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IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics

Simone Santini
One of the most common ways in which results are displayed by an information retrieval system is in the form of a list, in which the most relevant results appear in the first positions. Today's large screens, however, allow one to create more complex displays of results, especially in cases such as image retrieval, in which each unit returned is fairly compact. For these layouts the simple list model is no longer valid, since the relations between the slots in which the results are placed do not form a sequence, that is, the relation among them is no longer that of a total order...
September 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Dennis Dingen, Marcel Vant Veer, Patrick Houthuizen, Eveline H J Mestrom, Erik H H M Korsten, Arthur R A Bouwman, Jarke Van Wijk
We present RegressionExplorer, a Visual Analytics tool for the interactive exploration of logistic regression models. Our application domain is Clinical Biostatistics, where models are derived from patient data with the aim to obtain clinically meaningful insights and consequences. Development and interpretation of a proper model requires domain expertise and insight into model characteristics. Because of time constraints, often a limited number of candidate models is evaluated. RegressionExplorer enables experts to quickly generate, evaluate, and compare many different models, taking the workflow for model development as starting point...
September 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Jianwei Guo, Shibiao Xu, Dong-Ming Yan, Zhanglin Cheng, Marc Jaeger, Xiaopeng Zhang
In this paper, we describe a novel procedural modeling technique for generating realistic plant models from multi-view photographs. The realism is enhanced via visual and spatial information acquired from images. In contrast to previous approaches that heavily rely on user interaction to segment plants or recover branches in images, our method automatically estimates an accurate depth map of each image and extracts a 3D dense point cloud by exploiting an efficient stereophotogrammetry approach. Taking this point cloud as a soft constraint, we fit a parametric plant representation to simulate the plant growth progress...
September 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Gurjot Singh, Stephen R Ellis, J Edward Swan Ii
Many augmented reality (AR) applications operate within near-field reaching distances, and require matching the depth of a virtual object with a real object. The accuracy of this matching was measured in three experiments, which examined the effect of focal distance, age, and brightness, within distances of 33.3 to 50~cm, using a custom-built AR haploscope. Experiment~I examined the effect of focal demand, at the levels of collimated (infinite focal distance), consistent with other depth cues, and at the midpoint of reaching distance...
September 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Jaemin Jo, Jinwook Seo, Jean-Daniel Fekete
We present PANENE, a progressive algorithm for approximate nearest neighbor indexing and querying. Although the use of k-nearest neighbor (KNN) libraries is common in many data analysis methods, most KNN algorithms can only be queried when the whole dataset has been indexed, i.e., they are not online. Even the few online implementations are not progressive in the sense that the time to index incoming data is not bounded and cannot satisfy the latency requirements of progressive systems. This long latency has significantly limited the use of many machine learning methods, such as t-SNE, in interactive visual analytics...
September 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Carolin Reichherzer, Andrew Cunningham, James Walsh, Mark Kohler, Mark Billinghurst, Bruce H Thomas
This paper showcases one way of how virtual reconstruction can be used in a courtroom. The results of a pilot study on narrative and spatial memory are presented in the context of viewing real and virtual copies of a simulated crime scene. Based on current court procedures, three different viewing options were compared: photographs, a real life visit, and a 3D virtual reconstruction of the scene viewed in a Virtual Reality headset. Participants were also given a written narrative that included the spatial locations of stolen goods and were measured on their ability to recall and understand these spatial relationships of those stolen items...
September 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Bin Sheng, Ping Li, Yuxi Jin, Ping Tan, Tong-Yee Lee
Decomposing an image into the shading and reflectance layers remains challenging due to its severely under-constrained nature. We present an approach based on illumination decomposition that recovers the intrinsic images without additional information, e.g., depth or user interaction. Our approach is based on the rationale that the shading component contains the step and drift channels simultaneously. We decompose the illumination into two channels: the step shading, corresponding to the sharp shading changes due to cast shadow or abrupt shape changes; the drift shading, accounting for the smooth shading variations due to gradual illumination changes or slow shape changes...
September 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Adam Ibrahim, Brandon Huynh, Jonathan Downey, Tobias Hollerer, Dorothy Chun, John O'Donovan
We conducted a fundamental user study to assess potential benefits of AR technology for immersive vocabulary learning. With the idea that AR systems will soon be able to label real-world objects in any language in real time, our within-subjects (N=52) lab-based study explores the effect of such an AR vocabulary prompter on participants learning nouns in an unfamiliar foreign language, compared to a traditional flashcard-based learning approach. Our results show that the immersive AR experience of learning with virtual labels on real-world objects is both more effective and more enjoyable for the majority of participants, compared to flashcards...
September 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Praneeth Chakravarthula, David Dunn, Kaan Aksit, Henry Fuchs
We describe a system which corrects dynamically for the focus of the real world surrounding the near-eye display of the user and simultaneously the internal display for augmented synthetic imagery, with an aim of completely replacing the user prescription eyeglasses. The ability to adjust focus for both real and virtual stimuli will be useful for a wide variety of users, but especially for users over 40 years of age who have limited accommodation range. Our proposed solution employs a tunable-focus lens for dynamic prescription vision correction, and a varifocal internal display for setting the virtual imagery at appropriate spatially registered depths...
September 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Young-Woon Cha, True Price, Zhen Wei, Xinran Lu, Nicholas Rewkowski, Rohan Chabra, Zihe Qin, Hyounghun Kim, Zhaoqi Su, Yebin Liu, Adrian Ilie, Andrei State, Zhenlin Xu, Jan-Michael Frahm, Henry Fuchs
We propose a new approach for 3D reconstruction of dynamic indoor and outdoor scenes in everyday environments, leveraging only cameras worn by a user. This approach allows 3D reconstruction of experiences at any location and virtual tours from anywhere. The key innovation of the proposed ego-centric reconstruction system is to capture the wearer's body pose and facial expression from near-body views, e.g. cameras on the user's glasses, and to capture the surrounding environment using outward-facing views. The main challenge of the ego-centric reconstruction, however, is the poor coverage of the near-body views-that is, the user's body and face are observed from vantage points that are convenient for wear but inconvenient for capture...
September 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Jessica Hullman, Xiaoli Qiao, Michael Correll, Alex Kale, Matthew Kay
Understanding and accounting for uncertainty is critical to effectively reasoning about visualized data. However, evaluating the impact of an uncertainty visualization is complex due to the difficulties that people have interpreting uncertainty and the challenge of defining correct behavior with uncertainty information. Currently, evaluators of uncertainty visualization must rely on general purpose visualization evaluation frameworks which can be ill-equipped to provide guidance with the unique difficulties of assessing judgments under uncertainty...
September 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Guillaume Favelier, Noura Faraj, Brian Summa, Julien Tierny
This paper presents a new approach for the visualization and analysis of the spatial variability of features of interest represented by critical points in ensemble data. Our framework, called Persistence Atlas, enables the visualization of the dominant spatial patterns of critical points, along with statistics regarding their occurrence in the ensemble. The persistence atlas represents in the geometrical domain each dominant pattern in the form of a confidence map for the appearance of critical points. As a by-product, our method also provides 2-dimensional layouts of the entire ensemble, highlighting the main trends at a global level...
September 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Kishore Rathinavel, Hanpeng Wang, Alex Blate, Henry Fuchs
We introduce an optical design and a rendering pipeline for a full-color volumetric near-eye display which simultaneously presents imagery with near-accurate per-pixel focus across an extended volume ranging from 15cm (6.7 diopters) to 4M (0.25 diopters), allowing the viewer to accommodate freely across this entire depth range. This is achieved using a focus-tunable lens that continuously sweeps a sequence of 280 synchronized binary images from a high-speed, Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) projector and a high-speed, high dynamic range (HDR) light source that illuminates the DMD images with a distinct color and brightness at each binary frame...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
David Duran, Pedro Hermosilla, Timo Ropinski, Barbora Kozlikova, Alvar Vinacua, Pere-Pau Vazquez
The analysis of protein-ligand interactions is a time-intensive task. Researchers have to analyze multiple physico-chemical properties of the protein at once and combine them to derive conclusions about the protein-ligand interplay. Typically, several charts are inspected, and 3D animations can be played side-by-side to obtain a deeper understanding of the data. With the advances in simulation techniques, larger and larger datasets are available, with up to hundreds of thousands of steps. Unfortunately, such large trajectories are very difficult to investigate with traditional approaches...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Kangsoo Kim, Mark Billinghurst, Gerd Bruder, Henry Been-Lirn Duh, Gregory F Welch
In 2008, Zhou et al. presented a survey paper summarizing the previous ten years of ISMAR publications, which provided invaluable insights into the research challenges and trends associated with that time period. Ten years later, we review the research that has been presented at ISMAR conferences since the survey of Zhou et al., at a time when both academia and the AR industry are enjoying dramatic technological changes. Here we consider the research results and trends of the last decade of ISMAR by carefully reviewing the ISMAR publications from the period of 2008-2017, in the context of the first ten years...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Felix Bork, Christian Schnelzer, Ulrich Eck, Nassir Navab
Understanding, navigating, and performing goal-oriented actions in Mixed Reality (MR) environments is a challenging task and requires adequate information conveyance about the location of all virtual objects in a scene. Current Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) have a limited field-of-view where augmented objects may be displayed. Furthermore, complex MR environments may be comprised of a large number of objects which can be distributed in the extended surrounding space of the user. This paper presents two novel techniques for visually guiding the attention of users towards out-of-view objects in HMD-based MR: the 3D Radar and the Mirror Ball...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Difeng Yu, Kaixuan Fan, Heng Zhang, Diego Monteiro, Wenge Xu, Hai-Ning Liang
We present PizzaText, a circular keyboard layout technique for text entry in virtual reality (VR) environments that uses the dual thumbsticks of a hand-held game controller. Text entry is a common activity in VR environments but remains challenging with existing techniques and keyboard layouts that is largely based on QWERTY. Our technique makes text entry simple, easy, and efficient, even for novice users. The technique uses a hand-held controller because it is still an important input device for users to interact with VR environments...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Long Qian, Alexander Plopski, Nassir Navab, Peter Kazanzides
Recent technical advancements support the application of Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMDs) in critical situations like navigation and manufacturing. However, while the form-factor of an OST-HMD occupies less of the user's visual field than in the past, it can still result in critical oversights, e.g., missing a pedestrian while driving a car. In this paper, we design and compare two methods to compensate for the loss of awareness due to the occlusion caused by OST-HMDs. Instead of presenting the occluded content to the user, we detect motion that is not visible to the user and highlight its direction either on the edge of the HMD screen, or by activating LEDs placed in the user's peripheral vision...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Di Weng, Ran Chen, Zikun Deng, Feiran Wu, Jingmin Chen, Yingcai Wu
Interactive ranking techniques have substantially promoted analysts' ability in making judicious and informed decisions effectively based on multiple criteria. However, the existing techniques cannot satisfactorily support the analysis tasks involved in ranking large-scale spatial alternatives, such as selecting optimal locations for chain stores, where the complex spatial contexts involved are essential to the decision-making process. Limitations observed in the prior attempts of integrating rankings with spatial contexts motivate us to develop a context-integrated visual ranking technique...
September 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Tobias Guenther, Holger Theisel
Almost all properties of vector fields, including magnitude, direction, lambda2 and vorticity change under arbitrary movements of the observer. This is undesirable since measurements of physical properties should ideally not depend on the way the (virtual) measurement device moves. There are some properties that are invariant under certain types of reference frame transformations: Galilean invariance (invariance under equal-speed translation) and objectivity (invariance under any smooth rotation and translation of the reference frame)...
September 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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