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British Poultry Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277792/estimation-of-ochratoxin-a-in-poultry-feed-and-its-ingredients-with-special-reference-to-temperature-conditions
#1
Z Abidin, A Khatoon, N Arooj, S Hussain, S Ali, A W Manzoor, M K Saleemi
1. The present study was designed to analyse ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feed samples (mixed types) along with different poultry feed ingredients collected from different farms and market of Lahore, Pakistan. 2. The whole year (2012-2013) was divided into three sub-periods depending upon environmental conditions, that is, July-October (hot and humid), November-February (winter) and March-June (moderate). During each sub-period 120 samples were collected for each feed and each ingredient constituting a total of 840 samples (120x7 of feed and feed ingredients in each sub-period)...
March 23, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167051/fat-accumulation-fatty-acids-and-melting-point-changes-in-broiler-chick-abdominal-fat-as-affected-by-time-of-dietary-fat-feeding-and-slaughter-age
#2
J M Carmona, C J Lopez-Bote, A Daza, A I Rey
1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS)...
March 23, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318296/administration-of-lactobacillus-johnsonii-fi9785-to-chickens-affects-colonisation-by-campylobacter-jejuni-and-the-intestinal-microbiota
#3
R Mañes-Lázaro, P M Van Diemen, C Pin, M J Mayer, M P Stevens, A Narbad
1. Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis in the world largely from contaminated poultry meat. New control measures to reduce or eliminate this pathogen from the animal gastrointestinal tract are urgently required, and the use of probiotics as competitive exclusion agents is a promising biocontrol measure to reduce C. jejuni in the food chain. 2. In this study, we assessed the potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785, which has shown efficacy against Clostridium perfringens, to combat C...
March 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277793/determination-of-body-width-in-brown-and-white-layer-pullets-by-image-analyses
#4
M F Giersberg, N Kemper, J Hartung, L Schrader, B Spindler
1. Specific legal requirements for keeping pullets are not available in the European Union. However, two of the most important rearing factors for pullets are sufficient perching and feeder space. Both factors represent horizontal space dimensions which derive from the body width of the birds. 2. The body width of two strains of layer pullets (brown (BL) and white (WL) layer pullets) based on the measurement of distances in digital images was conducted on front-view digital photographs of BL and WL pullets taken at 8, 12 and 19 weeks of life...
March 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277791/proteolytic-system-of-bacillus-sp-cl18-is-capable-of-extensive-feather-degradation-and-hydrolysis-of-diverse-protein-substrates
#5
T J Rieger, C T de Oliveira, J Q Pereira, A Brandelli, D J Daroit
1. Feathers are recalcitrant protein-rich wastes produced in huge amounts by poultry processing for meat production. Hence, feather bioconversion and protease production by Bacillus sp. CL18 were investigated. 2. Bacillus sp. CL18 demonstrated a remarkable feather-degrading potential. Through cultivations on feather broth (10 g l(-1) feathers), 94.5% ± 3% of whole feathers were degraded after 4 d. Increases in soluble protein contents were observed and protease production was maximal also at d 4. This strain produced diverse proteolytic enzymes during growth...
March 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100065/evaluation-of-sulphur-amino-acid-requirement-of-male-korean-native-ducklings-from-hatch-to-21-day-of-age
#6
J Yoo, Y J Yi, S S Wickramasuriya, E Kim, T K Shin, H M Cho, N Kim, J M Heo
1. A dose-response experiment was conducted with male Korean native ducklings (KND) to evaluate the total sulphur amino acid (TSAA) requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. 2. A completely randomised design with 7 dietary TSAA concentrations (0.62%, 0.65%, 0.68%, 0.71%, 0.74%, 0.77% and 0.80%) were used with 6 replications per treatment. 3. Body weight (BW) and feed intake were measured weekly to calculate average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). One duckling per pen (n = 6) was killed by cervical dislocation to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the conclusion of experiment...
March 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084794/inductive-expression-of-the-nod1-signalling-pathway-in-chickens-infected-with-salmonella-pullorum
#7
Z Tao, C Zhu, W Song, W Xu, S Zhang, H Liu, H Li
1. The aim of this study was to describe the role of Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) receptor signalling in chicken. 2. Tissue-specific expression analysis of NOD1, receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (MAPK11 or p38) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed their wide distribution in various organs and tissues. 3. Salmonella pullorum infection activated NOD1 receptor signalling in vivo and in vitro, resulting in significant induction of downstream signalling molecules RIPK2, NF-κB/p65, MAPK11/p38 and the effector molecules IL-1b and IL-8...
March 17, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294637/exploring-the-economic-potential-of-reducing-broiler-lameness
#8
É Gocsik, A M Silvera, H Hansson, H W Saatkamp, H J Blokhuis
1. The present study was designed firstly to explore the potential economic benefits of adopting management practices to reduce lameness in broiler farms, and secondly to explore farmers' possible perceptions of this potential in the Swedish context. 2. The likely financial effects were addressed using a normative economic model, whereas a questionnaire based survey was used to obtain in-depth knowledge about the perceptions of a group of broiler farmers in Sweden. 3. Results suggest that within the Swedish context there is potential to reduce lameness, to thereby improve animal welfare, and to simultaneously increase economic performance...
March 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290713/the-influence-of-growth-and-e-coli-endotoxaemia-on-amoxicillin-pharmacokinetics-in-turkeys
#9
B Poźniak, U Pasławska, K Motykiewicz-Pers, M Świtała
1. This experiment was designed to determine if the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin (AMO) was affected by rapid growth or the acute phase reaction induced by intravenous (i.v.) injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2. Turkeys of 2.0, 5.5 and 12.0 kg were administered i.v. or orally with AMO sodium at the dose of 15 mg/kg. One group of turkeys (5.7 kg) was treated with LPS 1 h prior to i.v. AMO administration. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model...
March 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277796/effect-of-diet-phase-change-dietary-ca-and-p-level-and-phytase-on-bird-performance-and-real-time-gizzard-ph-measurements
#10
S A Lee, J Dunne, T Mottram, M R Bedford
In the current study, a novel capsule technique was used to capture real-time pH readings from the gizzard over several hours, in response to different dietary treatments. The first experiment was a preliminary study into capsule administration and pH recordings using 9 male Ross 308 broilers from 20 d. In the second experiment, broilers (576) were fed in 2 phases (0-21 d and 21-42 d) with 4 treatment groups; low and adequate Ca and AvP diets with and without Quantum Blue phytase (1500 FTU/kg). Capsules were administered to 8 birds from each treatment group, pre and post diet phase change, with readings captured over a 2...
February 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277795/a-reduced-cost-strategy-for-enriching-chicken-meat-with-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-using-dietary-flaxseed-oil
#11
K Kanakri, J Carragher, R Hughes, B Muhlhausler, R Gibson
1. This study aimed to determine the minimal duration required for feeding male broilers (Cobb 500) with a flaxseed oil diet while still retaining long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) accumulation in the meat at a desirable level. 2. Three groups of broilers (60 each) were fed on a 3% flaxseed oil (high α-linolenic acid (ALA)) diet for either 6, 4 or 2 weeks prior to slaughter. During the remaining time they were maintained on a 3% macadamia oil (low ALA) diet. A fourth group (Control, n=60) was fed on a commercial diet for 6 weeks...
February 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277794/inter-rater-agreement-in-visual-assessment-of-footpad-dermatitis-in-danish-broiler-chickens
#12
A R Da Silva Oliveira, V P Lund, J P Christensen, L R Nielsen
1. The performance of the scoring in the Danish footpad dermatitis (FPD) surveillance system was evaluated by determining inter-rater agreement in visual inspection of FPD in broilers between two independent raters (R1 and R2) and the official scoring at a Danish slaughterhouse. FPD scores were evaluated in 1599 chicken feet. The two raters and the slaughterhouse scored equal proportions of score 0. So did R1 and R2 when assessing scores 1 and the more severe lesion score 2, whereas the slaughterhouse scored a markedly higher proportion of score 1 and a lower proportion of score 2...
February 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117599/influence-of-carbon-dioxide-stunning-procedure-on-quality-of-turkey-meat
#13
S M López, Á G Lora, C A Ramírez, F P Blanco
1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and gas stunning on quality attributes of turkey breast meat. 2. One hundred B.U.T. Premium turkeys (50 males and 50 females) were divided into two groups of 25 animals and subjected to either CO2 stunning procedures: G1 stepwise (step 1: 30% CO2, 15 s; step 2: 55% CO2, 40 s; step 3: 70% CO2, 45 s) or G2 fixed concentration (80% CO2, 100 s). The pH and meat colour at 20 min post-mortem, and pH, colour (L*, a*, b*), water holding capacity (WHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in breast samples at 24 h and 7 d post-mortem were assessed...
January 24, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102084/long-bone-properties-and-development-are-affected-by-caponisation-and-breed-in-polish-fowls
#14
E Tomaszewska, M Kwiecień, S Muszyński, P Dobrowolski, K Kasperek, T Blicharski, G Jeżewska-Witkowska, E R Grela
1. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of caponisation on bone development of males of two native breeds in Poland. 2. The weight, length and cross sectional area of tibiae and femora were measured, densitometric measurements and tests of strength were determined. and dimensions were calculated. 3. Breed and caponisation did not influence bone weight and length. Higher mechanical strength of the femur was found in entire males, mainly in the Polbar breed. Tibial strength was reduced in capons of the Green Partridge breed...
January 19, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100066/identification-of-eggs-from-different-production-systems-based-on-hyperspectra-and-cs-svm
#15
J Sun, S Cong, H Mao, X Zhou, X Wu, X Zhang
1. To identify the origin of table eggs more accurately, a method based on hyperspectral imaging technology was studied. 2. The hyperspectral data of 200 samples of intensive and extensive eggs were collected. Standard normalised variables (SNV) combined with Savitzky-Golay (SG) were used to eliminate noise, then stepwise regression (SWR) was used for feature selection. Grid search algorithm (GS), genetic search algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation algorithm (PSO) and cuckoo search algorithm (CS) were applied by support vector machine (SVM) to establish a SVM identification model with the optimal parameters...
January 19, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097888/bioprocess-enhancement-of-feather-degradation-using-alkaliphilic-microbial-mixture
#16
Y Osman, A Elsayed, A M Mowafy, A A Elrazak, M Fawzy
1. The main aim of this work is to develop a robust method to generate a microbial mixture which can successfully degrade poultry feathers to overcome environmental problems. 2. Four different alkaliphilic microbes were isolated and shown to to degrade poultry feathers. 3. Two of the isolates were phylogenetically identified as Lysinibacillus and the others were identified as Nocardiopsis and Micrococcus. 4. The best microbial co-culture for white and black feather degradation were optimised for pH, temperature and relative population of the isolates to achieve almost 96% of degradation compared to a maximum of 31% when applying each isolate individually...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090781/possible-role-of-central-interleukins-on-the-anorexigenic-effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-in-chicks
#17
T Tachibana, T Kodama, S Yamane, R Makino, S I Khan, M A Cline
1. The purpose of the present study was to determine if central interleukin-1β (IL1β), interleukin-6 (IL6), and interleukin-8 (IL8) affect feeding behaviour in chicks (Gallus gallus) and examine if central interleukins are related to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia. 2. Intra-abdominal (IA) injection of LPS significantly suppressed feeding behaviour and significantly increased mRNA expression of IL1β and IL8 in the diencephalon when compared to the control group, while IL6 tended to be increased...
January 16, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084805/assessment-of-health-and-welfare-of-austrian-laying-hens-at-slaughter-demonstrates-influence-of-husbandry-system-and-season
#18
B Grafl, S Polster, T Sulejmanovic, B Pürrer, B Guggenberger, M Hess
1. Selected health and welfare variables of laying hens from 79 flocks kept in alternative husbandry systems (48 barn system, 24 conventional free range, 7 organic free range) were assessed at the end-of-lay. 2. Investigations of several variables (plumage condition, body condition, skin lesions, keel bone deformations, foot pad lesions) were carried out on 100 hens per flock at the slaughter line. Lesions /pathological changes /damage were recorded as part of a novel scoring system with scores from 0-2 (0 = none/light, 1= moderate, 2 = severe)...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084802/comparison-of-electrogenic-glucose-transport-processes-and-permeability-between-proximal-and-distal-jejunum-of-laying-hens
#19
B U Metzler-Zebeli, M Hollmann, J R Aschenbach, Q Zebeli
1. The current objective was to assess 1) differences in mucosal transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and tissue conductance (GT), 2) the effect of a glucose stimulus, and 3) epithelial paracellular permeability in the proximal and distal jejunum of laying hens. 2. The jejunum was defined to begin with the end of the pancreatic loop and to end distally by following the distribution of arteries in order to distinguish between the distal jejunum and ileum. 3. Proximal and distal jejunal segments used in the Ussing chambers were collected at 9 ± 0...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084798/antioxidant-molecular-targets-of-wheat-bran-fermented-by-white-rot-fungi-and-its-potential-modulation-of-anti-oxidative-status-in-broiler-chickens
#20
C C Wang, L J Lin, Y P Chao, C J Chiang, M T Lee, S C Chang, B Yu, T T Lee
1. The study focused on antioxidant molecular targets of wheat bran fermented by white rot fungi in poultry. After solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by white rot fungi for 12 d, scanning electron microscopy found that the lignocellulose structure showed degradation and fragmentation. 2. The fermented wheat bran had significantly increased laccase and manganese peroxidase activity, as well as twice as high concentration of total quercetin, phenolics and crude polysaccharides compared to the unfermented wheat bran...
January 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
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