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British Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219006/distribution-and-quantitative-analysis-of-cidea-and-cidec-in-broiler-chickens-accounting-for-differential-fat-deposition-between-strains
#1
J Huang, L Huang, Q Zeng, E Huang, H Liang, Q Wei, X Xie, J Ruan
1. Differences in the expression of CIDEa and CIDEc in 20 different tissues were examined. Both CIDEa and CIDEc mRNA transcripts were predominantly but variably expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) but were also expressed at moderate levels in the kidney and liver and at lower levels in the ovary. Interestingly, among white adipose tissue types, both CIDEa and CIDEc were expressed at the lowest levels in hWAT (heart coronary white adipose tissue). 2. To better understand the roles of CIDEa and CIDEc in the fat deposition of broiler chickens, the differences in lipid droplet size and mRNA levels of CIDEa and CIDEc between lean-type and fat-type broiler chicken lines was studied...
December 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214857/feeding-time-can-alleviate-negative-effects-of-heat-stress-on-performance-meat-quality-and-health-status-of-turkey
#2
M F A Farghly, M Alagawany, M E Abd El-Hack
1. A total of 180 one-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to 6 equal groups to investigate the effect of feeding time on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, leg problems and physiological responses of growing turkeys under the high temperature conditions of summer. 2. Birds of the first group were ad libitum fed and were considered as the controls (C). The second group (T1) was given 80% of diet in the morning and 20% of diet in the afternoon, The third group (T2) was given 60% of diet in the morning and 40% of diet in the afternoon, The fourth group (T3) was given 40% of diet in the morning and 60% of diet in the afternoon, The fifth group (T4) was given 20% of diet in the morning and 80% of diet in the afternoon and the sixth group (T5) was given 100% of diet in the afternoon...
December 7, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207879/association-of-dgat2-gene-polymorphisms-with-carcass-and-meat-quality-traits-in-domestic-pigeons-columba-livia
#3
H G Mao, X Y Dong, H Y Cao, N Y Xu, Z Z Yin
1.Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays an important role in the synthesis of triacylglycerol, but its effects on meat quality and carcass composition in pigeons are unclear. In this study, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons of the DGAT2 gene were identified and analysed by using DNA sequencing methods in 200 domestic pigeons (Columba livia). The associations between DGAT2 polymorphisms and carcass and meat quality traits were also analysed. 2. Sequencing results showed that 5 nucleotide mutations were detected in exons 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the DGAT2 gene...
December 6, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206486/the-method-of-chicken-whole-embryo-culture-using-the-eggshell-windowing-surrogate-eggshell-and-ex-ovo-culture-system
#4
M Farzaneh, F Attari, S E Khoshnam, P E Mozdziak
1. The unique accessibility of the avian embryo have made them an ideal model for the study of development and genome editing. Chicken whole embryo culture has provided important insights into toxicity tests, gene manipulation, clarifying gene functions, cell transplantation, and cell tracking. 2. A simple technique for chicken manipulation is eggshell windowing, without or with seal, the latter having demonstrated some improvement in hatching rates. 3. Likewise, a surrogate eggshell system provides an accessible model for manipulation during chicken and quail development, with a higher hatchability compared to the simple windowing method...
December 5, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172676/effects-of-conditioning-time-and-sodium-bentonite-on-pellet-quality-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-and-nutrients-retention-in-finisher-broilers
#5
A Attar, H Kermanshahi, A Golian
1. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of steam-conditioning time and different levels of processed sodium bentonite (PSB) on pellet quality, growth performance, intestinal development and morphology, and nutrients digestibilities in broilers during finisher period (d 24-45). 2. A total of 810 male chicks (Ross 308) were reared in commercial conditions on floor pens till d 24. Then, birds were weighed and used in a completely randomised design experiment with a 3×3 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of conditioning times (0, 2 and 4 min) and 3 PSB levels (0, 7...
November 27, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160720/effects-of-a-dry-ice-process-on-surface-and-carcase-decontamination-in-the-poultry-industry
#6
M Uyarcan, S Kayaardi
1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry ice decontamination on equipment and carcase surfaces in a poultry slaughterhouse and to present an effective alternative method to the conventional decontamination processes. 2. Appreciable reductions occurred in total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts of surface swab samples treated with dry ice (maximum difference 3.92 log CFU/100 cm(2)). 3. After dry ice treatment, Listeria spp. were detected on surfaces of pluckers and chiller cylinders whereas Salmonella spp...
November 21, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148834/respiratory-phagocytes-are-implicated-in-enhanced-colibacillosis-in-chickens-co-infected-with-influenza-virus-h9n2-and-esherichia-coli
#7
J Wang, Y Li, Y Yin
1. The aim of this study was to determine the most likely time interval after infection with influenza virus H9N2 for co-infection with Escherichia coli to cause colibacillosis, the importance of lung load of E. coli and the involvement of respiratory phagocytes. 2. Specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) EID50 of influenza virus or uninfected. After specified time intervals, 10(7) CFU E. coli or phosphate-buffered saline was inoculated. The presence of lesions, the number of respiratory phagocytes in the respiratory lavage fluid and the E...
November 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140103/salmonella-gallinarum-field-isolates-and-its-relationship-to-vaccine-strain-sg9r
#8
P K V Koerich, B B Fonseca, E Balestrin, V Tagliari, P G Hoepers, C Ueira-Vieira, I Oldoni, R H Rauber, L Ruschel, V P Do Nascimento
1. The aim of the present study was to determine if the 9R-strain of the Salmonella gallinarum live vaccine was responsible for having fowl typhoid outbreaks in chicken flocks from both chicken and turkey breeders as well as to verify the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates from the outbreaks. 2. The triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), standard antimicrobial test, beta-lactamase genes identification and Ion Torrent PMG whole genome sequence were used in the field isolates and in the vaccine strain of S...
November 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130742/internal-roosting-location-is-associated-with-differential-use-of-the-outdoor-range-by-free-range-laying-hens
#9
I C Pettersson, C A Weeks, K I Norman, T G Knowles, C J Nicol
1. In commercial free-range systems for laying hens, popholes to the outdoor range are often installed on one side of the house only. In multi-tier systems, it is possible that some individuals fail to access the range due to internal barriers to movement. 2. Five commercial multi-tier flocks from different units were studied. For each flock, two different colour markers were used to distinguish 200 birds roosting near the popholes (NP-Roost) and 200 birds roosting far from the popholes (FP-Roost) at night...
November 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130331/pasture-multi-enzymes-benzoic-acid-and-essential-oils-positively-influence-performance-intestinal-organ-weight-and-egg-quality-in-free-range-laying-hens
#10
Z Iqbal, J Roberts, R A Perez-Maldonado, F Goodarzi Boroojeni, R A Swick, I Ruhnke
1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of range type, multi-enzymes applications and a combination of benzoic acid and essential oils on the productive performance, organ weight and egg quality of free-range laying hens. 2. Three hundred laying hens were evaluated for the short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks) effects of range type (G = no pasture, P = pasture) and feed additives (T1 = control; T2 = betaglucanse/pectinase/protease; T3 = benzoic acid/essential oils). Body weight, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production (EP), and digestive organs weight and egg quality (EQ) were evaluated...
November 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129115/innovative-layer-genetics-to-handle-global-challenges-in-egg-production
#11
R Preisinger
1. In commercial layer breeding, extensive gene pools are tested and selected for market requirements which must be anticipated at least five years ahead. Field results confirm a continuous positive genetic trend in egg output and better feed efficiency which can be converted into land savings. 2. Animal welfare and cage-free housing dominate future needs of the market. Nesting behaviour and minimal tendency to develop feather-pecking or cannibalism without beak treatment, are key trait complexes. Stronger shells for longer production cycles without moulting have to be combined with better bones...
November 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115161/pharmacokinetics-of-tapentadol-in-laying-hens-and-its-residues-in-eggs-after-multiple-oral-dose-administration
#12
V De Vito, H Owen, M Marzoni, T Won Kim, A Poapolathep, M Giorgi
1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Tapentadol (TAP), a novel opioid analgesic, in laying hens after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration and to quantify the concentrations of TAP residues in eggs. 2. Twenty healthy laying hens were divided into three groups: A (n=6), B (n=6) and C (n=8). The study was conducted in 2 phases. Groups A and B received TAP by IV and PO routes at the dose of 1 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. 3. No visible adverse effects were observed after administration of the drug...
November 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115143/inclusion-levels-and-modes-of-whole-grain-incorporation-into-wheat-based-rations-differentially-influence-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#13
A F Moss, H H Truong, S Y Liu, P H Selle
1. The objective was to compare three whole grain inclusion levels (7.5, 15 and 30%) offered to broiler chickens by three modes of whole grain (WG) incorporation: (i) pre-pellet WG inclusion, (ii) post-pellet WG inclusion as a blend of WG and pelleted concentrate and (iii) post-pellet WG inclusion where WG and pelleted concentrate were provided in separate feed trays against a ground-grain, wheat-based control diet. 2. Ten dietary treatments was offered to 6 replicate cages (6 birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chickens from 7 to 28 d post-hatch...
November 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113457/the-occurrence-of-deep-pectoral-myopathy-in-broilers-and-associated-changes-in-breast-meat-quality
#14
S Yalcin, S Ozkan, M C Acar, O Meral
1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of slaughter weight on the incidence and intensity of deep pectoral myopathy (DPM) of M. pectoralis minor (p. minor muscle) in commercial conditions in Turkey and to evaluate the impact of DPM on meat quality traits of pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in broilers. 2. In Experiment 1, a total of 116 250 carcasses from 59 Ross-308 broiler flocks, classified according to slaughter weight as 2.0-2.2, 2.2-2.4, 2.4-2.6 and >2.6 kg, were evaluated for occurrence of DPM...
November 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099622/electroencephalographic-assessment-of-concussive-non-penetrative-captive-bolt-stunning-of-turkeys
#15
T J Gibson, C B Rebelo, T A Gowers, N M Chancellor
1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioural responses of turkeys stunned with three different concussive non-penetrative captive-bolt guns prior to slaughter. 2. Thirty-one slaughter weight ex-breeding female turkeys (29 weeks of age; mean body weight 13.32 ± SD 0.65 kg) were stunned with the Cash Poultry Killer (CPK) (n=10), Turkey Euthanasia Device (TED) (n=10) and Zephyr EXL (n=11). 3. Mean peak kinetic energy was highest for the CPK compared to the TED and Zephyr EXL (75...
November 3, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094608/effects-of-essential-oils-from-liquidambar-orientalis-mill-leaves-on-growth-performance-carcass-and-some-organ-traits-some-blood-metabolites-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-broilers
#16
A Altop, G Erener, M E Duru, K Isik
1. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of essential oils (LEO) isolated from Turkish sweet gum (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) leaves on growth performance, carcass, edible inner organs, gastrointestinal traits (gut), some blood metabolites and jejunum microbiota in broilers. 2. A total of 375 one-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 5 pens with 15 birds. The birds were fed on diets without antibiotics (CONT), with antibiotic (50 mg per kg, AB), with LEOs at 0...
November 2, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922013/identification-of-a-practical-and-reliable-method-for-the-evaluation-of-litter-moisture-in-turkey-production
#17
L J Vinco, S Giacomelli, L Campana, M Chiari, N Vitale, G Lombardi, T Veldkamp, P M Hocking
1. An experiment was conducted to compare 5 different methods for the evaluation of litter moisture. 2. For litter collection and assessment, 55 farms were selected, one shed from each farm was inspected and 9 points were identified within each shed. 3. For each device, used for the evaluation of litter moisture, mean and standard deviation of wetness measures per collection point were assessed. 4. The reliability and overall consistency between the 5 instruments used to measure wetness were high (α = 0...
October 27, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053378/genetic-diversity-of-jiangsu-native-chicken-breeds-assessed-with-the-mitochondrial-dna-d-loop-region
#18
X X Jia, J X Lu, X J Tang, Y F Fan, S H Huang, Q L Ge, Y S Gao
1. The objective of this study was to determine the origin and evolution of chickens from 5 native breeds that are traditionally raised in Jiangsu Province. 2. The sequence of the mitochondrial D-loop has proven to be useful for studying population genetics and trace the origins of domestic animals. 3. To address this question, we analysed the complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence of 149 chickens from 5 native breeds of Jiangsu Province. 4. Sequences read lengths of the native breeds were 1231 to 1232 bp, with a single-base deletion from the 859 bp site in the 1231 bp haplotype...
October 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905633/effect-of-particle-size-distribution-of-maize-and-soybean-meal-on-the-precaecal-amino-acid-digestibility-in-broiler-chickens
#19
W Siegert, C Ganzer, H Kluth, M Rodehutscord
1. Herein, it was investigated whether different particle size distributions of feed ingredients achieved by grinding through a 2- or 3-mm grid would have an effect on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility. Maize and soybean meal were used as the test ingredients. 2. Maize and soybean meal was ground with grid sizes of 2 or 3 mm. Nine diets were prepared. The basal diet contained 500 g/kg of maize starch. The other experimental diets contained maize or soybean meal samples at concentrations of 250 and 500, and 150 and 300 g/kg, respectively, instead of maize starch...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891677/genetic-variation-in-the-mitf-promoter-affects-skin-colour-and-transcriptional-activity-in-black-boned-chickens
#20
G Wang, J Liao, M Tang, S Yu
1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a pivotal role in melanocyte development by regulating the transcription of major pigmentation enzymes (e.g. TYR, TYRP1 and DCT). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), c.-638T>C, was identified in the MITF promoter, and genotyping of a population (n = 426) revealed that SNP c.-638T>C was associated with skin colour in black-boned chickens. 2. Individuals with genotypes CC and TC exhibited greater MTIF expression than those with genotype TT...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
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