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Environmental Engineering Science

Alden C Adrion, David R Singleton, Jun Nakamura, Damian Shea, Michael D Aitken
Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Samar Mazloum, Mohammed Mousa Al-Ansari, Keith Taylor, Jatinder K Bewtra, Niharendu Biswas
Soybean peroxidase has been shown to be effective in removal of aromatic compounds from wastewater, while the use of additives effectively reduces enzyme concentration requirement, hence overall treatment cost. Enzymatic treatment, an oxidative polymerization, was successful in removal of over 95% of both aniline and o-anisidine. The originality of this study lies in the findings that the additives, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), Triton X-100, and sodium dodecanoate (SDOD), reduced enzyme concentration requirement, while polyethylene glycol (PEG, average molar mass of 3350 g/mol) had no effect on the required enzyme concentration...
February 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Justin St Clair, Clement Cartier, Simoni Triantafyllidou, Brandi Clark, Marc Edwards
In this 48-month pilot study, long-term impacts of copper:lead galvanic connections on lead release to water were assessed without confounding differences in pipe exposure prehistory or disturbances arising from cutting lead pipe. Lead release was tracked from three lead service line configurations, including (1) 100% lead, (2) traditional partial replacement with 50% copper upstream of 50% lead, and (3) 50% lead upstream of 50% copper as a function of flow rate, connection types, and sampling methodologies...
January 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Siwei Sun, Monroe Weber-Shirk, Leonard W Lion
A nonintrusive digital imaging process was developed to study particle size distributions created through flocculation and sedimentation. Quantification of particle size distributions under different operating conditions can be of use in the understanding of aggregation mechanisms. This process was calibrated by measuring standardized polystyrene particles of known size and was utilized to count and measure individual kaolin clay particles as well as aggregates formed by coagulation with polyaluminum chloride and flocculation...
January 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Alexis Wells Carpenter, Stephanie N Laughton, Mark R Wiesner
Addition of nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) to anaerobic batch reactors to enhance methanogenic activity is described. Two NZVI systems were tested: a commercially available NZVI (cNZVI) slurry and a freshly synthesized NZVI (sNZVI) suspension that was prepared immediately before addition to the reactors. In both systems, the addition of NZVI increased pH and decreased oxidation/reduction potential compared with unamended control reactors. Biodegradation of a model brewery wastewater was enhanced as indicated by an increase in chemical oxygen demand removal with both sNZVI and cNZVI amendments at all concentrations tested (1...
August 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Jonathan L Ticknor, Katarzyna H Kucharzyk, Kaitlyn A Porter, Marc A Deshusses, Heileen Hsu-Kim
Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in the aquatic food web is governed in part by the methylation of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) by anaerobic microorganisms. In sulfidic settings, a small fraction of total Hg(II) is typically bioavailable to methylating microorganisms. Quantification of this fraction is difficult due to uncertainties in the speciation of Hg(II) and the mechanisms of uptake by methylating microbes. However, recent studies have shown that the bioavailable fraction is likely to include a portion of Hg(II) associated with solid phases, that is, nanostructured mercuric sulfides...
July 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Sandra Rafael, Luis Tarelho, Alexandra Monteiro, Tânia Monteiro, Catarina Gonçalves, Sylvio Freitas, Myriam Lopes
During the past decades, pressures on global environment and energy security have led to an increasing demand on renewable energy sources and diversification of the world's energy supply. The Portuguese energy strategy considers the use of Forest Biomass Residues (FBR) to energy as being essential to accomplish the goals established in the National Energy Strategy for 2020. However, despite the advantages pointing to FBR to the energy supply chain, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts on air quality...
June 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Qun Chen, Shujuan Wang, Yan Li, Ning Zhang, Bo Zhao, Yuqun Zhuo, Changhe Chen
Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline-alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers...
June 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Binod Kumar Chaudhary, James Farrell
Adsorbents comprising ferric hydroxide loaded on a variety of support materials are commonly used to remove arsenic from potable water. Although several studies have investigated the effects of support properties on arsenic adsorption, there have been no investigations of their effects on adsorbent regeneration. Furthermore, the effect of regenerant solution composition and the kinetics of regeneration have not been investigated. This research investigated the effects of adsorbent and regenerant solution properties on the kinetics and efficiency of regeneration of arsenate-loaded ferric hydroxide-based adsorbents...
April 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Jacob D Lanphere, Corey J Luth, Linda M Guiney, Nikhita D Mansukhani, Mark C Hersam, Sharon L Walker
Research and development of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) (e.g., molybdenum disulfide [MoS2]) in electronic, optical, and catalytic applications has been growing rapidly. However, there is little known regarding the behavior of these particles once released into aquatic environments. Therefore, an in-depth study regarding the fate and transport of two popular types of MoS2 nanomaterials, lithiated (MoS2-Li) and Pluronic PF-87 dispersed (MoS2-PL), was conducted in saturated porous media (quartz sand) to identify which form would be least mobile in aquatic environments...
February 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Zan He, Ruiping Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
This study prepared fresh ferric hydroxide (in-situ FeOxHy) by the enhanced hydrolysis of Fe(3+) ions, and investigates its adsorptive behaviors toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) through laboratory and pilot-scale studies. A contact time of 120-min was enough to achieve adsorption equilibrium for Sb(III) and Sb(V) on the in-situ FeOxHy, and the Elovich model was best to describe the adsorption kinetics of Sb(III) and Sb(V). The Freundlich model was better than Langmuir model to describe the adsorption of Sb(III) and Sb(V) on the in-situ FeOxHy, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Sb(III) and Sb(V) was determined to be 12...
February 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Ugwumsinachi G Nwosu, Robert L Cook
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is found in most natural waters at concentrations low enough to make DOM isolation methodologies critical to full analytical characterization and preservation. During the last few decades, two major protocols have been developed for the extraction of DOM isolates from natural waters. These methods utilize XAD resins and reverse osmosis (RO). In this work, the hydrophobic acid (May 2012 HPOA) and transphilic acid (May 2012 TPIA) isolates from XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins, respectively, were compared with the RO (May 2012 RO) natural organic matter isolate of the Suwannee River water using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies...
January 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Daniel P McInnis, Diogo Bolster, Patricia A Maurice
Transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the Suwannee River and of synthetic polystyrene sulfonates (PSSs) was investigated in columns packed with naturally Fe/Al-oxide-coated sands from Oyster, Virginia. Surface-water samples were collected in May 2012 and processed by XAD-8 (humic substances; HPOA), XAD-4 (transphilic acids [TPIAs]), and reverse osmosis (broad range of components; NOM). Median transport time (Ro ) of PSSs increased with molecular weight (MW) from 1,000 to 8,000 Da but decreased for the largest PSS (18,000 Da), which is consistent with previous observations of MW effects on DOM adsorption and transport...
January 1, 2015: Environmental Engineering Science
Maiysha D Jones, Elyse A Rodgers-Vieira, Jing Hu, Michael D Aitken
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is not known to be a bacterial growth substrate. Organisms capable of cometabolizing BaP in complex field-contaminated systems have not previously been identified. We evaluated BaP mineralization by a bacterial community from a bioreactor treating PAH-contaminated soil during coincubation with or after pre-enrichment on various PAHs as growth substrates. Pyrosequence libraries of 16S rRNA genes were used to identify bacteria that were enriched on the added growth substrate as a means of associating specific organisms with BaP mineralization...
December 1, 2014: Environmental Engineering Science
Heloise Garcia Knapik, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Júlio Cesar Rodrigues de Azevedo, Monica Ferreira do Amaral Porto
This article explores the applicability of fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy for estimating organic pollution in polluted rivers. The relationship between absorbance, fluorescence intensity, dissolved organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other water quality parameters were used to characterize and identify the origin and the spatial variability of the organic pollution in a highly polluted watershed. Analyses were performed for the Iguassu River, located in southern Brazil, with area about 2,700 km(2) and ∼3 million inhabitants...
December 1, 2014: Environmental Engineering Science
Liyun Yan, Xiaofeng Lu, Quanhai Wang, Qiang Guo
An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position...
November 1, 2014: Environmental Engineering Science
Binod K Chaudhary, James Farrell
This research investigated the modification of homopolymer polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers for use as an adsorbent for removing arsenic from drinking water. Fibers were chemically modified and cross-linked using combinations of hydrazine hydrate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) before being loaded with ferric hydroxide using two different iron loading procedures. Effects of reagent concentrations and reaction times on degree of chemical modification and fiber properties were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ion-exchange measurements...
November 1, 2014: Environmental Engineering Science
Ye Xu, Guohe Huang, Ling Xu
In this study, a fuzzy robust optimization (FRO) model was developed for supporting municipal solid waste management under uncertainty. The Development Zone of the City of Dalian, China, was used as a study case for demonstration. Comparing with traditional fuzzy models, the FRO model made improvement by considering the minimization of the weighted summation among the expected objective values, the differences between two extreme possible objective values, and the penalty of the constraints violation as the objective function, instead of relying purely on the minimization of expected value...
October 1, 2014: Environmental Engineering Science
Valdis Krumins, Donna E Fennell
We performed Monte Carlo simulations of batch transformations of hydrophobic compounds using typical numbers of data points, extent of reaction, and measurement error, to identify the most appropriate biotransformation model to describe such data under different conditions. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins present special challenges for parameterization due to low environmental concentrations and slow biotransformation rates, which result in high sample variability, few samples, and limited substrate concentration range...
October 1, 2014: Environmental Engineering Science
Xiang Wang, Fasheng Li, Guanlin Guo, Shijie Wang, Alexander Boronin, Qunhui Wang
Disposal of oil sludge, a hazardous waste, is currently a prevalent environmental issue. In this study, two field-scale biopiles were constructed to explore the temporal changes of microbial metabolic characteristics during the biotreatment of aged oil sludge. Bulking agent was mixed thoroughly with oily sludge to form a treated pile. The BIOLOG™ system was used to analyze the community level physiological parameters, including microbial metabolic activity, diversity, and variance. In comparison with the control, the community level physiological parameters of the treated pile were dramatically improved...
September 1, 2014: Environmental Engineering Science
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