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Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546649/seeing-is-not-believing-how-viewing-pornography-shapes-the-religious-lives-of-young-americans
#1
Samuel L Perry, George M Hayward
Pornography has become increasingly accessible in the United States, and particularly for younger Americans. While some research considers how pornography use affects the sexual and psychological health of adolescents and emerging adults, sociologists have given little attention to how viewing pornography may shape young Americans' connection to key social and cultural institutions, like religion. This article examines whether viewing pornography may actually have a secularizing effect, reducing young Americans' personal religiosity over time...
June 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607527/school-opportunity-hoarding-racial-segregation-and-access-to-high-growth-schools
#2
Paul Hanselman, Jeremy E Fiel
Persistent school segregation may allow advantaged groups to hoard educational opportunities and consign minority students to lower-quality educational experiences. Although minority students are concentrated in low-achieving schools, relatively little previous research directly links segregation to measures of school quality based on student achievement growth, which more plausibly reflect learning opportunities. Using a dataset of public elementary schools in California, this study provides the first analysis detailing the distribution of a growth-based measure of school quality using standard inequality indices, allowing disparities to be decomposed across geographic and organizational scales...
March 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408766/family-dis-advantage-and-life-course-expectations
#3
Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson, Steven Hitlin
Optimistic assessments of life chances can positively influence life outcomes, but conflicting theories suggest these assessments either reflect structural privilege or develop as a result of childhood hardship. In addition, competing hypotheses suggest that these assessments may matter differently depending on who holds them. We examine whether family socioeconomic status shapes adolescents' expectations about how successful their lives will turn out. We distinguish generalized life expectations (GLE), capturing anticipated success in life across multiple domains, from intergenerational comparative expectations (ICE), which register expectations about improvement relative to observed success within the respondent's family lineage...
March 2017: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579646/beyond-boys-bad-behavior-paternal-incarceration-and-cognitive-development-in-middle-childhood
#4
Anna R Haskins
A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533566/cohort-changes-in-the-social-distribution-of-tolerant-sexual-attitudes
#5
Fred C Pampel
Though many studies have described societal-wide changes in tolerance for sexual behaviors outside marriage, few have examined how the social distribution of tolerant attitudes has changed. A diffusion-of-innovations approach predicts nonlinear change in the distribution: high SES groups adopt the attitudes first, which produces a positive relationship, but diffusion to other SES groups subsequently weakens the association with SES. I test this argument using the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2014 to compare the SES determinants of attitudes toward premarital sex, extramarital sex, same-gender sex, and teenage sex across 86 cohorts born from around 1900 to 1985...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392605/alcohol-s-collateral-damage-childhood-exposure-to-problem-drinkers-and-subsequent-adult-mortality-risk
#6
Richard G Rogers, Elizabeth M Lawrence, Jennifer Karas Montez
The importance of childhood circumstances, broadly defined, for shaping adult health and longevity is well-established. But the significance of one of the most prevalent childhood adversities-exposure to problem drinkers-has been understudied from a sociological perspective and remains poorly understood. We address this gap by drawing on cumulative inequality theory, using data from the 1988-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, and estimating Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between exposure to problem drinkers in childhood and adult mortality risk...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003707/trust-and-fertility-dynamics
#7
Arnstein Aassve, Francesco C Billari, Léa Pessin
We argue that the divergence in fertility trends in advanced societies is influenced by the interaction of long-standing differences in generalized trust with the increase in women's educational attainment. Our argument builds on the idea that trust enhances individuals' and couples' willingness to outsource childcare to outside their extended family. This becomes critically important as women's increased education enhances the demand for combining work and family life. We test our hypothesis using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study on 36 industrialized countries between the years 1981 and 2009...
December 7, 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833214/telecommuting-and-earnings-trajectories-among-american-women-and-men-1989-2008
#8
Jennifer L Glass, Mary C Noonan
While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989-2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home...
September 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795587/parent-child-relationships-at-the-transition-to-adulthood-a-comparison-of-black-hispanic-and-white-immigrant-and-native-born-youth
#9
Jessica Halliday Hardie, Judith A Seltzer
Parents play a key role in launching their children into adulthood. Differences in the resources they provide their children have implications for perpetuating patterns of family inequality. Using data on 6,962 young adults included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we examine differences in the support parents provide to young adult children by immigrant status and race/ethnicity and whether and how those differences are explained by parent resources and young adult resources and roles. Immigrant status and race/ethnicity are associated with patterns of support in complex ways...
September 2016: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617420/contested-domains-verbal-amplifiers-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-young-adulthood
#10
Peggy C Giordano, Jennifer E Copp, Monica A Longmore, Wendy D Manning
We draw on structured and qualitative data to examine relationship dynamics associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) that occurs during the young adult period. Relying on a symbolic interactionist perspective, we identify specific contested domains associated with what has been called 'situational couple violence,' and explore the degree to which certain forms of communication about contested areas ('verbal amplifiers') exacerbate the risk of violence. Consistent with this relational focus, measures index respondent as well as partner concerns and use of these negative forms of communication...
December 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26306053/how-has-educational-expansion-shaped-social-mobility-trends-in-the-united-states
#11
Fabian T Pfeffer, Florian R Hertel
This contribution provides a long-term assessment of intergenerational social mobility trends in the United States across the 20th and early 21st century and assesses the determinants of those trends. In particular, we study how educational expansion has contributed to the observed changes in mobility opportunities for men across cohorts. Drawing on recently developed decomposition methods, we empirically identify the contribution of each of the multiple channels through which changing rates of educational participation shape mobility trends...
September 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773947/work-family-context-and-the-longevity-disadvantage-of-us-women
#12
Jennifer Karas Montez, Pekka Martikainen, Hanna Remes, Mauricio Avendano
Female life expectancy is currently shorter in the United States than in most high-income countries. This study examines work-family context as a potential explanation. While work-family context changed similarly across high-income countries during the past half century, the United States has not implemented institutional supports, such as universally available childcare and family leave, to help Americans contend with these changes. We compare the United States to Finland-a country with similar trends in work-family life but generous institutional supports-and test two hypotheses to explain US women's longevity disadvantage: (1) US women may be less likely than Finnish women to combine employment with childrearing; and (2) US women's longevity may benefit less than Finnish women's longevity from combining employment with childrearing...
June 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26213421/when-do-states-respond-to-low-fertility-contexts-of-state-concern-in-wealthier-countries-1976-2011
#13
Emily A Marshall
Since the 1970s, expressions of state concern over low fertility have greatly increased among wealthier countries. This study asks to what extent this increase is explained by demographic factors, national-level economic and political factors, and processes of international diffusion and changing international norms. Analyses integrate the world polity literature on global policy diffusion with a social problems approach to examine international diffusion of state concern among more powerful members of the world polity, a process that can produce changes in international policy consensus...
June 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388653/income-inequality-and-intergenerational-income-mobility-in-the-united-states
#14
Deirdre Bloome
Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children's health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals' incomes during childhood and adulthood...
March 2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26190867/the-occupational-cost-of-being-illegal-in-the-united-states-legal-status-job-hazards-and-compensating-differentials
#15
Matthew Hall, Emily Greenman
Considerable research and pervasive cultural narratives suggest that undocumented immigrant workers are concentrated in the most dangerous, hazardous, and otherwise unappealing jobs in U.S. labor markets. Yet, owing largely to data limitations, little empirical work has addressed this topic. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we impute legal status for Mexican and Central American immigrants and link their occupations to BLS data on occupational fatalities and occupational hazard data from the Department of Labor to explore racial and legal status differentials on several specific measures of occupational risk...
2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25755300/gene-by-social-environment-interaction-for-youth-delinquency-and-violence-thirty-nine-aggression-related-genes
#16
Hexuan Liu, Yi Li, Guang Guo
Complex human traits are likely to be affected by many environmental and genetic factors, and the interactions among them. However, previous gene-environment interaction (G×E) studies have typically focused on one or only a few genetic variants at a time. To provide a broader view of G×E, this study examines the relationship between 403 genetic variants from 39 genes and youth delinquency and violence. We find evidence that low social control is associated with greater genetic risk for delinquency and violence and high/moderate social control with smaller genetic risk for delinquency and violence...
2015: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074628/norms-as-group-level-constructs-investigating-school-level-teen-pregnancy-norms-and-behaviors
#17
Stefanie Mollborn, Benjamin W Domingue, Jason D Boardman
Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0...
September 2014: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25540466/unequal-trajectories-racial-and-class-differences-in-residential-exposure-to-industrial-hazard
#18
Jeremy Pais, Kyle Crowder, Liam Downey
The unequal exposure to industrial hazards via differential residential attainment and/or differential sitings of toxic facilities is a long-standing environmental justice issue. This study examines individual trajectories of residential exposure to the risk of industrial hazard over nearly two decades. Using a latent class growth analysis on longitudinal geocoded data merged with the neighborhood-level pollution measures, we discover large racial differences in trajectories of pollution exposure. A majority of individuals are exposed to above-average pollution levels at some point during the study period, but blacks are more likely than whites to experience persistent exposure to high pollution...
March 1, 2014: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26146415/the-growth-of-protestantism-in-brazil-and-its-impact-on-male-earnings-1970-2000
#19
Joseph E Potter, Ernesto F L Amaral, Robert D Woodberry
Protestantism has expanded rapidly in Brazil in recent decades. The question we tackle in this paper is whether Protestantism has had a positive influence on male earnings in this setting, either through its influence on health and productivity, by way of social networks or employer favor and reduced discrimination, or through other mechanisms. We tackle the problem of the selectivity of religious conversion and affiliation using microdata from the Brazilian censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000, and analyzing the association between Protestantism and earnings at the group rather than the individual level...
2014: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24812438/friends-as-a-bridge-to-parental-influence-implications-for-adolescent-alcohol-use
#20
Daniel T Ragan, D Wayne Osgood, Mark E Feinberg
The current study investigates the possibility that friendship networks connect adolescents to influence from a broader group of adults beyond their own families. In doing so, we combine two rich traditions of research on adult influence on children and adolescents. Family research has suggested a number of ways in which effective parenting can reduce deviant behavior among adolescents. In addition, research on neighborhoods has advanced the idea that adults outside of the immediate family can exert social control that may reduce deviance...
2014: Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation
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