Patricia M Schulte, Chris M Wood
Environmental temperature can greatly influence the homeostasis of ectotherms through its effects on biochemical reactions and whole-animal physiology. Elasmobranchs tend to be N limited and are osmoconformers, retaining ammonia and urea-N at the gills and using the latter as a key osmolyte to maintain high blood osmolality. However, the effects of temperature on these key processes remain largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of acute exposure to different temperatures (7°, 12°, 15°, 18°, 22°C) on oxygen consumption, ammonia, urea-N, and diffusive water fluxes at the gills of Squalus acanthias suckleyi...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937855/eggshell-biliverdin-and-protoporphyrin-pigments-in-a-songbird-are-they-derived-from-erythrocytes-blood-plasma-or-the-shell-gland
#9
Rita Hargitai, Nóra Boross, Susanne Hámori, Eszter Neuberger, Zoltán Nyiri
Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880122/expression-of-ampk-sirt1-and-acc-differs-between-winter-and-summer-acclimatized-djungarian-hamsters
#10
Sanni M E Kinnunen, Satu K Mänttäri, Seppo Y O Saarela
The wintering strategy of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) includes a naturally occurring decrease in food intake and body mass. Our aim was to investigate the conceivable role of the metabolic regulators, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), in the seasonal adaptation of the Djungarian hamster. In addition, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), was studied. Relative protein expressions and phosphorylated forms (pAMPK and pACC) were determined by Western blot from subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT), abdominal white adipose tissues (aWAT), interscapular brown adipose tissues (iBAT), skeletal muscle, and hypothalamus of winter- and summer-acclimatized hamsters...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771397/complex-plumage-patterns-can-be-produced-only-with-the-contribution-of-melanins
#11
Ismael Galván, Jorge García-Campa, Juan J Negro
Birds exhibit an extraordinary diversity of plumage pigmentation patterns. It has been overlooked, however, that complex patterns can be produced only with the contribution of melanins because these are the only pigments under direct cellular control. We tested this hypothesis for the first time examining the plumage patterning of all species of extant birds. Thirty-two percent of species show complex plumage patterns, the vast majority (98%) including the contribution of colors produced by melanins. Only 53 species show complex patterns that do not contain melanin-based colors, and these species display unusual colorations and belong to three families where innovative metabolic modifications of conventional carotenoid pigments have been described...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745930/what-does-the-eggshell-cuticle-do-a-functional-comparison-of-avian-eggshell-cuticles
#12
Liliana D'Alba, Roxana Torres, Geoffrey I N Waterhouse, Chad Eliason, Mark E Hauber, Matthew D Shawkey
The avian eggshell is a highly ordered structure with several layers (mammillae, palisades, and vertical crystal layer) composed of calcium carbonate (∼96%) and minerals within an organic matrix. The cuticle is a noncalcified layer that covers the eggshells of most bird species. Eggshells are multifunctional structures that have evolved in response to diverse embryonic requirements and challenges, including protection from microbial infection, nest flooding, and exposure to solar radiation. However, experimental evidence for these functions across diverse taxa is currently limited...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708460/tolerance-to-hypercarbia-is-repeatable-and-related-to-a-component-of-the-metabolic-phenotype-in-a-freshwater-fish
#13
Caleb T Hasler, Ian A Bouyoucos, Cory D Suski
Freshwater fish may be exposed to high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) because of several actions, including anesthesia and high levels of aquatic respiration and potentially as the result of using high-CO2 plumes as a barrier to the movements of invasive fishes. Metabolic phenotype can potentially drive how freshwater fish respond to high CO2. We therefore quantified how tolerance (measured using time to equilibrium loss [ELT]) was driven by metabolic phenotype in a cosmopolitan freshwater fish species, Micropterus salmoides...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686079/experimental-manipulation-of-corticosterone-does-not-influence-the-clearance-rate-of-plasma-testosterone-in-birds
#14
Pierre Deviche, Stève Desaivre, Mathieu Giraudeau
In vertebrates, exposure to acute stressors stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids such as corticosterone, and in some situations this hormone plays an important role in orchestrating the trade-off that exists between reproduction and self-maintenance. Stressful conditions often lead to a decrease in plasma levels of sex steroids such as testosterone in males, and it has been hypothesized that corticosterone contributes to this decrease. Generally supporting this proposition, glucocorticoids can inhibit the reproductive axis activity at multiple levels, including direct effects on testicular endocrine function...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671858/atypical-red-blood-cells-are-prevalent-in-california-sea-lion-pups-born-during-anomalous-sea-surface-temperature-events
#15
Adriana Flores-Morán, Marina Banuet-Martínez, Fernando R Elorriaga-Verplancken, Luis Enrique García-Ortuño, Julieta Sandoval-Sierra, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse
To date, there is limited knowledge of the effects that abnormal sea surface temperature (SST) can have on the physiology of neonate pinnipeds. However, maternal nutritional deficiencies driven by alimentary restrictions would expectedly impact pinniped development and fitness, as an adequate supply of nutrients is essential for growth and proper functioning of all body systems, including red blood cell synthesis and clearance. Here, we investigated red blood cell morphology of California sea lion (CSL) pups from the San Benito Archipelago born during the 2014 and 2015 anomalously high SST events recorded in the northeastern Pacific Ocean...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665185/the-interplay-of-energy-balance-and-daily-timing-of-activity-in-a-subterranean-rodent-a-laboratory-and-field-approach
#16
Patricia Tachinardi, Verónica S Valentinuzzi, Gisele A Oda, C Loren Buck
The tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff. knighti) is among the rodent species known to be nocturnal under standard laboratory conditions and diurnal under natural conditions. The circadian thermoenergetics (CTE) hypothesis postulates that switches in activity timing are a response to energetic challenges; daytime activity reduces thermoregulatory costs by consolidating activity to the warmest part of the day. Studying wild animals under both captive and natural conditions can increase understanding of how temporal activity patterns are shaped by the environment and could serve as a test of the CTE hypothesis...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665184/spectral-sensitivity-change-may-precede-habitat-shift-in-the-developing-retina-of-the-atlantic-tarpon-megalops-atlanticus
#17
Lorian E Schweikert, Michael S Grace
Fish that undergo ontogenetic migrations between habitats often encounter new light environments that require changes in the spectral sensitivity of the retina. For many fish, sensitivity of the retina changes to match the environmental spectrum, but the timing of retinal change relative to habitat shift remains unknown. Does retinal change in fish precede habitat shift, or is it a response to encountered changes in environmental light? Spectral sensitivity changes were examined over the development of the Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) retina relative to ontogenetic shifts in habitat light...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636434/selective-breeding-and-short-term-access-to-a-running-wheel-alter-stride-characteristics-in-house-mice
#18
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Jarren C Kay, Genesis Ordonez, Thomas G Hampton, Theodore Garland
Postural and kinematic aspects of running may have evolved to support high runner (HR) mice to run approximately threefold farther than control mice. Mice from four replicate HR lines selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running show many differences in locomotor behavior and morphology as compared with four nonselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that HR mice would show stride alterations that have coadapted with locomotor behavior, morphology, and physiology. More specifically, we predicted that HR mice would have stride characteristics that differed from those of C mice in ways that parallel some of the adaptations seen in highly cursorial animals...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636430/when-is-embryonic-arrest-broken-in-turtle-eggs
#19
Sean A Williamson, Roger G Evans, Richard D Reina
Turtle embryos enter a state of arrested development in the oviduct, allowing the mother greater flexibility in her reproductive schedule. Development recommences once eggs transition from the hypoxic oviduct to the normoxic nest. Significant mortality can occur if turtle eggs are moved between 12 h and 20 d after oviposition, and this is linked to the recommencement of embryonic development. To better understand the timing of developmental arrest and to determine how movement-induced mortality might be avoided, we determined the latency (i...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641050/thrifty-females-frisky-males-winter-energetics-of-hibernating-bats-from-a-cold-climate
#20
Zenon J Czenze, Kristin A Jonasson, Craig K R Willis
Mammalian hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts (periods of controlled reduction in body temperature [Tb]) interspersed with brief arousals to normothermic Tb. Frequency and duration of torpor bouts and arousals can affect winter survival and are thought to be influenced by an optimization balancing the energetic benefits of prolonged torpor against the physiological and ecological costs (e.g., accumulation of metabolic wastes). Female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) spend their fat reserves more slowly than males during winter, presumably so they can emerge from hibernation in good condition to initiate pregnancy...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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