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Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236298/mental-association-testing-individual-differences-before-binet
#1
Annette Mülberger
This paper challenges the historiographical discontinuity established between earlier "anthropometric testing" and the arrival of "psychological testing" with Binet and Simon's intelligence test in 1905. After some conceptual clarifications, it deals with "word association": a kind of psychological experimentation and testing which became popular over the last two decades of the 19th century. First Galton's exploration are presented, followed by experiments performed at the Leipzig laboratory by Trautscholdt, and then Cattell and Bryant's collective testing...
February 25, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199025/beyond-fields-networks-and-fame-lawrence-krader-as-an-outsider-intellectual
#2
Sabine Sander, Cyril Levitt, Neil McMaughlin
This paper investigates the intellectual biography of the American philosopher and anthropologist Lawrence Krader (1919-1998) as a contribution to the sociology of intellectuals and history of ideas. We trace Krader's career trajectory to his intellectual self-concept, his scholarly and political worldviews, and his financial independence. Krader entertained a self-concept of a lone pioneer that led him to reject the competition for attention as highlighted in the current literature, dominated as it is by an emphasis on field, habitus, the accumulation and reproduction of power, and symbolic capital...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199024/anthropology-at-war-robert-h-lowie-and-the-transformation-of-the-culture-concept-1904-to-1954
#3
Stefan Bargheer
The concept of culture used in American anthropology has fundamentally transformed throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The changing resonance of the work of Robert H. Lowie offers revealing insights into this development. Lowie was part of the first generation of students of Franz Boas that highlighted the importance of individual variation for the study of both primitive and civilized societies. Yet, its initial resonance notwithstanding, the culture concept that prevailed in the discipline went into a different direction as the result of anthropologists' involvement in the war effort...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191910/the-rhetorical-use-of-random-sampling-crafting-and-communicating-the-public-image-of-polls-as-a-science-1935-1948
#4
Dominic Lusinchi
The scientific pollsters (Archibald Crossley, George H. Gallup, and Elmo Roper) emerged onto the American news media scene in 1935. Much of what they did in the following years (1935-1948) was to promote both the political and scientific legitimacy of their enterprise. They sought to be recognized as the sole legitimate producers of public opinion. In this essay I examine the, mostly overlooked, rhetorical work deployed by the pollsters to publicize the scientific credentials of their polling activities, and the central role the concept of sampling has had in that pursuit...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387479/eshhs-first-call-for-abstracts
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387478/cheiron-the-international-society-for-the-history-of-behavioral-and-social-sciences
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387476/fhhs-news-jan-2017
#7
Laura Stark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056162/news-and-notes
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056161/bringing-things-together-developing-the-sample-survey-as-practice-in-the-late-nineteenth-century
#9
Peter Gundelach
The first sample surveys in the latter parts of the 19th century were an intellectual social movement. They were motivated by the intention to improve the economic and political conditions of workers. The quantitative survey was considered an ideal because it would present data about the workers as facts, i.e. establish a scientific authoritative truth. In a case study from Denmark, the paper shows how the first survey - a study of seamstresses - was carried out by bringing several cognitive and organizational elements together: a network of researchers, a method for sampling, the construction of a questionnaire, a procedure for coding, and analyzing the data...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922177/before-attachment-theory-separation-research-at-the-tavistock-clinic-1948-1956
#10
Bican Polat
This article traces the formation of attachment theory to the pioneering research program of Bowlby and his colleagues at the Tavistock Clinic between 1948 and 1956. Through a discussion of the concepts and practices that informed Bowlby's program, I examine the efforts of his team to reconstruct psychoanalytic objects according to preventive objectives and operational criteria. I discuss how the exploratory techniques that Bowlby and his colleagues were developing during these years ultimately led to the establishment of a hybrid investigative framework, in which the prophylactic requirements of mental hygiene, the psychometric model of personality disturbances, the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, and a direct-observational methodology were brought to bear on the problem of the psychological consequences of early separation experiences...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897322/back-to-the-origins-of-the-repudiation-of-wundt-oswald-k%C3%A3-lpe-and-richard-avenarius
#11
Chiara Russo Krauss
This essay provides a fresh account of the break between Oswald Külpe and his master Wilhelm Wundt. Kurt Danziger's reconstruction of the "repudiation" of Wundt, which has become the canon for this significant episode of history of psychology, focused on the supposed influence of Ernst Mach on this set of events, overshadowing the other exponent of Empiriocriticism: Richard Avenarius. Analyzing archival documents and examining anew the primary sources, the paper shows that Avenarius was himself a member of Wundt's circle, and that his "repudiation" of the master paved the way for Külpe...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897319/monkeys-mirrors-and-me-gordon-gallup-and-the-study-of-self-recognition
#12
Katja Guenther
This article explores the work of psychologist Gordon Gallup, Jr., during the 1960s and 1970s on mirror self-recognition in animals. It shows how Gallup tried to integrate the mental "self-concept" into an otherwise strictly behaviorist paradigm. By making an argument from material culture, the article demonstrates how Gallup's adoption of a self-concept is best understood as a product of his sustained analysis of the workings of the mirror as a piece of experimental apparatus. In certain situations, the stimulus properties of the mirror changed dramatically, a shift that Gallup thought legitimated the positing of a self-concept...
January 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716974/forum-for-the-history-of-human-sciences-reports-for-jhbs-august-2016
#13
Jacy L Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716973/news-and-notes-fall-2016
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716972/citation-2016-cheiron-book-prize
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716971/report-of-the-48-th-annual-meeting-of-cheiron-the-international-society-for-the-history-of-the-behavioral-and-social-sciences-meeting-jointly-with-european-society-for-the-history-of-human-sciences-eshhs-www-uakron-edu-cheiron-where-the-full-program-and-abstracts
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574740/documenting-human-nature-e-richard-sorenson-and-the-national-anthropological-film-center-1965-1980
#17
Adrianna Link
This article analyzes the development of the National Anthropological Film Center as an outgrowth of the Smithsonian's efforts to promote a multidisciplinary program in "urgent anthropology" during the 1960s and 1970s. It considers how film came to be seen as an ideal tool for the documentation and preservation of a wide range of human data applicable to both the behavioral and life sciences. In doing so, it argues that the intellectual and institutional climate facilitated by the Smithsonian's museum structure during this period contributed to the Center's initial establishment as well its eventual decline...
September 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558872/walking-the-tightrope-the-committee-on-the-behavioral-sciences-and-academic-cultures-at-the-university-of-chicago-1949-1955
#18
Philippe Fontaine
The Chicago Committee on the Behavioral Sciences occupies a special place in the eponymous movement. Involving prominent figures such as psychologist James G. Miller and neurophysiologist Ralph W. Gerard, this committee embodied the common belief among behavioral scientists that a cross-disciplinary approach using natural science methods was key to understanding major issues facing mid-century American society. This interdivisional committee fell under the jurisdiction of both the natural and social sciences...
September 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546884/on-the-pragmatics-of-social-theory-the-case-of-elias-s-on-the-process-of-civilization
#19
Filipe Carreira DA Silva, Marta Bucholc
This paper proposes a new approach to the study of sociological classics. This approach is pragmatic in character. It draws upon the social pragmatism of G. H. Mead and the sociology of texts of D. F. McKenzie. Our object of study is Norbert Elias's On the Process of Civilization. The pragmatic genealogy of this book reveals the importance of taking materiality seriously. By documenting the successive entanglements between human agency and nonhuman factors, we discuss the origins of the book in the 1930s, how it was forgotten for 30 years, and how in the mid-1970s it became a sociological classic...
September 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546818/william-mcdougall-american-psychologist-a-reconsideration-of-nature-nurture-debates-in-the-interwar-united-states
#20
Anne C Rose
The British-born psychologist William McDougall (1871-1938) spent more than half of his academic career in the United States, holding successive positions after 1920 at Harvard and Duke universities. Scholarly studies uniformly characterize McDougall's relationship with his New World colleagues as contentious: in the standard view, McDougall's theory of innate drives clashed with the Americans' experimentation into learned habits. This essay argues instead that rising American curiosity about inborn appetites-an interest rooted in earlier pragmatic philosophy and empirically investigated by interwar scientists-explains McDougall's migration to the United States and his growing success there...
September 2016: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
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