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Reports on Progress in Physics

Liam Collins, Jason I Kilpatrick, Sergei V Kalinin, Brian J Rodriguez
Fundamental mechanisms of energy storage, corrosion, sensing, and multiple biological functionalities are directly coupled to electrical processes and ionic dynamics at solid-liquid interfaces. In many cases, these processes are spatially inhomogeneous taking place at grain boundaries, step edges, point defects, ion channels, etc and possess complex time and voltage dependent dynamics. This necessitates time-resolved and real-space probing of these phenomena. In this review, we discuss the applications of force-sensitive voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for probing electrical phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces...
July 10, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Kun Zhao, Thomas G Mason
Advances in both top-down and bottom-up sytheses of a wide variety of complex colloidal building blocks and also in methods of controlling their assembly in solution have led to new and interesting forms of highly controlled soft matter. In particular, top-down lithographic methods of producing monodisperse colloids now provide precise human-designed control over their sub-particle features, opening up a wide range of new possibilities for assembly structures that had been previously limited by the range of shapes available through bottom-up methods...
July 6, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Sydney Gales, Kazuo A Tanaka, D L Balabanski, Florin Negoita, D Stutman, Calin Alexander Ur, Ovidiu Tesileanu, Daniel Ursescu, Dan Gabriel Ghita, I Andrei, Stefan Ataman, M O Cernaianu, L D'Alessi, I Dancus, B Diaconescu, N Djourelov, D Filipescu, P Ghenuche, C Matei, K Seto Kei, M Zeng, Victor Nicolae Zamfir
The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI)
 has selected in 2006 a proposal based on ultra-intense laser elds with intensities
 reaching up to 10221023 W/cm2 called \ELI" for Extreme Light Infrastructure.
 The construction of a large-scale laser-centred, distributed pan-European research
 infrastructure, involving beyond the state-of-the-art ultra-short and ultra-intense
 laser technologies, received the approval for funding in 2011 2012.
 The three pillars of the ELI facility are being built in Czech Republic, Hungary
 and Romania...
June 28, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Karl-Heinz Schmidt, Beatriz Jurado
An overview is given on some of the main advances in experimental methods, experimental results and theoretical models and ideas of the last years in the field of nuclear fission. 
 New approaches extended the availability of fissioning systems for experimental studies of nuclear fission considerably and provided a full identification of all fission products in A and Z for the first time. 
 In particular, the transition from symmetric to asymmetric fission around 
 226Th and some unexpected structure in the mass distributions in the fission of systems around Z = 80 to 84 as well as an extended systematics of the odd-even effect in fission fragment Z distributions have been measured [A...
June 28, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Daniele Faccio, Andreas Velten
Cameras capable of capturing videos at a trillion frames per second allow to freeze light in motion, a very counterintuitive capability when related to our everyday experience in which light appears to travel instantaneously. By combining this capability with computational imaging techniques, new imaging opportunities emerge such as three dimensional imaging of scenes that are hidden behind a corner, the study of relativistic distortion effects, imaging through diffusive media and imaging of ultrafast optical processes such as laser ablation, supercontinuum and plasma generation...
June 14, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Per Helander
This Corrigendum corrects two mistakes in the review "Theory of plasma confinement in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields" by Per Helander, Rep. Prog. Phys. 77 (2014) 087001.
June 4, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Thomas Zanon-Willette, Remi Lefevre, Rémi Metzdorff, Nicolas Sillitoe, Sylvain Almonacil, Marco Minissale, Emeric de Clercq, Alexey V Taichevachev, Vareriy I Yudin, Ennio Arimondo
Probing an atomic resonance without disturbing it is an ubiquitous issue in physics. This problem is critical in
 high-accuracy spectroscopy or for the next generation of atomic optical clocks. Ultra-high
 resolution frequency metrology requires sophisticated interrogation schemes and robust protocols handling pulse length errors and residual frequency detuning offsets .
 This review reports recent progress and perspective in such schemes, using sequences of composite laser-pulses
 tailored in pulse duration, frequency and phase, inspired by NMR techniques and quantum information processing...
June 4, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
S A Parameswaran, Romain Vasseur
We review recent developments in the study of out-of-equilibrium topological states of matter in isolated systems. The phenomenon of many-body localization, exhibited by some isolated systems usually in the presence of quenched disorder, prevents systems from equilibrating to a thermal state where the delicate quantum correlations necessary for topological order are often washed out. Instead, many-body localized systems can exhibit a type of eigenstate phase structure wherein their entire many-body spectrum is characterized by various types of quantum order, usually restricted to quantum ground states...
June 4, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Joshua M Deutsch
The emergence of statistical mechanics for isolated classical systems comes about through chaotic dynamics and ergodicity. Here we review how similar questions can be answered in quantum systems. The crucial point is that individual energy eigenstates behave in many ways like a statistical ensemble. A more detailed statement of this is named the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). The reasons for why it works in so many cases are rooted in the early work of Wigner on random matrix theory and our understanding of quantum chaos...
June 4, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Richard J Hill, Peter Kammel, William J Marciano, Alberto Sirlin
Weak capture in muonic hydrogen (μH) as a probe of the chiral properties and nucleon structure predictions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. A recent determination of the axial-vector charge radius squared, rA 2 (z exp.) = 0.46(22) fm2 , from a model independent z expansion analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering data is employed in conjunction with the MuCap measurement of the singlet muonic hydrogen capture rate, ΛMuCap singlet = 715.6(7.4) s-1 , to update the induced pseudoscalar singlet nucleon coupling: gP MuCap = 8...
May 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Robert H Swendsen
A little over ten years ago, Campisi, and Dunkel and Hilbert, published papers claiming that the Gibbs (volume) entropy of a classical system was correct, and that the Boltzmann (surface) entropy was not. They claimed further that the quantum version of the Gibbs entropy was also correct, and that the phenomenon of negative temperatures was thermodynamically inconsistent. Their work began a vigorous debate of exactly how the entropy, both classical and quantum, should be defined. The debate has called into question the basis of thermodynamics, along with fundamental ideas such as whether heat always flows from hot to cold...
May 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Hector Gisbert, Antonio Pich
In 1988 the NA31 experiment presented the first evidence of direct CP violation in the K<sup>0</sup>→ππ decay amplitudes. A clear signal with a 7.2σ statistical significance was later established with the full data samples from the NA31, E731, NA48 and KTeV experiments, confirming that CP violation is associated with a ΔS=1 quark transition, as predicted by the Standard Model. However, the theoretical prediction for the measured ratio ε'/ε has been a subject of strong controversy along the years...
May 1, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Gabriele De Chiara, Anna Sanpera
Quantum information theory has considerably helped in the understanding of quantum many-body systems. The role of quantum correlations and in particular, bipartite entanglement, has become crucial to characterise, classify and simulate quantum many body systems. Furthermore, the scaling of entanglement has inspired modifications to numerical techniques for the simulation of many-body systems leading to the, now established, area of tensor networks. However, the notions and methods brought by quantum information do not end with bipartite entanglement...
April 19, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Frank Jülicher, Stephan W Grill, Guillaume Salbreux
We review the general hydrodynamic theory of active soft materials that is motivated in particular by biological matter. We present basic concepts of irreversible thermodynamics of spatially extended multicomponent active systems. Starting from the rate of entropy production, we identify conjugate thermodynamic fluxes and forces and present generic constitutive equations of polar active fluids and active gels. We also discuss angular momentum conservation which plays a role in the the physics of active chiral gels...
July 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Gregory B McKenna
Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and 'gel' like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function...
June 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Tanja E Mehlstäubler, Gesine Grosche, Christian Lisdat, Piet O Schmidt, Heiner Denker
We review experimental progress on optical atomic clocks and frequency transfer, and consider the prospects of using these technologies for geodetic measurements. Today, optical atomic frequency standards have reached relative frequency inaccuracies below 10-17 , opening new fields of fundamental and applied research. The dependence of atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential makes atomic clocks ideal candidates for the search for deviations in the predictions of Einstein's general relativity, tests of modern unifying theories and the development of new gravity field sensors...
June 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Susanne Stemmer, S James Allen
Understanding the anomalous transport properties of strongly correlated materials is one of the most formidable challenges in condensed matter physics. For example, one encounters metal-insulator transitions, deviations from Landau Fermi liquid behavior, longitudinal and Hall scattering rate separation, a pseudogap phase, and bad metal behavior. These properties have been studied extensively in bulk materials, such as the unconventional superconductors and heavy fermion systems. Oxide heterostructures have recently emerged as new platforms to probe, control, and understand strong correlation phenomena...
June 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Michele K Dougherty, Linda J Spilker
We review our knowledge of the icy moons of Saturn prior to the Cassini orbital mission, describe the discoveries made by the instrumentation onboard the Cassini spacecraft.
June 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
I M Vishik
In the course of seeking the microscopic mechanism of superconductivity in cuprate high temperature superconductors, the pseudogap phase- the very abnormal 'normal' state on the hole-doped side- has proven to be as big of a quandary as superconductivity itself. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a powerful tool for assessing the momentum-dependent phenomenology of the pseudogap, and recent technological developments have permitted a more detailed understanding. This report reviews recent progress in understanding the relationship between superconductivity and the pseudogap, the Fermi arc phenomena, and the relationship between charge order and pseudogap from the perspective of ARPES measurements...
June 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Leszek Roszkowski, Enrico Maria Sessolo, Sebastian Trojanowski
We review several current aspects of dark matter theory and experiment. We overview the present experimental status, which includes current bounds and recent claims and hints of a possible signal in a wide range of experiments: direct detection in underground laboratories, gamma-ray, cosmic ray, x-ray, neutrino telescopes, and the LHC. We briefly review several possible particle candidates for a weakly interactive massive particle (WIMP) and dark matter that have recently been considered in the literature. We pay particular attention to the lightest neutralino of supersymmetry as it remains the best motivated candidate for dark matter and also shows excellent detection prospects...
June 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
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