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British Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053378/genetic-diversity-of-jiangsu-native-chicken-breeds-assessed-with-the-mitochondrial-dna-d-loop-region
#1
X X Jia, J X Lu, X J Tang, Y F Fan, S H Huang, Q L Ge, Y S Gao
1. The objective of this study was to determine the origin and evolution of chickens from 5 native breeds that are traditionally raised in Jiangsu Province. 2. The sequence of the mitochondrial D-loop has proven to be useful for studying population genetics and trace the origins of domestic animals. 3. To address this question, we analysed the complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence of 149 chickens from 5 native breeds of Jiangsu Province. 4. Sequences read lengths of the native breeds were 1231 to 1232 bp, with a single-base deletion from the 859 bp site in the 1231 bp haplotype...
October 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893081/paired-box-7-pax7-gene-molecular-characterisation-polymorphism-and-its-association-with-growth-performance-in-goose-anser-cygnoides
#2
C Wang, Y Z Yang, Y Liu, S M Gong, H Y Wang, D Q He
1. Paired box (Pax7) gene is a member of the paired box family and plays a critical role in animal growth and muscle development. However, the molecular characterisation of the goose Pax7 gene is unknown. 2. The open-reading frame of goose Pax7 is composed of 1509 bp, which encodes a protein of 503 amino acids and shares high homology with Pax7 of other birds. 3. Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the genomic DNA sequence, 8 located in the intron region and two located in the exon region...
October 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929797/automated-early-detection-of-drops-in-commercial-egg-production-using-neural-networks
#3
I Ramírez-Morales, E Fernández-Blanco, D Rivero, A Pazos
1. The purpose of this work was to support decision-making in poultry farms by performing automatic early detection of anomalies in egg production. 2. Unprocessed data were collected from a commercial egg farm on a daily basis over 7 years. Records from a total of 24 flocks, each with approximately 20 000 laying hens, were studied. 3. Other similar works have required a prior feature extraction by a poultry expert, and this method is dependent on time and expert knowledge. 4. The present approach reduces the dependency on time and expert knowledge because of the automatic selection of relevant features and the use of artificial neural networks capable of cost-sensitive learning...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905633/effect-of-particle-size-distribution-of-maize-and-soybean-meal-on-the-precaecal-amino-acid-digestibility-in-broiler-chickens
#4
W Siegert, C Ganzer, H Kluth, M Rodehutscord
1. Herein, it was investigated whether different particle size distributions of feed ingredients achieved by grinding through a 2- or 3-mm grid would have an effect on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility. Maize and soybean meal were used as the test ingredients. 2. Maize and soybean meal was ground with grid sizes of 2 or 3 mm. Nine diets were prepared. The basal diet contained 500 g/kg of maize starch. The other experimental diets contained maize or soybean meal samples at concentrations of 250 and 500, and 150 and 300 g/kg, respectively, instead of maize starch...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901781/genetic-analyses-of-partial-egg-production-in-japanese-quail-using-multi-trait-random-regression-models
#5
K Karami, S Zerehdaran, B Barzanooni, E Lotfi
1. The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for average egg weight (EW) and egg number (EN) at different ages in Japanese quail using multi-trait random regression (MTRR) models. 2. A total of 8534 records from 900 quail, hatched between 2014 and 2015, were used in the study. Average weekly egg weights and egg numbers were measured from second until sixth week of egg production. 3. Nine random regression models were compared to identify the best order of the Legendre polynomials (LP)...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891677/genetic-variation-in-the-mitf-promoter-affects-skin-colour-and-transcriptional-activity-in-black-boned-chickens
#6
G Wang, J Liao, M Tang, S Yu
1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a pivotal role in melanocyte development by regulating the transcription of major pigmentation enzymes (e.g. TYR, TYRP1 and DCT). A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), c.-638T>C, was identified in the MITF promoter, and genotyping of a population (n = 426) revealed that SNP c.-638T>C was associated with skin colour in black-boned chickens. 2. Individuals with genotypes CC and TC exhibited greater MTIF expression than those with genotype TT...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881144/studies-on-occurrence-characterisation-and-decontamination-of-emerging-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-stec-etec-and-eiec-in-table-eggs
#7
C O Vinayananda, Nadeem Fairoze, C B Madhavaprasad, S M Byregowda, C S Nagaraj, Prashanth Bagalkot, Nagappa Karabasanavar
1. Escherichia coli is one of the most common facultative anaerobic species present in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and human beings. Usually they occur as commensals, but some serotypes can cause significant illnesses in humans as well as mammals and birds. 2. The occurrence of E. coli in different categories of table eggs collected from markets was evaluated. Isolates were analysed for the presence of virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and efficacy of peracetic acid and chlorine for the purpose of decontaminating table eggs...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805451/genetic-characterisation-and-analysis-of-infectious-bronchitis-virus-isolated-from-brazilian-flocks-between-2010-and-2015
#8
Claudia Carranza, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Silvana H Santander Parra, Luis F N Nuñez, Zoltan Penzes, Jorge L Chacón, Luiz Sesti, Ruy D Chacón, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
1. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants in Brazil were isolated during 2010-2015 for epidemiological and molecular analysis to characterise the different variants and perform a bioinformatic analysis to compare with sequences of variants collected over the previous 40 years. 2. Of the 453 samples examined, 61.4% were positive for IBV and 75.9% of these were considered to have the BR-I genotype and were detected in birds of all ages distributed in all five Brazilian regions. 3. The ratio of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS), i...
October 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019275/identification-of-dna-methylation-and-transcriptional-regulatory-regions-in-the-promoter-of-duck-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-rig-i
#9
Y U Zhang, Yang Chen, Qi Xu, Ran Liu, Ningzhao Wu, Guohong Chen
1. The aim of this study was to identify the active control area of the duck RIG-I core promoter, to predict the binding sites of transcription factors, and to provide a theoretical basis for the study of duck RIG-I function and mechanism of regulation. 2. The promoter region of duRIG-I was obtained from Ensembl; the CpG island in the duRIG-I promoter was predicted online; and the methylation status of the duRIG-I promoter was detected by the bisulphite sequencing PCR (BSP) method. 3. There was an obvious CpG island in the duRIG-I promoter, with a total of 44 CG dinucleotides...
October 11, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019255/expression-profiles-and-associations-of-muscle-regulatory-factor-mrf-genes-with-growth-traits-in-tibetan-chickens
#10
Runfeng Zhang, Rui-Wen Li, Lifeng Zhi, Ya-Ou Xu, Ya Qiu Lin, Lianhong Chen
1. Muscle regulatory factors (MRFs), including Myf5, Myf6 (MRF4/herculin), MyoD, and MyoG (myogenin), play pivotal roles in muscle growth and development. Therefore, they are considered as candidate genes for meat production traits in livestock and poultry. 2. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of these genes in skeletal muscles (breast muscle and thigh muscle) at 5 developmental stages (0, 81, 119, 154, and 210 d old) of Tibetan chickens. Relationships between expressions of these genes and growth and carcass traits in these chickens were also estimated...
October 11, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016189/early-and-24-h-post-mortem-thigh-ilio-tibialis-muscle-metabolism-and-meat-quality-in-two-genetic-types-of-turkeys-and-their-reciprocal-crosses-raised-under-semi-confined-conditions
#11
K Damaziak, D Pietrzak, M Michalczuk, L Adamczak, M Chmiel, T Florowski, D Gozdowski, J Niemiec
1. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of the direction of turkey crossing on quality traits of their thigh muscle. 2. In total, 1358 turkeys of slow- (SG) and fast-growing (FG) lines as well as SF crosses (SG x FG) and FS crosses (FG x SG) were reared with access to free range to 21 weeks of age in the case of males and 15 weeks of age in the case of hens. 3. After slaughter of 15 males and 15 hens from each genetic line, their thigh muscles were examined and the following traits were measured after 5 min, 45 min, 2 h and 24 h post-mortem: temperature, pH, glycogen content (G), lactate content (L), and electrical conductivity (EC)...
October 10, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990804/effects-of-a-blend-of-essential-oils-and-overcrowding-stress-on-the-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-heat-shock-protein-gene-expression-of-broilers
#12
S M Hosseini, H Farhangfar, R Nourmohammadi
1. Overcrowding stress is common in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations are characterised by welfare impairment and immunosuppression. The present study evaluated the effects of a blend of essential oils (EOB; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) and stocking density on the performance, gut microflora, meat quality, and physiological stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 360) were allocated to 4 experimental groups from d 22 to 42. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 15 chicks...
October 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990799/the-effect-of-dietary-energy-protein-ratio-protein-quality-and-food-allocation-on-the-efficiency-of-utilisation-of-protein-by-broiler-chickens
#13
R M Gous, A S Faulkner, H K Swatson
Various theories have been proposed to explain the reduced performance of broilers when given feeds excessively high in protein, but a satisfactory solution to this problem had, up to now, not been found. Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the efficiency of utilisation of protein (ep) is a linear-plateau function of the ratio between the feed apparent metabolisable energy and digestible crude protein contents (AMEn: DCP), and that dietary protein quality, feed allocation and sex do not influence this relationship...
October 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682120/comparison-of-the-effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-flavonoids-on-laying-hen-performance-egg-quality-and-egg-nutrient-profile
#14
H Iskender, G Yenice, E Dokumacioglu, O Kaynar, A Hayirli, A Kaya
1. The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of hesperidin, naringin and quercetin on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg yolk lipid and protein profiles. 2. A total of 96 Lohmann White laying hens weighing an average of 1500 g at 28 weeks of age were randomly assigned to a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented (0.5 g/kg) with either hesperidin, naringin or quercetin. Each treatment was replicated in 6 cages in an 8-week experimental period. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance...
September 25, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922013/identification-of-a-practical-and-reliable-method-for-the-evaluation-of-litter-moisture-in-turkey-production
#15
L J Vinco, S Giacomelli, L Campana, M Chiari, N Vitale, G Lombardi, T Veldkamp, P M Hocking
1. An experiment was conducted to compare 5 different methods for the evaluation of litter moisture. 2. For litter collection and assessment, 55 farms were selected, one shed from each farm was inspected and 9 points were identified within each shed. 3. For each device, used for the evaluation of litter moisture, mean and standard deviation of wetness measures per collection point were assessed. 4. The reliability and overall consistency between the 5 instruments used to measure wetness were high (α =0.72)...
September 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914075/the-temperature-of-storage-of-a-batch-of-wheat-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-samples-on-their-nutritive-value-for-broilers
#16
I Whiting, V Pirgozliev, S P Rose, F Karadas, M W Mirza, A Sharpe
1. A batch of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) was obtained immediately after production and was separated into 5 equal parts and placed in woven polypropylene sacks. The samples were stored under 5 different temperature conditions for one year as follows: kept at a constant -20ºC; kept at -20ºC for 24 h period and after that kept at a constant +4ºC; kept at a constant +4ºC only; kept at a constant +15ºC; stored at ambient temperature (range of weekly mean temperatures was from +4 to +22ºC)...
September 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906132/effects-of-different-dietary-sources-and-levels-of-selenium-supplements-on-growth-performance-antioxidant-status-and-immune-parameters-in-ross-308-broiler-chickens
#17
R Bakhshalinejad, Reza Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, E Zoidis
1. Although different impacts of various sources of Selenium (Se) on chicken performance have been largely studied, there is a lack of comparative experiments studying the effects of these sources on immune system and antioxidant indices of broiler tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of various sources and levels of dietary Se supplements on performance, antioxidant status and immune parameters in Ross 308 broiler chickens. 2. A total of 1200 one-day-old male broilers (Ross × Ross 308) were divided into 8 treatments with 6 replicate pens and 25 birds per pen...
September 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905661/genetic-parameters-for-the-prediction-of-abdominal-fat-traits-using-blood-biochemical-parameters-in-broilers
#18
H L Zhang, Z Q Xu, L L Yang, Y X Wang, Y M Li, J Q Dong, X Y Zhang, X Y Jiang, X F Jiang, H Li, D X Zhang, H Zhang
1. Excessive deposition of body fat, especially abdominal fat, is detrimental in chickens and the prevention of excessive fat accumulation is an important problem. The aim of this study was to identify blood biochemical indicators that could be used as criteria to select lean Yellow-feathered chicken lines. 2. Levels of blood biochemical indicators in the fed and fasted states and the abdominal fat traits were measured in 332 Guangxi Yellow chickens. In the fed state, the genetic correlations (rg) of triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were positive for the abdominal fat traits (0...
September 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841049/the-protein-oxidation-of-soybean-meal-induced-by-heating-decreases-its-protein-digestion-in-vitro-and-impairs-growth-performance-and-digestive-function-in-broilers
#19
P Lu, X L Zhang, W Y Xue, D W Wu, L R Ding, C Wen, Y M Zhou
1. The soybean meal (SBM) was heated at 100°C for 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, respectively, and their resultant oxidative status was evaluated. 2. A total of 400 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 8 replicates of 10 birds each, and fed with diets containing non-heated SBM (NHSBM) or 1 of 4 heated SBMs (HSBMs, SBMs heated at 100°C for 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, respectively) for 42 d. 3. The contents of carbonyl in the SBMs were both linearly and quadratically increased, whereas the nitrogen solubility index, and in vitro digestibility of crude protein (CP) and dry matter (DM) in the SBMs were both linearly and quadratically decreased as heating time increased (P < 0...
September 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752767/differential-expression-of-fatty-acid-transporters-and-fatty-acid-synthesis-related-genes-in-crop-tissues-of-male-and-female-pigeons-columba-livia-domestica-during-incubation-and-chick-rearing
#20
Peng Xie, Xue-Ping Wang, Zhu Bu, Xiao-Ting Zou
1. The growth performance of squabs reared solely by male or female parent pigeons was measured, and the changes of lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes potentially involved in lipid accumulation by crop tissues of parent pigeons were evaluated during incubation and chick rearing. 2. Squabs increased in body weight during 25 d of rearing, whereas both male and female pigeons lost weight after finishing rearing chicks, and the weight loss of male pigeons was significantly greater than that of female parent pigeons...
September 12, 2017: British Poultry Science
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