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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007101/different-responses-of-predator-and-prey-functional-diversity-to-fragmentation
#1
Ashley L Kissick, John B Dunning, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Jeffrey D Holland
The study of functional diversity, or the range of species' ecological roles in a community, is a rapidly expanding area in ecology. Given the extent that ecosystems are being altered, effort should shift towards assessing variation in functional diversity across landscapes with the goal of improve land use management decisions. We construct a workflow that creates three-dimensional surfaces and maps of functional diversity to examine changes in beetle functional diversity across an Indiana, USA landscape. We sampled 105 prey wood-borer and predator beetle species along a gradient of forest fragmentation across Indiana and used a number of functional traits from literature sources to capture their functional roles...
July 14, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999562/a-mid-century-ecological-forecast-with-partitioned-uncertainty-predicts-increases-in-loblolly-pine-forest-productivity
#2
R Quinn Thomas, Annika L Jersild, Evan B Brooks, Valerie A Thomas, Randolph H Wynne
Ecological forecasting of forest productivity involves integrating observations into a process-based model and propagating the dominant components of uncertainty to generate probability distributions for future states and fluxes. Here, we develop a forecast for the biomass change in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests of the southeastern United States and evaluate the relative contribution of different forms of uncertainty to the total forecast uncertainty. Specifically, we assimilated observations of carbon and flux stocks and fluxes from sites across the region, including global change experiments, into a forest ecosystem model to calibrate the parameter distributions and estimate the process uncertainty (i...
July 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999560/understanding-the-recruitment-response-of-juvenile-neotropical-trees-to-logging-intensity-using-functional-traits
#3
J Aaron Hogan, Bruno Hérault, Bénédicte Bachelot, Anaїs Gorel, Marianne Jounieaux, Christopher Baraloto
Selective-logging remains a widespread practice in tropical forests, yet the long-term effects of timber-harvest on juvenile tree (i.e., sapling) recruitment across the hundreds of species occurring in most tropical forests, remain difficult to predict. This uncertainty could potentially exacerbate threats to some of the thousands of timber-valuable tree species in the Amazon. Our objective was to determine to what extent long-term responses of tree species regeneration in logged forests can be explained by their functional traits...
July 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992698/reestablishing-a-host-affiliate-relationship-migratory-fish-reintroduction-increases-native-mussel-recruitment
#4
Heather S Galbraith, Julie L Devers, Carrie J Blakeslee, Jeffrey C Cole, Barbara St John White, Steve Minkkinen, William A Lellis
Co-extirpation among host-affiliate species is thought to be a leading cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. Freshwater mussels (Unionida) are at risk globally and face many threats to survival, including limited access to viable host fish required to complete their life history. We examine the relationship between the common eastern elliptio mussel (Elliptio complanata) and its migratory host fish the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), whose distribution in the Chesapeake Bay watershed is limited, in part, by dams...
July 10, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992697/combining-aggregated-and-dispersed-tree-retention-harvesting-for-conservation-of-vascular-plant-communities
#5
Caroline M A Franklin, S Ellen Macdonald, Scott E Nielsen
Retention harvesting (also called tree retention or structural retention), in which live mature trees are selectively retained within harvested stands at different retention levels and in different patterns (aggregated to dispersed), is increasingly being used to mitigate the negative impacts of forest harvesting on biodiversity. However, the effectiveness of combining different patterns of retention harvesting for conservation and recovery of understory vascular plants in the long-term is largely unknown. To address this gap, we compared understory vascular plant diversity, abundance, and composition between aggregated retention and five levels of surrounding dispersed retention (0% = clearcut, 10%, 20%, 50%, 75%) 15 years post-harvest...
July 10, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989265/developing-climate-smart-restoration-can-plant-microbiomes-be-hardened-against-heat-waves
#6
Rachel L Rubin, George W Koch, Ayla Martinez, Rebecca L Mau, Matthew A Bowker, Bruce A Hungate
Heat waves are increasing in frequency and intensity, presenting a challenge for the already difficult practice of ecological restoration. We investigated whether pre-heating locally sourced rhizosphere soil (inoculum) could acclimatize plants to a field-imposed heat wave in a restoration setting. Soil heating in the laboratory caused a marked shift in rhizosphere bacterial community composition, accompanied by an increase in species evenness. Furthermore, pre-heated rhizosphere soil reduced plant height, number of leaves, and shoot mass of the C4 grass, blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and it reduced the shoot mass of the C3 grass, Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica) in the glasshouse...
July 10, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956868/plant-community-response-to-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-population-source-in-establishing-prairies
#7
Shelby A Flint, Nicholas R Jordan, Ruth G Shaw
Ecological restoration and revegetation efforts entail the translocation of native plant populations. Risks associated with these efforts include failure of translocated populations to establish or, conversely, such strong establishment that they excessively dominate the recipient community. The role that selective breeding plays in mediating these risks is unclear but of increasing importance as efforts to restore and establish multifunctional grasslands also increase. In a three-year, spatially replicated study, we seeded experimental prairie communities with either domesticated (cultivar) or undomesticated strains of Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a North American C4 species under development as a biomass crop...
June 29, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944185/efficiently-enforcing-artisanal-fisheries-to-protect-estuarine-biodiversity
#8
Micheli Duarte de Paula Costa, Morena Mills, Anthony J Richardson, Richard A Fuller, José H Muelbert, Hugh P Possingham
Artisanal fisheries support millions of livelihoods worldwide, yet ineffective enforcement can allow for continued environmental degradation due to overexploitation. Here, we use spatial planning to design an enforcement strategy for a pre-existing spatial closure for artisanal fisheries considering climate variability, existing seasonal fishing closures, representative conservation targets and enforcement costs. We calculated enforcement cost in three ways, based on different assumptions about who could be responsible for monitoring the fishery...
June 26, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939460/habitat-contingent-responses-to-disturbance-impacts-of-cattle-grazing-on-ant-communities-vary-with-habitat-complexity
#9
Gabriela B Arcoverde, Alan N Andersen, Inara R Leal, Samantha A Setterfield
Predicting community responses to disturbance is a major challenge for both ecology and ecosystem management. A particularly challenging issue is that the same type and intensity of disturbance can have different impacts in different habitats. We investigate how habitat contingency influences ant community responses to disturbance in arid Australia, testing the hypothesis that disturbance has a greater impact in more-complex habitats. We also assess the effectiveness of a highly simplified ant assessment protocol that considers larger species only...
June 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939455/forest-restoration-as-a-strategy-to-mitigate-climate-impacts-on-wildfire-vegetation-and-water-in-semiarid-forests
#10
Frances C O'Donnell, William T Flatley, Abraham E Springer, Peter Z Fulé
Climate change and wildfire are interacting to drive vegetation change and potentially reduce water quantity and quality in the southwestern United States, Forest restoration is a management approach that could mitigate some of these negative outcomes. However, little information exists on how restoration combined with climate change might influence hydrology across large forest landscapes that incorporate multiple vegetation types and complex fire regimes. We combined spatially explicit vegetation and fire modeling with statistical water and sediment yield models for a large forested landscape (335,000 ha) on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona, USA...
June 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939451/engineered-nanoparticles-interact-with-nutrients-to-intensify-eutrophication-in-a-wetland-ecosystem-experiment
#11
Marie Simonin, Benjamin P Colman, Steven M Anderson, Ryan S King, Matthew T Ruis, Astrid Avellan, Christina M Bergemann, Brittany G Perrotta, Nicholas K Geitner, Mengchi Ho, Belen de la Barrera, Jason M Unrine, Gregory V Lowry, Curtis J Richardson, Mark R Wiesner, Emily S Bernhardt
Despite the rapid rise in diversity and quantities of engineered nanomaterials produced, the impacts of these emerging contaminants on the structure and function of ecosystems have received little attention from ecologists. Moreover, little is known about how manufactured nanomaterials may interact with nutrient pollution in altering ecosystem productivity, despite the recognition that eutrophication is the primary water quality issue in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we asked two main questions: (1) To what extent do manufactured nanoparticles affect the biomass and productivity of primary producers in wetland ecosystems? (2) How are these impacts mediated by nutrient pollution? To address these questions, we examined the impacts of a citrate-coated gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and of a commercial pesticide containing Cu(OH)2 nanoparticles (CuNPs) on aquatic primary producers under both ambient and enriched nutrient conditions...
June 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927021/a-geostatistical-state-space-model-of-animal-densities-for-stream-networks
#12
Daniel J Hocking, James T Thorson, Kyle O'Neil, Benjamin H Letcher
Population dynamics are often correlated in space and time due to correlations in environmental drivers as well as synchrony induced by individual dispersal. Many statistical analyses of populations ignore potential autocorrelations and assume that survey methods (distance and time between samples) eliminate these correlations, allowing samples to be treated independently. If these assumptions are incorrect, results and therefore inference may be biased and uncertainty under-estimated. We developed a novel statistical method to account for spatio-temporal correlations within dendritic stream networks, while accounting for imperfect detection in the surveys...
June 21, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923353/assessing-historical-and-projected-carbon-balance-of-alaska-a-synthesis-of-results-and-policy-management-implications
#13
A David McGuire, Hélène Genet, Zhou Lyu, Neal Pastick, Sarah Stackpoole, Richard Birdsey, David D'Amore, Yujie He, T Scott Rupp, Robert Striegl, Bruce K Wylie, Xiaoping Zhou, Qianlai Zhuang, Zhiliang Zhu
We summarize the results of a recent interagency assessment of land carbon dynamics in Alaska, in which carbon dynamics were estimated for all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for the historical period (1950-2009) and a projection period (2010-2099). Between 1950 and 2009, upland and wetland (i.e., terrestrial) ecosystems of the State gained 0.4 Tg C yr-1 (0.1% of net primary production, NPP), resulting in a cumulative greenhouse gas radiative forcing of 1.68 x 10-3 W m-2 . The change in carbon storage is spatially variable with the region of the Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) losing carbon because of fire disturbance...
June 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885265/aging-infrastructure-creates-opportunities-for-cost-efficient-restoration-of-aquatic-ecosystem-connectivity
#14
Thomas M Neeson, Allison T Moody, Jesse R O'Hanley, Matthew Diebel, Patrick J Doran, Michael C Ferris, Timothy Colling, Peter B McIntyre
A hallmark of industrialization is the construction of dams for water management and roads for transportation, leading to fragmentation of aquatic ecosystems. Many nations are striving to address both maintenance backlogs and mitigation of environmental impacts as their infrastructure ages. Here, we test whether accounting for road repair needs could offer opportunities to boost conservation efficiency by piggybacking connectivity restoration projects on infrastructure maintenance. Using optimization models to align fish passage restoration sites with likely road repair priorities, we find potential increases in conservation return-on-investment ranging from 17% to 25%...
June 9, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885260/the-positive-carbon-stocks-biodiversity-relationship-in-forests-co-occurrence-and-drivers-across-five-sub-climates
#15
Judit Lecina-Diaz, Albert Alvarez, Adrián Regos, Pierre Drapeau, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier, Javier Retana
Carbon storage in forests and its ability to offset global greenhouse gas emissions, as well as biodiversity and its capacity to support ecosystem functions and services are often considered separately in landscape planning. However, the potential synergies between them are currently poorly understood. Identifying the spatial patterns and factors driving their co-occurrence across different climatic zones is critical to more effectively conserve forest ecosystems at the regional level. Here, we integrated information of National Forest Inventories and Breeding Bird Atlases across Europe and North America (Spain and Quebec, respectively), covering five sub-climates (steppe, dry mediterranean, humid mediterranean, boreal and temperate)...
June 9, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874410/combined-effects-of-local-habitat-anthropogenic-stress-and-dispersal-on-stream-ecosystems-a-mesocosm-experiment
#16
Jarno Turunen, Pauliina Louhi, Heikki Mykrä, Jukka Aroviita, Emmi Putkonen, Ari Huusko, Timo Muotka
The effects of anthropogenic stressors on community structure and ecosystem functioning can be strongly influenced by local habitat structure and dispersal from source communities. Catchment land uses increase the input of fine sediments into stream channels, clogging the interstitial spaces of benthic habitats. Aquatic macrophytes enhance habitat heterogeneity and mediate important ecosystem functions, being thus a key component of habitat structure in many streams. Therefore, the recovery of macrophytes following in-stream habitat modification may be prerequisite for successful stream restoration...
June 6, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869352/contemporary-evolution-and-scaling-of-32-major-cities-in-china
#17
Shuqing Zhao, Shuguang Liu, Chunxue Xu, Wenping Yuan, Yan Sun, Wende Yan, Meifang Zhao, Geoffrey M Henebry, Jingyun Fang
Most of the planet's population currently lives in urban areas, and urban land expansion is one of the most dramatic forms of land conversion. Understanding how cities evolve temporally, spatially, and organizationally in a rapidly urbanizing world is critical for sustainable development. However, few studies have examined the coevolution of urban attributes in time and space simultaneously and the adequacy of power law scaling across cities and through time, particularly in countries that have experienced abrupt, widespread, political and economic changes...
June 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862603/novel-model-coupling-approach-for-resilience-analysis-of-coastal-plant-communities
#18
Anett Schibalski, Katrin Körner, Martin Maier, Florian Jeltsch, Boris Schröder
Resilience is a major research focus covering a wide range of topics from biodiversity conservation to ecosystem (service) management. Model simulations can assess the resilience of, for example, plant species, measured as the return time to conditions prior to a disturbance. This requires process-based models (PBM) that implement relevant processes such as regeneration and reproduction and thus successfully reproduce transient dynamics after disturbances. Such models are often complex and thus limited to either short-term or small-scale applications, whereas many research questions require species predictions across larger spatial and temporal scales...
June 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809291/from-the-stand-scale-to-the-landscape-scale-predicting-the-spatial-patterns-of-forest-regeneration-after-disturbance
#19
Kristen L Shive, Haiganoush K Preisler, Kevin R Welch, Hugh D Safford, Ramona J Butz, Kevin L O'Hara, Scott L Stephens
Shifting disturbance regimes can have cascading effects on many ecosystems processes. This is particularly true when the scale of the disturbance no longer matches the regeneration strategy of the dominant vegetation. In the yellow pine and mixed conifer forests of California, over a century of fire exclusion and the warming climate are increasing the incidence and extent of stand-replacing wildfire; such changes in severity patterns are altering regeneration dynamics by dramatically increasing the distance from live tree seed sources...
May 29, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808543/the-role-of-environmental-driving-factors-in-historical-and-projected-carbon-dynamics-of-wetland-ecosystems-in-alaska
#20
Zhou Lyu, Hélène Genet, Yujie He, Qianlai Zhuang, A David McGuire, Alec Bennett, Amy Breen, Joy Clein, Eugénie S Euskirchen, Kristofer Johnson, Tom Kurkowski, Neal J Pastick, T Scott Rupp, Bruce K Wylie, Zhiliang Zhu
Wetlands are critical terrestrial ecosystems in Alaska, covering ~177,000 km2 , an area greater than all the wetlands in the remainder of the United States. To assess the relative influence of changing climate, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration, and fire regime on carbon balance in wetland ecosystems of Alaska, a modeling framework that incorporates a fire disturbance model and two biogeochemical models was used. Spatially explicit simulations were conducted at 1-km resolution for the historical period (1950-2009) and future projection period (2010-2099)...
May 29, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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