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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208227/integrating-remotely-sensed-fires-for-predicting-deforestation-for-redd
#1
Dolors Armenteras, Cerian Gibbes, Jesús A Anaya, Liliana M Dávalos
Fire is an important tool in tropical forest management, as it alters forest composition, structure, and the carbon budget. The United Nations program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to sustainably manage forests, as well as conserve and enhance their carbon stocks. Despite the crucial role of fire management, decision-making on REDD+ interventions fails to systematically include fires. Here, we address this critical knowledge gap in two ways. First, we review REDD+ projects and programs to assess the inclusion of fires in monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems...
February 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188660/assessing-the-importance-of-demographic-parameters-for-population-dynamics-using-bayesian-integrated-population-modeling
#2
Daniel R Eacker, Paul M Lukacs, Kelly M Proffitt, Mark Hebblewhite
To successfully respond to changing habitat, climate or harvest, managers need to identify the most effective strategies to reverse population trends of declining species and/or manage harvest of game species. A classic approach in conservation biology for the last two decades has been the use of matrix population models to determine the most important vital rates affecting population growth rate (λ), that is, sensitivity. Ecologists quickly realized the critical role of environmental variability in vital rates affecting population growth rate by developing approaches such as life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) that account for both sensitivity and variability of a vital rate...
February 11, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182314/exotic-weeds-and-fluctuating-microclimate-can-constrain-native-plant-regeneration-in-urban-forest-restoration
#3
K J Wallace, Daniel C Laughlin, Bruce D Clarkson
Restoring forest structure and composition is an important component of urban land management, but we lack clear understanding of the mechanisms driving restoration success. Here we studied two indicators of restoration success in temperate rainforests: native tree regeneration and epiphyte colonization. We hypothesized that ecosystem properties such as forest canopy openness, abundance of exotic herbaceous weeds, and the microclimate directly affect the density and diversity of native tree seedlings and epiphytes...
February 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182303/variable-effects-of-climate-on-forest-growth-in-relation-to-climate-extremes-disturbance-and-forest-dynamics
#4
Malcolm S Itter, Andrew O Finley, Anthony W D'Amato, Jane R Foster, John B Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics-changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change...
February 9, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178755/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-uavs-for-surveying-marine-fauna-assessing-detection-probability
#5
Amanda Hodgson, David Peel, Natalie Kelly
Aerial surveys are conducted for various fauna to assess abundance, distribution, and habitat use over large spatial scales. They are traditionally conducted using light-aircraft with observers recording sightings in real time. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer an alternative with many potential advantages, including eliminating human-risk. To be effective, this emerging platform needs to provide detection rates of animals comparable to traditional methods. UAVs can also acquire new types of information, and this new data requires a re-evaluation of traditional analyses used in aerial surveys; including estimating the probability of detecting animals...
February 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171704/subdivision-design-and-stewardship-affect-bird-and-mammal-use-of-conservation-developments
#6
Cooper M Farr, Liba Pejchar, Sarah E Reed
Developing effective tools for conservation on private lands is increasingly important for global biodiversity conservation; private lands are located in more productive and biologically diverse areas, and they face accelerated rates of land conversion. One strategy is conservation development (CD) subdivisions, which cluster houses in a small portion of a property and preserve the remaining land as protected open space. Despite widespread use, the characteristics that make CD more or less effective at achieving biodiversity conservation are not well understood...
February 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165643/toward-inventory-based-estimates-of-soil-organic-carbon-in-forests-of-the-united-states
#7
G M Domke, C H Perry, B F Walters, L E Nave, C W Woodall, C W Swanston
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest terrestrial carbon (C) sink on Earth; this pool plays a critical role in ecosystem processes and climate change. Given the cost and time required to measure SOC, and particularly changes in SOC, many signatory nations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change report estimates of SOC stocks and stock changes using default values from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change or country-specific models. In the United States (US), SOC in forests is monitored by the national forest inventory (NFI) conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...
February 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140527/fish-wariness-is-a-more-sensitive-indicator-to-changes-in-fishing-pressure-than-abundance-length-or-biomass
#8
Jordan Goetze, Fraser Januchowski-Hartley, Joachim Claudet, Tim Langlois, Shaun Wilson, Stacy D Jupiter
Identifying the most sensitive indicators to changes in fishing pressure is important for accurately detecting impacts. Biomass is thought to be more sensitive than abundance and length, while the wariness of fishes is emerging as a new metric. Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) that involve the opening and closing of an area to fishing are the most common form of fisheries management in the western Pacific. The opening of PHCs to fishing provides a unique opportunity to compare the sensitivity of metrics, such as abundance, length, biomass and wariness, to changes in fishing pressure...
January 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140503/two-step-adaptive-management-for-choosing-between-two-management-actions
#9
Alana L Moore, Leila Walker, Michael C Runge, Eve McDonald-Madden, Michael A McCarthy
Adaptive management is widely advocated to improve environmental management. Derivations of optimal strategies for adaptive management, however, tend to be case specific and time consuming. In contrast, managers might seek relatively simple guidance, such as insight into when a new potential management action should be considered, and how much effort should be expended on trialing such an action. We constructed a two time-step scenario where a manager is choosing between two possible management actions. The manager has a total budget which can be split between a learning phase and an implementation phase...
January 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140497/invasive-rodents-have-multiple-indirect-effects-on-seabird-island-invertebrate-food-web-structure
#10
Joshua Thoresen, David Towns, Sebastian Leuzinger, Mel Durrett, Christa P H Mulder, David A Wardle
Burrowing seabirds that nest on islands transfer nutrients from the sea, disturb the soil through burrowing, damage tree foliage when landing, and thereby modify the surface litter. However, seabirds are in decline worldwide, as are their community- and ecosystem-level impacts, primarily due to invasive predatory mammals. The direct and indirect effects of seabird decline on communities and ecosystems are inherently complex. Here we employed network analysis, as a means of simplifying ecological complexity, to better understand the effects seabird loss may have on island invertebrate communities...
January 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140494/the-impact-of-water-management-practices-on-subtropical-pasture-methane-emissions-and-ecosystem-service-payments
#11
Samuel D Chamberlain, Peter M Groffman, Elizabeth H Boughton, N Gomez-Casanovas, Evan H DeLucia, Carl J Bernacchi, Jed P Sparks
Pastures are an extensive land cover type; however, patterns in pasture greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange vary widely depending on climate and land management. Understanding this variation is important, as pastures may be a net GHG source or sink depending on these factors. We quantified carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes from subtropical pastures in south Florida for three wet-dry seasonal cycles using eddy covariance, and estimated two annual budgets of CO2 , CH4 , and GHG equivalent emissions. We also estimated the impact of water retention practices on pasture GHG emissions and assessed the impact of these emissions on stakeholder payments for water retention services in a carbon market framework...
January 31, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132400/diet-of-generalist-predators-reflects-effects-of-cropping-period-and-farming-system-on-extra-and-intraguild-prey
#12
Eve Roubinet, Klaus Birkhofer, Gerard Malsher, Karin Staudacher, Barbara Ekbom, Michael Traugott, Mattias Jonsson
The suppression of agricultural pests by natural enemies, including generalist arthropod predators, is an economically important regulating ecosystem service. Besides pests, generalist predators may also consume non-pest extraguild and intraguild prey, which can affect their impact on pest populations. This may either reduce the impact of generalist predators on pest populations, because they are diverted from pest predation; or increase it, as it helps them survive periods of low pest availability. However, the availability of pest prey and alternative, non-pest prey can vary over the crop growing season and between farming systems, potentially affecting predator-prey interactions and the levels of biological control...
January 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117915/simulations-reveal-the-power-and-peril-of-artificial-breeding-sites-for-monitoring-and-managing-animals
#13
Christopher J W McClure, Benjamin P Pauli, Julie A Heath
Despite common use, the efficacy of artificial breeding sites (e.g., nest boxes, bat houses, artificial burrows) as tools for monitoring and managing animals depends on the demography of target populations and availability of natural sites. Yet, the conditions enabling artificial breeding sites to be useful or informative have yet to be articulated. We use a stochastic simulation model to determine situations where artificial breeding sites are either useful or disadvantageous for monitoring and managing animals...
January 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117908/land-use-as-a-driver-of-soil-fertility-and-biodiversity-across-an-agricultural-landscape-in-the-central-peruvian-andes
#14
Anne W de Valença, Steven J Vanek, Katherin Meza, Raul Ccanto, Edgar Olivera, Maria Scurrah, Egbert A Lantinga, Steven J Fonte
Land use change and intensification in agricultural landscapes of the Andean highlands have resulted in widespread soil degradation and a loss in soil-based ecosystem services and biodiversity. This trend threatens the sustainability of farming communities in the Andes, with important implications for food security and biodiversity conservation throughout the region. Based on these challenges we sought to understand the impact of current and future land use practices on soil fertility and biodiversity, so as to inform landscape planning and management decisions for sustainable agroecosystem management...
January 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117907/surface-water-dynamics-and-land-use-influence-landscape-connectivity-across-a-major-dryland-region
#15
Robbi Bishop-Taylor, Mirela G Tulbure, Mark Broich
Landscape connectivity is important for the long-term persistence of species inhabiting dryland freshwater ecosystems, with spatiotemporal surface-water dynamics (e.g., flooding) maintaining connectivity by both creating temporary habitats and providing transient opportunities for dispersal. Improving our understanding of how landscape connectivity varies with respect to surface-water dynamics and land use is an important step to maintaining biodiversity in dynamic dryland environments. Using a newly available validated Landsat TM and ETM+ surface-water time series, we modelled landscape connectivity between dynamic surface-water habitats within Australia's 1 million km2 semi-arid Murray Darling Basin across a 25-year period (1987 to 2011)...
January 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112848/uncertain-future-soil-carbon-dynamics-under-global-change-predicted-by-models-constrained-by-total-carbon-measurements
#16
Zhongkui Luo, Enli Wang, Osbert J Sun
Pool-based carbon (C) models are widely applied to predict soil C dynamics under global change and infer underlying mechanisms. However, it is unclear about the credibility of model-predicted C pool size, decay rate (k) and/or microbial C use efficiency (e) as only data on bulked total C is usually available for model-constraining. Using observing system simulation experiments (OSSE), we constrained a two-pool model using simulated datasets of total soil C dynamics under topical hypotheses on responses of soil C dynamics to warming and elevated CO2 (i...
January 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112847/matching-seed-to-site-by-climate-similarity-techniques-to-prioritize-plant-materials-development-and-use-in-restoration
#17
Kyle D Doherty, Bradley J Butterfield, Troy E Wood
Land management agencies are increasing the use of native plant materials for vegetation treatments to restore ecosystem function and maintain natural ecological integrity. This shift towards the use of natives has highlighted a need to increase the diversity of materials available. A key problem is agreeing on how many, and which, new accessions should be developed. Here we describe new methods that address this problem. Our methods use climate data to calculate a climate similarity index between two points in a defined extent...
January 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112846/disrupted-trophic-interactions-affect-recruitment-of-boreal-deciduous-and-coniferous-trees-in-northern-europe
#18
Per Angelstam, Michael Manton, Simen Pedersen, Marine Elbakidze
Loss of large carnivore populations may lead to increased population densities of large herbivores, and subsequent cascading effects on the composition, structure and function of ecosystems. Using a macroecological approach based on studies in multiple boreal forest landscapes in the Baltic Sea region and Russia, we tested the hypothesis that disrupted trophic interactions among large carnivores and large herbivores affect the recruitment of both ecologically and economically valuable tree species. We measured damage levels on young trees and large herbivore density in 10 local landscapes representing a gradient from extinct to extant populations of both large carnivores and large herbivores...
January 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099774/drivers-of-soil-and-tree-carbon-dynamics-in-urban-residential-lawns-a-modeling-approach
#19
T L E Trammell, R V Pouyat, M M Carreiro, I Yesilonis
Soils constitute the largest sink of terrestrial carbon (C), and urban soils have the potential to provide significant soil C storage. Soils in urbanized landscapes experience a multitude of human alterations, such as compaction and management subsidies, that impact soil C dynamics. While field studies may provide data on urban soil C storage, modeling soil C dynamics under various human impact scenarios will provide a basis for identifying drivers of urban soil C dynamics and for predicting the potential for these highly altered soils to store C over time intervals not typically amenable to empirical validation...
January 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097736/restoration-and-management-for-plant-diversity-enhances-the-rate-of-belowground-ecosystem-recovery
#20
Ryan P Klopf, Sara G Baer, Elizabeth M Bach, J Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20) and grasslands restored with fewer species that were infrequently burned (n=15)...
January 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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