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Trends in Plant Science

Jacqueline Monaghan
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtBIK1 and rice (Oryza sativa) OsRLCK176 are orthologous receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases involved in immune signaling. Recent studies indicate that proteasomal turnover of these kinases is regulated by orthologous Ca2+ -dependent protein kinases AtCPK28 and OsCPK4, revealing conserved interplay between phosphorylation and ubiquitination in immune homeostasis.
May 15, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Dolores Gutiérrez-Alanís, Jonathan Odilón Ojeda-Rivera, Lenin Yong-Villalobos, Luis Cárdenas-Torres, Luis Herrera-Estrella
Phosphorus (P) availability is a limiting factor for plant growth and development. Root tip contact with low Pi media triggers diverse changes in the root architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana. The most conspicuous among these modifications is the inhibition of root growth, which is triggered by a shift from an indeterminate to a determinate root growth program. This phenomenon takes place in the root tip and involves a reduction in cell elongation, a decrease in cell proliferation, and the induction of premature cell differentiation, resulting in meristem exhaustion...
May 12, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jérémy Lavarenne, Soazig Guyomarc'h, Christophe Sallaud, Pascal Gantet, Mikaël Lucas
Genetics and molecular biology have contributed to the development of rationalized plant breeding programs. Recent developments in both high-throughput experimental analyses of biological systems and in silico data processing offer the possibility to address the whole gene regulatory network (GRN) controlling a given trait. GRN models can be applied to identify topological features helping to shortlist potential candidate genes for breeding purposes. Time-series data sets can be used to support dynamic modelling of the network...
May 12, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Yali Sun, Thomas Ward Detchemendy, Karolina Marta Pajerowska-Mukhtar, M Shahid Mukhtar
NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) is a master regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a broad-spectrum disease resistance mechanism in plants. NPR1 controls approximately 90% of SA-dependent transcriptome in Arabidopsis. Here, we discuss how pathogen effectors manipulate NPR1 functions in different cellular compartments to establish disease.
May 9, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Marco Cosme, Ivan Fernández, Marcel G A Van der Heijden, Corné M J Pieterse
The widespread symbiotic interaction between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi relies on a complex molecular dialog with reciprocal benefits in terms of nutrition, growth, and protection. Approximately 29% of all vascular plant species do not host AM symbiosis, including major crops. Under certain conditions, however, presumed non-host plants can become colonized by AM fungi and develop rudimentary AM (RAM) phenotypes. Here we zoom in on the mustard family (Brassicaceae), which harbors AM hosts, non-hosts, and presumed non-host species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, for which conditional RAM colonization has been described...
May 9, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Yiting Shi, Yanglin Ding, Shuhua Yang
Cold stress restricts plant growth, development, and distribution. Understanding how plants transduce and respond to cold signals has long been a topic of interest. Traditional genetic and molecular analyses have identified C-repeat/DREB binding factors (CBFs) as key transcription factors that function in cold acclimation. Recent studies revealed the involvement of pivotal protein kinases and transcription factors in CBF-dependent signaling, expanding our knowledge of cold signal transduction from perception to downstream gene expression events...
May 4, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jordan J Zager, B Markus Lange
Many aromatic plants accumulate mixtures of secondary (or specialized) metabolites in anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). Different GT types may also synthesize different mixtures of secreted metabolites, and this contributes to the enormous chemical diversity reported to occur across species. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in characterizing the genes and enzymes that are responsible for the unique metabolic capabilities of GTs in different lineages of flowering plants...
May 4, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Takashi Kuromori, Mitsunori Seo, Kazuo Shinozaki
To understand the integrative networks of signaling molecules, the sites of their biosynthesis and action must be clarified, particularly for phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA). The relationship between the sites of ABA biosynthesis and transport has been discussed extensively in the context of guard cells and stomatal regulation. However, guard cells are not the only site of ABA action. Recent studies have reported multiple sites of ABA biosynthesis and multiple ABA transporters, indicating that ABA transport regulation is not unidirectional but rather forms complex networks...
May 3, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Javier Veloso, Jan A L van Kan
The grey mould Botrytis cinerea causes disease in more than 1000 plant species, including important crops. The interaction between Botrytis and its (potential) hosts is determined by quantitative susceptibility and virulence traits in both interacting partners, resulting in a greyscale of disease outcomes. Fungal infection was long thought to rely mainly on its capacity to kill the host plant and degrade plant tissue. Recent research has revealed that Botrytis exploits two crucial biological processes in host plants for its own success...
April 30, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Mariana Sotelo-Silveira, Ricardo A Chávez Montes, Jose R Sotelo-Silveira, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
After linear sequences of genomes and epigenomic landscape data, the 3D organization of chromatin in the nucleus is the next level to be explored. Different organisms present a general hierarchical organization, with chromosome territories at the top. Chromatin interaction maps, obtained by chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methodologies, for eight plant species reveal commonalities, but also differences, among them and with animals. The smallest structures, found in high-resolution maps of the Arabidopsis genome, are single genes...
April 24, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Wu Liu, Lin Xu
Root evolution has resulted in the extant bifurcating roots in lycophytes, adventitious/lateral roots in euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants), and primary roots in seed plants. Here, we hypothesize a role for intermediate-clade-WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (IC-WOX) genes in root evolution. IC-WOX might not be specifically involved in lycophyte bifurcation rooting. In the fern Ceratopteris richardii, IC-WOX is expressed in adventitious/lateral root founder cells. In the seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are two IC-WOX subclades, AtWOX11/12 and AtWOX8/9, in adventitious and primary root founder cells, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Arp Schnittger, Lieven De Veylder
Although widely used as a marker for cell proliferation, CYCB1;1 expression is also strongly induced in cells that suffer from DNA damage. Recently, this enigmatic dual expression pattern has been resolved by proving that CYCB1;1 promotes DNA repair. This has consequences for using CYCB1;1 as a cell cycle reporter.
April 18, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Inês C R Barbosa, Ulrich Z Hammes, Claus Schwechheimer
Auxin controls almost every aspect of plant development. Auxin is distributed within the plant by passive diffusion and active cell-to-cell transport. PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux transporters are polarly distributed in the plasma membranes of many cells, and knowledge about their distribution can predict auxin transport and explain auxin distribution patterns, even in complex tissues. Recent studies have revealed that phosphorylation is essential for PIN activation, suggesting that PIN phosphorylation needs to be taken into account in understanding auxin transport...
April 17, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jennifer Selinski, Renate Scheibe, David A Day, James Whelan
The alternative pathway of mitochondrial electron transport, which terminates in the alternative oxidase (AOX), uncouples oxidation of substrate from mitochondrial ATP production, yet plant performance is improved under adverse growth conditions. AOX is regulated at different levels. Identification of regulatory transcription factors shows that Arabidopsis thaliana AOX1a is under strong transcriptional suppression. At the protein level, the primary structure is not optimised for activity. Maximal activity requires the presence of various metabolites, such as tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates that act in an isoform-specific manner...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Francisco Dini-Andreote, Jos M Raaijmakers
Community assembly is mediated by selection, dispersal, drift, and speciation. Environmental selection is mostly used to date to explain patterns in plant microbiome assembly, whereas the influence of the other processes remains largely elusive. Recent studies highlight that adopting community ecology concepts provides a mechanistic framework for plant microbiome research.
April 11, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Federico Brilli, Silvano Fares, Andrea Ghirardo, Pieter de Visser, Vicent Calatayud, Amalia Muñoz, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Federico Sebastiani, Alessandro Alivernini, Vincenzo Varriale, Flavio Menghini
Indoor pollution poses a serious threat to human health. Plants represent a sustainable but underexploited solution to enhance indoor air quality. However, the current selection of plants suitable for indoors fails to consider the physiological processes and mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. Therefore, the capacity of plants to remove indoor air pollutants through stomatal uptake (absorption) and non-stomatal deposition (adsorption) remains largely unknown. Moreover, the effects of the indoor plant-associated microbiome still need to be fully analyzed...
April 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Céline Forzani, Gustavo Turqueto Duarte, Christian Meyer
Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plants that is incorporated into sulfur-containing amino acids or metabolites crucial for plant growth and stress adaptation. A recent publication shows a connection between sulfur sensing, growth processes, and the conserved eukaryotic target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase signaling pathway.
April 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Nir Keren, Yossi Paltiel
Quantum mechanics diverges from the classical description of our world when very small scales or very fast processes are involved. Unlike classical mechanics, quantum effects cannot be easily related to our everyday experience and are often counterintuitive to us. Nevertheless, the dimensions and time scales of the photosynthetic energy transfer processes puts them close to the quantum/classical border, bringing them into the range of measurable quantum effects. Here we review recent advances in the field and suggest that photosynthetic processes can take advantage of the sensitivity of quantum effects to the environmental 'noise' as means of tuning exciton energy transfer efficiency...
April 3, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Oskar Siemianowski, Kara R Lind, Xinchun Tian, Matt Cain, Songzhe Xu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Ludovico Cademartiri
Model ecosystems could provide significant insight into the evolution and behavior of real ecosystems. We discuss the advantages and limitations of common approaches like mesocosms. In this context, we highlight recent breakthroughs that allow for the creation of networks of organisms with independently controlled environments and rates of chemical exchange.
April 2, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Silvina Mangano, Javier Martínez Pacheco, Cristina Marino-Buslje, José M Estevez
Polar growth in root hairs and pollen tubes is an excellent model for investigating plant cell size regulation. While linear plant growth is historically explained by the acid growth theory, which considers that auxin triggers apoplastic acidification by activating plasma membrane P-type H+ -ATPases (AHAs) along with cell wall relaxation over long periods, the apoplastic pH (apo pH) regulatory mechanisms are unknown for polar growth. Polar growth is a fast process mediated by rapid oscillations that repeat every ∼20-40s...
March 28, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
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