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Trends in Plant Science

Melanie Morales, Sergi Munné-Bosch
Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and defence have been documented. Oxidative stress is one of the physiological mechanisms that underlie trade-offs at the cellular and organ levels. The diversity of plant life forms and the complexity of scaling up limit our knowledge of oxidative stress as a universal mediator of life-history trade-offs at the organism level. Joint efforts by plant physiologists and ecologists will undoubtedly provide novel insights into this topic in the near future.
October 14, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
David Vergauwen, Ive De Smet
The recent carrot genome assembly provides insight into carotenoid accumulation in carrots, and allows-together with other genetic information-to provide a molecular explanation for color differences observed in carrots painted throughout the centuries.
September 26, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Ron Mittler
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a dual role in plant biology. They are required for many important signaling reactions, but are also toxic byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Recent studies revealed that ROS are necessary for the progression of several basic biological processes including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, cell death-that was previously thought to be the outcome of ROS directly killing cells by oxidation, in other words via oxidative stress-is now considered to be the result of ROS triggering a physiological or programmed pathway for cell death...
September 22, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Naohiko Ohama, Hikaru Sato, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
Heat stress (HS) is becoming an increasingly significant problem for food security as global warming progresses. Recent studies have elucidated the complex transcriptional regulatory networks involved in HS. Here, we provide an overview of current knowledge regarding the transcriptional regulatory network and post-translational regulation of the transcription factors involved in the HS response. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation and small RNAs are important in heat-induced transcriptional responses and stress memory...
September 22, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Camille Fonouni-Farde, Anouck Diet, Florian Frugier
DELLA proteins, acting as integrators of gibberellin (GA) action, are emerging as key regulators of root system architecture. Recent studies have revealed how they dictate the dynamics of root growth and are required for the establishment of root endosymbioses with rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. Like conductors, DELLAs can thereby harmonize root development depending on soil environments.
September 22, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Xiyu Ma, Guangyuan Xu, Ping He, Libo Shan
Plants have evolved a large number of cell surface-resident receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs), many of which are implicated in sensing extrinsic and intrinsic signals, and govern diverse cellular responses. The signaling pathways mediated by RLKs and RLPs converge at a small group of RLKs, somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), via ligand-induced heterodimerization and transphosphorylation. As shared coreceptors in diverse signaling receptorsomes, SERKs exhibit functional plasticity yet maintain a high degree of signaling specificity...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Changfu Zhu, Luisa Bortesi, Can Baysal, Richard M Twyman, Rainer Fischer, Teresa Capell, Stefan Schillberg, Paul Christou
Designer nucleases allow the creation of new plant genotypes by introducing precisely-targeted double-strand breaks that are resolved by endogenous repair pathways. The major nuclease technologies are meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Each comprises a promiscuous endonuclease guided by protein-DNA or RNA-DNA interactions. A great deal is known about the principles of designer nucleases but much remains to be learned about their detailed behavioral characteristics in different plant species...
September 16, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Zhaobo Lang, Shaojun Xie, Jian-Kang Zhu
Intraspecific phenotypic diversity is controlled by natural genetic and epigenetic variation. Kawakatsu et al. recently sequenced the DNA methylomes of a global collection of over 1000 Arabidopsis accessions, and have thereby provided a comprehensive resource for studying natural genetic and epigenetic variation as well as the association of such variation with phenotypic diversity.
September 16, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Juan M Montes, Albrecht E Melchinger
Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species...
September 14, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Thomas A DeFalco, Wolfgang Moeder, Keiko Yoshioka
Recent work has expanded our understanding of the roles of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) in plant signaling. In this spotlight article, we discuss advances and future perspectives in determining how CNGCs mediate calcium signaling in response to diverse stimuli.
September 9, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Marek Marzec
Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones, described as regulators of plant growth and development. Recently, it was proposed that these hormones might also be involved in the biotic stress response. However, SLs do not have a universal role in plant protection, instead only playing a part in resistance to specific pathogens.
September 5, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Blaise Weber, Johan Zicola, Rurika Oka, Maike Stam
Higher eukaryotes typically contain many different cell types, displaying different cellular functions that are influenced by biotic and abiotic cues. The different functions are characterized by specific gene expression patterns mediated by regulatory sequences such as transcriptional enhancers. Recent genome-wide approaches have identified thousands of enhancers in animals, reviving interest in enhancers in gene regulation. Although the regulatory roles of plant enhancers are as crucial as those in animals, genome-wide approaches have only very recently been applied to plants...
September 2, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Katja Salomon Johansen
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-enzymes that catalyze oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. These enzymes are secreted by many microorganisms to initiate infection and degradation processes. In particular, the concept of fungal degradation of lignocellulose has been revised in the light of this recent finding. LPMOs require a source of electrons for activity, and both enzymatic and plant-derived sources have been identified. Importantly, light-induced electron delivery from light-harvesting pigments can efficiently drive LPMO activity...
August 12, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Peng Yu, Caroline Gutjahr, Chunjian Li, Frank Hochholdinger
Cereals form complex root systems composed of different root types. Lateral root formation is a major determinant of root architecture and is instrumental for the efficient uptake of water and nutrients. Positioning and patterning of lateral roots and cell types involved in their formation are unique in monocot cereals. Recent discoveries advanced the molecular understanding of the intrinsic genetic control of initiation and elongation of lateral roots in cereals by distinct, in part root-type-specific genetic programs...
August 11, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Kevin Garcia, Joan Doidy, Sabine D Zimmermann, Daniel Wipf, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
Soil nutrient acquisition and exchanges through symbiotic plant-fungus interactions in the rhizosphere are key features for the current agricultural and environmental challenges. Improved crop yield and plant mineral nutrition through a fungal symbiont has been widely described. In return, the host plant supplies carbon substrates to its fungal partner. We review here recent progress on molecular players of membrane transport involved in nutritional exchanges between mycorrhizal plants and fungi. We cover the transportome, from the transport proteins involved in sugar fluxes from plants towards fungi, to the uptake from the soil and exchange of nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, and water...
August 8, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Haipei Liu, Amanda J Able, Jason A Able
In cereal breeding programs, improved yield potential and stability are ultimate goals when developing new varieties. To facilitate achieving these goals, reproductive success under stressful growing conditions is of the highest priority. In recent times, small RNA (sRNA)-mediated pathways have been associated with the regulation of genes involved in stress adaptation and reproduction in both model plants and several cereals. Reproductive and physiological traits such as flowering time, reproductive branching, and root architecture can be manipulated by sRNA regulatory modules...
August 5, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Tao Sun, Stephane Bentolila, Maureen R Hanson
Flowering plants convert many hundreds of organelle cytidines (Cs) to uridines (Us) during post-transcriptional RNA editing. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins dictate specificity by recognizing RNA sequences near C targets. However, the complete mechanism of the editing machinery is not yet understood. Recently, non-PPR editing factors [RNA editing factor interacting proteins (RIPs)/multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORFs), organelle RNA recognition motif (ORRM) proteins, organelle zinc-finger (OZ) proteins, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase 1 (PPO1)] have been identified as components of the plant RNA editosome, which is a small RNA-protein complex...
August 1, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, Ole Olsen
The founder of the Carlsberg brewery, J.C Jacobsen, recognized the value of private-public partnership and established the Carlsberg Foundation in 1876 with the single aim of applying research and innovation to brew the best beer. One hundred and forty years on, Jacobsen's vision still prevails, and in this interview three scientists from the Carlsberg Research Laboratory (Birgitte Skadhauge, Anna Haldrup, and Ole Olsen) share their experience about finding a career at the crossroads between industry and basic research...
October 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Lina Shi, Xiaoqing Tang, Guiliang Tang
Animal and plant cells have repair capabilities to combat DNA damage. DNA damage and repair dynamics can be determined by technologies such as IDLV capture, BLESS, HTGTS, digenome-seq, and GUIDE-seq. Here we highlight GUIDE-seq, a technology used in therapeutics, and envision its application in plants.
October 2016: Trends in Plant Science
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October 2016: Trends in Plant Science
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