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British Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084805/assessment-of-health-and-welfare-of-austrian-laying-hens-at-slaughter-demonstrates-influence-of-husbandry-system-and-season
#1
B Grafl, S Polster, T Sulejmanovic, B Pürrer, B Guggenberger, M Hess
1. Selected health and welfare variables of laying hens from 79 flocks kept in alternative husbandry systems (48 barn system, 24 conventional free range, 7 organic free range) were assessed at the end-of-lay. 2. Investigations of several variables (plumage condition, body condition, skin lesions, keel bone deformations, foot pad lesions) were carried out on 100 hens per flock at the slaughter line. Lesions /pathological changes /damage were recorded as part of a novel scoring system with scores from 0-2 (0 = none/light, 1= moderate, 2 = severe)...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084802/comparison-of-electrogenic-glucose-transport-processes-and-permeability-between-proximal-and-distal-jejunum-of-laying-hens
#2
B U Metzler-Zebeli, M Hollmann, J R Aschenbach, Q Zebeli
1. The current objective was to assess 1) differences in mucosal transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and tissue conductance (GT), 2) the effect of a glucose stimulus, and 3) epithelial paracellular permeability in the proximal and distal jejunum of laying hens. 2. The jejunum was defined to begin with the end of the pancreatic loop and to end distally by following the distribution of arteries in order to distinguish between the distal jejunum and ileum. 3. Proximal and distal jejunal segments used in the Ussing chambers were collected at 9 ± 0...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084798/antioxidant-molecular-targets-of-wheat-bran-fermented-by-white-rot-fungi-and-its-potential-modulation-of-anti-oxidative-status-in-broiler-chickens
#3
C C Wang, L J Lin, Y P Chao, C J Chiang, M T Lee, S C Chang, B Yu, T T Lee
1. The study focused on antioxidant molecular targets of wheat bran fermented by white rot fungi in poultry. After solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by white rot fungi for 12 d, scanning electron microscopy found that the lignocellulose structure showed degradation and fragmentation. 2. The fermented wheat bran had significantly increased laccase and manganese peroxidase activity, as well as twice as high concentration of total quercetin, phenolics and crude polysaccharides compared to the unfermented wheat bran...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084794/inductive-expression-of-the-nod1-signalling-pathway-in-chickens-infected-with-salmonella-pullorum
#4
Z Tao, C Zhu, W Song, W Xu, S Zhang, H Liu, H Li
1. The aim of this study was to describe the role of Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) receptor signalling in chicken. 2. Tissue-specific expression analysis of NOD1, receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (MAPK11 or p38) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed their wide distribution in various organs and tissues. 3. Salmonella pullorum infection activated NOD1 receptor signalling in vivo and in vitro, resulting in significant induction of downstream signalling molecules RIPK2, NF-κB/p65, MAPK11/p38 and the effector molecules IL-1β and IL-8...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084792/antitrichomonal-activity-of-peganum-harmala-alkaloid-extract-against-trichomoniasis-in-pigeon-columba-livia-domestica
#5
M A Tabari, M R Youssefi, A A Moghadamnia
1. This study was designed to evaluate the antitrichomonal effects of P. harmala alkaloid extract against T. gallinae, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole, conventional antitrichomonal medication and harmine and harmaline, the two alkaloids present in P. harmala. 2. T. gallinae were collected by the wet mount method from infected free-living pigeons. The in vitro assay was performed using multi-well plates containing test compounds in final concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50 or 100 μg/ml...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084791/evaluation-of-the-potential-killing-performance-of-novel-percussive-and-cervical-dislocation-tools-in-chicken-cadavers
#6
J E Martin, D E F Mckeegan, J Sparrey, V Sandilands
1. Four mechanical poultry killing devices; modified Armadillo (MARM), modified Rabbit Zinger (MZIN), modified pliers (MPLI) and a novel mechanical cervical dislocation gloved device (NMCD), were assessed for their killing potential in the cadavers of euthanised birds of 4 type/age combinations: layer/adult, layer/pullet, broiler/slaughter-age and broiler/chick. 2. A 4x4x4 factorial design (batch x device x bird type + age) was employed. Ten bird cadavers per bird type and age were tested with each of the 4 devices (N = 160 birds)...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067534/molecular-cloning-alternative-splicing-and-mrna-expression-analysis-of-magi1-and-its-correlation-with-laying-performance-in-geese
#7
S Yu, M Xia, M A Alsiddig, H Liu, W Wei, J Chen
1. In a previous study, a laying-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Record-106975 (A-G) was found in the intron of Membrane-associated Guanylate Kinase with Inverted Domain Structure-1 gene (MAGI1) by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. This study was performed to further identify the function of MAGI1 on laying performance in Yangzhou geese. 2. The complete MAGI1 cDNA sequence was cloned from the ovary of the Yangzhou goose. A total of 4 alternative splice variants were identified, and the characterisation of their nucleic acid and amino acid sequences were analysed...
January 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052696/interactive-effects-of-temperature-and-dietary-supplementation-of-arginine-or-guanidinoacetic-acid-on-nutritional-and-physiological-responses-in-male-broiler-chickens
#8
N Kodambashi Emami, A Golian, D D Rhoads, M Danesh Mesgaran
1. The aim of this experiment was to study the interactive effect of rearing temperature and dietary supplementation of arginine (Arg) or guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on performance, gut morphology and ascites indices in broiler chickens raised under the same condition in the first 2 weeks and then reared under normal (23-26°C) or subnormal (17°C) ambient temperatures for the next 3 weeks. 2. This experiment was conducted as a split plot with 900 Ross 308 male broiler chicks that were allocated to two houses (as main plots); each consisted of 5 treatments (as sub-plots) with 6 replicates of 15 birds...
January 5, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043159/quantifying-sperm-egg-interaction-to-access-the-breeding-efficiency-through-artificial-insemination-in-guinea-fowls
#9
G H Hudson, A V Omprakash, K Premavalli, G Dhinakar Raj
1. Guinea fowl hens were inseminated weekly once with two doses of spermatozoa (75 million and 100 million) in two different diluents, Beltsville poultry semen extender, (BPSE) and Instruments for Veterinary Medicine (IMV), each with and without pre-insemination vaginal douching. Percent fertility, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shells along with data on sperm egg interaction and vaginal microbial counts were recorded. 2. Artificial insemination had significantly improved the percent fertility and hatchability compared to natural mating...
January 3, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043157/complete-nucleotide-sequence-analysis-of-the-oncogene-meq-from-serotype-1-marek-disease-virus-isolates-from-india
#10
P Suresh, J Johnson Rajeswar, K Sukumar, T J Harikrishnan, P Srinivasan
1. A study was undertaken to characterise the oncogene Meq at the molecular level for three serotype 1 Marek Disease Virus (MDV) field isolates from vaccinated poultry flocks which had encountered a Marek Disease (MD) outbreak in the southern part of India. The isolates were named as Ind/TN/11/01, Ind/KA/12/02 and Ind/TN/12/03. The oncogene Meq was amplified by PCR and sequenced. 2. The isolates were shown to have a homology for the Meq gene of 99.1-99.8% with various isolates from China and 98.5 - 99.2% with isolates from Europe and USA...
January 3, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982692/genetic-evaluation-of-weekly-body-weight-in-japanese-quail-using-random-regression-models
#11
K Karami, S Zerehdaran, M Tahmoorespour, B Barzanooni, E Lotfi
1. A total of 11 826 records from 2489 quails, hatched between 2012 and 2013, were used to estimate genetic parameters for BW (body weight) of Japanese quail using random regression models. Weekly BW was measured from hatch until 49 d of age. WOMBAT software (University of New England, Australia) was used for estimating genetic and phenotypic parameters. 2. Nineteen models were evaluated to identify the best orders of Legendre polynomials. A model with Legendre polynomial of order 3 for additive genetic effect, order 3 for permanent environmental effects and order 1 for maternal permanent environmental effects was chosen as the best model...
December 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845563/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-carnosine-on-meat-quality-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-broiler-chickens
#12
J Cong, L Zhang, J Li, S Wang, F Gao, G Zhou
1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat...
December 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844487/promoter-analysis-and-tissue-expression-of-the-chicken-asb15-gene
#13
Y C Wang, Z J Li, R L Han, C L Xu, S H Wang, G R Sun, S H Wang, J P Wu, X T Kang
1. This study was conducted to explore the promoter region of the chicken ASB15 gene by detecting the activities of the dual luciferase reporter gene and to assess expression profiles of the ASB15 gene in 10 different tissues from Gushi chickens. 2. Five dual luciferase reporter gene vectors were constructed and transfected into DF1 cells. The activities of recombined plasmids were measured and the core promoter was confirmed by bioinformatic analysis. Total RNA was extracted and the relative expression of the ASB15 gene was examined...
December 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977299/feed-can-be-a-source-of-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-broilers
#14
M B R Alves, B B Fonseca, R T Melo, E P Mendonça, P C Nalevaiko, L C Girão, G P Monteiro, P L Silva, D A Rossi
1. The aim was to determine the importance of a contaminated diet as a possible cause of Campylobacter jejuni infection in broilers. 2. This study evaluated the viability of C. jejuni in both starter and finisher diets and the interference from other mesophilic bacteria in this viability. 3. Starter and finisher samples of broiler diet were deliberately contaminated with 3 or 5 log CFU·g(-1) of C. jejuni (NCTC 11351) and then maintained at two different storage temperatures (25°C or 37°C) for 3 or 5 d. 4...
December 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854128/production-traits-of-artificially-and-naturally-hatched-geese-in-intensive-and-free-range-systems-ii-slaughter-carcass-and-meat-quality-traits
#15
M A Boz, M Sarıca, U S Yamak
1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs...
December 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936897/expression-profiles-and-associations-of-adiponectin-and-adiponectin-receptors-with-intramuscular-fat-in-tibetan-chicken
#16
R Zhang, Y Lin, L Zhi, H Liao, L Zuo, Z Li, Y-O Xu
1. Adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the spatial expression of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes in various tissues in Tibetan chicken. The temporal expression of adiponectin and its receptor mRNAs were also studied in adipose tissue, breast muscle and thigh muscle and the correlations of the levels of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA with the contents of intramuscular fat in breast muscle and thigh muscle of Tibetan chicken were determined...
December 12, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869499/capsaicinoids-improve-egg-production-by-regulating-ovary-nuclear-transcription-factors-against-heat-stress-in-quail
#17
N Sahin, C Orhan, M Tuzcu, V Juturu, K Sahin
To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n = 180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or at 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kilogram for 12 weeks (2 × 3 factorial arrangement). The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66...
December 12, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848267/the-impacts-of-hammer-mill-screen-size-and-grain-particle-size-on-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens-offered-diets-based-on-two-red-sorghum-varieties
#18
P H Selle, H H Truong, A Khoddami, A F Moss, T H Roberts, S Y Liu
The two red grain sorghums were extensively characterised. Kafirin, polyphenolic compounds, free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids, phytate concentrations and starch pasting profiles were determined. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 4 factorial array of dietary treatments comprising two red sorghum varieties (Tiger and Block I) ground through 4 hammer-mill screen sizes (2.0, 3.2, 4.8 6.0 mm) prior to incorporation into nutritionally equivalent diets. Eight steam-pelleted dietary treatments were each offered to 7 replicates (6 male Ross 308 birds per cage) from 7 to 28 d post-hatch...
December 12, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844495/ileal-muc2-gene-expression-and-microbial-population-but-not-growth-performance-and-immune-response-are-influenced-by-in-ovo-injection-of-probiotics-in-broiler-chickens
#19
A Majidi-Mosleh, A A Sadeghi, S N Mousavi, M Chamani, A Zarei
The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of intra-amniotic injection of different probiotic strains (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici) on the intestinal MUC2 gene expression, microbial population, growth performance and immune response in broiler chicken. In a completely randomised design, different probiotic strains were injected into the amniotic fluid of the 480 live embryos (d 18 of incubation), with 4 treatments and 5 replicates. Ileal MUC2 gene expression, microbial profile, growth performance and immune response were determined...
December 12, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924639/similar-developmental-fluctuations-of-hepato-renal-xanthine-oxidoreductase-gene-expression-and-xanthine-oxidase-activity-in-layer-and-broiler-chicken-embryos
#20
D Naseri, K Asasi, I Karimi
1. Xanthine oxidase (XO) has many physiological functions associated with the synthesis of both antioxidant (uric acid: UA) and numerous oxidants (e.g., H2O2), which makes it an important regulator of the cellular redox potential involving organogenesis. The ontogenetic study of hepatic and renal XO makes a better understanding of the putative role of this enzyme in the development of these tissues. 2. Developmental changes of gene expression of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), XO activity and UA content of liver and kidney tissues in both broiler and layer chicken embryos were examined during incubation d 14 to 21...
December 7, 2016: British Poultry Science
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