Read by QxMD icon Read

Reports on Progress in Physics

Fulvio Flamini, Nicolò Spagnolo, Fabio Sciarrino
Photonic quantum technologies represent a promising platform for several applications, ranging from long-distance communications to the simulation of complex phenomena. Indeed, the advantages offered by single photons do make them the candidate of choice for carrying quantum information in a broad variety of areas with a versatile approach. Furthermore, recent technological advances are now enabling first concrete applications of photonic quantum information processing. The goal of this manuscript is to provide the reader with a comprehensive review of the state of the art in this active field, with a due balance between theoretical, experimental and technological results...
November 13, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Rosalind J Allen, Bartlomiej Waclaw
Bacterial growth presents many beautiful phenomena that pose new theoretical challenges to statistical physicists, and are also amenable to laboratory experimentation. This review provides some of the essential biological background, discusses
 recent applications of statistical physics in this field, and highlights the potential for future research.
October 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Leor Barack, Adam Pound
The detection of gravitational waves from binary black-hole mergers by the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration marks the dawn of an era when general-relativistic dynamics in its most extreme manifestation is directly accessible to observation. Planned (space-based) observatories operating in the millihertz band will detect the intricate gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of compact objects into massive black holes. Such inspirals are extremely effective probes of black-hole geometries, offering unparalleled precision tests of General Relativity in its most extreme regime...
October 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
N David Mermin
We still lack any consensus about what one is actually talking about
 as one uses quantum mechanics. There is a gap between the abstract terms in
 which the theory is couched and the phenomena the theory enables each of us to
 account for so well. Because it has no practical consequences for how we each
 use quantum mechanics to deal with physical problems, this cognitive dissonance
 has managed to coexist with the quantum theory from the very beginning. The
 absence of conceptual clarity for almost a century suggests that the problem might
 lie in some implicit misconceptions about the nature of scientic explanation that
 are deeply held by virtually all physicists, but are rarely explicitly acknowledged...
September 20, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Subir Sachdev
This review describes how topological order associated with the presence of emergent gauge elds can reconstruct Fermi surfaces of metals, even in the absence of translational symmetry breaking. We begin with an introduction to topological order using Wegner's quantum Z2 gauge theory on the square lattice: the topological state is characterized by the expulsion of defects, carrying Z2 magnetic 
 ux. The interplay between topological order and the breaking of global symmetry is described by the non-zero temperature statistical mechanics of classical XY models in dimension
 D = 3; such models also describe the zero temperature quantum phases of bosons with
 short-range interactions on the square lattice at integer lling...
September 13, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Ran Adler, Chang-Jong Kang, Chuck-Hou Yee, Gabriel Kotliar
Included in pdf file of the article.
August 23, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Robert P Behringer, B Chakraborty
Granular materials consist of macroscopic grains, interacting via contact forces, and unaffected by thermal fluctuations. They are one of a class systems that undergo jamming, i.e. a transition between fluid-like and disordered solid-like states. Roughly twenty years ago, proposals by Cates et al. for the shear response of colloidal systems and by Liu and Nagel, for a universal jamming diagram in a parameter space of packing fraction, $\phi$, shear stress, $\tau$, and temperature, $T$ raised key questions. Contemporaneously, experiments by Howell et al...
August 22, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Dominik Floess, Harald Giessen
The Faraday effect describes the phenomenon that a magnetized material can alter the polarization state of transmitted light. Interestingly, unlike most light-matter interactions in nature, it breaks Lorentz reciprocity. This exceptional behavior is utilized for applications such as optical isolators, which are core elements in communication and laser systems. While there is high demand for sub-micron nonreciprocal photonic devices, the realization of such systems is extremely challenging as conventional magneto-optic materials only provide weak magneto-optic response within small volumes...
November 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Stephan Rachel
The discovery of the quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators more than a decade ago has revolutionized modern condensed matter physics. Today, the field of topological states of matter is one of the most active and fruitful research areas for both experimentalists and theorists. The physics of topological insulators is typically well described by band theory and systems of non-interacting fermions. In contrast, several of the most fascinating effects in condensed matter physics merely exist due to electron-electron interactions, examples include unconventional superconductivity, the Kondo effect, and the Mott-Hubbard transition...
November 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Karl-Heinz Schmidt, Beatriz Jurado
An overview is given on some of the main advances in the experimental methods, experimental results, theoretical models and ideas of the last few years in the field of nuclear fission. New approaches have considerably extended the availability of fissioning systems for the experimental study of nuclear fission, and have provided a full identification of all fission products in A and Z for the first time. In particular, the transition from symmetric to asymmetric fission around 226 Th, some unexpected structures in the mass distributions in the fission of systems around Z  =  80-84, and an extended systematics of the odd-even effect in the fission fragment Z distributions have all been measured (Andreyev et al 2018 Rep...
October 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Daniele Faccio, Andreas Velten
Cameras capable of capturing videos at a trillion frames per second allow to freeze light in motion, a very counterintuitive capability when related to our everyday experience in which light appears to travel instantaneously. By combining this capability with computational imaging techniques, new imaging opportunities emerge such as 3D imaging of scenes that are hidden behind a corner, the study of relativistic distortion effects, imaging through diffusive media and imaging of ultrafast optical processes such as laser ablation, supercontinuum and plasma generation...
October 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Isabel A Olson, Alexander G Shtukenberg, Bart Kahr, Michael D Ward
Dislocations in molecular crystals remain terra incognita. Owing to the complexity of molecular structure, dislocations in molecular crystals can be difficult to understand using only the foundational concepts devised over decades for hard materials. Herein, we review the generation, structure, and physicochemical consequences of dislocations in molecular crystals. Unlike metals, ceramics, and semiconductors, molecular crystals are often characterized by flexible building units of low symmetry, thereby limiting analysis, complicating modeling, and prompting new approaches to elucidate their role in crystallography from growth to mechanics...
September 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
S Gales, K A Tanaka, D L Balabanski, F Negoita, D Stutman, O Tesileanu, C A Ur, D Ursescu, I Andrei, S Ataman, M O Cernaianu, L D'Alessi, I Dancus, B Diaconescu, N Djourelov, D Filipescu, P Ghenuche, D G Ghita, C Matei, K Seto, M Zeng, N V Zamfir
The European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) has selected in 2006 a proposal based on ultra-intense laser fields with intensities reaching up to 1022 -1023 W cm-2 called 'ELI' for Extreme Light Infrastructure. The construction of a large-scale laser-centred, distributed pan-European research infrastructure, involving beyond the state-of-the-art ultra-short and ultra-intense laser technologies, received the approval for funding in 2011-2012. The three pillars of the ELI facility are being built in Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania...
September 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Thomas Zanon-Willette, Rémi Lefevre, Rémi Metzdorff, Nicolas Sillitoe, Sylvain Almonacil, Marco Minissale, Emeric de Clercq, Alexey V Taichenachev, Valeriy I Yudin, Ennio Arimondo
Probing an atomic resonance without disturbing it is an ubiquitous issue in physics. This problem is critical in high-accuracy spectroscopy or for the next generation of atomic optical clocks. Ultra-high resolution frequency metrology requires sophisticated interrogation schemes and robust protocols handling pulse length errors and residual frequency detuning offsets. This review reports recent progress and perspective in such schemes, using sequences of composite laser-pulses tailored in pulse duration, frequency and phase, inspired by NMR techniques and quantum information processing...
September 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Richard J Hill, Peter Kammel, William J Marciano, Alberto Sirlin
Weak capture in muonic hydrogen (μH) as a probe of the chiral properties and nucleon structure predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. A recent determination of the axial-vector charge radius squared, [Formula: see text], from a model independent z expansion analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering data is employed in conjunction with the MuCap measurement of the singlet muonic hydrogen capture rate, [Formula: see text], to update the induced pseudoscalar nucleon coupling [Formula: see text] derived from experiment, and [Formula: see text] predicted by chiral perturbation theory...
September 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Matthew D Duez, Yosef Zlochower
We review the dramatic progress in the simulations of compact objects and compact-object binaries that has taken place in the first two decades of the twenty-first century. This includes simulations of the inspirals and violent mergers of binaries containing black holes and neutron stars, as well as simulations of black-hole formation through failed supernovae and high-mass neutron star--neutron star mergers. Modeling such events requires numerical integration of the field equations of general relativity in three spatial dimensions, coupled, in the case of neutron-star containing binaries, with increasingly sophisticated treatment of fluids, electromagnetic fields, and neutrino radiation...
August 17, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Liam Collins, Jason I Kilpatrick, Sergei V Kalinin, Brian J Rodriguez
Fundamental mechanisms of energy storage, corrosion, sensing, and multiple biological functionalities are directly coupled to electrical processes and ionic dynamics at solid-liquid interfaces. In many cases, these processes are spatially inhomogeneous taking place at grain boundaries, step edges, point defects, ion channels, etc and possess complex time and voltage dependent dynamics. This necessitates time-resolved and real-space probing of these phenomena. In this review, we discuss the applications of force-sensitive voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for probing electrical phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces...
August 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
S A Parameswaran, Romain Vasseur
We review recent developments in the study of out-of-equilibrium topological states of matter in isolated systems. The phenomenon of many-body localization, exhibited by some isolated systems usually in the presence of quenched disorder, prevents systems from equilibrating to a thermal state where the delicate quantum correlations necessary for topological order are often washed out. Instead, many-body localized systems can exhibit a type of eigenstate phase structure wherein their entire many-body spectrum is characterized by various types of quantum order, usually restricted to quantum ground states...
August 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Joshua M Deutsch
The emergence of statistical mechanics for isolated classical systems comes about through chaotic dynamics and ergodicity. Here we review how similar questions can be answered in quantum systems. The crucial point is that individual energy eigenstates behave in many ways like a statistical ensemble. A more detailed statement of this is named the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). The reasons for why it works in so many cases are rooted in the early work of Wigner on random matrix theory and our understanding of quantum chaos...
August 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Claudia Ratti
In the last few years, numerical simulations of Quantum chromodynamics on the lattice have reached a new level of accuracy. A wide range of thermodynamic quantities is now available in the continuum limit and for physical quark masses. This allows a comparison with measurements from heavy ion collisions for the first time. Furthermore, calculations of dynamical quantities are also becoming available. The combined effort from first principles and experiment allows us to gain an unprecedented understanding of the properties of quark-gluon plasma...
August 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"