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Cells, Tissues, Organs

Karl Klisch, Elisabeth M Schraner, Alois Boos
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) are the characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. During their development, BNC pass through 2 acytokinetic mitoses and become binucleate with 2 tetraploid nuclei. In this study, we investigate the number and location of centrosomes in bovine BNC. Centrosomes typically consist of 2 centrioles surrounded by electron-dense pericentriolar material. Duplication of centrosomes is tightly linked to the cell cycle, which ensures that the number of centrosomes remains constant in proliferating diploid cells...
December 1, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Ivan Nikolić, Vera Todorović, Aleksandar Petrović, Vladimir Petrović, Marko Jović, Jelena Vladičić, Nela Puškaš
The endothelium of liver sinusoids in relation to the endothelium of other blood vessels has specific antigen expression similar to the endothelium of lymphatic vessels. Bearing in mind that there is no consensus as to the period or intensity of the expression of certain antigens in the endothelium of blood and lymphatic vessels in the liver, the aim of our study was to immunohistochemically investigate the dynamic patterns of the expression of CD31, CD34, D2-40, and LYVE-1 antigens during liver development and in adulthood on paraffin tissue sections of human livers of 4 embryos, 38 fetuses, 6 neonates, and 6 adults...
November 26, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Francesca Uberti, Claudio Bardelli, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Andrea Cochis, Claudio Molinari
The physiological effects of acetylcholine on keratinocytes depend on the presence of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The role of nonneuronal acetylcholine in keratinocytes could have important clinical implications for patients with various skin disorders such as nonhealing wounds. In order to evaluate the efficacy of highly diluted acetylcholine solutions obtained by sequential kinetic activation, we aimed to investigate the effects of these solutions on normal human keratinocytes. Two different concentrations (10 fg/mL and 1 pg/mL) and formulations (kinetically activated and nonkinetically activated) of acetylcholine were used to verify keratinocyte viability, proliferation, and migration and the intracellular pathways involved using MTT, crystal violet, wound healing, and Western blot compared to 147 ng/mL acetylcholine...
November 25, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Bettina Pretterklieber, Gerda Martschini, Michael L Pretterklieber
In an 80-year-old Caucasian woman, both radial arteries were found to be replaced by an enlarged anterior interosseous artery. Additionally, the right forearm revealed a persistent median artery which formed the superficial palmar arch together with the ulnar artery. In both hands, the replaced radial artery was connected only to the deep but not the superficial palmar arch. In clinical practice, lack of an arterial pulse on the radial aspect of the wrist joint may indicate the presence of this anatomic variation...
November 12, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Anny Waloski Robert, Andressa Vaz Schittini, Fabricio Klerynton Marchini, Michel Batista, Marise Brenner Affonso Da Costa, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Paulo Roberto Slud Brofman, Ana Paula Ressetti Abud, Marco Augusto Stimamiglio
The tissue microenvironment regulates such stem cell behaviors as self-renewal and differentiation. Attempts to mimic components of these microenvironments could provide new strategies for culturing and directing the behavior of stem cells. The aim of the present study was to mimic cardiac and umbilical cord tissue microenvironments in vitro and compare the resulting bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) behaviors. We generated tissue microenvironments using conditioned medium (CM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) samples obtained from human heart and umbilical cord tissue explant cultures and by tissue decellularization...
November 2, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Hanan H Abd-Elhafeez, Doaa M Mokhtar, Ahmed H S Hassan
Telocytes (TCs) are a special type of interstitial cell with characteristic cellular processes that are described in many organs. The current study aimed to investigate TCs in seminal vesicles of the Soay ram responding to melatonin treatment during the nonbreeding season by conventional immunohistochemical stains, and to detect the ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of TCs. TCs in the control group showed a broad range of staining affinity and also reacted positively to CD117/c-kit, CD34, desmin, S-100 protein, and progesterone and estrogen receptors alpha, while after melatonin treatment a strong reaction against these 6 antibodies was recorded...
November 2, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Anna Ratajska, Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Elżbieta Czarnowska, Radosław Olkowski, Grzegorz Gula, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Aleksandra Flaht-Zabost, Agnieszka Jasińska
Vasculogenesis was originally defined by Risau in 1997 [Nature 386: 671-674] as the de novo formation of vessels from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), so-called angioblasts. Initially, this process was believed to be related only to embryonic life; however, further studies reported vasculogenesis to occur also in adult tissues. This overview presents the current knowledge about the origin, differentiation and significance of EPCs that have been observed in various diseases, tumors, and reparative processes...
September 22, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Rosa M Pérez-Serrano, M Laura González-Dávalos, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Armando Shimada, Anaid Antaramian, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría, Ofelia Mora
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of PPAR agonists on the differentiation and metabolic features of porcine mesenchymal stem cells induced to the adipogenic or myogenic lineages. METHODS: Bone marrow MSCs from neonate pigs were isolated and identified by cell proliferation, cell surface markers or the gene expression of stem cells (CD44, CD90, CD105 or Oct4 and Nanog, respectively). Cells were differentiated into adipose or muscle cells and treated with the PPAR agonists; adipogenic and myogenic differentiation was promoted by adding these compounds...
September 20, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Qiao Yi, Ousheng Liu, Fei Yan, Xiao Lin, Shu Diao, Liping Wang, Luyuan Jin, Songlin Wang, Yanqin Lu, Zhipeng Fan
INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-mediated dental pulp regeneration is considered a promising method for the treatment of deep caries with pulpitis. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) senescence is an adverse factor from the perspective of cell-based therapies. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and expression profiles of DPSCs from young and old donors. METHODS: DPSCs from young and old donors were cultured in differentiation medium, and their differentiation potentials were assessed...
September 15, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Tadasu Sato, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Noriyuki Kanda, Yu Sasaki, Yu Yamaguma, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 (TRPV2) was performed on human paranasal sinuses. It was found that in the paranasal sinuses, mucous membranes contain PGP 9.5-immunoreactive (PGP 9.5-IR) nerve fibers. Such nerve fibers terminated around large blood vessels as fine varicosities. Isolated PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers were scattered beneath the epithelium. Glandular tissues were also innervated by PGP 9...
August 24, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Steffen Koerdt, Nadine Tanner, Niklas Rommel, Nils H Rohleder, Mechthild Stoeckelhuber, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Marco R Kesting
BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of ionizing radiation through the generation of free radicals, reactive aldehydes, and other oxidative and nitrosative by-products account for skin injuries as side effects of radiation therapy (RT). This study aims to identify cellular pathways in oxidative and nitrosative stress in irradiated skin using well-established marker proteins in an immunohistochemical analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue specimens of 51 patients were obtained during operative access to the neck...
July 29, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Daisuke Kondoh, Akihiro Kamikawa, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Glycoconjugates in the olfactory system play critical roles in neuronal formation, and α1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. Histochemical findings of α1-2Fuc glycan in the mouse olfactory system detected using Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) vary. This study histochemically assessed the main olfactory and vomeronasal pathways in male and female ICR and C57BL/6J mice aged 3-4 months using UEA-I. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I reacted with most receptor cells arranged mainly at the basal region of the olfactory epithelium...
July 16, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Kavina Ganapathy, Sowmithra Sowmithra, Ramesh Bhonde, Indrani Datta
The neuron-glia ratio is of prime importance for maintaining the physiological homeostasis of neuronal and glial cells, and especially crucial for dopaminergic neurons because a reduction in glial density has been reported in postmortem reports of brains affected by Parkinson's disease. We thus aimed at developing an in vitro midbrain culture which would replicate a similar neuron-glia ratio to that in in vivo adult midbrain while containing a similar number of dopaminergic neurons. A sequential culture technique was adopted to achieve this...
July 16, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Flavia Fernandes-Lima, Thiago Luís Ribeiro Gomes Monte, Fernanda Amorim de Morais Nascimento, Bianca Martins Gregório
High-sucrose and high-fat diets induce deregulation in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. This study aimed to detect the initial consequences on lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and insulin signaling in the livers of rodents fed high-fat and/or high-sucrose diets for a short period of time. Male mice received a standard chow (SC), high-fat (HF), high-sucrose (HSu) or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHSu) diet for 4 weeks. At euthanasia, blood was collected and the liver was removed for histomorphometrical and molecular analysis...
June 17, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Forum S Shah, Jie Li, Fabiana Zanata, J Lowry Curley, Elizabeth C Martin, Xiying Wu, Marilyn Dietrich, Ram V Devireddy, James W Wade, Jeffrey M Gimble
The capability of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells to maintain cell viability, phenotype and differentiation ability upon thawing is critical if they are to be banked and used for future therapeutic purposes. In the present study, we examined the effect of 9-10 months of cryostorage on the morphology, immunophenotype, colony-forming unit (CFU) and differentiation capacity of fresh and cryopreserved human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) from the same donors. Cryopreservation did not reduce the CFU frequency and the expression levels of CD29, CD73, CD90 and CD105 remained unchanged with the exception of CD34 and CD45; however, the differentiation capacity of cryopreserved ASCs relative to fresh cells was significantly reduced...
June 17, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yanan Kong, Yishu Liu, Liangli Pan, Biao Cheng, Hongwei Liu
Psychological factors and stress can cause hair loss. The sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis has been reported to regulate the growth of hair follicles (HF). The sympathetic nerve is a component of the SAM axis, but it has not been sufficiently or convincingly linked to hair growth. In this study, we demonstrate that chemical sympathectomy via administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to mice inhibited HF growth, but treatment with the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (PR) had no effect...
June 11, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Qiang Fu, Qian Zhang, Lin Ying Jia, Ning Fang, Long Chen, Li Mei Yu, Jin Wei Liu, Tao Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from many tissues and organs. However, there is much dispute as to whether MSCs exist in peripheral blood. This may be due to the limited identification methods of MSCs, especially the lack of detection markers for phenotypic characteristics. In this study, as many as 10 surface markers of MSCs derived from rat peripheral blood (rPBMSCs) were analyzed after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization. Our results suggest that mobilized rPBMSCs overexpress mesenchymal markers, including CD90, CD44, CD29, CD73 and CD105, but do not express CD45, CD11b, CD79a, CD34 or HLA-DR...
June 1, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Susanne Rohn, Jan Schroeder, Henriette Riedel, Dietrich Polenz, Katarina Stanko, Anja Reutzel-Selke, Peter Tang, Lydia Brusendorf, Nathanael Raschzok, Peter Neuhaus, Johann Pratschke, Birgit Sawitzki, Igor M Sauer, Martina T Mogl
OBJECTIVES: Stable long-term functioning of liver cells after transplantation in humans is still not achieved successfully. A new approach for successful engraftment of liver cells may be the transplantation of syngeneic cells into an allogeneic liver graft. We therefore developed a new rat model for combined liver and liver cell transplantation (cLCTx) under stable immunosuppression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After inducing a mitotic block, liver grafts from female donor rats (Dark Agouti) were transplanted into female recipients (Lewis)...
May 20, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Kyle S Martin, Kelley M Virgilio, Shayn M Peirce, Silvia S Blemker
Skeletal muscle has an exceptional ability to regenerate and adapt following injury. Tissue engineering approaches (e.g. cell therapy, scaffolds, and pharmaceutics) aimed at enhancing or promoting muscle regeneration from severe injuries are a promising and active field of research. Computational models are beginning to advance the field by providing insight into regeneration mechanisms and therapies. In this paper, we summarize the contributions computational models have made to understanding muscle remodeling and the functional implications thereof...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
George J Christ
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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