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Trends in Plant Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647103/reaffirming-ethnobotanical-convergence
#1
LETTER
Teresa Garnatje, Josep Peñuelas, Joan Vallès
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647102/boosting-rice-yield-by-fine-tuning-spl-gene-expression
#2
Lei Wang, Qifa Zhang
Plant architecture is an important determinant of crop yield. Recent studies showed that SPL family genes regulate the architecture of rice plants. SPLs inhibit tillering in general, but promote panicle branching at optimal expression levels to increase grain number. Fine-tuning the expression of SPL genes may provide useful strategies for crop improvement.
June 21, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633985/autophagy-a-double-edged-sword-to-fight-plant-viruses
#3
Marion Clavel, Simon Michaeli, Pascal Genschik
In metazoans, autophagy is an essential component of host defense against viruses, orchestrating their degradation. Such antiviral functions for autophagy have also been long suspected in the green lineage. Two recent reports provide molecular insights on how plants selectively send viral proteins and even particles to the vacuole.
June 17, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625791/on-plant-modularity-traits-functions-and-challenges
#4
Gianluigi Ottaviani, Jana Martínková, Tomáš Herben, Juli G Pausas, Jitka Klimešová
On-spot persistence, space occupancy, and recovery after damage are key plant functions largely understudied. Traits relevant to these functions are difficult to assess because of their relationships to plant modularity. We suggest that developing collection protocols for these traits is feasible and could facilitate their inclusion in global syntheses.
June 15, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622919/diet-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-bread-and-butter
#5
REVIEW
Mélanie K Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt
Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622918/angiosperm-plant-desiccation-tolerance-hints-from-transcriptomics-and-genome-sequencing
#6
REVIEW
Valentino Giarola, Quancan Hou, Dorothea Bartels
Desiccation tolerance (DT) in angiosperms is present in the small group of resurrection plants and in seeds. DT requires the presence of protective proteins, specific carbohydrates, restructuring of membrane lipids, and regulatory mechanisms directing a dedicated gene expression program. Many components are common to resurrection plants and seeds; however, some are specific for resurrection plants. Understanding how each component contributes to DT is challenging. Recent transcriptome analyses and genome sequencing indicate that increased expression is essential of genes encoding protective components, recently evolved, species-specific genes and non-protein-coding RNAs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622917/new-beginnings-mitochondrial-renewal-by-massive-mitochondrial-fusion
#7
Ray J Rose, David W McCurdy
Massive mitochondrial fusion (MMF) in germinating arabidopsis seeds, together with earlier studies, suggests a significant role for MMF in the life cycle of flowering plants. MMF is likely to facilitate nucleoid transmission, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination, and the homogenization of mitochondrial components, thus providing a type of quality control for mitochondrial populations in new generations.
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610890/the-algal-revolution
#8
REVIEW
Juliet Brodie, Cheong Xin Chan, Olivier De Clerck, J Mark Cock, Susana M Coelho, Claire Gachon, Arthur R Grossman, Thomas Mock, John A Raven, Alison G Smith, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya
Algae are (mostly) photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy multiple branches of the tree of life, and are vital for planet function and health. In this review, we highlight a transformative period in studies of the evolution and functioning of this extraordinary group of organisms and their potential for novel applications, wrought by high-throughput 'omic' and reverse genetic methods. We cover the origin and diversification of algal groups, explore advances in understanding the link between phenotype and genotype, consider algal sex determination, and review progress in understanding the roots of algal multicellularity...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601419/how-plant-root-exudates-shape-the-nitrogen-cycle
#9
REVIEW
Devrim Coskun, Dev T Britto, Weiming Shi, Herbert J Kronzucker
Although the global nitrogen (N) cycle is largely driven by soil microbes, plant root exudates can profoundly modify soil microbial communities and influence their N transformations. A detailed understanding is now beginning to emerge regarding the control that root exudates exert over two major soil N processes - nitrification and N2 fixation. We discuss recent breakthroughs in this area, including the identification of root exudates as nitrification inhibitors and as signaling compounds facilitating N-acquisition symbioses...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592368/plant-breeding-goes-microbial
#10
Zhong Wei, Alexandre Jousset
Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the transmission of endophytic microbiota to the next plant generation.
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587758/epigenetics-for-plant-improvement-current-knowledge-and-modeling-avenues
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Gallusci, Zhanwu Dai, Michel Génard, Arnaud Gauffretau, Nathalie Leblanc-Fournier, Céline Richard-Molard, Denis Vile, Sophie Brunel-Muguet
Epigenetic variations are involved in the control of plant developmental processes and participate in shaping phenotypic plasticity to the environment. Intense breeding has eroded genetic diversity, and epigenetic diversity now emerge as a new source of phenotypic variations to improve adaptation to changing environments and ensure the yield and quality of crops. Here, we review how the characterization of the stability and heritability of epigenetic variations is required to drive breeding strategies, which can be assisted by process-based models...
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571940/image-analysis-in-plant-sciences-publish-then-perish
#12
REVIEW
Guillaume Lobet
Image analysis has become a powerful technique for most plant scientists. In recent years dozens of image analysis tools have been published in plant science journals. These tools cover the full spectrum of plant scales, from single cells to organs and canopies. However, the field of plant image analysis remains in its infancy. It still has to overcome important challenges, such as the lack of robust validation practices or the absence of long-term support. In this Opinion article, I: (i) present the current state of the field, based on data from the plant-image-analysis...
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549621/let-the-core-microbiota-be-functional
#13
REVIEW
Philippe Lemanceau, Manuel Blouin, Daniel Muller, Yvan Moënne-Loccoz
The microbial community that is systematically associated with a given host plant is called the core microbiota. The definition of the core microbiota was so far based on its taxonomic composition, but we argue that it should also be based on its functions. This so-called functional core microbiota encompasses microbial vehicles carrying replicators (genes) with essential functions for holobiont (i.e., plant plus microbiota) fitness. It builds up from enhanced horizontal transfers of replicators as well as from ecological enrichment of their vehicles...
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545911/interview-with-janusz-zwi%C3%A4-zek
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532598/crispr-cpf1-a-new-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#15
Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Magdy M Mahfouz, Shahid Mansoor
Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas), a groundbreaking genome-engineering tool, has facilitated targeted trait improvement in plants. Recently, CRISPR-CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) has emerged as a new tool for efficient genome editing, including DNA-free editing in plants, with higher efficiency, specificity, and potentially wider applications than CRISPR-Cas9.
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506667/is-there-an-upper-limit-to-genome-size
#16
REVIEW
Oriane Hidalgo, Jaume Pellicer, Maarten Christenhusz, Harald Schneider, Andrew R Leitch, Ilia J Leitch
At 50-fold the size of the human genome (3 Gb), the staggeringly huge genome of 147.3 Gb recently discovered in the fern Tmesipteris obliqua is comparable in size to those of the other plant and animal record-holders (i.e., Paris japonica, a flowering plant with a genome size of 148.8 Gb, and Protopterus aethiopicus, a lungfish with a genome of 130 Gb). The synthesis of available information on giant genomes suggests that the biological limit to genome size expansion in eukaryotes may have been reached. We propose several explanations for why the genomes of ferns, flowering plants, and lungfish, all of which have independently undergone dramatic increases in genome size through a variety of mechanisms, do not exceed 150 Gb...
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487046/rsl4-takes-control-multiple-signals-one-transcription-factor
#17
Eliana Marzol, Cecilia Borassi, Silvina Paola Denita Juárez, Silvina Mangano, José M Estevez
Root hair growth dramatically expands the root surface area, thus facilitating water and nutrient uptake. Until recently, the molecular mechanism underlying root hair growth was unknown. Recent studies have revealed that the transcription factor ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 6 LIKE 4 (RSL4) coordinates hormonal, environmental, and developmental factors to trigger polar growth.
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483636/sublocalization-of-cytochrome-b6f-complexes-in-photosynthetic-membranes
#18
REVIEW
Helmut Kirchhoff, Meng Li, Sujith Puthiyaveetil
It is well established that the majority of energy-converting photosynthetic protein complexes in plant thylakoid membrane are nonhomogenously distributed between stacked and unstacked membrane regions. Yet, the sublocalization of the central cytochrome b6f complex remains controversial. We present a structural model that explains the variation in cytochrome b6f sublocalization data. Small changes in the distance between adjacent membranes in stacked grana regions either allow or restrict access of cytochrome b6f complexes to grana...
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476651/emerging-avenues-for-utilization-of-exotic-germplasm
#19
REVIEW
Cuiling Wang, Songlin Hu, Candice Gardner, Thomas Lübberstedt
Breeders have been successful in increasing crop performance by exploiting genetic diversity over time. However, the reported annual yield increases are not sufficient in view of rapid human population growth and global environmental changes. Exotic germplasm possesses high levels of genetic diversity for valuable traits. However, only a small fraction of naturally occurring genetic diversity is utilized. Moreover, the yield gap between elite and exotic germplasm widens, which increases the effort needed to use exotic germplasm and to identify beneficial alleles and for their introgression...
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454678/turning-over-a-new-leaf-in-lipid-droplet-biology
#20
REVIEW
Michal Pyc, Yingqi Cai, Michael S Greer, Olga Yurchenko, Kent D Chapman, John M Dyer, Robert T Mullen
Lipid droplets (LDs) in plants have long been viewed as storage depots for neutral lipids that serve as sources of carbon, energy, and lipids for membrane biosynthesis. While much of our knowledge of LD function in plants comes from studies of oilseeds, a recent surge in research on LDs in non-seed cell types has led to an array of new discoveries. It is now clear that both evolutionarily conserved and kingdom-specific mechanisms underlie the biogenesis of LDs in eukaryotes, and proteomics and homology-based approaches have identified new protein players...
July 2017: Trends in Plant Science
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