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Reports on Progress in Physics

Mahendra K Verma
In this review we summarise the current status of the quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The energy spectrum is steeper than Kolmogorov's $k^{-5/3}$ spectrum due to the decrease of the kinetic energy flux with wavenumber $k$ as a result of Joule dissipation. The spectral index decreases with the increase of interaction parameter. The flow is quasi two-dimensional with strong ${\bf U}_\perp$ at small $k$ and weak $U_\parallel$ at large $k$, where ${\bf U}_\perp$ and $U_\parallel$ are the perpendicular and parallel components of velocity relative to the external magnetic field...
April 11, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Masatoshi Sato, Yoichi Ando
This review elaborates pedagogically on the fundamental concept, basic theory, expected properties, and materials realizations of topological superconductors. The relation between topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions are explained, and the difference between dispersive Majorana fermions and a localized Majorana zero mode is emphasized. A variety of routes to topological superconductivity are explained with an emphasis on the roles of spin-orbit coupling. Present experimental situations and possible signatures of topological superconductivity are summarized with an emphasis on intrinsic topological superconductors...
April 3, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Xiaohui Ling, Xinxing Zhou, Kun Huang, Yachao Liu, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Hailu Luo, Shuangchun Wen
The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light, as an analogue of the SHE in electronic systems, is a promising candidate for investigating the SHE in semiconductor spintronics/valleytronics, high-energy physics and condensed matter physics, owing to their similar topological nature in the spin-orbit interaction. The SHE of light exhibits unique potential for exploring the physical properties of nanostructures, such as determining the optical thickness, and the material properties of metallic and magnetic thin films and even atomically thin two-dimensional materials...
March 30, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Toshitaka Kajino, Grant Mathews
No abstract required if submitting an outline.
March 30, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Monique Combescot, Roland Combescot, François Dubin
We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes...
March 29, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Adeline Orieux, Marijn A M Versteegh, Klaus Jöns, Sara Ducci
Entanglement is one of the most fascinating properties of quantum mechanical systems; when two particles are entangled the measurement of the properties of one of the two allows to instantaneously know the properties of the other, whatever the distance separating them. In parallel with fundamental research on the foundations of quantum mechanics performed on complex experimental set-ups, we assist today to a bourgeoning of quantum information technologies bound to exploit entanglement for a large variety of applications such as secure communications, metrology and computation...
March 27, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Luca Baiotti, Luciano Rezzolla
The merger of binary neutron-stars systems combines in a single process: extreme gravity, copious emission of gravitational waves, complex microphysics, and electromagnetic processes that can lead to astrophysical signatures observable at the largest redshifts. We review here the recent progress in understanding what could be considered Einstein's richest laboratory, highlighting in particular the numerous significant advances of the last decade. Although special attention is paid to the status of models, techniques, and results for fully general-relativistic dynamical simulations, a review is also offered on initial data and advanced simulations with approximate treatments of gravity...
March 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Vincent Hakim, Pascal Silberzan
Cells have traditionally been viewed either as independently moving entities or as somewhat static parts of tissues. However, it is now clear that in many cases, multiple cells coordinate their motions and move as collective entities. Well-studied examples comprise development events, as well as physiological and pathological situations. Different ex vivo model systems have also been investigated. Several recent advances have taken place at the interface between biology and physics, and have benefitted from progress in imaging and microscopy, from the use of microfabrication techniques, as well as from the introduction of quantitative tools and models...
March 10, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Hua-Xing Chen, Wei Chen, Xiang Liu, Yan-Rui Liu, Shi-Lin Zhu
Since the discovery of the first charmed meson in 1976, many open-charm and open-bottom hadrons were observed. In 2003 two narrow charm-strange states $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ were discovered by the BaBar and CLEO Collaborations, respectively. After that, more excited heavy hadrons were reported. In this work, we review the experimental and theoretical progress in this field.
March 2, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Laura H Greene, Joe Thompson, Jörg Schmalian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Wei Wang, Ming Tang, H Eugene Stanley, Lidia A Braunstein
Models of epidemic spreading on complex networks have attracted great attention among researchers in physics, mathematics, and epidemiology due to their success in predicting and controlling scenarios of epidemic spreading in real-world scenarios. To understand the interplay between epidemic spreading and the topology of a contact network, several outstanding theoretical approaches have been developed. An accurate theoretical approach describing the spreading dynamics must take both the network topology and dynamical correlations into consideration at the expense of increasing the complexity of the equations...
February 8, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Francesco Monticone, Andrea Alù
The field of metamaterials has opened landscapes of possibilities in basic science, and a paradigm shift in the way we think about and design emergent material properties. In many scenarios, metamaterial concepts have helped overcome long-held scientific challenges, such as the absence of optical magnetism and the limits imposed by diffraction in optical imaging. As the potential of metamaterials, as well as their limitations, become clearer, these advances in basic science have started to make an impact on several applications in different areas, with far-reaching implications for many scientific and engineering fields...
February 6, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Yue Zheng, W J Chen
Topological defects in condense matters are gathering intensive attention due to their important roles in phase transition and fascinating characteristics. Among the various matters, ferroics which possess a switchable physical characteristic and form domain structures, are ideal systems to form topological defects. In particular, a special class of topological defects-vortices-have been found exist commonly in ferroics. They often manifest themselves as singular regions where domains merge in large systems, or stabilize as novel order states instead of forming domain structures in small enough systems...
February 3, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Aleksander Stanislavsky, Karina Weron
The paper is devoted to recent advances in stochastic modeling of anomalous kinetic processes observed in dielectric materials which are prominent examples of disordered (complex) systems. Theoretical studies of dynamical properties of 'structures with variations' (Goldenfield and Kadanoff 1999 Science 284 87-9) require application of such mathematical tools-by means of which their random nature can be analyzed and, independently of the details distinguishing various systems (dipolar materials, glasses, semiconductors, liquid crystals, polymers, etc), the empirical universal kinetic patterns can be derived...
February 3, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
A Lohrmann, B C Johnson, J C McCallum, S Castelletto
This paper summarizes key findings in single-photon generation from deep level defects in silicon carbide (SiC) and highlights the significance of these individually addressable centers for emerging quantum applications. Single photon emission from various defect centers in both bulk and nanostructured SiC are discussed as well as their formation and possible integration into optical and electrical devices. The related measurement protocols, the building blocks of quantum communication and computation network architectures in solid state systems, are also summarized...
January 31, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
M P Silveri, J A Tuorila, E V Thuneberg, G S Paraoanu
We review the physical phenomena that arise when quantum mechanical energy levels are modulated in time. The dynamics resulting from changes in the transition frequency is a problem studied since the early days of quantum mechanics. It has been of constant interest both experimentally and theoretically since, with the simple two-state model providing an inexhaustible source of novel concepts. When the transition frequency of a quantum system is modulated, several phenomena can be observed, such as Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference, motional averaging and narrowing, and the formation of dressed states with the appearance of sidebands in the spectrum...
May 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Pascal Naidon, Shimpei Endo
This article reviews theoretical and experimental advances in Efimov physics, an array of quantum few-body and many-body phenomena arising for particles interacting via short-range resonant interactions, that is based on the appearance of a scale-invariant three-body attraction theoretically discovered by Vitaly Efimov in 1970. This three-body effect was originally proposed to explain the binding of nuclei such as the triton and the Hoyle state of carbon-12, and later considered as a simple explanation for the existence of some halo nuclei...
May 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
D McGloin
It is perhaps surprising that something as fragile as a microscopic droplet could possibly form a laser. In this article we will review some of the underpinning physics as to how this might be possible, and then examine the state of the art in the field. The technology to create and manipulate droplets will be examined, as will the different classes of droplet lasers. We discuss the rapidly developing fields of droplet biolasers, liquid crystal laser droplets and explore how droplet lasers could give rise to new bio and chemical sensing and analysis...
May 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
S X Nakamura, H Kamano, Y Hayato, M Hirai, W Horiuchi, S Kumano, T Murata, K Saito, M Sakuda, T Sato, Y Suzuki
A precise description of neutrino-nucleus reactions will play a key role in addressing fundamental questions such as the leptonic CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy through analyzing data from next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments. The neutrino energy relevant to the neutrino-nucleus reactions spans a broad range and, accordingly, the dominant reaction mechanism varies across the energy region from quasi-elastic scattering through nucleon resonance excitations to deep inelastic scattering...
May 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
M F Ciappina, J A Pérez-Hernández, A S Landsman, W A Okell, S Zherebtsov, B Förg, J Schötz, L Seiffert, T Fennel, T Shaaran, T Zimmermann, A Chacón, R Guichard, A Zaïr, J W G Tisch, J P Marangos, T Witting, A Braun, S A Maier, L Roso, M Krüger, P Hommelhoff, M F Kling, F Krausz, M Lewenstein
Recently two emerging areas of research, attosecond and nanoscale physics, have started to come together. Attosecond physics deals with phenomena occurring when ultrashort laser pulses, with duration on the femto- and sub-femtosecond time scales, interact with atoms, molecules or solids. The laser-induced electron dynamics occurs natively on a timescale down to a few hundred or even tens of attoseconds (1 attosecond  =  1 as  =  10(-18) s), which is comparable with the optical field. For comparison, the revolution of an electron on a 1s orbital of a hydrogen atom is  ∼152 as...
May 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
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