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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782919/subcatchment-deltas-and-upland-features-influence-multiscale-aquatic-ecosystem-recovery-in-damaged-landscapes
#1
Brian W Kielstra, Shelley E Arnott, John M Gunn
Assessing biological recovery in damaged aquatic environments requires the consideration of multiple spatial and temporal scales. Past research has focused on assessing lake recovery from atmospheric or catchment disturbance at regional or catchment levels. Studies have also rarely considered the influences of adjacent terrestrial characteristics on within-lake habitats, such as subcatchment delta confluences. We used Hyalella azteca, a ubiquitous freshwater amphipod, as a sensitive indicator to assess the importance of local subcatchment scale factors in the context of multiscale lake recovery within the metal mining region of Sudbury, Canada following a period of major reductions in atmospheric pollution...
August 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777884/state-dependent-behavior-alters-endocrine-energy-relationship-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#2
Brett R Jesmer, Jacob R Goheen, Kevin L Monteith, Matthew J Kauffman
Glucocorticoids (GC) and triiodothyronine (T3) are two endocrine markers commonly used to quantify resource limitation, yet the relationships between these markers and the energetic state of animals has been studied primarily in small-bodied species in captivity. Free-ranging animals, however, adjust energy intake in accordance with their energy reserves, a behavior known as state-dependent foraging. Further, links between life-history strategies and metabolic allometries cause energy intake and energy reserves to be more strongly coupled in small animals relative to large animals...
August 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763165/a-pesticide-paradox-fungicides-indirectly-increase-fungal-infections
#3
Jason R Rohr, Jenise Brown, William A Battaglin, Taegan A McMahon, Rick A Relyea
There are many examples where the use of chemicals have had profound unintended consequences, such as fertilizers reducing crop yields (paradox of enrichment) and insecticides increasing insect pests (by reducing natural biocontrol). Recently, the application of agrochemicals, such as agricultural disinfectants and fungicides, has been explored as an approach to curb the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with worldwide amphibian declines. However, the long-term, net effects of early-life exposure to these chemicals on amphibian disease risk have not been thoroughly investigated...
August 1, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752664/modelling-plant-interspecific-interactions-from-experiments-of-perennial-crop-mixtures-to-predict-optimal-combinations
#4
Virginia Halty, Matías Valdés, Mauricio Tejera, Valentín Picasso, Hugo Fort
The contribution of plant species richness to productivity and ecosystem functioning is a long standing issue in Ecology, with relevant implications for both conservation and agriculture. Both experiments and quantitative modelling are fundamental to the design of sustainable agroecosystems and the optimization of crop production. We modelled communities of perennial crop mixtures by using a generalized Lotka-Volterra model, i.e. a model such that the interspecific interactions are more general than purely competitive...
July 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746981/predicting-life-history-parameters-for-all-fishes-worldwide
#5
James T Thorson, Stephan B Munch, Jason M Cope, Jin Gao
Scientists and resource managers need to know life history parameters (e.g., average mortality rate, individual growth rate, maximum length or mass, and timing of maturity) to understand and respond to risks to natural populations and ecosystems. For over one-hundred years, scientists have identified "life history invariants" (LHI) representing pairs of parameters whose ratio is theorized to be constant across species. LHI then promise to allow prediction of many parameters from field-measurements of a few important traits...
July 26, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736847/reproductive-plasticity-and-landscape-heterogeneity-benefit-a-ground-nesting-bird-in-a-fire-prone-ecosystem
#6
J Matthew Carroll, Torre J Hovick, Craig A Davis, R Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D Fuhlendorf
Disturbance is critical for the conservation of rangeland ecosystems worldwide and many of these systems are fire dependent. Although it is well established that restoring fire as an ecological process can lead to increased biodiversity in grasslands and shrublands, the underlying mechanisms driving community patterns are poorly understood for fauna in fire-prone landscapes. Much of this uncertainty stems from the paucity of studies that examine the effects of fire at scales relevant to organism life histories...
July 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727205/drivers-of-woody-canopy-water-content-responses-to-drought-in-a-mediterranean-type-ecosystem
#7
Tarin Paz-Kagan, Gregory P Asner
Severe droughts increase physiological stress in woody plant species, which can lead to mortality, fundamentally altering the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Little is known, however, about the factors determining the physiological response of woody plants to drought at landscape scales. Our objective was to understand woody plant species responses to ongoing changes in climate, using remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC) as an indicator of plant physiological and phenological status...
July 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718204/detrital-shadows-estuarine-food-web-connectivity-depends-on-fluvial-influence-and-consumer-feeding-mode
#8
Emily Howe, Charles A Simenstad, Andrea Ogston
We measured the influence of landscape setting on estuarine food web connectivity in five macrotidal Pacific Northwest estuaries across a gradient of freshwater influence. We used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(34) S) in combination with a Bayesian mixing model to trace primary producer contributions to suspension- and deposit-feeding bivalve consumers (Mytilus trossulus and Macoma nasuta) transplanted into three estuarine vegetation zones: emergent marsh, mudflat, Japanese eelgrass (Zostera japonica), and native eelgrass (Zostera marina)...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718202/patterns-of-mortality-in-a-montane-mixed-conifer-forest-in-san-diego-county-california
#9
Mary Pyott Freeman, Douglas A Stow, Li An
We examine spatial patterns of conifer tree mortality and their changes over time for the montane mixed-conifer forests of San Diego County. These forest areas have recently experienced extensive tree mortality due to multiple factors. A spatial contextual image processing approach was utilized with high spatial resolution digital airborne imagery to map dead trees for the years 1997, 2000, 2002, and 2005 for three study areas: Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna mountains. Plot-based fieldwork was conducted to further assess mortality patterns...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718193/metacommunity-theory-meets-restoration-isolation-may-mediate-how-ecological-communities-respond-to-stream-restoration
#10
Christopher M Swan, Bryan L Brown
An often-cited benefit of river restoration is an increase in biodiversity or shift in composition to more desirable taxa. Yet, hard manipulations of habitat structure often fail to elicit a significant response in terms of biodiversity patterns. In contrast to conventional wisdom, the dispersal of organisms may have as large an influence on biodiversity patterns as environmental conditions. This influence of dispersal may be particularly influential in river networks which are linear branching, or dendritic, and thus constrain most dispersal to the river corridor...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692788/watershed-versus-within-lake-drivers-of-nitrogen-phosphorus-dynamics-in-shallow-lakes
#11
Luke J Ginger, Kyle D Zimmer, Brian R Herwig, Mark A Hanson, William O Hobbs, Gaston E Small, James B Cotner
Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid versus clear) on total N: total P (TN:TP), ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and seston stoichiometry...
July 10, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681951/natural-succession-on-abandoned-cropland-effectively-decreases-the-soil-erodibility-and-improves-the-fungal-diversity
#12
Chao Zhang, Guobin Liu, Zilin Song, Dong Qu, Linchuan Fang, Lei Deng
Changes in plants and soils during natural succession have been evaluated, but little is known about the effects of succession on the activities of soil microbes and their interactions with soil erodibility. We conducted a field study on the Chinese Loess Plateau, typical of this semiarid area, to determine the effect of secondary succession on the stability of soil structure against erosion and on the composition of soil fungal communities. Characteristics of plant, soil, and fungal communities were assessed across a 30-year chronosequence of grassland developed from abandoned cropland...
July 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675670/predicting-the-abundance-of-forest-types-across-the-eastern-u-s-through-inverse-modelling-of-tree-demography
#13
Mark C Vanderwel, Danaë M A Rozendaal, Margaret E K Evans
Global environmental change is expected to induce widespread changes in the geographic distribution and biomass of forest communities. Impacts have been projected from both empirical (statistical) and mechanistic (physiology-based) modelling approaches, but there remains an important gap in accurately predicting abundance across species' ranges from spatial variation in individual-level demographic processes. We address this issue by using a cohort-based forest dynamics model (CAIN) to predict spatial variation in the abundance of six plant functional types (PFTs) across the eastern U...
July 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675581/understanding-the-demographic-drivers-of-realized-population-growth-rates
#14
David N Koons, Todd W Arnold, Michael Schaub
Identifying the demographic parameters (e.g., reproduction, survival, dispersal) that most influence population dynamics can increase conservation effectiveness and enhance ecological understanding. Life table response experiments (LTRE) aim to decompose the effects of change in parameters on past demographic outcomes (e.g., population growth rates). But the vast majority of LTREs and other retrospective population analyses have focused on decomposing asymptotic population growth rates, which do not account for the dynamic interplay between population structure and vital rates that shape realized population growth rates (λt = Nt+1 /Nt ) in time-varying environments...
July 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675580/impact-of-disease-on-the-survival-of-three-commercially-fished-species
#15
John M Hoenig, Maya L Groner, Matthew W Smith, Wolfgang K Vogelbein, David M Taylor, Donald F Landers, John Swenarton, David T Gauthier, Philip Sadler, Mark Matsche, Ashley Haines, Hamish J Small, Roger Pradel, Remi Choquet, Jeffrey D Shields
Recent increases in emergent infectious diseases have raised concerns about the sustainability of some marine species. The complexity and expense of studying diseases in marine systems often dictate that conservation and management decisions are made without quantitative data on population-level impacts of disease. Mark-recapture is a powerful, underutilized, tool for calculating impacts of disease on population size and structure, even in the absence of etiological information. We applied logistic regression models to mark-recapture data to obtain estimates of disease-associated mortality rates in three commercially-important marine species: snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in Newfoundland, Canada, that experience sporadic epizootics of bitter crab disease; striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay, USA, that experience chronic dermal and visceral mycobacteriosis; and American lobster (Homarus americanus) in the Southern New England stock, that experience chronic epizootic shell disease...
July 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667790/modeling-the-impacts-of-two-age-related-portfolio-effects-on-recruitment-variability-with-and-without-a-marine-reserve
#16
Carey R McGilliard, André E Punt, Ray Hilborn, Tim Essington
Many rockfish species are long-lived and thought to be susceptible to being overfished. Hypotheses about the importance of older female rockfish to population persistence have led to arguments that marine reserves are needed to ensure the sustainability of rockfish populations. However, the implications of these hypotheses for rockfish population dynamics are still unclear. We modeled two mechanisms by which reducing the proportion of older fish in a population has been hypothesized to influence sustainability, and explored whether these mechanisms influenced mean population dynamics and recruitment variability...
July 1, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660670/defaunation-and-habitat-disturbance-interact-synergistically-to-alter-seedling-recruitment
#17
Alys Granados, Jedediah F Brodie, Henry Bernard, Michael J O'Brien
Vertebrate granivores destroy plant seeds, but whether animal-induced seed mortality alters plant recruitment varies with habitat context, seed traits, and among granivore species. An incomplete understanding of seed predation makes it difficult to predict how widespread extirpations of vertebrate granivores in tropical forests might affect tree communities, especially in the face of habitat disturbance. Many tropical forests are simultaneously affected by animal loss as well as habitat disturbance, but the consequences of each for forest regeneration are often studied separately or additively, and usually on a single plant demographic stage...
June 29, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653471/experimental-warming-alters-migratory-caribou-forage-quality
#18
Tara J Zamin, Steeve D Côté, Jean-Pierre Tremblay, Paul Grogan
Global declines in caribou and reindeer (Rangifer) populations have drawn attention to the myriad of stressors that these arctic and boreal forest herbivores currently face. Arctic warming has resulted in increased tundra shrub growth and therefore Rangifer forage quantity. However, its effects on forage quality have not yet been addressed although they may be critical to Rangifer body condition and fecundity. We investigated the impact of summer warming on the quality of forage available to the Bathurst caribou herd using experimental greenhouses (n=5) located in mesic birch hummock tundra in the central Canadian Low Arctic...
June 27, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653410/breeding-density-fine-scale-tracking-and-large-scale-modeling-reveal-the-regional-distribution-of-four-seabird-species
#19
Ewan D Wakefield, Ellie Owen, Julia Baer, Matthew J Carroll, Francis Daunt, Stephen G Dodd, Jonathan A Green, Tim Guilford, Roddy A Mavor, Peter I Miller, Mark A Newell, Stephen F Newton, Gail S Robertson, Akiko Shoji, Louise M Soanes, Stephen C Votier, Sarah Wanless, Mark Bolton
Population-level estimates of species' distributions can reveal fundamental ecological processes and facilitate conservation. However, these may be difficult to obtain for mobile species, especially colonial central-place foragers (CCPFs; e.g. bats, corvids, social insects), because it is often impractical to determine the provenance of individuals observed beyond breeding sites. Moreover, some CCPFs, especially in the marine realm (e.g. pinnipeds, turtles and seabirds) are difficult to observe because they range 10s to 10,000s km from their colonies...
June 27, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646611/prediction-in-ecology-a-first-principles-framework
#20
Michael C Dietze
Quantitative predictions are ubiquitous in ecology, yet there is limited discussion on the nature of prediction in this field. Herein I derive a general quantitative framework for analyzing and partitioning the sources of uncertainty that control predictability. The implications of this framework are assessed conceptually and linked to classic questions in ecology, such as the relative importance of endogenous (density dependent) versus exogenous factors, stability versus drift, and the spatial scaling of processes...
June 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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