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Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences

Steven Tobias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
V V Gubernov, V N Kudryumov, A V Kolobov, A A Polezhaev
In this paper, the properties and stability of combustion waves propagating in the composite solid energetic material of the shell-core type are numerically investigated within the one-dimensional diffusive-thermal model with heat losses to the surroundings. The flame speed is calculated as a function of the parameters of the model. The boundaries of stability are determined in the space of parameters by solving the linear stability problem and direct integration of the governing non-stationary equations. The results are compared with the characteristics of the combustion waves in pure solid fuel...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
U Lācis, G A Zampogna, S Bagheri
Despite the ubiquity of fluid flows interacting with porous and elastic materials, we lack a validated non-empirical macroscale method for characterizing the flow over and through a poroelastic medium. We propose a computational tool to describe such configurations by deriving and validating a continuum model for the poroelastic bed and its interface with the above free fluid. We show that, using stress continuity condition and slip velocity condition at the interface, the effective model captures the effects of small changes in the microstructure anisotropy correctly and predicts the overall behaviour in a physically consistent and controllable manner...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Yixian Wang, Dengchao Wang, Michael V Mirkin
Along with more prevalent solid-state nanopores, glass or quartz nanopipettes have found applications in resistive-pulse and rectification sensing. Their advantages include the ease of fabrication, small physical size and needle-like geometry, rendering them useful for local measurements in small spaces and delivery of nanoparticles/biomolecules. Carbon nanopipettes fabricated by depositing a thin carbon layer on the inner wall of a quartz pipette provide additional means for detecting electroactive species and fine-tuning the current rectification properties...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Steve Furber
The microprocessor-a computer central processing unit integrated onto a single microchip-has come to dominate computing across all of its scales from the tiniest consumer appliance to the largest supercomputer. This dominance has taken decades to achieve, but an irresistible logic made the ultimate outcome inevitable. The objectives of this Perspective paper are to offer a brief history of the development of the microprocessor and to answer questions such as: where did the microprocessor come from, where is it now, and where might it go in the future?...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Pushpendra Singh, Shiv Dutt Joshi, Rakesh Kumar Patney, Kaushik Saha
for many decades, there has been a general perception in the literature that Fourier methods are not suitable for the analysis of nonlinear and non-stationary data. In this paper, we propose a novel and adaptive Fourier decomposition method (FDM), based on the Fourier theory, and demonstrate its efficacy for the analysis of nonlinear and non-stationary time series. The proposed FDM decomposes any data into a small number of 'Fourier intrinsic band functions' (FIBFs). The FDM presents a generalized Fourier expansion with variable amplitudes and variable frequencies of a time series by the Fourier method itself...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
D Dwivedi, K Lepkova, T Becker
Carbon steel is a preferred construction material in many industrial and domestic applications, including oil and gas pipelines, where corrosion mitigation using film-forming corrosion inhibitor formulations is a widely accepted method. This review identifies surface analytical techniques that are considered suitable for analysis of thin films at metallic substrates, but are yet to be applied to analysis of carbon steel surfaces in corrosive media or treated with corrosion inhibitors. The reviewed methods include time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy methods, particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscatter spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry, and conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometry...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Guo-Yang Li, Yanping Cao
Ultrasound elastography enables in vivo measurement of the mechanical properties of living soft tissues in a non-destructive and non-invasive manner and has attracted considerable interest for clinical use in recent years. Continuum mechanics plays an essential role in understanding and improving ultrasound-based elastography methods and is the main focus of this review. In particular, the mechanics theories involved in both static and dynamic elastography methods are surveyed. They may help understand the challenges in and opportunities for the practical applications of various ultrasound elastography methods to characterize the linear elastic, viscoelastic, anisotropic elastic and hyperelastic properties of both bulk and thin-walled soft materials, especially the in vivo characterization of biological soft tissues...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
T G Leighton
A number of queries regarding the paper 'Are some people suffering as a result of increasing mass exposure of the public to ultrasound in air?' (Leighton 2016 Proc. R. Soc. A472, 20150624 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2015.0624)) have been sent in from readers, almost all based around some or all of a small set of questions. These can be grouped into issues of engineering, human factors and timeliness. Those issues (represented by the most typical wording used in queries) and my responses are summarized in this comment...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
T R Vakhitov, V E Katnov, P V Grishin, S N Stepin, D O Grigoriev
An attempt to combine two 'green' compounds in nanocomposite microcontainers in order to increase protection properties of waterborne acryl-styrene copolymer (ASC) coatings has been made. N-lauroylsarcosine (NLS) served as a corrosion inhibitor, and linseed oil (LO) as a carrier-forming component. LO is compatible with this copolymer and can impart to the coating self-healing properties. For the evaluation of the protective performance, three types of coatings were compared. In the first two, NLS was introduced in the coating formulation in the forms of free powder and micro-containers filled with LO, correspondingly...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
A-T Vuong, A D Rauch, W A Wall
We present a computational model for the interaction of surface- and volume-bound scalar transport and reaction processes with a deformable porous medium. The application in mind is pericellular proteolysis, i.e. the dissolution of the solid phase of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a response to the activation of certain chemical species at the cell membrane and in the vicinity of the cell. A poroelastic medium model represents the extra cellular scaffold and the interstitial fluid flow, while a surface-bound transport model accounts for the diffusion and reaction of membrane-bound chemical species...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Oscar P Bruno, Agustin G Fernandez-Lado
This paper presents a full-spectrum Green-function methodology (which is valid, in particular, at and around Wood-anomaly frequencies) for evaluation of scattering by periodic arrays of cylinders of arbitrary cross section-with application to wire gratings, particle arrays and reflectarrays and, indeed, general arrays of conducting or dielectric bounded obstacles under both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized illumination. The proposed method, which, for definiteness, is demonstrated here for arrays of perfectly conducting particles under transverse electric polarization, is based on the use of the shifted Green-function method introduced in a recent contribution (Bruno & Delourme 2014 J...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Wenjun Cai, Huai Zhang, Yushun Wang
We propose a novel stable and efficient dissipation-preserving method for acoustic wave propagations in attenuating media with both correct phase and amplitude. Through introducing the conformal multi-symplectic structure, the intrinsic dissipation law and the conformal symplectic conservation law are revealed for the damped acoustic wave equation. The proposed algorithm is exactly designed to preserve a discrete version of the conformal symplectic conservation law. More specifically, two subsystems in conjunction with the original damped wave equation are derived...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
R C Voicu, T Sandu
The boundary integral equation (BIE) method ascertains explicit relations between localized surface phonon and plasmon polariton resonances and the eigenvalues of its associated electrostatic operator. We show that group-theoretical analysis of the Laplace equation can be used to calculate the full set of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the electrostatic operator for shapes and shells described by separable coordinate systems. These results not only unify and generalize many existing studies, but also offer us the opportunity to expand the study of phenomena such as cloaking by anomalous localized resonance...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Alexis Arnaudon, Darryl D Holm, Rossen I Ivanov
We study the G-strand equations that are extensions of the classical chiral model of particle physics in the particular setting of broken symmetries described by symmetric spaces. These equations are simple field theory models whose configuration space is a Lie group, or in this case a symmetric space. In this class of systems, we derive several models that are completely integrable on finite dimensional Lie group G, and we treat in more detail examples with symmetric space SU(2)/S(1) and SO(4)/SO(3). The latter model simplifies to an apparently new integrable nine-dimensional system...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
T L Hill, A Cammarano, S A Neild, D A W Barton
Nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) are widely used as a tool for understanding the forced responses of nonlinear systems. However, the contemporary definition of an NNM also encompasses a large number of dynamic behaviours which are not observed when a system is forced and damped. As such, only a few NNMs are required to understand the forced dynamics. This paper firstly demonstrates the complexity that may arise from the NNMs of a simple nonlinear system-highlighting the need for a method for identifying the significance of NNMs...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Sean L Davis, Gustaaf B Jacobs, Oishik Sen, H S Udaykumar
A Lagrangian particle cloud model is proposed that accounts for the effects of Reynolds-averaged particle and turbulent stresses and the averaged carrier-phase velocity of the subparticle cloud scale on the averaged motion and velocity of the cloud. The SPARSE (subgrid particle averaged Reynolds stress equivalent) model is based on a combination of a truncated Taylor expansion of a drag correction function and Reynolds averaging. It reduces the required number of computational parcels to trace a cloud of particles in Eulerian-Lagrangian methods for the simulation of particle-laden flow...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Václav Klika, Eamonn A Gaffney
A diffusively driven instability has been hypothesized as a mechanism to drive spatial self-organization in biological systems since the seminal work of Turing. Such systems are often considered on a growing domain, but traditional theoretical studies have only treated the domain size as a bifurcation parameter, neglecting the system non-autonomy. More recently, the conditions for a diffusively driven instability on a growing domain have been determined under stringent conditions, including slow growth, a restriction on the temporal interval over which the prospect of an instability can be considered and a neglect of the impact that time evolution has on the stability properties of the homogeneous reference state from which heterogeneity emerges...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Chang Liu, Jacob Dobson, Peter Cawley
Permanently installed guided wave monitoring systems are attractive for monitoring large structures. By frequently interrogating the test structure over a long period of time, such systems have the potential to detect defects much earlier than with conventional one-off inspection, and reduce the time and labour cost involved. However, for the systems to be accepted under real operational conditions, their damage detection performance needs to be evaluated in these practical settings. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) is an established performance metric for one-off inspections, but the generation of the ROC requires many test structures with realistic damage growth at different locations and different environmental conditions, and this is often impractical...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
J M Aurnou, E M King
Global scale magnetostrophic balance, in which Lorentz and Coriolis forces comprise the leading-order force balance, has long been thought to describe the natural state of planetary dynamo systems. This argument arises from consideration of the linear theory of rotating magnetoconvection. Here we test this long-held tenet by directly comparing linear predictions against dynamo modelling results. This comparison shows that dynamo modelling results are not typically in the global magnetostrophic state predicted by linear theory...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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