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British Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392387/genotypic-and-phenotypic-diversity-differences-of-presumptive-commensal-and-avian-pathogenic-e-coli
#1
Fatemah Al-Kandari, Martin J Woodward
1. The objective of the experiment was to characterise the genotypic and phenotypic differences between presumptive commensal E. coli and avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) of poultry. 2. DNA was extracted from 65 confirmed APEC E. coli from chicken, 100 presumptive commensal E. coli from healthy turkey and 35 from healthy chicken. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and virulence factors genotyping was performed to characterise genetic features. 3. Carbon source utilisation and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed to characterise phenotypic features of isolates...
November 5, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070146/effects-of-pea-extrusion-and-enzyme-and-probiotic-supplementation-on-performance-microbiota-activity-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-broiler-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
P Konieczka, K Nowicka, M Madar, M Taciak, S Smulikowska
1. The effects of supplementation of broiler chicken diets with pea meal, carbohydrase enzymes and a probiotic were investigated for potential performance improvement. 2. Raw or extruded pea meal (cv Model, grown in Poland) was included in a wheat-soybean meal-based diet at 250 g/kg. The diets were unsupplemented (control) or supplemented with either carbohydrase enzymes (200 U/kg xylanase and 10 U/kg β-glucanase in feed) or a probiotic (Bacillus subtilis), or both. The diets were fed to Ross 308 broilers aged 9-28 days...
October 24, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345798/effect-of-fermented-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-on-nutrient-utilisation-intestinal-digestive-function-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-broilers
#3
Y Niu, J F Zhang, X L Wan, Q Huang, J T He, X H Zhang, L G Zhao, L L Zhang, T Wang
1. A total of 648 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into six equal groups to investigate the effect of diet supplemented with fermented Ginkgo biloba leaves (FGBL) at different levels on nutrient utilisation, intestinal digestive function and antioxidant activity. 2. Broilers in the six groups were offered basal diet supplemented with either 0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 g/kg FGBL during the 42-d experiment, respectively. 3. Birds fed with 3.5 g/kg FGBL diet exhibited increased (P < 0...
October 22, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345797/effect-of-supplementing-graded-concentrations-of-non-phytate-phosphorus-on-performance-egg-quality-and-bone-mineral-variables-in-white-leghorn-layers
#4
SavaramVenkata Rama Rao, Mantina Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha Raju, Shyam Sundar Paul, Bhukya Prakash
1. An experiment was conducted to determine optimal non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) concentrations for White Leghorn (WL) layers (22-72 weeks) fed diet containing 38 g Ca/kg. 2. Eight diets with graded concentrations (1.5 to 3.25 g/kg in increments of 0.25 g) of NPP were prepared. Each diet was fed to eight pen replicates containing 88 birds in each. Performance data was evaluated in three different phases (phase I-22-37 weeks, phase II-38-53 weeks and phase III-54-72 weeks). Optimum levels of NPP were determined by fitting a quadratic polynomial (QP) regression model...
October 22, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309251/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-analysis-of-eight-local-chicken-breeds-of-southern-xinjiang
#5
W Azimu, B Manatbay, Y Li, D Kaimaerdan, H E Wang, A Reheman, G Muhatai
1. The genetic diversity and population structure were studied for eight local chicken breeds, including Anjiyan (AN), Hetian Black (HH), Hetian Ma (HM), Aheqi (AH), Baicheng You (BC), Hejing (HJ), Tashkurghan (TS) and Ruoqiang (RQ), in the Southern Xinjiang region of China, using 20 microsatellite markers. 2. Total 336 alleles were obtained from all chicken breeds, with a mean of 16.8 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.444 to 0.911, with a mean of 0.729 and almost all of the loci showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg standards...
October 12, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309249/effects-of-gelatin-prepared-from-calf-bones-rich-in-phosphorus-on-broiler-performance-bone-characteristics-and-digestive-enzymes-activity
#6
Fatemeh Beyranvand, Saeed Khalaji, Abbas Zamani, Milad Manafi
1. Gelatin prepared from calf bones (GCB) is a novel source of high quality protein and phosphorous. Its inclusion in broiler chicken diets may improve bone strength, plasma and digestive alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), phosphorus digestibility and performance of broilers. Therefore, di-calcium phosphate in a corn-soy control diet was replaced with 12, 24, and 36 g/kg of GCB in a completely randomised design with four treatments of six replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. The trial lasted from 1-42 days of age...
October 12, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295510/welfare-of-layers-housed-in-small-furnished-cages-on-danish-commercial-farms-the-condition-of-keel-bone-feet-plumage-and-skin
#7
M V Rørvang, L K Hinrichsen, A B Riber
1. An on-farm assessment of keel bone, feet, plumage and skin damage was conducted in layers in small furnished cages to evaluate welfare implications. 2. Thirteen farms participated, all housing Lohmann LSL layers in systems allowing 8 or 10 hens per cage. 3. Each flock was visited at three different ages: 32, 62 and 77 weeks. During each visit, 100 hens were examined for keel bone fractures and deviations, plumage damage, body wounds, foot pad lesions, bumble feet, missing toes and toe wounds. 4. A deterioration with age of the condition of the plumage and keel bone was found (P < 0...
October 8, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293452/five-alternative-splicing-variants-of-the-tyr-gene-and-their-different-roles-in-melanogenesis-in-the-muchuan-black-boned-chicken
#8
S Yu, G Wang, J Liao, M Tang
1. The TYR gene encodes tyrosinase, a multifunctional enzyme that is essential for melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes. This experiment involved the cloning and characterisation of the TYR gene in chicken. Five alternative splice variants were identified in the black feather bulb and designated as TYR-AS1, TYR-AS2, TYR-AS3, TYR-AS4 and TYR-AS5. 2. Among the 11 chicken tissues examined, the feather bulb, comb and skin showed higher levels of all TYR variants. All TYR variants were expressed at significantly different levels in black and white feather bulbs (P < 0...
October 8, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259763/expression-profiles-and-associations-of-fgf1-and-fgf10-with-intramuscular-fat-in-tibetan-chicken
#9
Runfeng Zhang, Ruiwen Li, Qingyuan Feng, Lifeng Zhi, Zhixiong Li, Ya-Ou Xu, Yaqiu Lin
1. FGF1 and FGF10, two paracrine members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) gene family, play critical roles in the development, structural, and metabolic remodelling of adipose tissue. 2. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of FGF1 and FGF10 genes in breast muscle and thigh muscle in five developmental stages (1, 81, 119, 154, and 210 days old) in Tibetan chickens. The possible relationships between expression of these genes and intramuscular fat content (IMF) were analysed in Tibetan chickens...
September 27, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130415/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-lueyang-black-bone-chicken
#10
T Zhang, H Liu, L-K Yang, Y-J Yin, H-Z Lu, L Wang
1. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the mitochondrial genome and molecular phylogeny of Lueyang black-bone chicken, and  provide  molecule base to preserve and explore the specific chicken strain. 2. Based on sequencing and clustering, the complete mitochondrial DNA map and sequences of Lueyang black-bone chicken were revealed, and two phylogenetic trees of Lueyang black-bone chickens based on D-loop sequences and the mitochondrial genome were constructed. 3. The results showed that the complete mitochondrial genome of Lueyang black-bone chickens is 16,784bp in size, consisting of 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and one non-coding control region...
September 26, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239223/reliably-colonising-broiler-chickens-with-campylobacter-spp-using-a-litter-based-method
#11
V Sandilands, F Whyte, L K Williams, T S Wilkinson, N H C Sparks, T J Humphrey
1. Chicken-associated Campylobacter spp. are the cause of most food poisoning cases in Europe. In order to study the host-pathogen interactions, a reliable and reproducible method of colonising chickens with the bacteria is required. 2. This study aimed to identify a more appropriate and less invasive method of colonisation (cf. gavaging) by seeding bedding material (litter) that commercial chickens are kept on with a mixture of Campylobacter spp., broth and faeces. 3. The first phase of the study tested the longevity of Campylobacter spp...
September 21, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141691/a-note-on-transgenerational-epigenetics-affecting-egg-quality-traits-in-meat-type-quail
#12
J T Paiva, M D V De Resende, R T Resende, H R Oliveira, H T Silva, G C Caetano, A A Calderano, P S Lopes, J M S Viana, F F Silva
1. The aim of the following experiment was to estimate transgenerational epigenetic variance for egg quality traits using genealogical and phenotypic information in meat-type quail. Measured traits included egg length (EL) and width (EWD), albumen weight (AW), shell weight (SW), yolk weight (YW) and egg weight (EW). 2. A total of 391 birds were evaluated for egg quality by collecting a sample of one egg per bird, during three consecutive days, starting on the 14th d of production. Analyses were performed using mixed models including the random epigenetic effect...
September 21, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229673/intestinal-mucosa-develops-in-a-sex-dependent-manner-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-fed-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
E Tomaszewska, P Dobrowolski, S Muszyński, M Kwiecień, K Kasperek, S Knaga, A Tomczyk-Warunek, S Kowalik, G Jeżewska-Witkowska, E R Grela
1. The aim of study was to investigate whether the impact of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the histological structure of the intestine, innervation of the small intestine wall, and basal biochemical serum parameters in Japanese quail was sex dependent. 2. One-day-old healthy male and female Japanese quail were fed either a basal diet containing no yeast (control group) or the basal diet plus 1.5% (15 g/kg of diet) of yeast (S. cerevisiae inactivated by drying). Samples from the duodenum and jejunum were taken from each bird at the age of 42 days...
September 19, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064255/a-note-on-cloning-and-analysis-of-the-osteopontin-gene-with-egg-quality-traits-in-two-chinese-domestic-ducks
#14
D Bai, L Lan, Y Wan, M Yan, S Lian, A Li, X Wu
1. Osteopontin (OPN) is a highly phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in eggshell formation. In this study, an 893-bp cDNA sequence of the OPN gene, which encodes 180 amino acids, was obtained. 2. Polymorphisms of the OPN gene were analysed with DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism methods in two Chinese domestic laying ducks (Jingding n = 100, Youxian n = 478, respectively). 3. One polymorphism was identified in exon 7 (NM_ 004676534...
September 19, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221543/assessing-exterior-egg-quality-indicators-using-machine-vision
#15
A V Vasileva, E V Gorbunova, A S Vasilev, V S Peretyagin, A N Chertov, V V Korotaev
1. The objective of this study was to develop a machine vision method for analysing exterior parameters of chicken eggs to automate the stage of primary sorting. 2. The developed algorithm based on predetermined thresholds calculated egg quality indicators, including geometric dimensions, shape index and the mottling grade. The algorithm was implemented with an experimental setup that combined the image-based and the candling methods. A total of 400 egg samples were analysed. 3. Comparison of results of the algorithm with those obtained using the traditional manual method showed that mean value of radii values difference was 0...
September 17, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963908/association-of-adsl-gene-polymorphisms-with-meat-quality-and-carcass-traits-in-domestic-pigeons-columba-livia
#16
H G Mao, H Y Cao, H H Liu, X Y Dong, N Y Xu, Z Z Yin
1. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) plays an important role in the synthesis of inosine monophosphate (IMP). In this trial, a total of 200 pigeons were sampled and slaughtered. Seven meat quality traits and 11 carcass traits were measured. DNA sequencing was used to detect nucleotide mutations, and associations between ADSL gene polymorphisms and meat quality and carcass traits were analysed. 2. Sequencing results showed that 9 nucleotide mutations were found in the exons of the ADSL gene. All the mutations were synonymous except C13065G, which caused a change in amino acids (Ser to Arg)...
September 17, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939074/comparative-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-related-to-triglyceride-metabolism-between-intramuscular-fat-and-abdominal-fat-in-broilers
#17
L Liu, H X Cui, M Q Zheng, G P Zhao, J Wen
1. Lipid metabolism is an indispensable process in an organism, though little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of fat deposition in different types of adipose tissues. 2. The differentially expressed genes related to triglyceride (TG) metabolism between abdominal and intramuscular fat (IMF) of Beijing-You chickens were investigated in this study. 3. TG content in abdominal fat (AF) (349.7 mg/g) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in the breast and thigh (12.3 mg/g and 24.8 mg/g, respectively)...
September 17, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914266/isolation-and-biological-characteristics-of-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-chick-embryo-intestine
#18
J J Wang, W X Zhang, K F Wang, S Zhang, X Han, W J Guan, Y H Ma
1. Over the past decade, rapid advancement in isolation methods for identifying markers of the once elusive intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations has laid the foundation for unravelling their complex interrelationships during homeostasis. Study on ISC in avian intestinal tissue might play a pivotal foundation for further studies on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastrointestinal disease and cell-based therapy as well as intestinal tissue engineering. 2. The following experiment isolated a population of fibroblast-like, plastic adhering cells derived from chick embryo intestine, showing a strong self-renewing and proliferative ability, which was maintained in vitro up to passage 25...
September 17, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873243/effect-of-herbal-feed-additives-on-performance-parameters-intestinal-microbiota-intestinal-morphology-and-meat-lipid-oxidation-of-broiler-chickens
#19
I Giannenas, E Bonos, I Skoufos, A Tzora, I Stylianaki, D Lazari, A Tsinas, E Christaki, P Florou-Paneri
1. This feeding trial investigated the effects of herbal feed additives on performance of broiler chickens, jejunal and caecal microbiota, jejunal morphology, meat chemical composition and oxidative stability during refrigerated storage. 2. In a 42 days trial, 320 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 groups with 4 replicate pens each containing 20 chicks. The control group was fed maize-soybean-based diets. The diets of the other three groups were supplemented with herbal feed additives: HRB1 with StresomixTM (0...
September 17, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198753/growth-performance-carcass-criteria-and-serum-biochemical-parameters-of-broiler-chickens-supplemented-with-either-synbiotic-or-prebiotic-under-hot-climatic-conditions
#20
A A A Abdel-Wareth, H A Hassan, W Abdelrahman, Z S H Ismail, R A M Ali, E A Ahmed, J Lohakare
1. Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of either prebiotic or synbiotic on growth performance, carcass yield, organs weights, and serum metabolic profile of broilers under hot climatic conditions. 2. In experiment 1, one hundred and fifty 1-day old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were fed dietary synbiotic (Biomin® IMBO, 0, 1 or 1.5 g kg -1 of the starter diets and 0, 0.5 or 0.75 g kg -1 of the grower diets) for six weeks. In experiment 2, one hundred and fifty 1-day old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were fed dietary prebiotic (Mannan oligosaccharide 0 g, 0...
September 10, 2018: British Poultry Science
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