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Cells, Tissues, Organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700993/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-factors-on-the-viability-senescence-and-methylation-status-of-olfactory-bulb-derived-glial-cells-isolated-from-human-cadaver-donors
#1
Krzysztof Marycz, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Dariusz Szarek, Paweł Kopacz
The olfactory bulb (OB) is a unique structure in the central nervous system that retains the ability to create new neuronal connections. Glial cells isolated from the OB have been recently considered as a novel and promising tool to establish an effective therapy for central nervous system injuries. Due to the hindered access to autologous tissue for cell isolation, an allogeneic source of tissues obtained postmortem has been proposed. In this study, we focused on the morphological and molecular characteristics of human OB-derived glial cells isolated postmortem, at different time points after a donor's death...
July 13, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697491/trpc1-trpc3-and-trpc4-in-rat-orofacial-structures
#2
Masatoshi Fujita, Tadasu Sato, Takehiro Yajima, Eiji Masaki, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
TRPC (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C) members are nonselective monovalent cation channels and control Ca2+ inflow. In this study, immunohistochemistry for TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPC4 was performed on rat oral and craniofacial structures to elucidate their distribution and function in the peripheries. In the trigeminal ganglion (TG), 56.1, 84.1, and 68.3% of sensory neurons were immunoreactive (IR) for TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPC4, respectively. A double immunofluorescence method revealed that small to medium-sized TG neurons co-expressed TRPCs and calcitonin gene-related peptide...
July 12, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647733/role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-bone-regenerative-medicine-what-is-the-evidence
#3
Ahmad Oryan, Amir Kamali, Ali Moshiri, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
Healing and regeneration of bone injuries, particularly those that are associated with large bone defects, are a complicated process. There is growing interest in the application of osteoinductive and osteogenic growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to significantly improve bone repair and regeneration. MSCs are multipotent stromal stem cells that can be harvested from many different sources and differentiated into a variety of cell types, such as preosteogenic chondroblasts and osteoblasts...
June 24, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647731/recovery-of-vocal-fold-epithelium-after-acute-phonotrauma
#4
Bernard Rousseau, Tsuyoshi Kojima, Carolyn K Novaleski, Emily E Kimball, Carla V Valenzuela, Masanobu Mizuta, James J Daniero, C Gaelyn Garrett, M Preeti Sivasankar
We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2...
June 24, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419987/extracellular-matrix-mediates-bmp-2-in-a-model-of-temporomandibular-joint-osteoarthritis
#5
Maya Shirakura, Vardit Kram, Jennifer Robinson, Sheena Sikka, Tina M Kilts, Sunil Wadhwa, Marian F Young
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease that affects both cartilage and subchondral bone. It is accompanied by loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) and may be controlled by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). We analyzed the effect of BMP-2 in both cartilage and subchondral bone in a TMJ-OA animal model that is deficient in biglycan (Bgn) and fibromodulin (Fmod) (Bgn-/-Fmod-/-). Whole mandibles were dissected from 3-week-old wild-type (WT) and Bgn-/-Fmod-/- mice and incubated with and without 250 µg/mL BMP-2 for 2 days using an explant culture system...
April 19, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564646/constitutive-activation-of-smoothened-in-the-renal-collecting-ducts-leads-to-renal-hypoplasia-hydronephrosis-and-hydroureter
#6
Deepak Prasad Gupta, Jae-Won Hwang, Eui-Sic Cho, Won Kim, Chang Ho Song, Ok Hee Chai
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a major role in and is essential for regulation, patterning, and proliferation during renal development. Smoothened (Smo) plays a pivot role in transducing the Shh-glioma-associated oncogene Kruppel family member. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the role of sustained Smo activation in postnatal kidney development is still not clearly understood. Using a conditional knockin mouse model that expresses a constitutively activated form of Smo (SmoM2) upon Homeobox-B7-mediated recombination (Hoxb7-Cre), the effects of Shh signaling were determined in postnatal kidney development...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554187/embryonic-stem-cells-for-tissue-biocompatibility-angiogenesis-and-inflammation-testing
#7
Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Matthias Reinhardt, Johanna Schönleben, Claudia Meyer, Madeleine Richter, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Claudia Rode, Annika Wartenberg, Mohamed Bekhite, Heinrich Sauer, Maria Wartenberg
AIM: To introduce embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which differentiate blood vessel-like structures and leukocytes, as a novel in vitro model system for biocompatibility, inflammation, and angiogenesis studies. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Punched spherical discs of bioabsorbable polymers (ε-caprolactone and L-lactide in different compositions) with a diameter of 2 mm and a thickness of 0.2 mm were inoculated with embryoid bodies for cocultivation...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494459/influence-of-bovine-serum-lipids-and-fetal-bovine-serum-on-the-expression-of-cell-surface-markers-in-cultured-bovine-preadipocytes
#8
Mansur A Sandhu, Sandra Jurek, Susanne Trappe, Martin Kolisek, Gerhard Sponder, Jörg R Aschenbach
To establish the influence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum lipids (BSL) on cell differentiation marker expression, bovine adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous tissue were incubated for 14 days in 4 types of differentiation media containing 10% FBS and 10 µL/mL BSL (TRT-1), no FBS and 10 µL/mL of BSL (TRT-2), 10% FBS and no BSL (TRT-3), or no supplements (TRT-4). Cells were subjected to Nile red staining, immunocytochemistry (CD73, CD90, CD105, DLK1, FabP4), and quantitative real-time PCR (CD73, CD90, CD105, FabP4)...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478436/angiotensin-ii-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-affects-osteoporosis-via-the-at1-at2-mediated-camp-dependent-pka-pathway
#9
Yi Zhou, Xiaoxu Guan, Xiaoyi Chen, Mengfei Yu, Chaowei Wang, Xuepeng Chen, Jiejun Shi, Tie Liu, Huiming Wang
Animal studies have reported on the benefits of ARB on bone mass. However, the underlying mechanism for angiotensin II (AngII)/AngII receptor blockade (ARB) in regulating bone mass remains elusive. Since high levels of plasma and urine cAMP are observed in osteoporotic and hypertensive patients, we hypothesized that cAMP may be an important molecule for the downstream events of the activation of AT receptors, members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, in regulating bone turnover. In this study, micro-CT and X-ray analyses indicated that AngII decreased bone mass via biasing bone resorption over bone formation in osteoporotic mice...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468001/sensory-neurons-in-the-human-geniculate-ganglion
#10
Tadasu Sato, Yu Yamaguma, Yu Sasaki, Noriyuki Kanda, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
The geniculate ganglion (GG) contains visceral and somatic sensory neurons of the facial nerve. In this study, the number and cell size of sensory neurons in the human GG were investigated. The estimated number of GG neurons ranged from 1,580 to 2,561 (mean ± SD = 1,960 ± 364.6). The cell size of GG neurons ranged from 393.0 to 2,485.4 μm2 (mean ± SD = 1,067.4 ± 99.5 μm2). Sensory neurons in the GG were significantly smaller in size than those in the dorsal root (range = 326.6-5343.4 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,683...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420007/accessory-spleen-in-the-greater-omentum-embryology-and-revisited-prevalence-rates
#11
Nikita Gill, Areeba Nasir, Jennifer Douglin, Bettina Pretterklieber, Hanno Steinke, Michael Pretterklieber, Sebastian Cotofana
PURPOSE: To investigate in a large sample the prevalence rates of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum and to explain the embryological background and the vascular supply of this rare congenital disorder. METHODS: Evaluation of the presence of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum was performed in 5 different international anatomical centers investigating a total of 1,045 body donors. Arterial and venous blood supply and the precise location of the respective vasculature within the splenic ligaments are described based on dissection of this rare condition in a male specimen...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301847/enhancement-of-healing-of-long-tubular-bone-defects-in-rabbits-using-a-mixture-of-atelocollagen-gel-and-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate
#12
Ho Youn Park, Asode Ananthram Shetty, Jang Mook Kim, Young Ju Kim, Jae-Deog Jang, Nam Yong Choi, Jae Ho Lee, Seok Jung Kim
We evaluated the bone-forming potential of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate which was transplanted into bone defects. Radial shaft defects of about 10 mm in size were created in 30 New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits in the control group were not treated further, 10 rabbits in the first experimental group (E1) received an atelocollagen injection, and 10 rabbits in the second experimental group (E2) received an injection of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291964/application-of-a-parallelizable-perfusion-bioreactor-for-physiologic-3d-cell-culture
#13
Dominik Egger, Sarah Spitz, Monica Fischer, Stephan Handschuh, Martin Glösmann, Benedikt Friemert, Monika Egerbacher, Cornelia Kasper
It is crucial but challenging to keep physiologic conditions during the cultivation of 3D cell scaffold constructs for the optimization of 3D cell culture processes. Therefore, we demonstrate the benefits of a recently developed miniaturized perfusion bioreactor together with a specialized incubator system that allows for the cultivation of multiple samples while screening different conditions. Hence, a decellularized bone matrix was tested towards its suitability for 3D osteogenic differentiation under flow perfusion conditions...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273665/vascular-pathology-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-rat-small-intestine
#14
Alina E Gordeeva, Mars G Sharapov, Irina V Tikhonova, Nikolay K Chemeris, Evgeniy E Fesenko, Vladimir I Novoselov, Andrey A Temnov
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the small intestine caused by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery affects the intestinal tissue as well as components of the blood circulatory system from the microvasculature to mesenteric vessels. The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the dynamics of destruction development in the intestinal tissue, microvasculature, and mesenteric vessels in I/R of the small intestine. The microvasculature was analyzed by whole-organ continuous monitoring of the intestinal mucosal blood perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry during the entire I/R...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222422/impact-of-diet-and-or-exercise-intervention-on-infrapatellar-fat-pad-morphology-secondary-analysis-from-the-intensive-diet-and-exercise-for-arthritis-idea-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Aarón Leonardo Pogacnik Murillo, Felix Eckstein, Wolfgang Wirth, Daniel Beavers, Richard F Loeser, Barbara J Nicklas, Shannon L Mihalko, Gary D Miller, David J Hunter, Stephen P Messier
OBJECTIVES: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents intra-articular adipose tissue that may contribute to intra-articular inflammation and pain by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we examined the impact of weight loss by diet and/or exercise interventions on the IPFP volume. METHODS: Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) was a single-blinded, single-center, 18-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial that enrolled 454 overweight and obese older adults with knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214899/therapeutic-targeting-of-epithelial-plasticity-programs-focus-on-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#16
REVIEW
Reem Malek, Hailun Wang, Kekoa Taparra, Phuoc T Tran
Mounting data points to epithelial plasticity programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as clinically relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant tumors. In addition to the widely realized role of EMT in increasing cancer cell invasiveness during cancer metastasis, the EMT has also been implicated in allowing cancer cells to avoid tumor suppressor pathways during early tumorigenesis. In addition, data linking EMT to innate and acquired treatment resistance further points towards the desire to develop pharmacological therapies to target epithelial plasticity in cancer...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214895/development-of-cancer-vaccines-targeting-brachyury-a-transcription-factor-associated-with-tumor-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
REVIEW
Duane H Hamilton, Justin M David, Charli Dominguez, Claudia Palena
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized as a relevant process during the progression of carcinomas towards metastatic disease. Epithelial cancer cells undergoing an EMT program may acquire mesenchymal features, motility, invasiveness, and resistance to a variety of anticancer therapeutics. Preventing or reverting the EMT process in carcinomas has the potential to minimize tumor dissemination and the emergence of therapeutic resistance. One of the strategies currently under investigation to target tumor cells undergoing EMT is the generation of a sustained immune response directed against an essential molecular driver of the process...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214883/return-of-emt-to-the-land-downunder-temtia-vii-melbourne-2015
#19
Donald F Newgreen, Erik W Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214877/the-role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
REVIEW
Jo-Maree Courtney, Patricia L Spafford
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, and there is currently no treatment that can halt the progression of the disease. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be active in COPD. Here we review the evidence for EMT in COPD as well as the current progress being made on understanding the drivers and mechanisms involved. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits that understanding EMT may bring to the field of chronic respiratory disease...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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