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Cells, Tissues, Organs

Bonnie J Berry, Alec S T Smith, Jessica E Young, David L Mack
One of the most profound advances in the last decade of biomedical research has been the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models for identification of disease mechanisms and drug discovery. Human iPSC technology has the capacity to revolutionize healthcare and the realization of personalized medicine, but differentiated tissues derived from stem cells come with major criticisms compared to native tissue, including variability in genetic backgrounds, a lack of functional maturity, and differences in epigenetic profiles...
October 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Dingyuan I Sun, Alexia Tasca, Maximilian Haas, Grober Baltazar, Richard M Harland, Walter E Finkbeiner, Peter Walentek
Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) represent a highly conserved family of ion transporters that regulate pH homeostasis. NHEs as well as other proton transporters were previously linked to the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway, cell polarity signaling, and mucociliary function. Furthermore, mutations in the gene SLC9A3 (encoding NHE3) were detected as additional risk factors for airway infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Here, we used the Xenopus embryonic mucociliary epidermis as well as human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) as models to investigate the functional roles of NHEs in mucociliary development and regeneration...
October 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Xin Hong, Cong Zhang, Feng Wang, Xiao-Tao Wu
Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, which is closely associated with the loss of vacuolated notochordal nucleus pulposus cells (NNPC), remains a major cause of lower-back pain and motor deficiency. Being the most defining characteristic of NNPC, large cytoplasmic vacuoles not only modulate the cytoskeleton and shape cell morphology but they also respond to the disc microenvironment and regulate the biological behavior of vacuolated cells as a potent reporter of the histocytological changes that occur at the beginning of disc aging and degeneration...
October 3, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Shahrzad Fathollahipour, Pritam S Patil, Nic D Leipzig
Oxygen is a vital source of energy necessary to sustain and complete embryonic development. Not only is oxygen the driving force for many cellular functions and metabolism, but it is also involved in regulating stem cell fate, morphogenesis, and organogenesis. Low oxygen levels are the naturally preferred microenvironment for most processes during early development and mainly drive proliferation. Later on, more oxygen and also nutrients are needed for organogenesis and morphogenesis. Therefore, it is critical to maintain oxygen levels within a narrow range as required during development...
October 1, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Hans-Werner Denker, Arthur W English
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Daohong Zhao, Yanlin Li, Xizong Zhou, Zhongde Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mobilization of peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) and whether a combination of PBMSCs and modified demineralized bone matrix (DBM) promoted the repair of cartilage lesions in a pig model. METHODS: Pig PBMSCs were mobilized by the combined administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Colony formation was detected by the fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-F) count and the percentage of the CD45-CD90+ cell population by flow cytometry...
September 26, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Martin Blum, Tim Ott
The function of normal and defective candidate genes for human genetic diseases, which are rapidly being identified in large numbers by human geneticists and the biomedical community at large, will be best studied in relevant and predictive model organisms that allow high-speed verification, analysis of underlying developmental, cellular and molecular mechanisms, and establishment of disease models to test therapeutic options. We describe and discuss the pros and cons of the frog Xenopus, which has been extensively used to uncover developmental mechanisms in the past, but which is being underutilized as a biomedical model...
August 9, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yutaka Yamaguchi, Shigehito Yamada
The Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos and Fetuses, the largest collection of human embryos worldwide, was initiated in the 1960s, and the Congenital Anomaly Research Center of Kyoto University was established in 1975 for long-term storage of the collection and for the promotion of research into human embryonic and fetal development. Currently, the Kyoto Collection comprises approximately 45,000 specimens of human embryonic or fetal development and is renowned for the following unique characteristics: (1) the collection is considered to represent the total population of fetal specimens nationwide in Japan, (2) it comprises a large number of specimens with a variety of external malformations, and (3) for most specimens there are clinical and epidemiological data from the mothers and the pregnancies concerned...
July 31, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Maryam Sadat Tafakh, Massoud Saidijam, Tayebeh Ranjbarnejad, Sara Malih, Solmaz Mirzamohammadi, Rezvan Najafi
BACKGROUND: A high expression of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is found in colorectal cancer. Therefore, blocking of PGE2 generation has been identified as a promising approach for anticancer therapy. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from glucosinolate, is used as the antioxidant and anticancer agents. METHODS: HT-29 cells were treated with various concentrations of SFN and compared to untreated cells for the expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 at the mRNA level...
July 24, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Marijana Skific, Mirna Golemovic, Kristina Crkvenac-Gornik, Radovan Vrhovac, Branka Golubic Cepulic
Due to their ability to induce immunological tolerance in the recipient, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been utilized in the treatment of various hematological and immune- and inflammation-mediated diseases. The clinical application of MSCs implies prior in vitro expansion that usually includes the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS). The present study evaluated the effect of different platelet lysate (PL) media content on the biological properties of MSCs. MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of 13 healthy individuals and subsequently expanded in three different culture conditions (10% PL, 5% PL, 10% FBS) during 4 passages...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Fabricio Ivan Busolini, Luis Ezequiel Gallol, Graciela Beatríz Rodríguez, Verónica Palmira Filippa, Fabian Heber Mohamed
The pineal gland of mammals undergoes morphological and biochemical changes throughout the gestation period. In viscachas, a seasonal breeding rodent, pregnancy lasts approximately 154 days and 3 stages can be defined, i.e., early, mid, and late pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to analyze morphometric variations in the expression of S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vimentin in the interstitial cells (IC) in pregnant and nonpregnant viscachas by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also aim to evaluate a probable relation between glandular activity and pregnancy...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Gustavo de Sá Schiavo Matias, Nathia Nathaly Rigoglio, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Patricia Romagnolli, Rodrigo da Silva Nunes Barreto, Andrea Maria Mess, Maria Angelica Miglino, Paula Fratini
Due to the scarcity of tissues and organs for transplantation, the demand for bioengineered tissues is increasing with the advancement of technologies and new treatments in human and animal regenerative medicine. Thus, decellularized placental extracellular matrix (ECM) has emerged as a new tool for the production of biological scaffolds for subsequent recellularization and implantation for recovery of injured areas or even for replacement of organ and tissue fractions. To be classified as an ideal biological scaffold, the ECM must be acellular and preserve its proteins and physical features to be useful for cellular adhesion...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Ayşegül Mendi, Beyza Gökçınar Yağcı, Nurdan Saraç, Mustafa Kızıloğlu, Aysel Uğur, Duygu Uçkan, Derviş Yılmaz
The aim of this study is to demonstrate and compare the differentiation, proliferation, migration and inflammatory behavior of dental pulp- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DP-MSCs and BM-MSCs) in response to a Hypericum perforatum ethanol extract. Using xCELLigence, a real-time monitoring system, a dose of 10 µg/mL was found to be the most efficient concentration for vitality. The IC50 values and doubling time were calculated. The results showed that H. perforatum L. was able to accelerate osteogenic differentiation in DP-MSCs, but calcium granulation was impaired in BM-MSCs...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Alexie A Larson, Brian C Syverud, Shelby E Florida, Brittany L Rodriguez, Molly N Pantelic, Lisa M Larkin
Our lab showed that administration of dexamethasone (DEX) stimulated myogenesis and resulted in advanced structure in our engineered skeletal muscle units (SMU). While administration of 25 nM DEX resulted in the most advanced structure, 10 nM dosing resulted in the greatest force production. We hypothesized that administration of 25 nM DEX during the entire fabrication process was toxic to the cells and that administration of DEX at precise time points during myogenesis would result in SMU with a more advanced structure and function...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Hao Li, Jingkai Wang, Fangcai Li, Gang Chen, Qixin Chen
Nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells (NP-MSCs) are suitable cell candidates for intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration. However, little work has been done to determine the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of NP-MSCs in the hyperosmotic microenvironment of IVD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the hyperosmolarity of IVD on the proliferation and chondrogenic differ-entiation of NP-MSCs. NP-MSCs were cultured in media of 300, 400, 430, and 500 mOsm/L, mimicking the osmotic pressures of serious degenerative, moderately degenerative, and healthy IVD...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yu Feng, Xiang-Yang Tian, Peng Sun, Ze-Peng Cheng, Reng-Fei Shi
Mechanical stretch may cause myoblasts to either proliferate or undergo apoptosis. Identifying the molecular events that switch the fate of a stretched cell from proliferation to apoptosis is practically important in the field of regenerative medicine. A recent study on vascular smooth muscle cells illustrated that identification of these events may be achieved by addressing the stretch-induced opposite cellular outcomes simultaneously within a single investigation. To define conditions or a model in which both proliferation and apoptosis can be studied at the same time, we exposed in vitro cultured C2C12 myoblasts to a cyclic mechanical stretch regimen of 15% elongation at a stretching frequency of 1 Hz for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 h every day, consecutively, for 3 days...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Saloni Balgi-Agarwal, Caitlyn Winter, Alexis Corral, Shamimunisa B Mustafa, Peter Hornsby, Alvaro Moreira
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promise as therapeutic agents in treating morbidities associated with premature birth. MSCs derived from the human umbilical cord are easy to isolate and have low immunogenicity and a robust ability to secrete paracrine factors. To date, there are no studies evaluating preterm versus term umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs. Therefore, our aim was twofold: (1) to compare stem cell properties in preterm versus term MSCs and (2) to examine the impact of oxygen tension on stem cell behavior...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Marko Jović, Ivan Nikolić, Vera Todorović, Aleksandar Petrović, Vladimir Petrović, Marijola Mojsilović, Tijana Denčić
In the absence of systematized data on the extracellular matrix components during prenatal liver development, the present study aimed to investigate the time of appearance and distribution of collagen types I, III, and IV and laminin. The study material included embryonic and fetal livers, aged 7-37 weeks, categorized into 3 trimesters. The material was stained using hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry methods for the identification of collagen I, III, and IV and laminin. Collagen I was detected near the end of the first trimester in the capsules and walls of interlobular veins...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Jeannette Attiger, Alois Boos, Karl Klisch
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are one characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. In cows, the frequency of TGCs remains constant for most of the duration of pregnancy. As TGCs are depleted by their fusion with uterine epithelial cells, they need to be constantly formed. It is still unclear whether they develop from stem cells within the trophectoderm or whether they can arise from any uninucleate trophoblast cell (UTC). Within the latter, generally accepted theory, a basally located uninucleate cell (BUC) without contact to the feto-maternal interface would represent a transient cell between a UTC and a TGC...
2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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