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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445000/vegetation-response-to-control-of-invasive-tamarix-in-southwestern-us-rivers-a-collaborative-study-including-416-sites
#1
Eduardo González, Anna A Sher, Robert M Anderson, Robin F Bay, Daniel W Bean, Gabriel J Bissonnete, Bérenger Bourgeois, David J Cooper, Kara Dohrenwend, Kim D Eichhorst, Hisham El Waer, Deborah K Kennard, Rebecca Harms-Weissinger, Annie L Henry, Lori J Makarick, Steven M Ostoja, Lindsay V Reynolds, W Wright Robinson, Patrick B Shafroth
Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely-used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. States. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments...
April 26, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434190/mixed-severity-fire-history-at-a-forest-grassland-ecotone-in-west-central-british-columbia-canada
#2
Jill E Harvey, Dan J Smith, Thomas T Veblen
This study examines spatially variable stand structure and fire-climate relationships at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada. Fire history reconstructions were based on samples from 92 fire-scarred trees and stand demography from 27 plots collected over an area of about 7 km(2) . We documented historical chronologies of widespread fires and localized grassland fires between AD 1600 and 1900. Relationships between fire events, reconstructed values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index and annual precipitation were examined using superposed epoch and bivariate event analyses...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#3
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423459/breaks-in-modis-time-series-portend-vegetation-change-verification-using-long-term-data-in-an-arid-grassland-ecosystem
#4
Dawn M Browning, Jonathan J Maynard, Jason W Karl, Debra C Peters
Frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are forecast to increase in the 21st century. Predicting how managed ecosystems may respond to climatic extremes is intensified by uncertainty associated with knowing when, where, and how long effects of extreme events will be manifest in an ecosystem. In water-limited ecosystems with high inter-annual variability in rainfall, it is important to be able to distinguish responses that result from seasonal fluctuations in rainfall from long-term directional increases or decreases in precipitation...
April 19, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421698/historical-harvests-reduce-neighboring-old-growth-basal-area-across-a-forest-landscape
#5
David M Bell, Thomas A Spies, Robert Pabst
While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of neighboring old-growth forests to assess the magnitude and scale of harvest edge influence in a forest landscape of western Oregon, USA. We used lidar data and forest plot measurements to construct 30-m resolution live tree basal area maps in lower and middle elevation mature and old-growth forests...
April 19, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418173/rebutting-the-inclined-analyses-on-the-cost-effectiveness-and-feasibility-of-coral-reef-restoration
#6
Baruch Rinkevich
Active reef restoration is a fast developing scientific discipline, since under the current forecasts of global climate change and the ever-continuing anthropogenic impacts, further degradation in the functions, ecology and structures of coral reefs worldwide is anticipated. This scientific field, though still in its infancy and facing a variety of challenges, has emerged as a discipline capable of successfully restoring ravaged reefs when correctly and efficiently executed. In concert with a wide range of biological and ecological applications, reef restoration today encompasses a variety of societal equity capitals and other social commodification, all intermingled within a single unabridged socio-economic perspective (Rinkevich 2014, 2015b)...
April 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419598/biological-traits-rather-than-environment-shape-detection-curves-of-large-vertebrates-in-neotropical-rainforests
#7
Thomas Denis, Cécile Richard-Hansen, Olivier Brunaux, Marie-Pierre Etienne, Stéphane Guitet, Bruno Hérault
Line transect surveys are widely used in neotropical rainforests to estimate the population abundance of medium- and large-sized vertebrates. The use of indices such as Encounter Rate has been criticized because the probability of animal detection may fluctuate due to the heterogeneity of environmental conditions among sites. In addition, the morphological and behavioral characteristics (biological traits) of species affect their detectability. In this study, we compared the extent to which environmental conditions and species' biological traits bias abundance estimates in terra firme rainforests in French Guiana...
April 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401672/multi-decadal-time-series-of-remotely-sensed-vegetation-improves-prediction-of-soil-carbon-in-a-subtropical-grassland
#8
Chris H Wilson, T Trevor Caughlin, Sami W Rifai, Elizabeth H Boughton, Michelle C Mack, S Luke Flory
Soil carbon sequestration in agroecosystems could play a key role in climate change mitigation but will require accurate predictions of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks over spatial scales relevant to land management. Spatial variation in underlying drivers of SOC, such as plant productivity and soil mineralogy, complicates these predictions. Recent advances in the availability of remotely sensed data make it practical to generate multidecadal time series of vegetation indices with high spatial resolution and coverage...
April 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401624/unexpected-population-response-to-increasing-temperature-in-the-context-of-a-strong-species-interaction
#9
Jeffrey D White, Orlando Sarnelle, Stephen K Hamilton
Climate change is driving large changes in the spatial and temporal distributions of species, with significant consequences for individual populations. Community- and ecosystem-level implications of altered species distributions may be complex and challenging to anticipate due to the cascading effects of disrupted interactions among species, which may exhibit threshold responses to extreme climatic events. Toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacteria like Microcystis are expected to increase worldwide with climate change, due in part to their high temperature optima for growth...
April 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397328/dispersal-and-extrapolation-on-the-accuracy-of-temporal-predictions-from-distribution-models-for-the-darwin-s-frog
#10
David E Uribe-Rivera, Claudio Soto-Azat, Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Gustavo Bizama, Javier A Simonetti, Patricio Pliscoff
Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity; the development of models that reliably predict its effects on species distributions is a priority for conservation biogeography. Two of the main issues for accurate temporal predictions from Species Distribution Models (SDM) are model extrapolation and unrealistic dispersal scenarios. We assessed the consequences of these issues on the accuracy of climate-driven SDM predictions for the dispersal-limited Darwin's frog Rhinoderma darwinii in South America. We calibrated models using historical data (1950-1975) and projected them across 40 years to predict distribution under current climatic conditions, assessing predictive accuracy through the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and True Skill Statistics (TSS), contrasting binary model predictions against temporal-independent validation dataset (i...
April 11, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390104/historical-and-projected-trends-in-landscape-drivers-affecting-carbon-dynamics-in-alaska
#11
Neal J Pastick, Paul Duffy, Hélène Genet, T Scott Rupp, Bruce K Wylie, Kristofer D Johnson, M Torre Jorgenson, Norman Bliss, A David McGuire, Elchin E Jafarov, Joseph F Knight
Modern climate change in Alaska has resulted in widespread thawing of permafrost, increased fire activity, and extensive changes in vegetation characteristics that have significant consequences for socio-ecological systems. Despite observations of the heightened sensitivity of these systems to change, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of factors that drive ecosystem changes throughout Alaska. Here we present research that improves our understanding of the main drivers of the spatiotemporal patterns of carbon dynamics using in situ observations, remote sensing data, and an array of modeling techniques...
April 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390084/mapping-and-exploring-variation-in-post-fire-vegetation-recovery-following-mixed-severity-wildfire-using-airborne-lidar
#12
Christopher E Gordon, Owen F Price, Elizabeth M Tasker
There is a public perception that large high severity wildfires decrease biodiversity and increase fire hazard by homogenising vegetation composition and increasing the cover of mid-story vegetation. But a growing literature suggests that vegetation responses are nuanced. LiDAR technology provides a promising remote sensing tool to test hypotheses about post-fire vegetation regrowth because vegetation cover can be quantified within different height strata at fine-scales over large areas. We assess the usefulness of airborne LiDAR data for measuring post-fire mid-story vegetation regrowth over a range of spatial resolutions (10x10m, 30x30m, 50x50m, 100x100m cell size) and investigate the effect of fire severity on regrowth amount and spatial pattern following a mixed severity wildfire in Warrumbungle National Park, Australia...
April 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376283/modeled-hydrologic-metrics-show-links-between-hydrology-and-the-functional-composition-of-stream-assemblages
#13
Christopher J Patrick, Lester L Yuan
Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metrics values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites within the mid-Atlantic, USA that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates...
April 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376252/model-based-approaches-to-deal-with-detectability-a-comment-on-hutto-2016
#14
Tiago A Marques, Len Thomas, Marc Kéry, Steve T Buckland, David L Borchers, Eric Rexstad, Rachel M Fewster, Darryl I MacKenzie, J Andrew Royle, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Colleen M Handel, David C Pavlacky, Richard J Camp
In a recent paper, Hutto (2016a) challenges the need to account for detectability when interpreting data from point counts. A number of issues with model-based approaches to deal with detectability are presented, and an alternative suggested: surveying an area around each point over which detectability is assumed certain. The article contains a number of false claims and errors of logic, and we address these here. We provide suggestions about appropriate uses of distance sampling and occupancy modeling, arising from an intersection of design- and model-based inference...
April 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376236/inland-waters-and-their-role-in-the-carbon-cycle-of-alaska
#15
Sarah M Stackpoole, David E Butman, David W Clow, Kristine L Verdin, Benjamin V Gaglioti, Hélène Genet, Robert G Striegl
The magnitude of Alaska (AK) inland waters carbon (C) fluxes is likely to change in the future due to amplified climate warming impacts on the hydrology and biogeochemical processes in high latitude regions. Although current estimates of major aquatic C fluxes represent an essential baseline against which future change can be compared, a comprehensive assessment for AK has not yet been completed. To address this gap, we combined available datasets and applied consistent methodologies to estimate river lateral C export to the coast, river and lake carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) emissions, and C burial in lakes for the six major hydrologic regions in the state...
April 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374945/human-and-natural-controls-of-the-variation-in-aboveground-tree-biomass-in-african-dry-tropical-forests
#16
Johanne Pelletier, Abel Siampale, Pierre Legendre, Patrick Jantz, Nadine T Laporte, Scott J Goetz
Understanding the anthropogenic and natural controls that affect the patterns, distribution and dynamics of terrestrial carbon is crucial to meeting climate change mitigation objectives. We assessed the human and natural controls over aboveground tree biomass density in African dry tropical forests, using Zambia's first nation-wide forest inventory. We identified predictors that best explain the variation in biomass density, contrasted anthropogenic and natural sites at different spatial scales and compared sites with different stand structure characteristics and species composition...
April 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374916/advances-in-methods-for-estimating-stopover-duration-for-migratory-species-using-capture-ndash-recapture-data
#17
S Guérin, D Picard, R Choquet, A Besnard
Many species are migratory, resulting in a lifecycle divided into periodic stages occurring in different habitats occupied for a limited amount of time. Estimating the time spent in each habitat is crucial to understanding how individuals modulate their activities and thus to evolutionary ecology and conservation biology. Several methods, including some recent promising advances, can be used to estimate stopover duration as well as arrival and departure probabilities at sites where individuals are monitored using capture-NDASH-recapture sampling...
April 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370777/quantifying-long-term-plant-community-dynamics-with-movement-models-implications-for-ecological-resilience
#18
Sumanta Bagchi, Navinder J Singh, David D Briske, Brandon T Bestelmeyer, Mitchel P McClaran, Karthik Murthy
Quantification of rates and patterns of community dynamics is central for understanding the organization and function of ecosystems. These insights may support a greater empirical understanding of ecological resilience, and the application of resilience concepts toward ecosystem management. Distinct types of dynamics in natural communities can be used to interpret and apply resilience concepts, but quantitative methods that can systematically distinguish among them are needed. We develop a quantitative method to analyze long-term records of plant community dynamics using principles of movement ecology...
March 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370707/lake-nutrient-stoichiometry-is-less-predictable-than-nutrient-concentrations-at-regional-and-sub-continental-scales
#19
Sarah M Collins, Samantha K Oliver, Jean Francois Lapierre, Emily H Stanley, John R Jones, Tyler Wagner, Patricia A Soranno
Production in many ecosystems is co-limited by multiple elements. While a known suite of drivers associated with nutrient sources, nutrient transport, and internal processing controls concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, much less is known about whether the drivers of single nutrient concentrations can also explain spatial or temporal variation in lake N:P stoichiometry. Predicting stoichiometry might be more complex than predicting concentrations of individual elements because some drivers have similar relationships with N and P, leading to a weak relationship with their ratio...
March 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370641/species-mobility-and-landscape-context-determine-the-importance-of-local-and-landscape-level-attributes
#20
Elisa Fuentes-Montemayor, Kevin Watts, Nicholas A Macgregor, Zeltia Lopez-Gallego, Kirsty Park
Conservation strategies to tackle habitat loss and fragmentation require actions at local (e.g. improving/expanding existing habitat patches) and landscape level (e.g. creating new habitat in the matrix). However, the relative importance of these actions for biodiversity is still poorly understood, leading to debate on how to prioritise conservation activities. Here, we assess the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes in determining the use of woodlands by bats in fragmented landscapes; we also compare the role of habitat amount in the surrounding landscape per se vs...
March 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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