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British Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911094/production-traits-of-artificially-and-naturally-hatched-geese-in-intensive-and-free-range-systems-1-growth-traits
#1
M A Boz, M Sarica, U S Yamak
1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese that were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings at 2 weeks (644 g vs. 536 g); however, weights of artificially hatched goslings were significantly higher than naturally hatched goslings at both 6 weeks (3245 g vs...
December 2, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871194/lipopolysaccharide-reduces-food-passage-rate-from-the-crop-by-a-prostaglandin-independent-mechanism-in-chickens
#2
T Tachibana, M Ogino, R Makino, M S I Khan, M A Cline
We examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacteria, on food passage in the digestive tract of chickens (Gallus gallus) in order to clarify whether bacterial infection affects food passage in birds. Food passage in the crop was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of LPS while it did not affect the number of defecations, suggesting that LPS may affect food passage only in the upper digestive tract. Similar to LPS, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), one of the mediators of LPS, also reduced crop-emptying rate in chickens while it had no effect on the number of defecations...
December 2, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879145/variations-in-endothelin-receptor-b-subtype-2-ednrb2-coding-sequences-and-mrna-expression-levels-in-four-muscovy-duck-plumage-colour-phenotypes
#3
N Wu, H Qin, M Wang, Y Bian, B Dong, G Sun, W Zhao, G Chang, Q Xu, G Chen
1. Endothelin receptor B subtype 2 (EDNRB2) is a paralog of EDNRB, which encodes a 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. Previous studies reported that EDNRB was essential for melanoblast migration in mammals and ducks. 2. Muscovy ducks have different plumage colour phenotypes. Variations in EDNRB2 coding sequences and mRNA expression levels were investigated in 4 different Muscovy duck plumage colour phenotypes, including black, black mutant, silver and white head. 3. The EDNRB2 gene from Muscovy duck was cloned; it had a length of 6435 bp and encoded 437 amino acids...
November 23, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869509/encapsulated-benzoic-acid-supplementation-in-broiler-diets-influences-gut-bacterial-composition-and-activity
#4
M S Yousaf, F Goodarzi Boroojeni, W Vahjen, K Männer, A Hafeez, H Ur-Rehman, S Keller, S Peris, J Zentek
1. The present study investigated the effects of encapsulated benzoic acid (BA) supplementation in broiler feed on performance and gastrointestinal microbiota. 2. Eighty broilers were randomly divided into two groups. Birds in the control group were fed on maize-soybean based diets. Birds in the treatment group were provided the same diet supplemented with 2 g/kg BA encapsulated in a vegetable oil matrix. 3. At the end of the trial (d 35), pH, bacterial composition and metabolites were determined in the crop, jejunum, ileum and caecum...
November 21, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869499/capsaicinoids-improve-egg-production-by-regulating-ovary-nuclear-transcription-factors-against-heat-stress-in-quail
#5
N Sahin, C Orhan, M Tuzcu, V Juturu, K Sahin
1. To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from Capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n=180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22(o)C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34(o)C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kg for 12 weeks (2x3 factorial arrangement). 2. The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66...
November 21, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854128/production-traits-of-artificially-and-naturally-hatched-geese-in-%C3%A4-ntensive-and-free-range-systems-ii-slaughter-carcass-and-meat-quality-traits
#6
M A Boz, M Sarica, U S Yamak
1. This study investigated the slaughter, carcass and meat-quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, 1 female and 1 male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs 2863), dressing percentages (66...
November 17, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848267/the-impacts-of-hammer-mill-screen-size-and-grain-particle-size-on-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens-offered-diets-based-on-two-red-sorghum-varieties
#7
P H Selle, H H Truong, A Khoddami, A F Moss, T H Roberts, S Y Liu
1. The two red grain sorghums were extensively characterised. Kafirin, polyphenolic compounds, free, conjugated and bound phenolic acids, phytate concentrations and starch pasting profiles were determined. 2. The experiment consisted of a 2 x 4 factorial array of dietary treatments comprising two red sorghum varieties (Tiger and Block I) ground through 4 hammer-mill screen sizes (2.0, 3.2, 4.8, 6.0 mm) prior to incorporation into nutritionally-equivalent diets. Eight steam-pelleted dietary treatments were each offered to 7 replicates (6 male Ross 308 birds per cage) from 7 to 28 d post-hatch...
November 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845565/broiler-weight-estimation-based-on-machine-vision-and-artificial-neural-network
#8
S Amraei, S A Mehdizadeh, S Salari
1. Machine vision and artificial neural network were used to estimate live body weight of broiler chickens in 30 1-d-old broiler chickens reared for 42 d. 2. Imaging was performed two times daily. To localise chickens within the pen, an ellipse fitting algorithm was used and the chickens' head and tail removed using the Chan-Vese method. 3. The correlations between the body weight and 6 physical extracted features indicated that there were strong correlations between body weight and the 5 features including area, perimeter, convex area, major and minor axis length...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845564/a-simple-pcr-method-for-sexing-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-at-hatching
#9
V Coustham, E Godet, L Beauclair
1. The quail is a potentially important avian model for molecular studies a major drawback is the inability to sex visually before three weeks of age. Molecular sexing is therefore an absolute requirement when animals are sampled before that age. 2. A low-cost method using common laboratory equipment based on Allele-Specific Multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ASM-PCR) was developed to undertake reliable molecular identification of the sex of Coturnix japonica directly at hatching. 3. This simple method works with down feathers collected from behind the neck of the newly-hatched quail and includes internal controls during the PCR reaction to limit risks of error...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845563/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-carnosine-on-meat-quality-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-broiler-chickens
#10
J Cong, L Zhang, J Li, S Wang, F Gao, G Zhou
1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45min and redness, and reduced drip loss of breast meat...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845560/lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-poultry-protect-the-intestinal-epithelial-cells-of-chickens-from-in-vitro-wheat-germ-agglutinin-induced-cytotoxicity
#11
J D Babot, E Argañaraz Martínez, M J Lorenzo-Pisarello, M C Apella, A Perez Chaia
1. Poultry fed on wheat-based diets regularly ingest wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) that has toxic effects in vitro on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) obtained from 14-d-old broilers. Cytotoxicity and the potential role of 14 intestinal bacterial strains in the removal of bound lectins in epithelial cell cultures was investigated. 2. Cytotoxicity was dependent on time and lectin concentration; the lethal dose (LD50) was 8.36 µg/ml for IEC exposed for 2 h to WGA. 2. Complementary sugars to WGA were detected on the surface of one Enterococcus and 9 Lactobacillus strains isolated from poultry...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845558/ostrich-struthio-camelus-embryonic-development-from-7-to-42-days-of-incubation
#12
Z Brand, S W P Cloete, I A Malecki, C R Brown
1. Hatching success of ostrich eggs is poor (50-60% of fertile eggs). The current study was designed to identify the timing of key stages in the development of the ostrich embryo. 2. Growth of both embryo and wing length during 42 d of incubation was comparable and approximately linear, with a more or less weekly doubling in size up to 35 d of incubation. 3. The embryo eye size increased more rapidly than beak length and reached a maximum of ~16.2 mm by 28 d of incubation, whereas beak length increased continuously until hatching at 42 d...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845556/serological-and-haematological-values-in-geriatric-broad-breasted-white-turkeys
#13
R Casimir-Whittington, S Gorham, D Alexander, C Lane, L Moore-Lewis, J Sumbry, R Whittington, A Adams
Blood samples from 1-, 5- and 10-year-old Broad Breasted White turkeys were used to determine haematological and serum values. There were 8 turkeys in each age group. Mean haematocrit, haemoglobin and creatinine values were higher in the 1-year-old than in 10-year-old turkeys. Mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was greater in 1-year-old than in 10-year-olds and greater in 5-year-olds than in 10-year-olds. Asparate aminotransferease (AST) values were significantly different between all age groups. Mean alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was less in 1-year-old than in 10-year-old turkeys...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844496/effect-of-housing-environment-on-laying-hen-meat-quality-assessing-pectoralis-major-ph-colour-and-tenderness-in-three-strains-of-80-81-week-old-layers-housed-in-conventional-and-furnished-cages
#14
K M Frizzell, E Lynch, B M Rathgeber, W T Dixon, C T Putman, M J Jendral
1. Meat quality is affected by factors such as stress, genetic strain and activity and is determined in part by measures of pH, colour and tenderness. In conventional laying hen cages (CC), lack of physical space and inability to perform highly motivated behaviours leads to stress and inactivity. Furnished cages (FC) permit expression of highly motivated behaviours, but typically house larger group sizes than CC, thereby contributing to social stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of CC and FC laying hen housing environments and strain differences on meat quality of 80 to 81 week old birds...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844495/ileal-muc2-gene-expression-and-microbial-population-but-not-growth-performance-and-immune-response-are-influenced-by-in-ovo-injection-of-probiotics-in-broiler-chickens
#15
A Majidi-Mosleh, A A Sadeghi, S N Mousavi, M Chamani, A Zarei
1. The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of intra-amniotic injection of different probiotic strains (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici) on the intestinal MUC2 gene expression, microbial population, growth performance and immune response in broiler chicken. 2. In a completely randomised design, different probiotic strains was injected into the amniotic fluid of the 480 live embryos (d 18 of incubation), with 4 treatments and 5 replicates. Ileal MUC2 gene expression, microbial profile, growth performance and immune response were determined...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844489/genetic-parameters-of-body-weight-and-ascites-in-broilers-effect-of-different-incidence-rates-of-ascites-syndrome
#16
J Ahmadpanah, N G Hossein-Zadeh, A A Shadparvar, A Pakdel
1. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of incidence rate (5, 10, 20, 30 and 50%) of ascites syndrome (AS) on the expression of genetic characteristics for body weight at 5 weeks of age (BW5) and AS and to compare different methods of genetic parameter estimation for these traits. 2. Based on stochastic simulation, a population with discrete generations was created in which random mating was used for 10 generations. Two methods of restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling (GS) were used for the estimation of genetic parameters...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844487/promoter-analysis-and-tissue-expression-of-the-chicken-asb15-gene
#17
Y C Wang, Z J Li, R L Han, C L Xu, S H Wang, G R Sun, S H Wang, J P Wu, X T Kang
1. This study was conducted to explore the promoter region of the chicken ASB15 gene by detecting the activities of the dual luciferase reporter gene, and to assess expression profiles of the ASB15 gene in 10 different tissues from Gushi chicken. 2. Five dual luciferase reporter gene vectors were constructed and transfected into DF1 cells. Then the activities of recombined plasmids were measured and the core promoter was confirmed by bioinformatic analysis. Total RNA was extracted and the relative expression of the ASB15 gene was examined...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844479/specific-expression-and-promoter-analysis-of-the-albumin-gene-promoter-of-the-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-domesticus
#18
Y Chen, Q Yu, Z Huang, B Wang, Q Xu, L Lan, G Chang, Y Zhang, G Chen
1. Albumin (ALB) is a serum protein most highly expressed in liver and regarded as an effective indicator for liver pathologies. The objectives of this study were to determine the expression of duck ALB gene (duALB) in various non-hepatic tissues and identify the potential cis-regulatory elements in the promoter. 2. A model was established to assess duALB promoter activity in different cell lines by construction of a duALB promoter-driven GFP-expressing vector, which exhibited high expression activity in liver-derived cells and lower expression in other cells...
November 15, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825276/prevalence-of-tetracycline-resistance-determinants-in-broiler-isolated-escherichia-coli-in-iran
#19
S Seifi, R Khoshbakht
Tetracycline resistance determinants are widespread among bacterial species. Resistance to tetracycline occurs by different mechanisms regulated by various genes. The study was conducted to determine the tetracycline resistance and prevalence of tetracycline resistance determinants among Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in northern Iran. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline and susceptibility pattern of the isolates were screened using micro-dilution and disk diffusion methods, respectively...
November 9, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744716/influences-of-end-point-heating-temperature-on-the-quality-attributes-of-chicken-meat
#20
W Chumngoen, C F Chen, H Y Chen, F J Tan
1. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native (TNC) chicken pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. 2. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. 3. Meat from broilers and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics...
October 17, 2016: British Poultry Science
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