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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222912/pest-suppression-in-cultivar-mixtures-is-influenced-by-neighbor-specific-plant-plant-communication
#1
Iris Dahlin, Diana Rubene, Robert Glinwood, Velemir Ninkovic
Increased plant genotypic diversity in crop fields can promote ecosystem services including pest control, but understanding of mechanisms behind herbivore population responses to cultivar mixtures is limited. We studied aphid settling on barley plants exposed to volatiles from different cultivars, aphid population development in monocultures and two-cultivar mixtures, and differences in volatile composition between studied cultivars. Aphid responses to one cultivar in a mixture were neighbor-specific and this was more important for pest suppression than the overall mixture effect, aphid colonization patterns or natural enemy abundance...
September 17, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199581/standardizing-the-evaluation-of-community-based-conservation-success
#2
Typhenn A Brichieri-Colombi, Jana M McPherson, Donna J Sheppard, John J Mason, Axel Moehrenschlager
Community-based conservation, which strives to simultaneously improve nature conservation and alleviate poverty, must provide biological and socioeconomic benefits that are linked through effective resilience mechanisms. To date, few community-based conservation initiatives have published comprehensive assessments that track performance in these elements of success. With 45% of the world's protected areas in comanagement with local communities, standardized measures to effectively evaluate the dual goals of community-based conservation are needed...
September 10, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198207/climate-based-seed-transfer-of-a-widespread-shrub-population-shifts-restoration-strategies-and-the-trailing-edge
#3
Bryce A Richardson, Lindsay Chaney
Genetic resources have to be managed appropriately to mitigate the impact of climate change. For many wildland plants, conservation will require knowledge of the climatic factors affecting intraspecific genetic variation to minimize maladaptation. Knowledge of the interaction between traits and climate can focus management resources on vulnerable populations, provide guidance for seed transfer and enhance fitness and resilience under changing climates. In this study, traits of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) were examined among common gardens located in different climates...
September 10, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198191/environment-and-past-land-use-together-predict-functional-diversity-in-a-temperate-forest
#4
Meghna Krishnadas, Noelle G Beckman, Juan Carlos Peñagos Zuluaga, Yan Zhu, James Whitacre, John W Wenzel, Simon A Queenborough, Liza S Comita
Environment and human land-use both shape forest composition. Abiotic conditions sift tree species from a regional pool via functional traits that influence species' suitability to the local environment. In addition, human land-use can modify species distributions and change functional diversity of forests. However, it is unclear how environment and land-use simultaneously shape functional diversity of tree communities. Land-use legacies are especially prominent in temperate forest landscapes that have been extensively modified by humans in the last few centuries...
September 10, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194798/factors-influencing-experimental-estimation-of-scavenger-removal-and-observer-detection-in-bird-window-collision-surveys
#5
Corey S Riding, Scott R Loss
Wildlife collisions with human-built structures are a major source of direct anthropogenic mortality. Understanding and mitigating the impact of anthropogenic collisions on wildlife populations requires unbiased mortality estimates. However, counts of collision fatalities are underestimated due to several bias sources, including scavenger removal of carcasses between fatality surveys and imperfect detection of carcasses present during surveys. These biases remain particularly understudied for bird-window collisions, the largest source of avian collision mortality...
September 8, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192426/predation-mediated-ecosystem-services-and-disservices-in-agricultural-landscapes
#6
Matthias Tschumi, Johan Ekroos, Cecilia Hjort, Henrik G Smith, Klaus Birkhofer
Ecological intensification may reduce environmental externalities of agriculture by harnessing biodiversity to benefit regulating ecosystem services. However, to propose management options for the production of such services, there is a need to understand the spatio-temporal dynamics of net effects between ecosystem services and disservices provided by wild organisms across taxonomic groups in relation to habitat and landscape management. We studied the contribution of predatory vertebrates and invertebrates (including both carnivores and seed herbivores) to regulating ecosystem services and disservices in 16 cereal fields in response to a local habitat contrast and a landscape complexity gradient...
September 7, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187584/a-spatially-explicit-hierarchical-model-to-characterize-population-viability
#7
Steven P Campbell, Erin R Zylstra, Catherine R Darst, Roy C Averill-Murray, Robert J Steidl
Many of the processes that govern the viability of animal populations vary spatially, yet population viability analyses (PVAs) that account explicitly for spatial variation are rare. We develop a PVA model that incorporates autocorrelation into the analysis of local demographic information to produce spatially explicit estimates of demography and viability at relatively fine spatial scales across a large spatial extent. We use a hierarchical, spatial autoregressive model for capture-recapture data from multiple locations to obtain spatially explicit estimates of adult survival (ϕad ), juvenile survival (ϕjuv ), and juvenile-to-adult transition rates (ψ), and a spatial autoregressive model for recruitment data from multiple locations to obtain spatially explicit estimates of recruitment (R)...
September 5, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184292/limited-phenological-and-dietary-overlap-between-bee-communities-in-spring-flowering-crops-and-herbaceous-enhancements
#8
T J Wood, J Gibbs, N Rothwell, J K Wilson, L Gut, J Brokaw, R Isaacs
Wild bee populations have undergone declines in recent years across much of the Western world, and these declines have the potential to limit yield in pollination-dependent crops. Highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, and tart cherry, Prunus cerasus, are spring-blooming crops that rely on the movement of pollen by bees and other insects for pollination. Wild bee populations can be increased on farmland by providing floral resources, but whether the addition of these plants translates into increased pollinator density on crop flowers has not been documented in most cropping systems...
September 5, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179283/fire-history-influences-large-herbivore-behavior-at-circadian-seasonal-and-successional-scales
#9
Derek Spitz, Darren A Clark, Michael J Wisdom, Mary Rowland, Bruce Johnson, Ryan A Long, Taal Levi
Recurrent environmental changes often prompt animals to alter their behavior leading to predictable patterns across a range of temporal scales. The nested nature of circadian and seasonal behavior complicate tests for effects of rarer disturbance events like fire. Fire can dramatically alter plant community structure, with important knock-on effects at higher trophic levels, but the strength and timing of fire's effects on herbivores remain unclear. We combined prescribed fire treatments with fine-scale location data to quantify herbivore responses to fire across three temporal scales...
September 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179279/limited-ecosystem-recovery-from-simulated-chronic-nitrogen-deposition
#10
William D Bowman, Asma Ayyad, Clifton P Bueno de Mesquita, Noah Fierer, Teal S Potter, Stefanie Sternagel
The realization that anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is causing significant environmental change in many ecosystems has led to lower emissions of reactive N and deposition rates in many regions. However, the impacts of N deposition on terrestrial ecosystems can be long lasting, with significant inertia in the return of the biota and biogeochemical processes to baseline levels. To better understand patterns of recovery and the factors that may contribute to slow or no responses following declines in N deposition, we followed plant species composition, microbial abundance, N cycling rates, soil pH, and pools of NO3 - and extractable cations in an impacted alpine ecosystem following cessation of 12-yr experiment increasing N deposition rates by 0, 20, 40, and 60 kg N·ha-1 ·yr-1 ...
September 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30168645/selective-fragmentation-and-the-management-of-fish-movement-across-anthropogenic-barriers
#11
Frank J Rahel, Robert L McLaughlin
Disruption of movement patterns due to alterations in habitat connectivity is a pervasive effect of humans on animal populations. In many terrestrial and aquatic systems there is increasing tension between the need to simultaneously allow passage of some species while blocking the passage of other species. We explore the ecological basis for selective fragmentation of riverine systems where the need to restrict movements of invasive species conflicts with the need to allow passage of species of commercial, recreational, or conservation concern...
August 31, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151923/pre-fire-drought-and-competition-mediate-post-fire-conifer-mortality-in-western-u-s-national-parks
#12
Phillip J van Mantgem, Donald A Falk, Emma C Williams, Adrian J Das, Nathan L Stephenson
Tree mortality is an important outcome of many forest fires. Extensive tree injuries from fire may lead directly to mortality, but environmental and biological stressors may also contribute to tree death. However, there is little evidence showing how the combined effects of two common stressors, drought and competition, influence post-fire mortality. Geographically broad observations of three common western coniferous trees subjected to prescribed fire showed the likelihood of post-fire mortality was related to intermediate-term (10 yr) pre-fire average radial growth, an important component of tree vigor...
August 27, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30144215/how-ecological-processes-shape-the-outcomes-of-stock-enhancement-and-harvest-regulations-in-recreational-fisheries
#13
Fiona D Johnston, Micheal S Allen, Ben Beardmore, Carsten Riepe, Thilo Pagel, Daniel Hühn, Robert Arlinghaus
Fish stocking and harvest regulations are frequently used to maintain or enhance freshwater recreational fisheries and contribute to fish conservation. However, their relative effectiveness has rarely been systematically evaluated using quantitative models that account for key size- and density-dependent ecological processes and adaptive responses of anglers. We present an integrated model of freshwater recreational fisheries where the population dynamics of two model species affect the effort dynamics of recreational anglers...
August 24, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133075/linking-marine-ecosystems-with-the-services-they-supply-what-are-the-relevant-service-providing-units
#14
Fiona E Culhane, Christoper L J Frid, Eva Royo Gelabert, Lydia White, Leonie A Robinson
Marine ecosystems support supply of ecosystem services (ESs) through processes and functions carried out by diverse biological elements. Managing sustainability of ES use requires linking services to the parts of ecosystems supplying them. We specified marine service providing units (SPUs) as plausible combinations of a biotic group (e.g., bacteria, seabirds) with an associated major habitat (e.g., sublittoral sediment). We developed a network model for large marine ecosystems, documenting 2,916 links between 153 SPUs with 31 services...
August 21, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074675/navigating-snowscapes-scale-dependent-responses-of-mountain-sheep-to-snowpack-properties
#15
Peter J Mahoney, Glen E Liston, Scott LaPoint, Eliezer Gurarie, Buck Mangipane, Adam G Wells, Todd J Brinkman, Jan U H Eitel, Mark Hebblewhite, Anne W Nolin, Natalie Boelman, Laura R Prugh
Winters are limiting for many terrestrial animals due to energy deficits brought on by resource scarcity and the increased metabolic costs of thermoregulation and traveling through snow. A better understanding of how animals respond to snow conditions is needed to predict the impacts of climate change on wildlife. We compared the performance of remotely sensed and modeled snow products as predictors of winter movements at multiple spatial and temporal scales using a data set of 20,544 locations from 30 GPS-collared Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA from 2005 to 2008...
August 3, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063809/expected-limits-on-the-ocean-acidification-buffering-potential-of-a-temperate-seagrass-meadow
#16
David A Koweek, Richard C Zimmerman, Kathryn M Hewett, Brian Gaylord, Sarah N Giddings, Kerry J Nickols, Jennifer L Ruesink, John J Stachowicz, Yuichiro Takeshita, Ken Caldeira
Ocean acidification threatens many marine organisms, especially marine calcifiers. The only global-scale solution to ocean acidification remains rapid reduction in CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, interest in localized mitigation strategies has grown rapidly because of the recognized threat ocean acidification imposes on natural communities, including ones important to humans. Protection of seagrass meadows has been considered as a possible approach for localized mitigation of ocean acidification due to their large standing stocks of organic carbon and high productivity...
July 31, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062821/complementarity-of-indigenous-and-western-scientific-approaches-for-monitoring-forest-state
#17
Phil O'B Lyver, Sarah J Richardson, Andrew M Gormley, Puke Timoti, Christopher J Jones, Brenda L Tahi
Cross-cultural environmental monitoring systems inform on a broad suite of indicators relevant to both scientific and local communities. In this study, we used forest-plot-based survey measures developed by western scientists and a set of community-based survey indicators developed by Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand (NZ), to compare the current state of two ecologically congruent forests (Whirinaki and Ruatāhuna), as they related to a historic Ruatāhuna forest state (Baseline; 1955-1975) in NZ...
July 31, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062752/riverine-regime-shifts-through-reservoir-dams-reveal-options-for-ecological-management
#18
T Meißner, M Schütt, B Sures, C K Feld
Worldwide, dams are a main threat reducing river ecological functioning and biodiversity by severely altering water temperature, flow, and sediment regimes up- and downstream. Sustainable dam management therefore has a key role in achieving ecological targets. Here, we present an analysis of the effects of reservoir dams and resulting regime shifts on community structure and function of lotic macroinvertebrates. Our study derived management options to improve ecological integrity of affected streams. To do this, we contrasted time series data for water temperature (15-min intervals over one year), discharge (daily means over 10 yr), and records of deposited fine sediments against macroinvertebrate samples from pairs of river reaches downstream of dams and of comparable tributaries not affected by dams in the German low mountain range...
July 31, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055061/hindcasting-the-impacts-of-land-use-changes-on-bird-communities-with-species-distribution-models-of-bird-atlas-data
#19
Adrián Regos, Louis Imbeau, Mélanie Desrochers, Alain Leduc, Michel Robert, Benoît Jobin, Lluís Brotons, Pierre Drapeau
Habitat loss and degradation induced by human development are among the major threats to biodiversity worldwide. In this study, we tested our ability to predict the response of bird communities (128 species) to land-use changes in southern Quebec (~483,100 km2 ) over the last 30 yr (between 1984-1989 and 2010-2014) by using species distribution models (299,302 occurrences in 30,408 locations) from a hindcasting perspective. Results were grouped by functional guilds to infer potential impacts on ecosystem services, and to relate model transferability (i...
July 28, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055058/trade-offs-between-temporal-stability-and-level-of-forest-ecosystem-services-provisioning-under-climate-change
#20
Katharina Albrich, Werner Rammer, Dominik Thom, Rupert Seidl
The ability of forests to continuously provide ecosystem services (ES) is threatened by rapid changes in climate and disturbance regimes. Consequently, these changes present a considerable challenge for forest managers. Management of forests often focuses on maximizing the level of ES provisioning over extended time frames (i.e., rotation periods of more than 100 years). However, temporal stability is also crucial for many ES, e.g., in the context of a steady provisioning of resources to the industry, or the protection of human infrastructure against natural hazards...
July 28, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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