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Cells, Tissues, Organs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214899/therapeutic-targeting-of-epithelial-plasticity-programs-focus-on-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#1
Reem Malek, Hailun Wang, Kekoa Taparra, Phuoc T Tran
Mounting data points to epithelial plasticity programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as clinically relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant tumors. In addition to the widely realized role of EMT in increasing cancer cell invasiveness during cancer metastasis, the EMT has also been implicated in allowing cancer cells to avoid tumor suppressor pathways during early tumorigenesis. In addition, data linking EMT to innate and acquired treatment resistance further points towards the desire to develop pharmacological therapies to target epithelial plasticity in cancer...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214895/development-of-cancer-vaccines-targeting-brachyury-a-transcription-factor-associated-with-tumor-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#2
Duane H Hamilton, Justin M David, Charli Dominguez, Claudia Palena
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized as a relevant process during the progression of carcinomas towards metastatic disease. Epithelial cancer cells undergoing an EMT program may acquire mesenchymal features, motility, invasiveness, and resistance to a variety of anticancer therapeutics. Preventing or reverting the EMT process in carcinomas has the potential to minimize tumor dissemination and the emergence of therapeutic resistance. One of the strategies currently under investigation to target tumor cells undergoing EMT is the generation of a sustained immune response directed against an essential molecular driver of the process...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#3
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214883/return-of-emt-to-the-land-downunder-temtia-vii-melbourne-2015
#4
Donald F Newgreen, Erik W Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214877/the-role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Jo-Maree Courtney, Patricia L Spafford
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, and there is currently no treatment that can halt the progression of the disease. Over the last decade there has been increasing interest in the idea that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be active in COPD. Here we review the evidence for EMT in COPD as well as the current progress being made on understanding the drivers and mechanisms involved. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits that understanding EMT may bring to the field of chronic respiratory disease...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214876/the-snail-family-in-normal-and-malignant-haematopoiesis
#6
Catherine L Carmichael, Jody J Haigh
Snail family proteins are key inducers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process required for normal embryonic development. They have also been strongly implicated in regulating the EMT-like processes required for tumour cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. Whether these proteins also contribute to normal blood cell development, however, remains to be clearly defined. Increasing evidence supports a role for the Snail family in regulating cell survival, migration, and differentiation within the haematopoietic system, as well as potentially an oncogenic role in the malignant transformation of haematopoietic stem cells...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214862/differential-clonal-expansion-in-an-invading-cell-population-clonal-advantage-or-dumb-luck
#7
Donald F Newgreen, Dongcheng Zhang, Bevan L Cheeseman, Benjamin J Binder, Kerry A Landman
In neoplastic cell growth, clones and subclones are variable both in size and mutational spectrum. The largest of these clones are believed to represent those cells with mutations that make them the most "fit," in a Darwinian sense, for expansion in their microenvironment. Thus, the degree of quantitative clonal expansion is regarded as being determined by innate qualitative differences between the cells that originate each clone. Here, using a combination of mathematical modelling and clonal labelling experiments applied to the developmental model system of the forming enteric nervous system, we describe how cells which are qualitatively identical may consistently produce clones of dramatically different sizes: most clones are very small while a few clones we term "superstars" contribute most of the cells to the final population...
February 20, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183087/development-of-the-human-biceps-brachii-tendon-and-coracoglenoid-ligament-7th-12th-week-of-development
#8
Crótida de la Cuadra-Blanco, Luis A Arráez-Aybar, Jorge A Murillo-González, Manuel E Herrera-Lara, Juan A Mérida-Velasco, José R Mérida-Velasco
The goal of this study is to clarify the development of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) and to verify the existence and development of the coracoglenoid ligament. Histological preparations of 22 human embryos (7-8 weeks of development) and 43 human fetuses (9-12 weeks of development) were studied bilaterally using a conventional optical microscope. The articular interzone gives rise to the LHBT, glenoid labrum, and articular capsule. During the fetal period, it was observed that in 50 cases (58%), the LHBT originated from both the glenoid labrum and the scapula, while in 36 cases (42%), it originated only from the glenoid labrum...
February 10, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125805/characterization-of-an-acellular-scaffold-for-a-tissue-engineering-approach-to-the-nipple-areolar-complex-reconstruction
#9
Nicholas C Pashos, Michelle E Scarritt, Zachary R Eagle, Jeffrey M Gimble, Abigail E Chaffin, Bruce A Bunnell
A significant number of patients undergo mastectomies and breast reconstructions every year using many surgical-based techniques to reconstruct the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Described herein is a tissue engineering approach that may permit a human NAC onlay graft during breast reconstruction procedures. By applying decellularization, which is the removal of cellular components from tissue, to an intact whole donor NAC, the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure of the NAC is preserved. This creates a biologically derived scaffold for cells to repopulate and regenerate the NAC...
January 27, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118642/methotrexate-induces-apoptosis-of-postpartum-placental-cytotrophoblasts
#10
Hao Yan, Zhihua Li, Zhonghai Yan, Xiuying Li, Xiaomei Li, Lin Yu, Chunhong Su, Dunjin Chen
BACKGROUND: Though methotrexate (MTX) is known to inhibit proliferation of trophoblasts derived from ectopic and intrauterine pregnancies, its action on trophoblasts derived from postpartum placenta remains questionable. This study was designed to ascertain the efficacy of MTX in inducing cell death of postpartum placental cytotrophoblasts (PPTC). METHODOLOGY: Primary human cytotrophoblasts were isolated from placentae of 1st and 2nd trimester intrauterine pregnancies and from postpartum placentae...
January 25, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118635/the-effect-of-autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-on-bone-regeneration-by-autologous-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-onto-allogeneic-cancellous-bone-granules
#11
Min Wook Joo, Seung Jae Chung, Seung Han Shin, Yang-Guk Chung
To develop a clinically effective bone regeneration strategy, we compared bone regeneration using allogeneic cancellous bone granule scaffolds loaded with autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) with or without autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Critical-sized segmental bone defects were made at the mid-shaft of both radiuses in 41 New Zealand White rabbits. Small-sized allogeneic cancellous bone granules (300-700 μm in diameter) loaded with BM-MSC were implanted on one side, and PRP was added...
January 25, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052271/establishment-and-characterization-of-an-sv40-large-t-antigen-transduced-porcine-colonic-epithelial-cell-line
#12
Bastian Kaiser, Martina Böttner, Thilo Wedel, Ronald M Brunner, Tom Goldammer, Szilvia Lesko, Gotthold Gäbel, Alexander Gleich, Helga Pfannkuche
Continuous cell lines have become indispensable tools that have enabled investigations into cellular mechanisms by increasing experimental reproducibility and sample availability, and decreasing the use of experimental animals. To facilitate studies of epithelial barrier function of the porcine colon, we aimed to establish an epithelial cell line with an extended replicative capacity. Cells were isolated from the proximal colon of a 3-week-old piglet and transduced using a recombinant retroviral vector construct containing the simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40 TAg)...
January 5, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030865/recent-advances-in-decellularization-and-recellularization-for-tissue-engineered-liver-grafts
#13
Yujia Wang, Clara T Nicolas, Harvey S Chen, Jeffery J Ross, Silvana B De Lorenzo, Scott L Nyberg
Liver transplantation from deceased or living human donors remains the only proven option for patients with end-stage liver disease. However, the shortage of donor organs is a significant clinical concern that has led to the pursuit of tissue-engineered liver grafts generated from decellularized liver extracellular matrix and functional cells. Investigative efforts on optimizing both liver decellularization and recellularization protocols have been made in recent decades. In the current review, we briefly summarize these advances, including the generation of high-quality liver extracellular matrix scaffolds, evaluation criteria for quality control, modification of matrix for enhanced properties, and reseeding strategies...
December 29, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030857/new-description-of-telocyte-sheaths-in-the-bovine-uterine-tube-an-immunohistochemical-and-scanning-microscopic-study
#14
Hanan H Abd-Elhafeez, Soha A Soliman
Telocytes are a special type of interstitial cells characterized by distinctive cellular extensions with alternating thin segments (podomers) and dilations (podoms). Telocytes establish contact with various cells and structures, but their role in the regulation of the function of many cell types is still obscure. The aim of the current study was to investigate the morphology, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of telocytes, and their distribution, organization, and morphometric measurements in different layers of the adult bovine uterine tube...
December 29, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902976/centrosome-clustering-in-the-development-of-bovine-binucleate-trophoblast-giant-cells
#15
Karl Klisch, Elisabeth M Schraner, Alois Boos
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) are the characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. During their development, BNC pass through 2 acytokinetic mitoses and become binucleate with 2 tetraploid nuclei. In this study, we investigate the number and location of centrosomes in bovine BNC. Centrosomes typically consist of 2 centrioles surrounded by electron-dense pericentriolar material. Duplication of centrosomes is tightly linked to the cell cycle, which ensures that the number of centrosomes remains constant in proliferating diploid cells...
December 1, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889769/immunohistochemical-heterogeneity-of-the-endothelium-of-blood-and-lymphatic-vessels-in-the-developing-human-liver-and-in-adulthood
#16
Ivan Nikolić, Vera Todorović, Aleksandar Petrović, Vladimir Petrović, Marko Jović, Jelena Vladičić, Nela Puškaš
The endothelium of liver sinusoids in relation to the endothelium of other blood vessels has specific antigen expression similar to the endothelium of lymphatic vessels. Bearing in mind that there is no consensus as to the period or intensity of the expression of certain antigens in the endothelium of blood and lymphatic vessels in the liver, the aim of our study was to immunohistochemically investigate the dynamic patterns of the expression of CD31, CD34, D2-40, and LYVE-1 antigens during liver development and in adulthood on paraffin tissue sections of human livers of 4 embryos, 38 fetuses, 6 neonates, and 6 adults...
November 26, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883993/stimulation-of-the-nonneuronal-cholinergic-system-by-highly-diluted-acetylcholine-in-keratinocytes
#17
Francesca Uberti, Claudio Bardelli, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Andrea Cochis, Claudio Molinari
The physiological effects of acetylcholine on keratinocytes depend on the presence of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The role of nonneuronal acetylcholine in keratinocytes could have important clinical implications for patients with various skin disorders such as nonhealing wounds. In order to evaluate the efficacy of highly diluted acetylcholine solutions obtained by sequential kinetic activation, we aimed to investigate the effects of these solutions on normal human keratinocytes. Two different concentrations (10 fg/mL and 1 pg/mL) and formulations (kinetically activated and nonkinetically activated) of acetylcholine were used to verify keratinocyte viability, proliferation, and migration and the intracellular pathways involved using MTT, crystal violet, wound healing, and Western blot compared to 147 ng/mL acetylcholine...
November 25, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802428/effect-of-melatonin-on-telocytes-in-the-seminal-vesicle-of-the-soay-ram-an-immunohistochemical-ultrastructural-and-morphometrical-study
#18
Hanan H Abd-Elhafeez, Doaa M Mokhtar, Ahmed H S Hassan
Telocytes (TCs) are a special type of interstitial cell with characteristic cellular processes that are described in many organs. The current study aimed to investigate TCs in seminal vesicles of the Soay ram responding to melatonin treatment during the nonbreeding season by conventional immunohistochemical stains, and to detect the ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of TCs. TCs in the control group showed a broad range of staining affinity and also reacted positively to CD117/c-kit, CD34, desmin, S-100 protein, and progesterone and estrogen receptors alpha, while after melatonin treatment a strong reaction against these 6 antibodies was recorded...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627434/analysis-of-senescence-related-differentiation-potentials-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#19
Qiao Yi, Ousheng Liu, Fei Yan, Xiao Lin, Shu Diao, Liping Wang, Luyuan Jin, Songlin Wang, Yanqin Lu, Zhipeng Fan
INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-mediated dental pulp regeneration is considered a promising method for the treatment of deep caries with pulpitis. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) senescence is an adverse factor from the perspective of cell-based therapies. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and expression profiles of DPSCs from young and old donors. METHODS: DPSCs from young and old donors were cultured in differentiation medium, and their differentiation potentials were assessed...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553072/distribution-of-cgrp-and-trpv2-in-human-paranasal-sinuses
#20
Tadasu Sato, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Noriyuki Kanda, Yu Sasaki, Yu Yamaguma, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
Immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 (TRPV2) was performed on human paranasal sinuses. It was found that in the paranasal sinuses, mucous membranes contain PGP 9.5-immunoreactive (PGP 9.5-IR) nerve fibers. Such nerve fibers terminated around large blood vessels as fine varicosities. Isolated PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers were scattered beneath the epithelium. Glandular tissues were also innervated by PGP 9...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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