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Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681662/body-size-reference-norms-and-subjective-weight-status-a-gender-and-life-course-approach
#1
Robbee Wedow, Ryan K Masters, Stefanie Mollborn, Landon Schnabel, Jason D Boardman
This paper uses data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to describe county-level variation in norms regarding physical weight among adolescents in the United States. We demonstrate that regardless of one's physical size, those residing in counties with a heavier weight norm are significantly less likely to see themselves as overweight than those residing in counties with a light weight norm. We further show that the local weight norm during adolescence (Wave 1) is associated with individuals' weight perceptions through adolescence and into young adulthood (Wave 4), though these associations attenuate in strength as respondents age...
March 2018: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706673/custodial-parole-sanctions-and-earnings-after-release-from-prison
#2
David J Harding, Jonah A Siegel, Jeffrey D Morenoff
Although the labor market consequences of incarceration in prison have been central to the literature on mass incarceration, punishment, and inequality, other components of the growing criminal justice system have received less attention from sociologists. In particular, the rise of mass incarceration was accompanied by an even larger increase in community supervision. In this paper, we examine the labor market effects of one frequently experienced aspect of post-prison parole, short-term custody for parole violations...
December 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379220/tracking-health-inequalities-from-high-school-to-midlife
#3
Jamie M Carroll, Chandra Muller, Eric Grodsky, John Robert Warren
Educational gradients in health status, morbidity, and mortality are well established, but which aspects of schooling produce those gradients is only partially understood. We draw on newly available data from the midlife follow-up of the High School and Beyond sophomore cohort to analyze the relationship between students' level of coursework in high school and their long-term health outcomes. We additionally evaluate the mediating roles of skill development, postsecondary attendance and degree attainment, and occupational characteristics...
December 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398728/globalization-and-contemporary-fertility-convergence
#4
Arun S Hendi
The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas...
September 1, 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890577/-de-facto-privatization-and-inequalities-in-educational-opportunity-in-the-transition-to-secondary-school-in-rural-malawi
#5
Monica J Grant
There has been a recent, rapid de facto privatization of education in many African countries, as the number of private secondary schools operating in the region grew. The majority of these schools are "low-cost" private schools where tuition and fees are set as low as possible to cover operating costs and still generate profit. Proponents of low-cost private schools argue that these schools have proliferated in impoverished areas to meet unmet demand for access to education and where private schools may offer better quality than locally available public schools...
September 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546649/seeing-is-not-believing-how-viewing-pornography-shapes-the-religious-lives-of-young-americans
#6
Samuel L Perry, George M Hayward
Pornography has become increasingly accessible in the United States, and particularly for younger Americans. While some research considers how pornography use affects the sexual and psychological health of adolescents and emerging adults, sociologists have given little attention to how viewing pornography may shape young Americans' connection to key social and cultural institutions, like religion. This article examines whether viewing pornography may actually have a secularizing effect, reducing young Americans' personal religiosity over time...
June 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607527/school-opportunity-hoarding-racial-segregation-and-access-to-high-growth-schools
#7
Paul Hanselman, Jeremy E Fiel
Persistent school segregation may allow advantaged groups to hoard educational opportunities and consign minority students to lower-quality educational experiences. Although minority students are concentrated in low-achieving schools, relatively little previous research directly links segregation to measures of school quality based on student achievement growth, which more plausibly reflect learning opportunities. Using a dataset of public elementary schools in California, this study provides the first analysis detailing the distribution of a growth-based measure of school quality using standard inequality indices, allowing disparities to be decomposed across geographic and organizational scales...
March 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408766/family-dis-advantage-and-life-course-expectations
#8
Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson, Steven Hitlin
Optimistic assessments of life chances can positively influence life outcomes, but conflicting theories suggest these assessments either reflect structural privilege or develop as a result of childhood hardship. In addition, competing hypotheses suggest that these assessments may matter differently depending on who holds them. We examine whether family socioeconomic status shapes adolescents' expectations about how successful their lives will turn out. We distinguish generalized life expectations (GLE), capturing anticipated success in life across multiple domains, from intergenerational comparative expectations (ICE), which register expectations about improvement relative to observed success within the respondent's family lineage...
March 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430065/from-heterogeneity-to-concentration-latino-immigrant-neighborhoods-and-collective-efficacy-perceptions-in-los-angeles-and-chicago
#9
Christopher R Browning, Jonathan Dirlam, Bethany Boettner
Latino immigrant presence in urban neighborhoods has been linked with reduced neighborhood cohesion in social disorganization-based ethnic heterogeneity hypotheses and enhanced cohesion in immigration revitalization approaches. Using the 2000-2002 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey and the 1994-1995 Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods Community Survey, we explore the association between Latino immigrant concentration and both levels of, and agreement about, neighborhood collective efficacy...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579646/beyond-boys-bad-behavior-paternal-incarceration-and-cognitive-development-in-middle-childhood
#10
Anna R Haskins
A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533566/cohort-changes-in-the-social-distribution-of-tolerant-sexual-attitudes
#11
Fred C Pampel
Though many studies have described societal-wide changes in tolerance for sexual behaviors outside marriage, few have examined how the social distribution of tolerant attitudes has changed. A diffusion-of-innovations approach predicts nonlinear change in the distribution: high SES groups adopt the attitudes first, which produces a positive relationship, but diffusion to other SES groups subsequently weakens the association with SES. I test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2014 to compare the SES determinants of attitudes toward premarital sex, extramarital sex, same-gender sex, and teenage sex across 86 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1985...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392605/alcohol-s-collateral-damage-childhood-exposure-to-problem-drinkers-and-subsequent-adult-mortality-risk
#12
Richard G Rogers, Elizabeth M Lawrence, Jennifer Karas Montez
The importance of childhood circumstances, broadly defined, for shaping adult health and longevity is well-established. But the significance of one of the most prevalent childhood adversities-exposure to problem drinkers-has been understudied from a sociological perspective and remains poorly understood. We address this gap by drawing on cumulative inequality theory, using data from the 1988-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, and estimating Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between exposure to problem drinkers in childhood and adult mortality risk...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003707/trust-and-fertility-dynamics
#13
Arnstein Aassve, Francesco C Billari, Léa Pessin
We argue that the divergence in fertility trends in advanced societies is influenced by the interaction of long-standing differences in generalized trust with the increase in women's educational attainment. Our argument builds on the idea that trust enhances individuals' and couples' willingness to outsource childcare to outside their extended family. This becomes critically important as women's increased education enhances the demand for combining work and family life. We test our hypothesis using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study on 36 industrialized countries between the years 1981 and 2009...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187763/race-marital-history-and-risks-for-stroke-in-us-older-adults
#14
Matthew E Dupre
Stroke is among the leading causes of disability and death in the United States, and racial differences are greater for stroke than for all other major chronic diseases. Considering the equally sizeable racial disparities in marital life and associated risks across adulthood, the current study hypothesizes that black-white differences in marital history play an important role in the large racial inequalities in the incidence of stroke. The major objective are to (i) demonstrate how marital history is associated with the incidence of stroke, (ii) examine how marital factors mediate and/or moderate racial disparities in stroke, and (iii) examine the factors that may explain the associations...
September 1, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129943/neighborhood-violent-crime-and-academic-growth-in-chicago-lasting-effects-of-early-exposure
#15
Julia Burdick-Will
A large body of research documents the importance of early experiences for later academic, social, and economic success. Exposure to an unsafe neighborhood is no exception. Living in a violent neighborhood can influence the stress levels, protective behaviors, and community interactions of both parents and children in ways that generate cumulative educational disadvantage. Using nine years (2002-2011) of detailed crime data from the Chicago Police Department and longitudinal administrative data from the Chicago Public Schools, I estimate the influence of early exposure to neighborhood violence on growth in standardized test scores over time...
September 1, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833214/telecommuting-and-earnings-trajectories-among-american-women-and-men-1989-2008
#16
Jennifer L Glass, Mary C Noonan
While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989-2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home...
September 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795587/parent-child-relationships-at-the-transition-to-adulthood-a-comparison-of-black-hispanic-and-white-immigrant-and-native-born-youth
#17
Jessica Halliday Hardie, Judith A Seltzer
Parents play a key role in launching their children into adulthood. Differences in the resources they provide their children have implications for perpetuating patterns of family inequality. Using data on 6,962 young adults included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine differences in the support parents provide to young adult children by immigrant status and race/ethnicity and whether and how those differences are explained by parent resources and young adult resources and roles. Immigrant status and race/ethnicity are associated with patterns of support in complex ways...
September 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989195/failures-to-launch-and-boomerang-kids-contemporary-determinants-of-leaving-and-returning-to-the-parental-home
#18
Scott J South, Lei Lei
The percentage of young American adults residing in their parents' home has increased markedly over recent years, but we know little about how sociodemographic, life-course, and parental characteristics facilitate or impede leaving or returning home. We use longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Transition into Adulthood survey to examine the determinants of leaving and returning home among youth who turned age 18 between 2005 and 2011. Findings from event history models show that while leaving and returning home is to some extent a function of normative life-course transitions, characteristics of the parental home (e...
December 1, 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617420/contested-domains-verbal-amplifiers-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-young-adulthood
#19
Peggy C Giordano, Jennifer E Copp, Monica A Longmore, Wendy D Manning
We draw on structured and qualitative data to examine relationship dynamics associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) that occurs during the young adult period. Relying on a symbolic interactionist perspective, we identify specific contested domains associated with what has been called 'situational couple violence,' and explore the degree to which certain forms of communication about contested areas ('verbal amplifiers') exacerbate the risk of violence. Consistent with this relational focus, measures index respondent as well as partner concerns and use of these negative forms of communication...
December 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26306053/how-has-educational-expansion-shaped-social-mobility-trends-in-the-united-states
#20
Fabian T Pfeffer, Florian R Hertel
This contribution provides a long-term assessment of intergenerational social mobility trends in the United States across the 20th and early 21st century and assesses the determinants of those trends. In particular, we study how educational expansion has contributed to the observed changes in mobility opportunities for men across cohorts. Drawing on recently developed decomposition methods, we empirically identify the contribution of each of the multiple channels through which changing rates of educational participation shape mobility trends...
September 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
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