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Technology and Culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890464/steam-and-power-andreas-malm-i-fossil-capital-i
#1
Fredric Quivik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890463/-useful-sciences-ursula-klein-i-n%C3%A3-tzliches-wissen-i
#2
Jonathan Harwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890462/the-documentary-impulse
#3
Hanna Rose Shell, Gregg Mitman
This article has two interconnected goals. It is, first of all, a review of the film The Land Beneath Our Feet, an exemplary documentary that combines the history of technology, science and technology studies, and environmental history in its exploration of the social, cultural, and natural consequences of the rubber industry's expansion in Liberia. The essay's larger purpose, however, is to explore the powerful role documentary film-making practices have to play in the development of new approaches in the history of technology...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890461/humans-and-machines
#4
Ronald R Kline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890460/shot-internationalization-and-the-art-of-translation
#5
Francesca Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890459/james-e-webb-technocracy-and-the-new-deal-roots-of-space-age-management
#6
Allan A Needell
abstract James E. Webb, NASA's Administrator during the hectic years preparing to send American astronauts to the Moon, has come to represent the pinnacle of postwar American optimism and support for large-scale, technically complex national undertakings. Success in 1969 lent credence to Webb's faith in "space age management." By the 1980s such "technocratic optimism" had precipitously declined. Since 1985, with the publication of Walter A. McDougall's Pulitzer Prize winning. . . The Heavens and the Earth, the rise and decline of such optimism has often been framed in the context of Cold War ideology and competition...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890458/the-life-of-a-renaissance-gunmaker-bonaccorso-ghiberti-and-the-development-of-florentine-artillery-in-the-late-fifteenth-century
#7
Fabrizio Ansani
This article examines the technological development of artillery production in Florence during the last two decades of the fifteenth century, before and after the assimilation of the most efficient French ordnance into Italian warfare. The study starts from the notes, drawings, accounts, and guns produced by Bonaccorso di Vettorio Ghiberti (1451-1516), the heir of the foundry of his illustrious ancestor Lorenzo di Cione (1378-1455). Data have been collected from the historical archives of the Istituto degli Innocenti, from the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, and from the Florentine State Archive...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890457/healing-animals-in-an-antibiotic-age-veterinary-drugs-and-the-professionalism-crisis-1945-1970
#8
Kendra Smith-Howard
Between 1945 and 1970, the introduction of antibiotics in agriculture forced veterinarians to articulate the boundaries of their professional identity. While veterinarians welcomed the new aid to arrest infectious diseases of livestock, they worried as farmers took animal healing into their own hands without veterinary supervision, and resented the competition from retail outlets that sold the drugs. Veterinary antibiotics also set off heated debates within the field about whether the profession should position itself as preventers or healers of disease, debates that were akin to the kinds of professional discourses among physicians and pharmacists in the same period...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890456/a-figure-of-merit-quantifying-the-probability-of-a-nuclear-reactor-accident
#9
Thomas R Wellock
In recent decades, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an essential tool in risk analysis and management in many industries and government agencies. The origins of PRA date to the 1975 publication of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Reactor Safety Study led by MIT professor Norman Rasmussen. The "Rasmussen Report" inspired considerable political and scholarly disputes over the motives behind it and the value of its methods and numerical estimates of risk. The Report's controversies have overshadowed the deeper technical origins of risk assessment...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890455/internationalism-and-engineering-in-unesco-during-the-end-game-of-empire-1943-68
#10
Casper Andersen
When UNESCO was founded in 1945 the organization aimed to become a pivotal player in international collaboration in the field of engineering. UNESCO based its engineering initiatives on the World Engineering Conference, an organization espousing a politically motivated "technocratic internationalism" and on the World Power Conference, an organization promoting a business-friendly stance of "engineering internationalism." These competing models for international collaboration curtailed UNESCO's institutional ambitions...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890454/the-telegraph-and-the-control-of-material-movements-a-micro-study-about-the-detachment-of-communication-from-transport
#11
Roland Wenzlhuemer
Relatively recent historiographical approaches such as global or transnational history have attracted new attention to telegraphy and its role in processes of globalization. This renewed interest in submarine cables and overland wires has recently provided us with a reasonably good idea of how the global telegraph network developed in the nineteenth century, who its principal designers were, and where it was more and where it was less tight. Little, however, has been said so far about the actual matters communicated telegraphically, certainly not in any systematic fashion...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649122/the-flawed-tools-of-empire-clive-dewey-i-steamboats-on-the-indus-i
#12
Michael Adas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649121/ann-johnson-28-may-1965-to-11-december-2016
#13
Cyrus C Mody
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649120/must-we-embody-context
#14
Barbara Hahn
The essays in this forum brace this meditation on the historiography of technology. Understanding devices incorporates the context of any particular hardware, as John Staudenmaier showed by quantifying the contents of the first decades of Technology and Culture. As contextualist approaches have widened from systems theory through social construction and into the assemblages of actor-network theory, the discipline has kept artifacts at the analytical center: it is the history of technology that scholars seek to understand...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649119/rags-make-paper-paper-makes-money-material-texts-and-metaphors-of-capital
#15
Jonathan Senchyne
Because nineteenth-century paper was made from rags, the materiality of paper money became a likely ground from which to debate the nature of value in modern capitalism. On one hand, if paper money was backed by nothing but itself, then it was worth little more than itself: a gathering of lowly rags. On the other hand, the process of turning trashed rags into valuable paper modeled how capital could seem to grow out of nothing. Two nineteenth-century literary narratives provide examples of how rags performed considerable social and metaphorical work in the construction of an epistemology of capitalism and its "paper technologies...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649118/numbers-for-the-innumerate-everyday-arithmetic-and-atlantic-capitalism
#16
Caitlin Rosenthal
In nineteenth-century America and the Atlantic world, the "rule of three" was usually regarded as the endpoint of a basic mathematics education. This essay considers the importance of the rule as a technology that enabled broader access to the calculations necessary to participate in the increasingly global market economy. Used by workmen, women, and even the enslaved, the rule and related tools translated basic literacy into practical numeracy. By doing so, it offered a diverse range of people the ability to negotiate more effectively...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649117/pricing-the-future-in-the-seventeenth-century-calculating-technologies-in-competition
#17
William Deringer
Time is money. But how much? What is money in the future worth to you today? This question of "present value" arises in myriad economic activities, from valuing financial securities to real estate transactions to governmental cost-benefit analysis-even the economics of climate change. In modern capitalist practice, one calculation offers the only "rational" way to answer: compound-interest discounting. In the early modern period, though, economic actors used at least two alternative calculating technologies for thinking about present value, including a vernacular technique called years purchase and discounting by simple interest...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649116/introduction
#18
Seth Rockman
This forum opens a conversation between the history of technology and the history of capitalism by considering the "paper technologies of capitalism" of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries in England and the United States. Seth Rockman offers an overview, connecting a recent exhibition of quotidian business ephemera to scholarly efforts to historicize the economic past, to engage material artifacts as things, and to embed the production of social knowledge in communities of practice. Three essays follow: William Deringer considers the "computational technologies" available in England to calculate future values; Caitlin Rosenthal traces the "rule of three" in the everyday transactions of the "innumerate" in the U...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649115/producing-skills-for-an-empire-theory-and-practice-in-the-seville-school-of-gunners-during-the-golden-age-of-the-carrera-de-indias
#19
Brice Cossart
Through the case study of the school of gunners created in Seville in 1576, this article aims to shed light on the emergence of teaching practices which were not only essential to the development of seaborne empires but also allow us to question the relationship between technology and science in the late Renaissance. The Seville school of gunners was established by the Spanish monarchy in the last quarter of the sixteenth century with the purpose of providing the Carrera de Indias-the transatlantic fleets-with technicians capable of using cannons...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649114/technological-nocturne-the-lisbon-industrial-institute-and-romantic-engineering-1849-1888
#20
Tiago Saraiva, Ana Cardoso De Matos
This article explores technology as romantic culture in the second half of the nineteenth century. It details how new urban nocturnal experiences emerged from the Lisbon Industrial Institute (Instituto Industrial) founded in 1852. It combines the interest in the space of science production, typical of history of science and science studies, with the attention to production and consumption of lighting more commonly found in history of technology and urban history literature. Engineers' practices are put in a cultural continuum with poetry, opera, and modern city life at large...
2017: Technology and Culture
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