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British Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125301/the-influence-of-rapid-growth-in-broilers-on-florfenicol-pharmacokinetics-allometric-modelling-of-the-pharmacokinetic-and-haemodynamic-parameters
#1
B Poźniak, P Pawłowski, U Pasławska, T Grabowski, A Suszko, M Lis, M Świtała
1. The aim of this study was to determine if the pharmacokinetics (PK) of florfenicol (FF) undergo age-dependent changes in broilers. Since drug elimination depends on cardiovascular functions, a haemodynamic study was performed in parallel. 2. Broilers of 0.68, 1.27, 2.45 and 5.13 kg were administered FF in a single intravenous dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and PK parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model...
January 26, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117599/influence-of-carbon-dioxide-stunning-procedure-on-quality-of-turkey-meat
#2
S M López, Á G Lora, C A Ramírez, F P Blanco
1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and gas stunning on quality attributes of turkey breast meat. 2. One hundred B.U.T. Premium turkeys (50 males and 50 females) were divided into two groups of 25 animals and subjected to either CO2 stunning procedures: G1 stepwise (step 1: 30% CO2, 15 s; step 2: 55% CO2, 40 s; step 3: 70% CO2, 45 s) or G2 fixed concentration (80% CO2, 100 s). The pH and meat colour at 20 min post-mortem, and pH, colour (L*, a*, b*), water holding capacity (WHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in breast samples at 24 h and 7 d post-mortem were assessed...
January 24, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102084/long-bone-properties-and-development-are-affected-by-caponisation-and-breed-in-polish-fowls
#3
E Tomaszewska, M Kwiecień, S Muszyński, P Dobrowolski, K Kasperek, T Blicharski, G Jeżewska-Witkowska, E R Grela
1. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of caponisation on bone development of males of two native breeds in Poland. 2. The weight, length and cross sectional area of tibiae and femora were measured, densitometric measurements and tests of strength were determined. and dimensions were calculated. 3. Breed and caponisation did not influence bone weight and length. Higher mechanical strength of the femur was found in entire males, mainly in the Polbar breed. Tibial strength was reduced in capons of the Green Partridge breed...
January 19, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100066/identification-of-eggs-from-different-production-systems-based-on-hyperspectra-and-cs-svm
#4
J Sun, S Cong, H Mao, X Zhou, X Wu, X Zhang
1. To identify the origin of table eggs more accurately, a method based on hyperspectral imaging technology was studied. 2. The hyperspectral data of 200 samples of intensive and extensive eggs were collected. Standard normalised variables (SNV) combined with Savitzky-Golay (SG) were used to eliminate noise, then stepwise regression (SWR) was used for feature selection. Grid search algorithm (GS), genetic search algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation algorithm (PSO) and cuckoo search algorithm (CS) were applied by support vector machine (SVM) to establish a SVM identification model with the optimal parameters...
January 19, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100065/evaluation-of-sulphur-amino-acid-requirement-of-male-korean-native-ducklings-from-hatch-to-21-day-of-age
#5
J Yoo, Y J Yi, S S Wickramasuriya, E Kim, T K Shin, H M Cho, N Kim, J M Heo
1. A dose-response experiment was conducted with male Korean native ducklings (KND) to evaluate the total sulphur amino acid (TSAA) requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. 2. A completely randomised design with 7 dietary TSAA concentrations (0.62, 0.65, 0.68, 0.71, 0.74, 0.77 and 0.80%) were used with 6 replications per treatment. 3. Body weight (BW) and feed intake were measured weekly to calculate average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). One duckling per pen (n=6) was killed by cervical dislocation to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the conclusion of experiment...
January 19, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911094/production-traits-of-artificially-and-naturally-hatched-geese-in-intensive-and-free-range-systems-i-growth-traits
#6
M A Boz, M Sarica, U S Yamak
1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs...
January 19, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097888/bioprocess-enhancement-of-feather-degradation-using-alkaliphilic-microbial-mixture
#7
Y Osman, A Elsayed, A M Mowafy, A A Elrazak, M Fawzy
1. The main aim of this work is to develop a robust method to generate a microbial mixture which can successfully degrade poultry feathers to overcome environmental problems. 2. Four different alkaliphilic microbes were isolated and shown to to degrade poultry feathers. 3. Two of the isolates were phylogenetically identified as Lysinibacillus and the others were identified as Nocardiopsis and Micrococcus. 4. The best microbial co-culture for white and black feather degradation were optimised for pH, temperature and relative population of the isolates to achieve almost 96% of degradation compared to a maximum of 31% when applying each isolate individually...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043157/complete-nucleotide-sequence-analysis-of-the-oncogene-meq-from-serotype-1-marek-s-disease-virus-isolates-from-india
#8
P Suresh, J Johnson Rajeswar, K Sukumar, T J Harikrishnan, P Srinivasan
1. A study was undertaken to characterise the oncogene Meq at the molecular level for three serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) field isolates from vaccinated poultry flocks which had encountered a Marek's disease outbreak in the southern part of India. The isolates were named Ind/TN/11/01, Ind/KA/12/02 and Ind/TN/12/03. The oncogene Meq was amplified by PCR and sequenced. 2. The isolates were shown to have a homology for the Meq gene of 99.1-99.8% with various isolates from China and 98.5-99.2% with isolates from Europe and the USA...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936897/expression-profiles-and-associations-of-adiponectin-and-adiponectin-receptors-with-intramuscular-fat-in-tibetan-chicken
#9
R Zhang, Y Lin, L Zhi, H Liao, L Zuo, Z Li, Y Xu
1. Adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the spatial expression of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes in various tissues in Tibetan chicken. The temporal expression of adiponectin and its receptor mRNAs were also studied in adipose tissue, breast muscle and thigh muscle and the correlations of the levels of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA with the contents of intramuscular fat in breast muscle and thigh muscle of Tibetan chicken were determined...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879145/variations-in-endothelin-receptor-b-subtype-2-ednrb2-coding-sequences-and-mrna-expression-levels-in-4-muscovy-duck-plumage-colour-phenotypes
#10
N Wu, H Qin, M Wang, Y Bian, B Dong, G Sun, W Zhao, G Chang, Q Xu, G Chen
1. Endothelin receptor B subtype 2 (EDNRB2) is a paralog of EDNRB, which encodes a 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. Previous studies reported that EDNRB was essential for melanoblast migration in mammals and ducks. 2. Muscovy ducks have different plumage colour phenotypes. Variations in EDNRB2 coding sequences (CDSs) and mRNA expression levels were investigated in 4 different Muscovy duck plumage colour phenotypes, including black, black mutant, silver and white head. 3. The EDNRB2 gene from Muscovy duck was cloned; it had a length of 6435 bp and encoded 437 amino acids...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869509/encapsulated-benzoic-acid-supplementation-in-broiler-diets-influences-gut-bacterial-composition-and-activity
#11
M S Yousaf, F Goodarzi Boroojeni, W Vahjen, K Männer, A Hafeez, H Ur-Rehman, S Keller, S Peris, J Zentek
1. The present study investigated the effects of encapsulated benzoic acid (BA) supplementation in broiler feed on performance and gastrointestinal microbiota. 2. Eighty broilers were randomly divided into two groups. Birds in the control group were fed on maize-soybean-based diets. Birds in the treatment group were provided the same diet supplemented with 2 g/kg BA encapsulated in a vegetable oil matrix. 3. At the end of the trial (d 35), pH, bacterial composition and metabolites were determined in the crop, jejunum, ileum and caecum...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090781/possible-role-of-central-interleukins-on-the-anorexigenic-effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-in-chicks
#12
T Tachibana, T Kodama, S Yamane, R Makino, S I Khan, M A Cline
1. The purpose of the present study was to determine if central interleukin-1β (IL1β), interleukin-6 (IL6), and interleukin-8 (IL8) affect feeding behaviour in chicks (Gallus gallus) and examine if central interleukins are related to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia. 2. Intra-abdominal (IA) injection of LPS significantly suppressed feeding behaviour and significantly increased mRNA expression of IL1β and IL8 in the diencephalon when compared to the control group, while IL6 tended to be increased...
January 16, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084805/assessment-of-health-and-welfare-of-austrian-laying-hens-at-slaughter-demonstrates-influence-of-husbandry-system-and-season
#13
B Grafl, S Polster, T Sulejmanovic, B Pürrer, B Guggenberger, M Hess
1. Selected health and welfare variables of laying hens from 79 flocks kept in alternative husbandry systems (48 barn system, 24 conventional free range, 7 organic free range) were assessed at the end-of-lay. 2. Investigations of several variables (plumage condition, body condition, skin lesions, keel bone deformations, foot pad lesions) were carried out on 100 hens per flock at the slaughter line. Lesions /pathological changes /damage were recorded as part of a novel scoring system with scores from 0-2 (0 = none/light, 1= moderate, 2 = severe)...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084802/comparison-of-electrogenic-glucose-transport-processes-and-permeability-between-proximal-and-distal-jejunum-of-laying-hens
#14
B U Metzler-Zebeli, M Hollmann, J R Aschenbach, Q Zebeli
1. The current objective was to assess 1) differences in mucosal transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and tissue conductance (GT), 2) the effect of a glucose stimulus, and 3) epithelial paracellular permeability in the proximal and distal jejunum of laying hens. 2. The jejunum was defined to begin with the end of the pancreatic loop and to end distally by following the distribution of arteries in order to distinguish between the distal jejunum and ileum. 3. Proximal and distal jejunal segments used in the Ussing chambers were collected at 9 ± 0...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084798/antioxidant-molecular-targets-of-wheat-bran-fermented-by-white-rot-fungi-and-its-potential-modulation-of-anti-oxidative-status-in-broiler-chickens
#15
C C Wang, L J Lin, Y P Chao, C J Chiang, M T Lee, S C Chang, B Yu, T T Lee
1. The study focused on antioxidant molecular targets of wheat bran fermented by white rot fungi in poultry. After solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by white rot fungi for 12 d, scanning electron microscopy found that the lignocellulose structure showed degradation and fragmentation. 2. The fermented wheat bran had significantly increased laccase and manganese peroxidase activity, as well as twice as high concentration of total quercetin, phenolics and crude polysaccharides compared to the unfermented wheat bran...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084794/inductive-expression-of-the-nod1-signalling-pathway-in-chickens-infected-with-salmonella-pullorum
#16
Z Tao, C Zhu, W Song, W Xu, S Zhang, H Liu, H Li
1. The aim of this study was to describe the role of Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) receptor signalling in chicken. 2. Tissue-specific expression analysis of NOD1, receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (MAPK11 or p38) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed their wide distribution in various organs and tissues. 3. Salmonella pullorum infection activated NOD1 receptor signalling in vivo and in vitro, resulting in significant induction of downstream signalling molecules RIPK2, NF-κB/p65, MAPK11/p38 and the effector molecules IL-1β and IL-8...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084792/antitrichomonal-activity-of-peganum-harmala-alkaloid-extract-against-trichomoniasis-in-pigeon-columba-livia-domestica
#17
M A Tabari, M R Youssefi, A A Moghadamnia
1. This study was designed to evaluate the antitrichomonal effects of P. harmala alkaloid extract against T. gallinae, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole, conventional antitrichomonal medication and harmine and harmaline, the two alkaloids present in P. harmala. 2. T. gallinae were collected by the wet mount method from infected free-living pigeons. The in vitro assay was performed using multi-well plates containing test compounds in final concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50 or 100 μg/ml...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084791/evaluation-of-the-potential-killing-performance-of-novel-percussive-and-cervical-dislocation-tools-in-chicken-cadavers
#18
J E Martin, D E F Mckeegan, J Sparrey, V Sandilands
1. Four mechanical poultry killing devices; modified Armadillo (MARM), modified Rabbit Zinger (MZIN), modified pliers (MPLI) and a novel mechanical cervical dislocation gloved device (NMCD), were assessed for their killing potential in the cadavers of euthanised birds of 4 type/age combinations: layer/adult, layer/pullet, broiler/slaughter-age and broiler/chick. 2. A 4x4x4 factorial design (batch x device x bird type + age) was employed. Ten bird cadavers per bird type and age were tested with each of the 4 devices (N = 160 birds)...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067534/molecular-cloning-alternative-splicing-and-mrna-expression-analysis-of-magi1-and-its-correlation-with-laying-performance-in-geese
#19
S Yu, M Xia, M A Alsiddig, H Liu, W Wei, J Chen
1. In a previous study, a laying-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Record-106975 (A-G) was found in the intron of Membrane-associated Guanylate Kinase with Inverted Domain Structure-1 gene (MAGI1) by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. This study was performed to further identify the function of MAGI1 on laying performance in Yangzhou geese. 2. The complete MAGI1 cDNA sequence was cloned from the ovary of the Yangzhou goose. A total of 4 alternative splice variants were identified, and the characterisation of their nucleic acid and amino acid sequences were analysed...
January 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043159/quantifying-sperm-egg-interaction-to-access-the-breeding-efficiency-through-artificial-insemination-in-guinea-fowls
#20
G H Hudson, A V Omprakash, K Premavalli, G Dhinakar Raj
1. Guinea fowl hens were inseminated weekly once with two doses of spermatozoa (75 million and 100 million) in two different diluents, Beltsville poultry semen extender, (BPSE) and Instruments for Veterinary Medicine (IMV), each with and without pre-insemination vaginal douching. Percent fertility, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shells along with data on sperm egg interaction and vaginal microbial counts were recorded. 2. Artificial insemination had significantly improved the percent fertility and hatchability compared to natural mating...
January 3, 2017: British Poultry Science
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