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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083983/local-and-landscape-drivers-of-predation-services-in-urban-gardens
#1
Stacy M Philpott, Peter Bichier
In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e. herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i...
January 13, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083949/big-biology-meets-microclimatology-defining-thermal-niches-of-ectotherms-at-landscape-scales-for-conservation-planning
#2
Daniel J Isaak, Seth J Wenger, Michael K Young
Temperature profoundly affects ecology, a fact ever more evident as the ability to measure thermal environments increases and global changes alter these environments. The spatial structure of thermalscapes is especially relevant to the distribution and abundance of ectothermic organisms but the ability to describe biothermal relationships at extents and grains relevant to conservation planning has been limited by small or sparse datasets. Here, we combine a large occurrence database of >23,000 aquatic species surveys with stream microclimate scenarios supported by an equally large temperature database for a 149,000-km mountain stream network to describe thermal relationships for 14 fish and amphibian species...
January 13, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078716/incorporating-food-web-dynamics-into-ecological-restoration-a-modeling-approach-for-river-ecosystems
#3
J Ryan Bellmore, Joseph R Benjamin, Michael Newsom, Jennifer A Bountry, Daniel Dombroski
Restoration is frequently aimed at the recovery of target species, but also influences the larger food web in which these species participate. Effects of restoration on this broader network of organisms can influence target species both directly and indirectly via changes in energy flow through food webs. To help incorporate these complexities into river restoration planning we constructed a model that links river food web dynamics to in-stream physical habitat and riparian vegetation conditions. We present an application of the model to the Methow River, Washington (USA), a location of on-going restoration aimed at recovering salmon...
January 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064464/ungulate-predation-and-ecological-roles-of-wolves-and-coyotes-in-eastern-north-america
#4
John F Benson, Karen M Loveless, Linda Y Rutledge, Brent R Patterson
Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C...
January 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054427/social-and-biophysical-variation-in-regional-timber-harvest-regimes
#5
Jonathan R Thompson, Charles D Canham, Luca Morreale, David B Kittredge, Brett Butler
In terms of adult tree mortality, harvesting is the most prevalent disturbance in northeastern United States forests. Previous studies have demonstrated that stand structure and tree species composition are important predictors of harvest. We extend this work to investigate how social factors further influence harvest regimes. By coupling the Forest Inventory and Analysis database to U.S. Census and National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) data, we quantify social and biophysical variation in the frequency and intensity of harvesting throughout a twenty-state region in the northeastern U...
January 5, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054408/non-native-fish-stocking-alters-stream-ecosystem-nutrient-dynamics
#6
Alexander V Alexiades, Alexander S Flecker, Clifford E Kraft
Each year, millions of hatchery raised fish are stocked annually into streams and rivers worldwide, yet the effects of hatchery raised fish on stream nutrient cycles has seldom been examined. We quantified the influence of supplemental non-native fish stocking, a widespread recreational fishery management practice, on in-stream nutrient storage and cycling. We predicted that supplemental, hatchery-raised brown trout (Salmo trutta) stocking would result in increased N and P supply relative to in-stream biotic demand for those nutrients and that stocked fishes would remineralize and store a significantly greater amount of N and P than the native fish community, due to higher areal biomass...
January 5, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039952/incorporating-larval-dispersal-into-mpa-design-for-both-conservation-and-fisheries
#7
Nils C Krueck, Gabby N Ahmadia, Alison Green, Geoffrey P Jones, Hugh P Possingham, Cynthia Riginos, Eric A Treml, Peter J Mumby
Larval dispersal by ocean currents is a critical component of systematic marine protected area (MPA) design. However, there is a lack of quantitative methods to incorporate larval dispersal in support of increasingly diverse management objectives, including local population persistence under multiple types of threats (primarily focused on larval retention within and dispersal between protected locations) and benefits to unprotected populations and fisheries (primarily focused on larval export from protected locations to fishing grounds)...
December 31, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039891/atmospheric-deposition-exposes-qinling-pandas-to-toxic-pollutants
#8
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Yi Song, Zhi-Sheng An, Qing-Yi Ma, Aaron M Ellison
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas...
December 31, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036137/an-integrated-population-model-for-bird-monitoring-in-north-america
#9
Farshid S Ahrestani, James F Saracco, John R Sauer, Keith Pardieck, J Andrew Royle
Integrated population models (IPMs) provide a unified framework for simultaneously analyzing data sets of different types to estimate vital rates, population size, and dynamics; assess contributions of demographic parameters to population changes; and assess population viability. Strengths of an IPM include the ability to estimate latent parameters and improve the precision of parameter estimates. We present a hierarchical IPM that combines two broad-scale avian monitoring data sets; count data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and capture-recapture data from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program...
December 30, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029193/disturbance-and-productivity-interactions-mediate-stability-of-forest-composition-and-structure
#10
Christopher D O'Connor, Donald A Falk, Ann M Lynch, Thomas W Swetnam, Craig P Wilcox
Fire is returning to many conifer dominated forests where species composition and structure have been altered by fire exclusion. Ecological effects of these fires are influenced strongly by the degree of forest change during the fire-free period. Response of fire-adapted species assemblages to extended fire-free intervals is highly variable, even in communities with similar historical fire regimes. This variability in plant community response to fire exclusion is not well understood; however, ecological mechanisms such as individual species' adaptations to disturbance or competition, and underlying site characteristics that facilitate or impede establishment and growth have been proposed as potential drivers of assemblage response...
December 28, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019052/increased-pollinator-habitat-enhances-cacao-fruit-set-and-predator-conservation
#11
Samantha J Forbes, Tobin D Northfield
The unique benefits of wild pollinators to the productivity of agricultural crops have become increasingly recognized in recent decades. However, declines in populations of wild pollinator species, largely driven by the conversion of natural habitat to agricultural land and broad spectrum pesticide use often lead reductions in the provision of pollination services and crop production. With growing evidence that targeted pollinator conservation improves crop yield and/or quality, particularly for pollination specialist crops, efforts are increasing to substitute agriculturally intensive practices with those that alleviate some of the negative impacts of agriculture on pollinators and the pollination services they provide, in part through the provision of suitable pollinator habitat...
December 26, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008686/a-new-theory-of-plant-microbe-nutrient-competition-resolves-inconsistencies-between-observations-and-model-predictions
#12
Qing Zhu, William J Riley, Jinyun Tang
Terrestrial plants assimilate anthropogenic CO2 through photosynthesis and synthesizing new tissues. However, sustaining these processes requires plants to compete with microbes for soil nutrients, which therefore calls for an appropriate understanding and modeling of nutrient competition mechanisms in Earth System Models (ESMs). Here, we survey existing plant-microbe competition theories and their implementations in Earth System Models (ESMs). We found no consensus regarding the representation of nutrient competition and that observational and theoretical support for current implementations are weak...
December 23, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992971/salinization-triggers-a-trophic-cascade-in-experimental-freshwater-communities-with-varying-food-chain-length
#13
William D Hintz, Brian M Mattes, Matthew S Schuler, Devin K Jones, Aaron B Stoler, Lovisa Lind, Rick A Relyea
The application of road deicing salts in northern regions worldwide is changing the chemical environment of freshwater ecosystems. Chloride levels in many lakes, streams, and wetlands exceed the chronic and acute thresholds established by the United States and Canada for the protection of freshwater biota. Few studies have identified the impacts of deicing salts in stream and wetland communities and none have examined impacts in lake communities. We tested how relevant concentrations of road salt (15, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg Cl(-) L(-1) ) interacted with experimental communities containing two or three trophic levels (i...
December 19, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992957/prescribed-burning-consumes-key-forest-structural-components-implications-for-landscape-heterogeneity
#14
Greg J Holland, Michael F Clarke, Andrew F Bennett
Prescribed burning to achieve management objectives is a common practice in fire-prone regions worldwide. Structural components of habitat that are combustible and slow to develop are particularly susceptible to change associated with prescribed burning. We used an experimental, 'whole of landscape' approach to investigate the effect of differing patterns of prescribed burning on key habitat components (logs, stumps, dead trees, litter cover, litter depth and understorey vegetation). Twenty-two landscapes (each ~100 ha) were selected in a dry forest ecosystem in southeast Australia...
December 19, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992951/limits-on-carbon-sequestration-in-arid-blue-carbon-ecosystems
#15
Lisa M Schile, J Boone Kauffman, Stephen Crooks, James W Fourqurean, Jane Glavan, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal ecosystems produce and sequester significant amounts of carbon ('blue carbon'), which has been well documented in humid and semi-humid regions of temperate and tropical climates but less so in arid regions where mangroves, marshes, and seagrasses exist near the limit of their tolerance for extreme temperature and salinity. To better understand these unique systems, we measured whole-ecosystem carbon stocks in 58 sites across the United Arab Emirates in natural and planted mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, microbial mats, and coastal sabkha (inter- and supratidal unvegetated salt flats)...
December 19, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984681/movements-of-a-deep-water-fish-establishing-marine-fisheries-management-boundaries-in-coastal-arctic-fisheries
#16
Nigel E Hussey, Kevin J Hedges, Amanda N Barkley, Margaret A Treble, Iva Peklova, Dale M Webber, Steven H Ferguson, David J Yurkowski, Steven T Kessel, Jeannette M Bedard, Aaron T Fisk
Management boundaries that define populations or stocks of fish form the basis of fisheries planning. In the Arctic, decreasing sea ice extent is driving increasing fisheries development highlighting the need for ecological data to inform management. In Cumberland Sound, southwest Baffin Island, an indigenous community fishery was established in 1987 targeting Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) through the ice. Following its development, the Cumberland Sound Management Boundary (CSMB) was designated and a total allowable catch (TAC) assigned to the fishery...
December 16, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984678/assessing-the-ecosystem-level-consequences-of-a-small-scale-artisanal-kelp-fishery-within-the-context-of-climate-change
#17
K A Krumhansl, J N Bergman, A K Salomon
Coastal communities worldwide rely on small-scale artisanal fisheries as a means of increasing food security and alleviating poverty. Even small-scale fishing activities, however, are prone to resource depletion and environmental degradation, which can erode livelihoods in the long run. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify viable and resilient artisanal fisheries, and generate knowledge to support management within the context of a rapidly changing climate. We examined the ecosystem-level consequences of an artisanal kelp fishery (Macrocystis pyrifera), finding minimal impacts of small-scale harvest on kelp recovery rates, survival, and biomass dynamics, and abundances of associated commercial and culturally important fish species...
December 16, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983773/exploiting-interspecific-olfactory-communication-to-monitor-predators
#18
Patrick M Garvey, Alistair S Glen, Mick N Clout, Sarah V Wyse, Margaret Nichols, Roger P Pech
Olfaction is the primary sense of many mammals and subordinate predators use this sense to detect dominant species, thereby reducing the risk of an encounter and facilitating co-existence. Chemical signals can act as repellents or attractants and may therefore have applications for wildlife management. We devised a field experiment to investigate whether dominant predator (ferret Mustela furo) body odour would alter the behaviour of three common mesopredators: stoats (M. erminea), hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus), and ship rats (Rattus rattus)...
December 16, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935670/development-of-a-pathway-model-to-assess-the-exposure-of-european-pine-trees-to-pine-wood-nematode-via-the-trade-of-wood
#19
J C Douma, W van der Werf, L Hemerik, C Magnusson, C Robinet
Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once established, eradication is not practically feasible. Therefore, preventing entry of PWN into new areas is crucial. Entry risk analysis can assist in targeting management to reduce the probability of entry. Assessing the entry of PWN is challenging due to the complexity of the wood trade and the wood processing chain...
December 9, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935669/influence-of-cattle-on-browsing-and-grazing-wildlife-varies-with-rainfall-and-presence-of-megaherbivores
#20
Duncan M Kimuyu, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Robert M Chira, John M Githaiga, Truman P Young
In many savanna ecosystems worldwide, livestock share the landscape and its resources with wildlife. The nature of interactions between livestock and wildlife is a subject of considerable interest and speculation, yet little controlled experimental research has been carried out. Since 1995, we have been manipulating the presence and absence of cattle and large mammalian herbivore wildlife in a Kenyan savanna in order to better understand how different herbivore guilds influence space use by specific wildlife species...
December 9, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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