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Trends in Plant Science

Soheila Bayat, M Eric Schranz, Eric H Roalson, Jocelyn C Hall
Cleomaceae is a diverse group well-suited to addressing fundamental genomic and evolutionary questions as the sister group to Brassicaceae, facilitating transfer of knowledge from the model Arabidopsis thaliana. Phylogenetic and taxonomic revisions provide a framework for examining the evolution of substantive morphological and physiology diversity in Cleomaceae, but not necessarily in Brassicaceae. The investigation of both nested and contrasting whole-genome duplications (WGDs) between Cleomaceae and Brassicaceae allows comparisons of independently duplicated genes and investigation of whether they may be drivers of the observed innovations...
July 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Juan S Ramirez-Prado, Aala A Abulfaraj, Naganand Rayapuram, Moussa Benhamed, Heribert Hirt
Pathogen recognition by plants results in the activation of signaling pathways that induce defense reactions. There is growing evidence indicating that epigenetic mechanisms directly participate in plant immune memory. Here, we discuss current knowledge of diverse epigenomic processes and elements, such as noncoding RNAs, DNA and RNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, and chromatin remodeling, that have been associated with the regulation of immune responses in plants. Furthermore, we discuss the currently limited evidence of transgenerational inheritance of pathogen-induced defense priming, together with its potentials, challenges, and limitations for crop improvement and biotechnological applications...
June 30, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Enrico Magnani
Seed evolution is often presented as the evolution of morphological complexity. Following the steps of Wilhelm Hofmeister, I argue that changes in the development of one tissue, the megasporangium/nucellus, can explain the origin of the seed habit. Here, I lay down a 'simpler' story that correlates seed evolution to nucellus cell fate.
June 27, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
David B Medeiros, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner L Araújo
It has been demonstrated that ALMT (ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER) channels are important players during stomatal movements. Previous investigations on ALMT family members indicated possible redundancy at the guard cell tonoplast; however, compelling evidence has recently suggested regulatory mechanisms and individual roles for specific ALMT proteins in response to diverse environmental stimuli.
June 21, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
João Antonio Siqueira, Pablo Hardoim, Paulo C G Ferreira, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Adriana S Hemerly
Oscillation in energy levels is widely variable in dividing and differentiated cells. To synchronize cell proliferation and energy fluctuations, cell cycle-related proteins have been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial energy-generating pathways in yeasts and animals. Plants have chloroplasts and mitochondria, coordinating the cell energy flow. Recent findings suggest an integrated regulation of these organelles and the nuclear cell cycle. Furthermore, reports indicate a set of interactions between the cell cycle and energy metabolism, coordinating the turnover of proteins in plants...
June 19, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Xiaohong Zhuang, Kin Pan Chung, Mengqian Luo, Liwen Jiang
The autophagosome is a double-membrane compartment formed during autophagy that sequesters and delivers cargoes for their degradation or recycling into the vacuole. Analyses of the AuTophaGy-related (ATG) proteins have unveiled dynamic mechanisms for autophagosome biogenesis. Recent advances in plant autophagy research highlight a complex interplay between autophagosome biogenesis and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER): on the one hand ER serves as a membrane source for autophagosome initiation and a signaling platform for autophagy regulation; on the other hand ER turnover is connected to selective autophagy...
June 18, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jakub Tĕšitel, Tamara Těšitelová, Julita Minasiewicz, Marc-André Selosse
Mixotrophic plants combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition. Recent research suggests mechanisms explaining why mixotrophy is so common in terrestrial ecosystems. First, mixotrophy overcomes nutrient limitation and/or seedling establishment constraints. Second, although genetic drift may push mixotrophs to full heterotrophy, the role of photosynthesis in reproduction stabilizes mixotrophy.
June 18, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Ruud A Korver, Iko T Koevoets, Christa Testerink
In most abiotic stress conditions, including salinity and water deficit, the developmental plasticity of the plant root is regulated by the phytohormone auxin. Changes in auxin concentration are often attributed to changes in shoot-derived long-distance auxin flow. However, recent evidence suggests important contributions by short-distance auxin transport from local storage and local auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, and oxidation during abiotic stress. We discuss here current knowledge on long-distance auxin transport in stress responses, and subsequently debate how short-distance auxin transport and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism play a role in influencing eventual auxin accumulation and signaling patterns...
June 15, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Lei Li, Eva-Mari Aro, A Harvey Millar
Rapid protein degradation and replacement is an important response to photodamage and a means of photoprotection by recovering proteostasis. Protein turnover and translation efficiency studies have discovered fast turnover subunits in cytochrome b6 f and the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex, in addition to PSII subunit D1. Mutations of these complexes have been linked to enhanced photodamage at least partially via cyclic electron flow. Photodamage and photoprotection involving cytochrome b6 f, NDH complex, cyclic electron flow, PSI, and nonphotochemical quenching proteins have been reported...
June 7, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Diana Ortiz, Peter N Dodds
Innate immunity in land plants mostly relies on a repertoire of NLR (nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat) receptors. Gao et al. show that evolutionary assembly of the core building blocks of NLRs occurred in the ancestors of early plants and trace the diversification of NLR subclasses in green algae and mosses.
June 7, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Ya Lin Sang, Zhi Juan Cheng, Xian Sheng Zhang
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are self-renewable cells with the potential to differentiate into all the cell types within an organism. PSCs exist transiently in early-stage mammalian embryos during ontogeny and are maintained in apical meristems of higher plants throughout postembryonic development. Through proper in vitro culture, somatic cells of both mammals and plants can be reprogrammed to generate induced PSCs (iPSCs). Recent studies have deciphered mechanisms underlying pluripotency gene activation and cell fate transition during plant iPSC generation...
June 4, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Dolores Gutiérrez-Alanís, Jonathan Odilón Ojeda-Rivera, Lenin Yong-Villalobos, Luis Cárdenas-Torres, Luis Herrera-Estrella
Phosphorus (P) availability is a limiting factor for plant growth and development. Root tip contact with low Pi media triggers diverse changes in the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana. The most conspicuous among these modifications is the inhibition of root growth, which is triggered by a shift from an indeterminate to a determinate root growth program. This phenomenon takes place in the root tip and involves a reduction in cell elongation, a decrease in cell proliferation, and the induction of premature cell differentiation, resulting in meristem exhaustion...
May 12, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jérémy Lavarenne, Soazig Guyomarc'h, Christophe Sallaud, Pascal Gantet, Mikaël Lucas
Genetics and molecular biology have contributed to the development of rationalized plant breeding programs. Recent developments in both high-throughput experimental analyses of biological systems and in silico data processing offer the possibility to address the whole gene regulatory network (GRN) controlling a given trait. GRN models can be applied to identify topological features helping to shortlist potential candidate genes for breeding purposes. Time-series data sets can be used to support dynamic modelling of the network...
May 12, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Javier Veloso, Jan A L van Kan
The grey mould Botrytis cinerea causes disease in more than 1000 plant species, including important crops. The interaction between Botrytis and its (potential) hosts is determined by quantitative susceptibility and virulence traits in both interacting partners, resulting in a greyscale of disease outcomes. Fungal infection was long thought to rely mainly on its capacity to kill the host plant and degrade plant tissue. Recent research has revealed that Botrytis exploits two crucial biological processes in host plants for its own success...
April 30, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Mariana Sotelo-Silveira, Ricardo A Chávez Montes, Jose R Sotelo-Silveira, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
After linear sequences of genomes and epigenomic landscape data, the 3D organization of chromatin in the nucleus is the next level to be explored. Different organisms present a general hierarchical organization, with chromosome territories at the top. Chromatin interaction maps, obtained by chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methodologies, for eight plant species reveal commonalities, but also differences, among them and with animals. The smallest structures, found in high-resolution maps of the Arabidopsis genome, are single genes...
April 24, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Juan Du, Yang Zhang, Qiao Zhao
Lignin biosynthetic enzymes form a complex on the ER. Here we highlight how the recent identification of the membrane steroid binding proteins (MSBPs) as the structural component of the complex have revealed the molecular mechanism underlying the monolignol metabolon formation.
July 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Orlando C De-Paula, Leandro C S Assis, Louis P Ronse de Craene
A recent study using an extensive data set plus sophisticated analytical tools reconstructed a model of the ancestral angiosperm flower. Although attractive, it presents problems of homology assessment. We discuss its inconsistencies and endorse the use of a comparative model that integrates biological parameters as essential to elucidate floral evolution.
July 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Günter Theißen, Florian Rümpler, Lydia Gramzow
In a world of global warming, the question emerges whether all plants have suitable mechanisms to keep pace with the rapidly changing environment. Most previous studies have focused on either the ability of plants to rapidly acclimatize via physiological and developmental plasticity, or long-term adaptation over thousands of years. However, we wonder whether plants can also adapt to changes in the environment within only a few generations. We hypothesize that rapidly evolving clusters of tandemly duplicated developmental control genes represent a source for fast adaptation...
July 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Weijuan Huang, Chunlin Long, Eric Lam
The microbiome of medicinal plants may directly impact the metabolome of the host, and thus could influence the efficacy of herbal medicine. We advocate a herb for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Salvia miltiorrhiza, as a prime model system to study how microbes may interact with medicinal plants to modify phytochemical production.
July 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jacqueline Monaghan
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtBIK1 and rice (Oryza sativa) OsRLCK176 are orthologous receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases involved in immune signaling. Recent studies indicate that proteasomal turnover of these kinases is regulated by orthologous Ca2+ -dependent protein kinases AtCPK28 and OsCPK4, revealing conserved interplay between phosphorylation and ubiquitination in immune homeostasis.
July 2018: Trends in Plant Science
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