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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646611/prediction-in-ecology-a-first-principles-framework
#1
Michael C Dietze
Quantitative predictions are ubiquitous in ecology, yet there is limited discussion on the nature of prediction in this field. Herein I derive a general quantitative framework for analyzing and partitioning the sources of uncertainty that control predictability. The implications of this framework are assessed conceptually and linked to classic questions in ecology, such as the relative importance of endogenous (density dependent) versus exogenous factors, stability versus drift, and the spatial scaling of processes...
June 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644579/pairing-field-methods-to-improve-inference-in-wildlife-surveys-while-accommodating-detection-covariance
#2
John Clare, Shawn T McKinney, John E DePue, Cynthia S Loftin
It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost-efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another...
June 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644577/evidence-of-fuels-management-and-fire-weather-influencing-fire-severity-in-an-extreme-fire-event
#3
Jamie M Lydersen, Brandon M Collins, Matthew L Brooks, John R Matchett, Kristen L Shive, Nicholas A Povak, Van R Kane, Douglas F Smith
Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western U.S. Given this increase there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation and water balance on fire severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales...
June 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636273/long-term-belowground-effects-of-grassland-management-the-key-role-of-liming
#4
Jemma Heyburn, Paul McKenzie, Michael J Crawley, Dario A Fornara
The functioning of human-managed grassland ecosystems strongly depends on how common management practices will affect grassland 'belowground compartment' including soil biogeochemistry and plant roots. Key questions remain about how animal grazing, liming (e.g. the addition of CaCO3 to soils), and nutrient fertilization might affect, in the long-term, soil nutrient cycling and multiple root traits. Here we focus on a mesotrophic grassland located in Berkshire, UK, where contrasting levels of rabbit grazing, liming and different inorganic fertilizers have been applied since 1991...
June 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618118/response-to-rebutting-the-inclined-analyses-on-the-cost-effectiveness-and-feasibility-of-coral-reef-restoration
#5
Elisa Bayraktarov, Megan I Saunders, Peter J Mumby, Hugh P Possingham, Sabah Abdullah, Catherine E Lovelock
Reaching conservation goals critically depends on smart decision-making to efficiently allocate a constrained budget between different on-ground actions leading to maximum net benefit for biodiversity and human well-being at highest probability of success and lowest cost for these actions (Possingham et al. 2001; Joseph et al. 2009; Game et al. 2013). Without information on cost, feasibility and benefits of conservation, a prioritisation of marine coastal restoration interventions will be poor and money lost (Possingham et al...
June 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618079/protected-areas-as-social-ecological-systems-perspectives-from-resilience-and-social-ecological-systems-theory
#6
Graeme S Cumming, Craig R Allen
Conservation biology and applied ecology increasingly recognise that natural resource management is both an outcome and a driver of social, economic, and ecological dynamics. Protected areas offer a fundamental approach to conserving ecosystems, but they are also social-ecological systems whose ecological management and sustainability are heavily influenced by people. This editorial, and the papers in the invited feature that it introduces, discuss three emerging themes in social-ecological systems approaches to understanding protected areas: (1) the resilience and sustainability of protected areas, including analyses of their internal dynamics, their effectiveness, and the resilience of the landscapes within which they occur; (2) the relevance of spatial context and scale for protected areas, including such factors as geographic connectivity, context, exchanges between protected areas and their surrounding landscapes, and scale dependency in the provision of ecosystem services; and (3) efforts to re-frame what protected areas are and how they both define and are defined by the relationships of people and nature...
June 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600858/scale-dependent-effects-of-post-fire-canopy-cover-on-snowpack-depth-in-montane-coniferous-forests
#7
Jens T Stevens
Winter snowpack in dry montane regions provides a valuable ecosystem service by storing water into the growing season. Wildfire in coniferous montane forests has the potential to indirectly affect snowpack accumulation and ablation (mass loss) rates by reducing canopy cover, which reduces canopy interception of snow but also increases solar radiation and wind speed. These counteracting effects create uncertainty regarding the canopy conditions that maximize post-fire snowpack duration, which is of concern as montane regions across the western United States experience increasingly warm, dry winters with below-average snowpack...
June 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593704/fragmentation-increases-wind-disturbance-impacts-on-forest-structure-and-carbon-stocks-in-a-western-amazonian-landscape
#8
Naomi B Schwartz, María Uriarte, Ruth DeFries, Kristopher M Bedka, Katia Fernandes, Victor Gutiérrez-Vélez, Miguel A Pinedo-Vasquez
Tropical second-growth forests could help mitigate climate change, but the degree to which their carbon potential is achieved will depend on exposure to disturbance. Wind disturbance is common in tropical forests, shaping structure, composition, and function, and influencing successional trajectories. However, little is known about the impacts of extreme winds on second-growth forests in fragmented landscapes, though these ecosystems are often located in mosaics of forest, pasture, cropland, and other land cover types...
June 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590046/applying-community-ecological-theory-to-maximize-productivity-of-cultivated-biocrusts
#9
Matthew A Bowker, Anita J Antoninka, Rebecca A Durham
Degraded rangelands around the world may benefit from the reestablishment of lost biological soil crusts (biocrusts, soil surface cryptogamic-microbial communities). Cultivation of biocrust organisms is the first step in this process, and may benefit from harnessing species interactions. Species interactions are a dominant force structuring ecological communities. One key element of community structure, species richness, is itself important because it can promote the productivity of the entire community. Here, we use biological soil crusts as a model to test the effects of species interactions on production of biocrust materials for use in ecosystem rehabilitation...
June 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581670/interactive-effects-of-predator-and-prey-harvest-on-ecological-resilience-of-rocky-reefs
#10
Robert P Dunn, Marissa L Baskett, Kevin A Hovel
A major goal of ecosystem-based fisheries management is to prevent fishery-induced shifts in community states. This requires an understanding of ecological resilience: the ability of an ecosystem to return to the same state following a perturbation, which can strongly depend on species interactions across trophic levels. We use a structured model of a temperate rocky reef to explore how multi-trophic level fisheries impact ecological resilience. Increasing fishing mortality of prey (urchins) has a minor effect on equilibrium biomass of kelp, urchins, and spiny lobster predators, but increases resilience by reducing the range of predator harvest rates at which alternative stable states are possible...
June 5, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556511/host-specific-effects-of-soil-microbial-filtrates-prevail-over-those-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#11
Camila Pizano, Scott A Mangan, James H Graham, Kaoru Kitajima
Plant-soil interactions have been shown to determine plant community composition in a wide range of environments. However, how plants distinctly interact with beneficial and detrimental organisms across mosaic landscapes containing fragmented habitats is still poorly understood. We experimentally tested feedback responses between plants and soil microbial communities from adjacent habitats across a disturbance gradient within a human-modified tropical montane landscape. In a greenhouse experiment, two components of soil microbial communities were amplified; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and a filtrate excluding AMF spores from the soils of pastures (high disturbance), coffee plantations (intermediate disturbance), and forest fragments (low disturbance), using potted seedlings of 11 plant species common in these habitats (pasture grass, coffee, and 9 native species)...
May 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543995/the-effects-of-restoring-logged-tropical-forests-on-avian-phylogenetic-and-functional-diversity
#12
Cindy C P Cosset, David P Edwards
Selective logging is the most prevalent land-use change in the tropics. Despite the resulting degradation of forest structure, selectively logged forests still harbour a substantial amount of biodiversity leading to suggestions that their protection is the next best alternative to conserving primary, old-growth forests. Restoring carbon stocks under Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes is a potential method for obtaining funding to protect logged forests, via enrichment planting and liberation cutting of vines...
May 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544666/identifying-target-reference-points-for-harvesting-assessment-limited-wildlife-populations-a-case-study
#13
Bryan S Stevens, James R Bence, William F Porter, Michael L Jones
Identifying appropriate strategies for sustainable harvest is a challenge for many terrestrial vertebrate species because of uncertain system dynamics, limited data to inform population models, and potentially conflicting objectives that seek to harvest and maintain populations at desirable levels. The absence of monitoring and assessment infrastructure needed to regularly estimate abundance accentuates this challenge for many species, and limits application of rigorous state-dependent frameworks for decision making that are commonly advocated in natural resource management...
May 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482135/climate-and-landscape-drive-the-pace-and-pattern-of-conifer-encroachment-into-subalpine-meadows
#14
Kaitlin C Lubetkin, Anthony Leroy Westerling, Lara M Kueppers
Mountain meadows have high biodiversity and help regulate stream water release following the snowmelt pulse. However, many meadows are experiencing woody plant encroachment, threatening these ecosystem services. While there have been field surveys of individual meadows and remote sensing-based landscape-scale studies of encroachment, what is missing is a broad scale, ground-based study to understand common regional drivers, especially at high elevations, where land management has often played a less direct role...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482132/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-colonization-has-little-consequence-for-plant-heavy-metal-uptake-in-contaminated-field-soils
#15
Lee H Dietterich, Cédric Gonneau, Brenda B Casper
The factors affecting plant uptake of heavy metals from metalliferous soils are deeply important to the remediation of polluted areas. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), soil-dwelling fungi that engage in an intimate exchange of nutrients with plant roots, are thought to be involved in plant metal uptake as well. Here, we used a novel field-based approach to investigate the effects of AMF on plant metal uptake from soils in Palmerton, PA, USA contaminated with heavy metals from a nearby zinc smelter. Previous studies often focus on one or two plant species or metals, tend to use highly artificial growing conditions and metal applications, and rarely consider metals' effects on plants and AMF together...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482116/pollution-tolerant-invertebrates-enhance-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-urban-wetlands
#16
Andrew S Mehring, Perran L M Cook, Victor Evrard, Stanley B Grant, Lisa A Levin
One of the goals of urban ecology is to link community structure to ecosystem function in urban habitats. Pollution-tolerant wetland invertebrates have been shown to enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in controlled laboratory experiments, suggesting that they may influence urban wetland roles as sources or sinks of GHG. However, it is unclear if their effects can be detected in highly variable conditions in a field setting. Here we use an extensive dataset on carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) flux in sediment cores (n = 103) collected from ten urban wetlands in Melbourne, Australia during summer and winter in order to test for invertebrate enhancement of GHG flux...
May 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464529/floral-resource-availability-from-groundcover-promotes-bee-abundance-in-coffee-agroecosystems
#17
Kaleigh Fisher, David J Gonthier, Katherine K Ennis, Ivette Perfecto
Patterns of bee abundance and diversity across different spatial scales have received thorough research consideration. However, the impact of short and long term temporal resource availability on biodiversity has been less explored. This is highly relevant in tropical agricultural systems for pollinators, as many foraging periods of pollinators extend beyond flowering of any single crop species. In this study, we sought to understand how bee communities in tropical agroecosystems changed between seasons, and if short and long term floral resource availability influenced their diversity and abundance...
May 2, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464423/annual-climate-variation-modifies-nitrogen-induced-carbon-accumulation-of-pinus-sylvestris-forests
#18
Hyungwoo Lim, Ram Oren, Sune Linder, Fredrik From, Annika Nordin, Nils Fahlvik, Tomas Lundmark, Torgny Näsholm
We report results from long-term simulated external nitrogen (N) input experiments in three northern Pinus sylvestris forests, two of moderately-high and one of moderately-low productivity, assessing effects on annual net primary production (NPP) of woody mass and its inter-annual variation in response to variability in weather conditions. A sigmoidal response of wood NPP to external N inputs was observed in the both higher and lower productivity stands, reaching a maximum of ~65% enhancement regardless of the native site productivity, saturating at an external N input of 4 - 5 g N m(-2) yr(-1) ...
May 2, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464388/reply-to-marques-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#19
Richard L Hutto
Marques et al. (2017) write in response to a communications paper in which I (Hutto 2016) question whether a model-based approach is the only way to deal with the detectability problem inherent in bird survey work. The model-based approach to dealing with potential detectability bias is widely viewed as the operational gold standard, and I welcome the comments from experts in this field. The authors did uncover some errors on my part, which I address below, but they also misrepresented my most important points, so I am glad to have the opportunity to respond here...
May 2, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464361/restoring-fire-to-grasslands-is-critical-for-migrating-shorebird-populations
#20
Torre J Hovick, J Matthew Carroll, R Dwayne Elmore, Craig A Davis, Samuel D Fuhlendorf
Fire is a disturbance process that maintains the structure and function of grassland ecosystems while sustaining grassland biodiversity. Conversion of grasslands to other land uses coupled with altered disturbance regimes have greatly diminished the habitat available to many grassland dependent species. These changes have been linked to declines in breeding bird populations, but may also be critical for migrating bird populations such as those shorebird species that depend on mesic grasslands during migration...
May 2, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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