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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415475/low-structural-complexity-of-non-native-grassland-habitat-exposes-prey-to-higher-predation
#1
Grant Norbury, Wouter van Overmeire
The structural complexity of vegetation can have profound effects on the hunting efficiency of predators, thereby affecting their intake rate of prey. While studies have shown that vegetation complexity can play an important role in managing unwanted impacts of predators, it is less clear how structural complexity of invasive vegetation affects the vulnerability of terrestrial prey. Short non-native pasture species, for example, bred for agricultural production are highly invasive and pervade grassland ecosystems worldwide...
November 10, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412332/harvesting-effects-on-wild-bee-communities-in-bioenergy-grasslands-depend-on-nesting-guild
#2
Brian J Spiesman, Ashley Bennett, Rufus Isaacs, Claudio Gratton
Conversion of annual crops to native perennial grasslands for bioenergy production may help conserve wild bees by enhancing nest and food resources. However, bee response to the disturbance of biomass harvesting may depend on their nesting location, thus their vulnerability to nest destruction, and the response of the forb community on which they forage. Moreover, because bees have long foraging ranges, effects of local harvesting may depend on the amount of natural habitat in the surrounding landscape. We performed a large-scale one- and two-year experiment in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, respectively, to examine how grassland harvesting, landscape context, and study year affect the forb community, above- and belowground-nesting bee species richness, community composition, trap nest emergence, and visitation rate...
November 9, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412328/black-walnut-alley-cropping-is-economically-competitive-with-row-crops-in-the-midwest-usa
#3
Kevin J Wolz, Evan H DeLucia
The maize-soybean rotation (MSR) dominates the Midwest US and degrades many ecological functions. Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) plantation forestry (PF) and alley cropping (AC) are two alternative land-uses that can enhance productivity and restore ecosystem services. Given the lack of robust market mechanisms to monetize ecosystems services, we tested whether the profitability of PF and AC could drive adoption in the Midwest. Publically available data on black walnut soil suitability, timber prices, crop productivity, and cash rents were combined in a high-resolution spatial analysis to identify regions where these alternatives can outcompete MSR...
November 9, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403314/multistate-occupancy-modeling-improves-understanding-of-amphibian-breeding-dynamics-in-the-greater-yellowstone-area
#4
William R Gould, Andrew M Ray, Larissa L Bailey, David Thoma, Rob Daley, Kristin Legg
Discerning the determinants of species occurrence across landscapes is fundamental to their conservation and management. In spatially and climatologically complex landscapes, explaining the dynamics of occurrence can lead to improved understanding of short versus long-term trends and offer novel insight on local versus regional change. We examined the changes in occupancy for two species of anurans with different life histories over a decade using hundreds of wetland sites in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks...
November 7, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30403308/wetland-compensation-and-its-impacts-on-%C3%AE-diversity
#5
Edward P F Price, Greg Spyreas, Jeffrey W Matthews
The anthropogenic degradation of natural ecological communities can cause biodiversity loss in the form of biotic homogenization (i.e. reduced β-diversity). Biodiversity offsetting practices, such as compensatory wetland mitigation, may inadvertently cause biotic homogenization if they produce locally homogenous or regionally recurring communities. The fact that compensation wetlands often resemble degraded wetlands suggests that potential impacts to β-diversity are likely. Yet, it is unknown how high quality, low quality (degraded) and compensation wetlands compare in terms of β-diversity...
November 7, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390399/beyond-the-model-expert-knowledge-improves-predictions-of-species-fates-under-climate-change
#6
April E Reside, Kay Critchell, Darren M Crayn, Miriam Goosem, Stephen Goosem, Conrad J Hoskin, Travis Sydes, Eric P Vanderduys, Robert L Pressey
The need to proactively manage landscapes and species to aid their adaptation to climate change is widely acknowledged. Current approaches to prioritizing investment in species conservation generally rely on correlative models, which predict the likely fate of species under different climate change scenarios. Yet, while model statistics can be improved by refining modelling techniques, gaps remain in understanding the relationship between model performance and ecological reality. To investigate this we compared standard correlative species distribution models to highly accurate, fine-scale distribution models...
November 3, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376192/salinity-pulses-interact-with-seasonal-dry-down-to-increase-ecosystem-carbon-loss-in-marshes-of-the-florida-everglades
#7
Benjamin J Wilson, Shelby Servais, Viviana Mazzei, John S Kominoski, Minjie Hu, Stephen E Davis, Evelyn Gaiser, Fred Sklar, Laura Bauman, Stephen Kelly, Christopher Madden, Jennifer Richards, David Rudnick, Joseph Stachelek, Tiffany G Troxler
Coastal wetlands are globally important sinks of organic carbon (C). However, to what extent wetland C cycling will be affected by accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) and saltwater intrusion is unknown, especially in coastal peat marshes where water flow is highly managed. Our objective was to determine how the ecosystem C balance in coastal peat marshes is influenced by elevated salinity. For two years, we made monthly in situ manipulations of elevated salinity in freshwater (FW) and brackish water (BW) sites within Everglades National Park, Florida, USA...
October 30, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362295/open-science-reproducibility-and-transparency-in-ecology
#8
Stephen M Powers, Stephanie E Hampton
Reproducibility is a key tenet of the scientific process that dictates the reliability and generality of results and methods. The complexities of ecological observations and data present novel challenges in satisfying needs for reproducibility, and also transparency. Ecological systems are dynamic and heterogeneous, interacting with numerous factors that sculpt natural history and that investigators cannot completely control. Observations may be highly dependent on spatial and temporal context, making them very difficult to reproduce, but computational reproducibility still can be achieved...
October 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329189/functional-attributes-of-ungulate-migration-landscape-features-facilitate-movement-and-access-to-forage
#9
Kevin L Monteith, Matthew M Hayes, Matthew J Kauffman, Holly E Copeland, Hall Sawyer
Long-distance migration by terrestrial mammals is a phenomenon critical to the persistence of populations, but such migrations are declining globally because of over-harvest, habitat loss, and movement barriers. Increasingly, there is a need to improve existing routes, mitigate route segments affected by anthropogenic disturbance, and in some instances, determine whether alternative routes are available. Using a hypothesis-driven approach, we identified landscape features associated with the primary functional attributes, stopovers and movement corridors, of spring migratory routes for mule deer in two study areas using resource selection functions...
October 17, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326550/fine-scale-spatial-homogenization-of-microbial-habitats-a-multivariate-index-of-headwater-wetland-complex-condition
#10
Jessica B Moon, Denice H Wardrop, Erica A H Smithwick, Kusum J Naithani
With growing public awareness that wetlands are important to society, there are intensifying efforts to understand the ecological condition of those wetlands that remain, and to develop indicators of wetland condition. Indicators based on soils are not well developed and are absent in some current assessment protocols; these could be advantageous, particularly for soils, which are complex habitats for plants, invertebrates, and microbial communities. In this study, we examine whether multivariate soil indicators, correlated with microbial biomass and community composition, can be used to distinguish reference standard (i...
October 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326546/above-ground-forest-carbon-shows-different-responses-to-fire-frequency-in-harvested-and-unharvested-forests
#11
Luke Collins, Ross Bradstock, Fabiano Ximenes, Bronwyn Horsey, Robert Sawyer, Trent Penman
Sequestration of carbon in forest ecosystems has been identified as an effective strategy to help mitigate the effects of global climate change. Prescribed burning and timber harvesting are two common, co-occurring forest management practices that may alter forest carbon pools. Prescribed burning for forest management, such as wildfire risk reduction, may shorten inter-fire intervals and potentially reduce carbon stocks. Timber harvesting may further increase the susceptibility of forest carbon to losses in response to frequent burning regimes, by redistributing carbon stocks from the live pools into the dead pools, causing mechanical damage to retained trees and shifting the demography of tree communities...
October 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326541/trans-species-predictors-of-tree-leaf-mass
#12
Garret T Dettmann, David W MacFarlane
Tree leaf mass is a small, highly variable, but critical, component of forest ecosystems. Estimating leaf mass on standing trees with models is challenging because leaf mass varies both within and between tree species and at different locations and points in time. Typically, models for estimating tree leaf mass are species-specific, empirical models that predict intra-specific variation from stem diameter at breast height (DBH). Such models are highly limited in their application because there are many other factors beyond tree girth and species that cause leaf mass to vary and because such models provide no way to predict leaf mass for species for which data are not available...
October 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325075/exploring-the-relationships-between-marine-protected-areas-and-invasive-fish-in-the-world-s-most-invaded-sea
#13
Sylvaine Giakoumi, Alexis Pey, Antonio Di Franco, Patrice Francour, Zafer Kizilkaya, Yaprak Arda, Virginie Raybaud, Paolo Guidetti
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are an essential tool for marine biodiversity conservation. Yet, their effectiveness in protecting marine ecosystems from global stressors is debated. Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, causing biodiversity loss and altering ecosystem functioning. Here, we explored the relationships between MPAs and alien/ native range expanding fishes in the Mediterranean Sea, the world's most invaded sea. We surveyed fish and benthic communities in nine MPAs and adjacent unprotected areas across six countries...
October 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312519/testing-the-effects-of-four-urbanization-filters-on-forest-plant-taxonomic-functional-and-phylogenetic-diversity
#14
Bianca E Lopez, Dean Urban, Peter S White
Ongoing urban development has significant effects on ecosystems, including changes to land cover, environmental conditions, and species' distributions. These various impacts may have opposing or interacting effects on plant communities, making it difficult to predict how plant biodiversity will respond to urban development. A frequently cited conceptual framework predicts how urban development influences plant taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity by simplifying multiple coincident effects of urbanization into four primary filters of biodiversity: habitat transformation, fragmentation, the urban environment, and human preferences...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312509/pelagic-food-webs-of-humic-lakes-show-low-short-term-response-to-forest-harvesting
#15
A Deininger, A Jonsson, J Karlsson, A-K Bergström
Forest harvest in the boreal zone can increase the input of terrestrial materials such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3 - ) into nearby aquatic ecosystems, with potential effects on phytoplankton growth through enhanced nutrient- (i.e. positive) or reduced light availability (i.e. negative), which may affect ecosystem productivity and consumer resource use. Here, we conducted forest clear cutting experiments in the catchments of four small, humic and nitrogen (N) limited unproductive boreal lakes (two controls and two clear cut, 18% and 44% of area cut) with one reference and two impact years...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312506/modelling-habituation-of-introduced-predators-to-unrewarding-bird-odors-for-conservation-of-ground-nesting-shorebirds
#16
M Cecilia Latham, Dean P Anderson, Grant Norbury, Catherine J Price, Peter B Banks, A David M Latham
Foraging mammalian predators face a myriad of odors from potential prey. To be efficient they must focus on rewarding odor while ignoring consistently unrewarding ones. This may be exploited as a non-lethal conservation tool if predators can be deceived into ignoring odors of vulnerable secondary prey. To explore critical design components and assess the potential gains to prey survival of this technique, we created an individual-based model that simulated the hunting behavior of three introduced mammalian predators on one of their secondary prey (a migratory shorebird) in the South Island of New Zealand...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312496/a-novel-approach-to-assessing-the-ecosystem-wide-impacts-of-reintroductions
#17
Christopher M Baker, Michael Bode, Nick Dexter, David B Lindenmayer, Claire Foster, Christopher MacGregor, Michaela Plein, Eve McDonald-Madden
Reintroducing a species to an ecosystem can have significant impacts on the recipient ecological community. Although reintroductions can have striking and positive outcomes, they also carry risks; many well intentioned conservation actions have had surprising and unsatisfactory outcomes. A range of network-based mathematical methods have been developed to make quantitative predictions of how communities will respond to management interventions. These methods are based on the limited knowledge of which species interact with each other and in what way...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368990/should-i-shoot-or-should-i-go-simple-rules-for-prey-selection-in-multi-species-hunting-systems
#18
Charlotte H Chang, Sarah E Drohan
Across the tropics, unregulated hunting targeting many different species presents a major conservation challenge. Prioritizing resources for monitoring and enforcement is difficult when multiple prey species are exploited. However, identifying which prey species are subject to hunting pressure can be achieved with diet choice models. We evaluate hunter diet sets using data from Southwest China and compare two diet choice models: optimal foraging theory and a relatively new diet model originating from economic optimal stopping problems...
October 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286257/introduction-to-the-alaska-carbon-cycle-invited-feature
#19
A D McGuire, Z Zhu, R Birdsey, Y Pan, D S Schimel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285303/ecological-change-alters-the-evolutionary-response-to-harvest-in-a-freshwater-fish
#20
Jenilee Gobin, Nigel P Lester, Michael G Fox, Erin S Dunlop
Harvesting can induce rapid evolution in animal populations, yet the role of ecological change in buffering or enhancing that response is poorly understood. Here, we developed an eco-genetic model to examine how ecological changes brought about by two notorious invasive species, zebra and quagga mussels, influence harvest-induced evolution and resilience in a freshwater fish. Our study focused on lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where the species supports valuable commercial and subsistence fisheries, and where the invasion of dreissenid (zebra and quagga) mussels caused drastic shifts in ecosystem productivity...
October 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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