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Technology and Culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731469/the-world-s-best-carpets-erastus-bigelow-and-the-financing-of-antebellum-innovation
#1
Lindsay Schakenbach Regele
The business records of textile entrepreneur and inventor Erastus Bigelow offer extraordinary detail about how financing innovation worked on the ground in the antebellum United States. For the first decades of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of Americans sought patent protection, even as patents often brought little monetary benefit or status to their holders. Historians have tended to look to the court system to account for why this was the case, even though only a small percentage of patent holders ever litigated...
2018: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731468/-a-new-business-in-the-world-the-telegraph-privacy-and-the-u-s-constitution-in-the-nineteenth-century
#2
Thomas Jepsen
Disclosures about electronic surveillance by the U.S. National Security Agency have revived interest in issues of communications privacy and Fourth Amendment rights. In the early days of the telegraph, there was no legal protection afforded to the privacy of telegraphic communication, and seizures of telegraphic dispatches figured in major events of the nineteenth century in the United States. Attempts to protect the content of telegrams by defining a customer/operator "privilege" under common law were rejected by the courts, as were attempts to protect the confidentiality of telegraphic communications through an analogy with the postal service...
2018: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731467/the-cornell-kitchen-housing-and-design-research-in-postwar-america
#3
Barbara Penner
The Cornell Kitchen (1950-55) was produced at Cornell University by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in home economics, engineering, architecture, and psychology. It promised to deliver rational design, functional principles, aesthetic appeal, and emotional satisfaction in one prefabricated, easy-to-install package. This article sets out the kitchen's history from its design to its field-testing phase to its impact on postwar kitchens. It argues that the kitchen represents an important effort to approach housing in a more scientific way; scientific methods were deployed to understand both the physical and socio-psychological problems of dwelling...
2018: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731466/-wandering-in-the-desert-the-clinch-river-breeder-reactor-debate-in-the-u-s-congress-1972-1983
#4
Michael Camp
The experimental Clinch River breeder reactor, approved by the U.S. Congress in 1970 for construction in East Tennessee, would have used plutonium instead of uranium. The project drew the ire of environmentalists who insisted that plutonium was too dangerous for commercial use, along with opponents of nuclear proliferation. Tennessee's representatives in Congress, however, desired the jobs that the project would create, and formed legislative coalitions to ensure continued appropriations for the project. Funding lasted until 1983, when fiscal conservatives, concerned about ballooning cost projections, joined with environmentalists to defund the breeder...
2018: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731465/after-innovation-turn-to-maintenance
#5
Andrew L Russell, Lee Vinsel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249726/volume-58-2017
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249725/to-the-editor
#7
Daryl M Hafter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249724/glassmaking-goes-public-the-cultural-background-to-antonio-neri-s-i-l-arte-vetraria-i-1612
#8
Marco Beretta
Glassmaking has prospered as an art since the late Middle Ages. It is therefore surprising that the first systematic treatise exclusively devoted to it appeared as late as 1612. In this article I explore the experimental background of Antonio Neri's L'Arte Vetraria, and its intimate connection with an ancient alchemical tradition and with more contemporary efforts to introduce technical innovations. Furthermore, the active role played by Antonio Neri, a clergyman and alchemist in the service of Antonio de' Medici, sheds new light on the patronage of the Medici court...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249723/medical-machines-as-symbols-of-science-promoting-electrotherapy-in-victorian-canada
#9
Vivien Hamilton
This article tackles a common assumption in the historiography of medical technology, that new medical instruments in the nineteenth century were universally seen as symbols of the scientific nature of medical practice. The article examines the strategies used by Jenny Trout, the first woman in Canada licensed to practice medicine, and J. Adams, a homeopathic physician, to advertise electrotherapy to the residents of Toronto in the 1870s and 1880s. While electrotherapy involved complex electrical technology, the doctors in this study did not draw attention to their instruments as proof of the legitimacy of their practice...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249722/seismic-politics-risk-and-reconstruction-after-the-1960-earthquake-in-agadir-morocco
#10
Daniel Williford
On 29 February 1960, an earthquake struck the city of Agadir, Morocco, killing between ten and fifteen thousand Moroccans and Europeans and damaging the majority of the city's structures. Drawing on data from seismographs, witness accounts, and direct observations of destruction, international teams of experts working in the aftermath of the disaster rewrote Agadir as a seismically vulnerable space. In the process, they depoliticized destruction and assigned responsibility for the devastation of the city's poorest neighborhoods to "natural" forces and ineffective "traditional" building practices...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249721/learning-to-file-reconfiguring-information-and-information-work-in-the-early-twentieth-century
#11
Craig Robertson
This article uses textbooks and advertisements to explore the formal and informal ways in which people were introduced to vertical filing in the early twentieth century. Through the privileging of "system" an ideal mode of paperwork emerged in which a clerk could "grasp" information simply by hand without having to understand or comprehend its content. A file clerk's hands and fingers became central to the representation and teaching of filing. In this way, filing offered an example of a distinctly modern form of information work...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249720/superpower-underground-switzerland-s-rise-to-global-bunker-expertise-in-the-atomic-age
#12
Silvia Berger Ziauddin
In the 1960s Switzerland started to build the world's largest system of civil defense shelters. Ever since, the tiny country has represented the gold standard for bunker design and technology, attracting worldwide interest amongst scientists, political elites, and private consumers. This essay examines the development, forms, and global reach of Swiss bunker expertise. It emphasizes the knowledge transfer and the networks of cooperation with West Germany and the United States upon which the career of Swiss bunker research was founded...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249719/the-social-construction-of-imported-technologies-reflections-on-the-social-history-of-technology-in-modern-korea
#13
Hyungsub Choi
Can imported technologies be socially constructed? Starting from this puzzling question, this essay reflects on the various methodologies with which one can narrate the stories of technology in modern Korea. A focus on technological innovations and how they have been shaped by their societal milieu forces one to leave out a large part of the technological experience, especially when the bulk of the technologies-in-use have been imported from abroad. This poses a serious problem for the history of technology in Korea, a nation that relied heavily on foreign technologies as it went through rapid economic growth in the latter twentieth century...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890464/steam-and-power-andreas-malm-i-fossil-capital-i
#14
Fredric Quivik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890463/-useful-sciences-ursula-klein-i-n%C3%A3-tzliches-wissen-i
#15
Jonathan Harwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890462/the-documentary-impulse
#16
Hanna Rose Shell, Gregg Mitman
This article has two interconnected goals. It is, first of all, a review of the film The Land Beneath Our Feet, an exemplary documentary that combines the history of technology, science and technology studies, and environmental history in its exploration of the social, cultural, and natural consequences of the rubber industry's expansion in Liberia. The essay's larger purpose, however, is to explore the powerful role documentary film-making practices have to play in the development of new approaches in the history of technology...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890461/humans-and-machines
#17
Ronald R Kline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890460/shot-internationalization-and-the-art-of-translation
#18
Francesca Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890459/james-e-webb-technocracy-and-the-new-deal-roots-of-space-age-management
#19
Allan A Needell
abstract James E. Webb, NASA's Administrator during the hectic years preparing to send American astronauts to the Moon, has come to represent the pinnacle of postwar American optimism and support for large-scale, technically complex national undertakings. Success in 1969 lent credence to Webb's faith in "space age management." By the 1980s such "technocratic optimism" had precipitously declined. Since 1985, with the publication of Walter A. McDougall's Pulitzer Prize winning. . . The Heavens and the Earth, the rise and decline of such optimism has often been framed in the context of Cold War ideology and competition...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890458/the-life-of-a-renaissance-gunmaker-bonaccorso-ghiberti-and-the-development-of-florentine-artillery-in-the-late-fifteenth-century
#20
Fabrizio Ansani
This article examines the technological development of artillery production in Florence during the last two decades of the fifteenth century, before and after the assimilation of the most efficient French ordnance into Italian warfare. The study starts from the notes, drawings, accounts, and guns produced by Bonaccorso di Vettorio Ghiberti (1451-1516), the heir of the foundry of his illustrious ancestor Lorenzo di Cione (1378-1455). Data have been collected from the historical archives of the Istituto degli Innocenti, from the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, and from the Florentine State Archive...
2017: Technology and Culture
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