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Cells, Tissues, Organs

Anna Ratajska, Ewa Jankowska-Steifer, Elżbieta Czarnowska, Radosław Olkowski, Grzegorz Gula, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Aleksandra Flaht-Zabost, Agnieszka Jasińska
Vasculogenesis was originally defined by Risau in 1997 [Nature 386: 671-674] as the de novo formation of vessels from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), so-called angioblasts. Initially, this process was believed to be related only to embryonic life; however, further studies reported vasculogenesis to occur also in adult tissues. This overview presents the current knowledge about the origin, differentiation and significance of EPCs that have been observed in various diseases, tumors, and reparative processes...
September 22, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Shuichi Mizuno, Eiichiro Takada, Naomi Fukai
Articular cartilage has multiple histologically distinct longitudinal depth zones. Development and pathogenesis occur throughout these zones. Cartilage explants, monolayer cell culture and reconstituted 3-dimensional cell constructs have been used for investigating mechanisms of pathophysiology in articular cartilage. Such models have been insufficient to reproduce zone-dependent cellular characteristics and extracellular matrix (ECM) upon investigation into cartilage development and pathogenesis. Therefore, we defined a chondrocyte spheroid model consistently formed with isolated chondrocytes from longitudinal depth zones without extrinsic materials...
September 22, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Rosa M Pérez-Serrano, M Laura González-Dávalos, Carlos Lozano-Flores, Armando Shimada, Anaid Antaramian, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría, Ofelia Mora
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of PPAR agonists on the differentiation and metabolic features of porcine mesenchymal stem cells induced to the adipogenic or myogenic lineages. METHODS: Bone marrow MSCs from neonate pigs were isolated and identified by cell proliferation, cell surface markers or the gene expression of stem cells (CD44, CD90, CD105 or Oct4 and Nanog, respectively). Cells were differentiated into adipose or muscle cells and treated with the PPAR agonists; adipogenic and myogenic differentiation was promoted by adding these compounds...
September 20, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Qiao Yi, Ousheng Liu, Fei Yan, Xiao Lin, Shu Diao, Liping Wang, Luyuan Jin, Songlin Wang, Yanqin Lu, Zhipeng Fan
INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-mediated dental pulp regeneration is considered a promising method for the treatment of deep caries with pulpitis. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) senescence is an adverse factor from the perspective of cell-based therapies. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and expression profiles of DPSCs from young and old donors. METHODS: DPSCs from young and old donors were cultured in differentiation medium, and their differentiation potentials were assessed...
September 15, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Lindsey Dew, William R English, Ilida Ortega, Frederik Claeyssens, Sheila MacNeil
One of the greatest challenges currently faced in tissue engineering is the incorporation of vascular networks within tissue-engineered constructs. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for producing a perfusable, 3-dimensional, cell-friendly model of vascular structures that could be used to study the factors affecting angiogenesis and vascular biology in engineered systems in more detail. Initially, biodegradable synthetic pseudovascular networks were produced via the combination of robocasting and electrospinning techniques...
September 6, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Gili Kaufman, Laiz Nunes, Alex Eftimiades, Wojtek Tutak
Tissue engineering-based therapies rely on the delivery of monolayered fibroblasts on two-dimensional polystyrene-coated and extracellular matrix (ECM) surfaces to regenerate connective tissues. However, this approach may fail to mimic their three-dimensional (3D) native architecture and function. We hypothesize that ECM fibrous proteins, which direct the migration of cells in vivo, may attach and guide polystyrene- and Matrigel™-ECM (M-ECM)-adherent fibroblasts to rearrangement into large multicellular macrostructures with the ability to proliferate...
August 30, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Tadasu Sato, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Noriyuki Kanda, Yu Sasaki, Yu Yamaguma, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 (TRPV2) was performed on human paranasal sinuses. It was found that in the paranasal sinuses, mucous membranes contain PGP 9.5-immunoreactive (PGP 9.5-IR) nerve fibers. Such nerve fibers terminated around large blood vessels as fine varicosities. Isolated PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers were scattered beneath the epithelium. Glandular tissues were also innervated by PGP 9...
August 24, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Kai Hsia, Chao-Ling Yao, Wei-Min Chen, Jian-Haw Chen, Hsinyu Lee, Jen-Her Lu
The increasing morbidity of cardiovascular diseases in modern society has made it crucial to develop a small-caliber blood vessel. In the absence of appropriate autologous vascular grafts, an alternative prosthesis must be constructed for cardiovascular disease patients. The aim of this article is to describe the advances in making cell-seeded cardiovascular prostheses. It also discusses the combinations of types of scaffolds and cells, especially autologous stem cells, which are suitable for application in tissue-engineered vessels with the favorable properties of mechanical strength, antithrombogenicity, biocompliance, anti-inflammation, fatigue resistance and long-term durability...
August 23, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Daniel Martinez Saez, Robson Tetsuo Sasaki, Adriana da Costa Neves, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira da Silva
Adult stem cells research has been considered the most advanced sort of medical-scientific research, particularly stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), which represent an immature stem cell population. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge concerning SHED from full-text scientific publications from 2003 to 2015, available in English language and based on the keyword and/or abbreviations 'stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)', and individually presented as to the properties of SHED, immunomodulatory properties of SHED and stem cell banking...
August 20, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Carolyn K Novaleski, Masanobu Mizuta, Bernard Rousseau
Cell death is a regulated mechanism of eliminating cells to maintain tissue homeostasis. This study described 2 methodological procedures for evaluating cell death in the epithelium of immobilized, approximated and vibrated vocal folds from 12 New Zealand white breeder rabbits. The gold standard technique of transmission electron microscopy evaluated high-quality ultrastructural criteria of cell death and a common immunohistochemical marker, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling method, to confirm cell death signaling...
August 19, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Elke Berneel, Charlot Philips, Heidi Declercq, Ria Cornelissen
In meniscus tissue engineering strategies, enhancing the matrix quality of the neomeniscal tissue is important. When the differentiated phenotype of fibrochondrocytes is lost, the quality of the matrix becomes compromised. The objective of this study was to produce uniform fibrochondrocyte micro-aggregates with desirable phenotype and tissue homogeneity in large quantities using a simple and reproducible method. Furthermore, we investigated if hypoxia could enhance the matrix quality. Porcine fibrochondrocytes were expanded at 21% oxygen until passage 3 (P3) and a gene expression profile was determined...
August 19, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Bernd Püschel, Jörg Männer
Due to its morphological similarity with the early human embryo, the pregastrulation-stage rabbit may represent an appropriate mammalian model for studying processes involved in early human development. The usability of mammalian embryos for experimental studies depends on the availability of whole embryo culture methods facilitating prolonged ex utero development. While currently used culture methods yield high success rates for embryos from primitive streak stages onward, the success rate of extended cultivation of preprimitive streak-stage mammalian embryos is low for all previously established methods and for all studied species...
August 11, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Steffen Koerdt, Nadine Tanner, Niklas Rommel, Nils H Rohleder, Mechthild Stoeckelhuber, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Marco R Kesting
BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of ionizing radiation through the generation of free radicals, reactive aldehydes, and other oxidative and nitrosative by-products account for skin injuries as side effects of radiation therapy (RT). This study aims to identify cellular pathways in oxidative and nitrosative stress in irradiated skin using well-established marker proteins in an immunohistochemical analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue specimens of 51 patients were obtained during operative access to the neck...
July 29, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
In-Su Park, Phil-Sang Chung, Jin Chul Ahn
Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) are an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. However, one obstacle to this approach is that the transplanted hASC population can decline rapidly in the recipient tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level light therapy (LLLT) on transplanted spheroid hASCs in skin flaps of mice. hASCs were cultured in monolayers or spheroids. LLLT, hASCs, spheroids and spheroids transplanted with LLLT were applied to the skin flaps...
July 23, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Daisuke Kondoh, Akihiro Kamikawa, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Glycoconjugates in the olfactory system play critical roles in neuronal formation, and α1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. Histochemical findings of α1-2Fuc glycan in the mouse olfactory system detected using Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) vary. This study histochemically assessed the main olfactory and vomeronasal pathways in male and female ICR and C57BL/6J mice aged 3-4 months using UEA-I. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I reacted with most receptor cells arranged mainly at the basal region of the olfactory epithelium...
July 16, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Kavina Ganapathy, Sowmithra Sowmithra, Ramesh Bhonde, Indrani Datta
The neuron-glia ratio is of prime importance for maintaining the physiological homeostasis of neuronal and glial cells, and especially crucial for dopaminergic neurons because a reduction in glial density has been reported in postmortem reports of brains affected by Parkinson's disease. We thus aimed at developing an in vitro midbrain culture which would replicate a similar neuron-glia ratio to that in in vivo adult midbrain while containing a similar number of dopaminergic neurons. A sequential culture technique was adopted to achieve this...
July 16, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Pei Li, Yibo Gan, Haoming Wang, Yuan Xu, Lei Song, Chengmin Zhang, Songtao Li, Qiang Zhou
Mechanical stimuli participate in disc development and remodelling. However, the effects of mechanical load on the immature annulus fibrosus (AF) are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate how the immature AF responded to dynamic compressive magnitude and duration. Immature porcine discs were bioreactor-cultured for 7 days and then dynamically compressed at various magnitudes (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.3 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 2 h/day) and durations (1, 2, 4 and 8 h/day at a magnitude of 0...
July 15, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Flavia Fernandes-Lima, Thiago Luís Ribeiro Gomes Monte, Fernanda Amorim de Morais Nascimento, Bianca Martins Gregório
High-sucrose and high-fat diets induce deregulation in the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. This study aimed to detect the initial consequences on lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and insulin signaling in the livers of rodents fed high-fat and/or high-sucrose diets for a short period of time. Male mice received a standard chow (SC), high-fat (HF), high-sucrose (HSu) or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHSu) diet for 4 weeks. At euthanasia, blood was collected and the liver was removed for histomorphometrical and molecular analysis...
June 17, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Forum S Shah, Jie Li, Fabiana Zanata, J Lowry Curley, Elizabeth C Martin, Xiying Wu, Marilyn Dietrich, Ram V Devireddy, James W Wade, Jeffrey M Gimble
The capability of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells to maintain cell viability, phenotype and differentiation ability upon thawing is critical if they are to be banked and used for future therapeutic purposes. In the present study, we examined the effect of 9-10 months of cryostorage on the morphology, immunophenotype, colony-forming unit (CFU) and differentiation capacity of fresh and cryopreserved human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) from the same donors. Cryopreservation did not reduce the CFU frequency and the expression levels of CD29, CD73, CD90 and CD105 remained unchanged with the exception of CD34 and CD45; however, the differentiation capacity of cryopreserved ASCs relative to fresh cells was significantly reduced...
June 17, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yanan Kong, Yishu Liu, Liangli Pan, Biao Cheng, Hongwei Liu
Psychological factors and stress can cause hair loss. The sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis has been reported to regulate the growth of hair follicles (HF). The sympathetic nerve is a component of the SAM axis, but it has not been sufficiently or convincingly linked to hair growth. In this study, we demonstrate that chemical sympathectomy via administration of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to mice inhibited HF growth, but treatment with the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (PR) had no effect...
June 11, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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