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Cells, Tissues, Organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494459/influence-of-bovine-serum-lipids-and-fetal-bovine-serum-on-the-expression-of-cell-surface-markers-in-cultured-bovine-preadipocytes
#1
Mansur A Sandhu, Sandra Jurek, Susanne Trappe, Martin Kolisek, Gerhard Sponder, Jörg R Aschenbach
To establish the influence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum lipids (BSL) on cell differentiation marker expression, bovine adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous tissue were incubated for 14 days in 4 types of differentiation media containing 10% FBS and 10 µL/mL BSL (TRT-1), no FBS and 10 µL/mL of BSL (TRT-2), 10% FBS and no BSL (TRT-3), or no supplements (TRT-4). Cells were subjected to Nile red staining, immunocytochemistry (CD73, CD90, CD105, DLK1, FabP4), and quantitative real-time PCR (CD73, CD90, CD105, FabP4)...
May 12, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478436/angiotensin-ii-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-affects-osteoporosis-via-the-at1-at2-mediated-camp-dependent-pka-pathway
#2
Yi Zhou, Xiaoxu Guan, Xiaoyi Chen, Mengfei Yu, Chaowei Wang, Xuepeng Chen, Jiejun Shi, Tie Liu, Huiming Wang
Animal studies have reported on the benefits of ARB on bone mass. However, the underlying mechanism for angiotensin II (AngII)/AngII receptor blockade (ARB) in regulating bone mass remains elusive. Since high levels of plasma and urine cAMP are observed in osteoporotic and hypertensive patients, we hypothesized that cAMP may be an important molecule for the downstream events of the activation of AT receptors, members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, in regulating bone turnover. In this study, micro-CT and X-ray analyses indicated that AngII decreased bone mass via biasing bone resorption over bone formation in osteoporotic mice...
May 6, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468001/sensory-neurons-in-the-human-geniculate-ganglion
#3
Tadasu Sato, Yu Yamaguma, Yu Sasaki, Noriyuki Kanda, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
The geniculate ganglion (GG) contains visceral and somatic sensory neurons of the facial nerve. In this study, the number and cell size of sensory neurons in the human GG were investigated. The estimated number of GG neurons ranged from 1,580 to 2,561 (mean ± SD = 1,960 ± 364.6). The cell size of GG neurons ranged from 393.0 to 2,485.4 μm2 (mean ± SD = 1,067.4 ± 99.5 μm2). Sensory neurons in the GG were significantly smaller in size than those in the dorsal root (range = 326.6-5343.4 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,683...
May 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420007/accessory-spleen-in-the-greater-omentum-embryology-and-revisited-prevalence-rates
#4
Nikita Gill, Areeba Nasir, Jennifer Douglin, Bettina Pretterklieber, Hanno Steinke, Michael Pretterklieber, Sebastian Cotofana
PURPOSE: To investigate in a large sample the prevalence rates of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum and to explain the embryological background and the vascular supply of this rare congenital disorder. METHODS: Evaluation of the presence of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum was performed in 5 different international anatomical centers investigating a total of 1,045 body donors. Arterial and venous blood supply and the precise location of the respective vasculature within the splenic ligaments are described based on dissection of this rare condition in a male specimen...
April 19, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419987/extracellular-matrix-mediates-bmp-2-in-a-model-of-temporomandibular-joint-osteoarthritis
#5
Maya Shirakura, Vardit Kram, Jennifer Robinson, Sheena Sikka, Tina M Kilts, Sunil Wadhwa, Marian F Young
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease that affects both cartilage and subchondral bone. It is accompanied by loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) and may be controlled by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). We analyzed the effect of BMP-2 in both cartilage and subchondral bone in a TMJ-OA animal model that is deficient in biglycan (Bgn) and fibromodulin (Fmod) (Bgn-/-Fmod-/-). Whole mandibles were dissected from 3-week-old wild-type (WT) and Bgn-/-Fmod-/- mice and incubated with and without 250 µg/mL BMP-2 for 2 days using an explant culture system...
April 19, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301847/enhancement-of-healing-of-long-tubular-bone-defects-in-rabbits-using-a-mixture-of-atelocollagen-gel-and-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate
#6
Ho Youn Park, Asode Ananthram Shetty, Jang Mook Kim, Young Ju Kim, Jae-Deog Jang, Nam Yong Choi, Jae Ho Lee, Seok Jung Kim
We evaluated the bone-forming potential of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate which was transplanted into bone defects. Radial shaft defects of about 10 mm in size were created in 30 New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits in the control group were not treated further, 10 rabbits in the first experimental group (E1) received an atelocollagen injection, and 10 rabbits in the second experimental group (E2) received an injection of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate...
March 17, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273665/vascular-pathology-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-rat-small-intestine
#7
Alina E Gordeeva, Mars G Sharapov, Irina V Tikhonova, Nikolay K Chemeris, Evgeniy E Fesenko, Vladimir I Novoselov, Andrey A Temnov
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the small intestine caused by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery affects the intestinal tissue as well as components of the blood circulatory system from the microvasculature to mesenteric vessels. The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the dynamics of destruction development in the intestinal tissue, microvasculature, and mesenteric vessels in I/R of the small intestine. The microvasculature was analyzed by whole-organ continuous monitoring of the intestinal mucosal blood perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry during the entire I/R...
March 9, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183087/development-of-the-human-biceps-brachii-tendon-and-coracoglenoid-ligament-7th-12th-week-of-development
#8
Crótida de la Cuadra-Blanco, Luis A Arráez-Aybar, Jorge A Murillo-González, Manuel E Herrera-Lara, Juan A Mérida-Velasco, José R Mérida-Velasco
The goal of this study is to clarify the development of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) and to verify the existence and development of the coracoglenoid ligament. Histological preparations of 22 human embryos (7-8 weeks of development) and 43 human fetuses (9-12 weeks of development) were studied bilaterally using a conventional optical microscope. The articular interzone gives rise to the LHBT, glenoid labrum, and articular capsule. During the fetal period, it was observed that in 50 cases (58%), the LHBT originated from both the glenoid labrum and the scapula, while in 36 cases (42%), it originated only from the glenoid labrum...
February 10, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118635/the-effect-of-autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-on-bone-regeneration-by-autologous-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-onto-allogeneic-cancellous-bone-granules
#9
Min Wook Joo, Seung Jae Chung, Seung Han Shin, Yang-Guk Chung
To develop a clinically effective bone regeneration strategy, we compared bone regeneration using allogeneic cancellous bone granule scaffolds loaded with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) with or without autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Critical-sized segmental bone defects were made at the mid-shaft of both radiuses in 41 New Zealand White rabbits. Small-sized allogeneic cancellous bone granules (300-700 μm in diameter) loaded with BM-MSC were implanted on one side, and PRP was added...
January 25, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291964/application-of-a-parallelizable-perfusion-bioreactor-for-physiologic-3d-cell-culture
#10
Dominik Egger, Sarah Spitz, Monica Fischer, Stephan Handschuh, Martin Glösmann, Benedikt Friemert, Monika Egerbacher, Cornelia Kasper
It is crucial but challenging to keep physiologic conditions during the cultivation of 3D cell scaffold constructs for the optimization of 3D cell culture processes. Therefore, we demonstrate the benefits of a recently developed miniaturized perfusion bioreactor together with a specialized incubator system that allows for the cultivation of multiple samples while screening different conditions. Hence, a decellularized bone matrix was tested towards its suitability for 3D osteogenic differentiation under flow perfusion conditions...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222422/impact-of-diet-and-or-exercise-intervention-on-infrapatellar-fat-pad-morphology-secondary-analysis-from-the-intensive-diet-and-exercise-for-arthritis-idea-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Aarón Leonardo Pogacnik Murillo, Felix Eckstein, Wolfgang Wirth, Daniel Beavers, Richard F Loeser, Barbara J Nicklas, Shannon L Mihalko, Gary D Miller, David J Hunter, Stephen P Messier
OBJECTIVES: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents intra-articular adipose tissue that may contribute to intra-articular inflammation and pain by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we examined the impact of weight loss by diet and/or exercise interventions on the IPFP volume. METHODS: Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) was a single-blinded, single-center, 18-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial that enrolled 454 overweight and obese older adults with knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214899/therapeutic-targeting-of-epithelial-plasticity-programs-focus-on-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#12
REVIEW
Reem Malek, Hailun Wang, Kekoa Taparra, Phuoc T Tran
Mounting data points to epithelial plasticity programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as clinically relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant tumors. In addition to the widely realized role of EMT in increasing cancer cell invasiveness during cancer metastasis, the EMT has also been implicated in allowing cancer cells to avoid tumor suppressor pathways during early tumorigenesis. In addition, data linking EMT to innate and acquired treatment resistance further points towards the desire to develop pharmacological therapies to target epithelial plasticity in cancer...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214895/development-of-cancer-vaccines-targeting-brachyury-a-transcription-factor-associated-with-tumor-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#13
REVIEW
Duane H Hamilton, Justin M David, Charli Dominguez, Claudia Palena
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized as a relevant process during the progression of carcinomas towards metastatic disease. Epithelial cancer cells undergoing an EMT program may acquire mesenchymal features, motility, invasiveness, and resistance to a variety of anticancer therapeutics. Preventing or reverting the EMT process in carcinomas has the potential to minimize tumor dissemination and the emergence of therapeutic resistance. One of the strategies currently under investigation to target tumor cells undergoing EMT is the generation of a sustained immune response directed against an essential molecular driver of the process...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#14
REVIEW
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214883/return-of-emt-to-the-land-downunder-temtia-vii-melbourne-2015
#15
Donald F Newgreen, Erik W Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214877/the-role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jo-Maree Courtney, Patricia L Spafford
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, and there is currently no treatment that can halt the progression of the disease. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be active in COPD. Here we review the evidence for EMT in COPD as well as the current progress being made on understanding the drivers and mechanisms involved. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits that understanding EMT may bring to the field of chronic respiratory disease...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214876/the-snail-family-in-normal-and-malignant-haematopoiesis
#17
REVIEW
Catherine L Carmichael, Jody J Haigh
Snail family proteins are key inducers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process required for normal embryonic development. They have also been strongly implicated in regulating the EMT-like processes required for tumour cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. Whether these proteins also contribute to normal blood cell development, however, remains to be clearly defined. Increasing evidence supports a role for the Snail family in regulating cell survival, migration, and differentiation within the haematopoietic system, as well as potentially an oncogenic role in the malignant transformation of haematopoietic stem cells...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214862/differential-clonal-expansion-in-an-invading-cell-population-clonal-advantage-or-dumb-luck
#18
REVIEW
Donald F Newgreen, Dongcheng Zhang, Bevan L Cheeseman, Benjamin J Binder, Kerry A Landman
In neoplastic cell growth, clones and subclones are variable both in size and mutational spectrum. The largest of these clones are believed to represent those cells with mutations that make them the most "fit," in a Darwinian sense, for expansion in their microenvironment. Thus, the degree of quantitative clonal expansion is regarded as being determined by innate qualitative differences between the cells that originate each clone. Here, using a combination of mathematical modelling and clonal labelling experiments applied to the developmental model system of the forming enteric nervous system, we describe how cells which are qualitatively identical may consistently produce clones of dramatically different sizes: most clones are very small while a few clones we term "superstars" contribute most of the cells to the final population...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125805/characterization-of-an-acellular-scaffold-for-a-tissue-engineering-approach-to-the-nipple-areolar-complex-reconstruction
#19
Nicholas C Pashos, Michelle E Scarritt, Zachary R Eagle, Jeffrey M Gimble, Abigail E Chaffin, Bruce A Bunnell
A significant number of patients undergo mastectomies and breast reconstructions every year using many surgical-based techniques to reconstruct the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Described herein is a tissue engineering approach that may permit a human NAC onlay graft during breast reconstruction procedures. By applying decellularization, which is the removal of cellular components from tissue, to an intact whole donor NAC, the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure of the NAC is preserved. This creates a biologically derived scaffold for cells to repopulate and regenerate the NAC...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118642/methotrexate-induces-apoptosis-of-postpartum-placental-cytotrophoblasts
#20
Hao Yan, Zhihua Li, Zhonghai Yan, Xiuying Li, Xiaomei Li, Lin Yu, Chunhong Su, Dunjin Chen
BACKGROUND: Though methotrexate (MTX) is known to inhibit proliferation of trophoblasts derived from ectopic and intrauterine pregnancies, its action on trophoblasts derived from postpartum placenta remains questionable. This study was designed to ascertain the efficacy of MTX in inducing cell death of postpartum placental cytotrophoblasts (PPTC). METHODOLOGY: Primary human cytotrophoblasts were isolated from placentae of 1st and 2nd trimester intrauterine pregnancies and from postpartum placentae...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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