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Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791763/payments-for-ecosystem-services-in-mexico-reduce-forest-fragmentation
#1
Carlos Ramirez-Reyes, Katharine R E Sims, Peter Potapov, Volker C Radeloff
Forest fragmentation can lead to habitat reduction, edge increase, and exposure to disturbances. A key emerging policy to protect forests is payments for ecosystem services (PES), which offers compensation to landowners for environmental stewardship. Mexico was one of the first countries to implement a broad-scale PES program, enrolling over 2.3 Mha by 2010. However, Mexico's PES did not completely eliminate deforestation in enrolled parcels and could have increased incentives to hide deforestation in ways that increased fragmentation...
May 23, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786900/avian-demographic-responses-to-drought-and-fire-a-community-level-perspective
#2
James F Saracco, Stephen M Fettig, George L San Miguel, David W Mehlman, Steven K Albert
Drought stress is an important consideration for wildlife in arid and semi-arid regions under climate change. Drought can impact plant and animal populations directly, through effects on their physiology, as well as indirectly through effects on vegetation productivity and resource availability, and by creating conditions conducive to secondary disturbance, such as wildfire. We implemented a novel approach to understanding community-level demographic responses of birds and their habitats to these stressors in the context of climate change at 14 study sites in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States...
May 22, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768699/near-infrared-spectrometry-allows-fast-and-extensive-predictions-of-functional-traits-from-dry-leaves-and-branches
#3
Flávia R C Costa, Carla Lang, Danilo R A Almeida, Carolina V Castilho, Lourens Poorter
The linking of individual functional traits to ecosystem processes is the basis for making generalizations in ecology, but the measurement of individual values is laborious and time consuming, preventing large-scale trait mapping. Also, in hyper-diverse systems, errors occur because identification is difficult, and species level values ignore intra-specific variation. To allow extensive trait mapping at the individual level, we evaluated the potential of Fourrier-Transformed Near Infra-Red Spectrometry (FT-NIR) to adequately describe 14 traits that are key for plant carbon, water, and nutrient balance...
May 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744962/irrigated-areas-grow-faster-than-the-population
#4
Arnald Puy
Unfolding regularities between population and irrigated agriculture might increase our capacity to predict their co-evolution and better ensure food security and environmental welfare. Here I use three different datasets with detailed information at the national level for c. 70% of the countries of Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe between 1950-2017 to show that irrigated areas might grow disproportionally for a given increase in population, e.g. with b > 1. The results are robust across continents, time series, population cut-offs and variations in the area accounted for irrigation by official institutions and independent scholars...
May 9, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729054/effects-of-agriculture-and-topography-on-tropical-amphibian-species-and-communities
#5
José Wagner Ribeiro, Tadeu Siqueira, Gabriel Lourenço Brejão, Elise F Zipkin
Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the persistence of forest-dependent amphibians, but it is not the only factor influencing species occurrences. The composition of the surrounding matrix, structure of stream networks, and topography are also important landscape characteristics influencing amphibian distributions. Tropical forests have high diversity and endemism of amphibians, but little is known about the specific responses of many of these species to landscape features. In this paper, we quantify the response of amphibian species and communities to landscape-scale characteristics in streams within the fragmented Brazilian Atlantic Forest...
May 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727519/fragmentation-and-matrix-contrast-favor-understory-plants-through-negative-cascading-effects-on-a-strong-competitor-palm
#6
Manuel A Hernández-Ruedas, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, José Carlos Morante-Filho, Jorge A Meave, Miguel Martínez-Ramos
Understanding the patterns and processes driving biodiversity maintenance in fragmented tropical forests is urgently needed for conservation planning, especially in species-rich forest reserves. Of particular concern are the effects that habitat modifications at the landscape scale may have on forest regeneration and ecosystem functioning - a topic that has received limited attention. Here, we assessed the effects of landscape structure (i.e., forest cover, open area matrices, forest fragmentation, and mean inter-patch isolation distance) on understory plant assemblages in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico...
May 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727509/editorial
#7
EDITORIAL
David S Schimel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723932/reserve-design-to-optimize-the-long-term-persistence-of-multiple-species
#8
Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jedediah F Brodie
Protected areas form the cornerstone of global efforts to conserve biodiversity. Most current methods for designing reserve networks focus on maximizing the representation of species, but with no assurance that those species will persist in the protected landscapes into the future. We present a new strategy for reserve design that combines metapopulation theory with spatial conservation prioritization to estimate conservation solutions that minimize extinction risk across numerous species simultaneously. Our framework optimizes the spatial configuration of reserves to maximize metapopulation persistence for an entire assemblage of species by accounting for both species representation and landscape connectivity...
May 3, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714821/atmospheric-deposition-and-exceedances-of-critical-loads-from-1800-2025-for-the-conterminous-united-states
#9
Christopher M Clark, Jennifer Phelan, Prakash Doraiswamy, John Buckley, James C Cajka, Robin L Dennis, Jason Lynch, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero
Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) has increased dramatically over pre-industrial levels, with many potential impacts on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Quantitative thresholds, termed "critical loads" (CLs), have been developed to estimate the deposition rate above which damage is thought to occur. However, there remains no comprehensive comparison of when, where, and over what time periods individual CLs have been exceeded. We addressed this knowledge gap by combining several published data sources for historical and contemporary deposition, and overlaying these on six CL types from the National Critical Loads Database (NCLDv2...
May 1, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710415/grazing-disturbance-increases-transient-but-decreases-persistent-soil-seed-bank
#10
Miaojun Ma, Jeffrey L Walck, Zhen Ma, Lipei Wang, Guozhen Du
Very few studies have examined whether the impacts of grazing disturbance on soil seed banks occur directly or indirectly through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. The potential role of the seed bank in alpine wetland restoration is also unknown. We used SEM (structural equation modeling) to explore the direct effect of grazing disturbance on the seed bank and the indirect effect through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. We also studied the role of the seed bank on the restoration potential in wetlands with various grazing intensities: low (fenced, winter grazed only), medium (seasonally grazed), and high (whole-year grazed)...
April 30, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702741/living-shorelines-enhanced-the-resilience-of-saltmarshes-to-hurricane-matthew-2016
#11
Carter S Smith, Brandon Puckett, Rachel K Gittman, Charles H Peterson
Nature-based solutions, such as living shorelines, have the potential to restore critical ecosystems, enhance coastal sustainability, and increase resilience to natural disasters; however, their efficacy during storm events compared to traditional hardened shorelines is largely untested. This is a major impediment to their implementation and promotion to policy-makers and homeowners. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated rock sill living shorelines as compared to natural marshes and hardened shorelines (i...
April 27, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698586/selective-and-context-dependent-effects-of-chemical-stress-across-trophic-levels-at-the-basis-of-marine-food-webs
#12
Christoph Mensens, Frederik De Laender, Colin R Janssen, Frances Camille Rivera, Koen Sabbe, Marleen De Troch
Human activities increasingly impact the functioning of marine food webs, but anthropogenic stressors are seldom included into ecological study designs. Diet quality, as distinct from just diet quantity, has moreover rarely been highlighted in food web studies in a stress context. We measured the effects of metal and pesticide stress (copper and atrazine) on the contribution of a benthic intertidal diatom community to two processes that are key to the functioning of intertidal systems: biomass (diet quantity) and lipid (diet quality) production...
April 26, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698583/tree-leaf-trade-offs-are-stronger-for-sub-canopy-trees-leaf-traits-reveal-little-about-growth-rates-in-canopy-trees
#13
Jarrah Wills, John Herbohn, Jing Hu, Shawkat Sohel, Jack Baynes, Jennifer Firn
Can morphological plant functional traits predict demographic rates (e.g., growth) within plant communities as diverse as tropical forests? This is one of the most important next-step questions in trait-based ecology and particularly for global reforestation efforts. Due to the diversity of tropical tree species and their longevity, it is difficult to predict their performance prior to reforestation efforts. In this study, we investigate if simple leaf traits are predictors of the more complex ecological process of plant growth in regenerating selectively logged natural forest within the Wet Tropics (WTs) bioregion of Australia...
April 26, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698575/severe-fire-weather-and-intensive-forest-management-increase-fire-severity-in-a-multi-ownership-landscape
#14
Harold S J Zald, Christopher J Dunn
Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are composed of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland (Bureau of Land Management, BLM) with contrasting management objectives, providing a unique experimental landscape to understand how different management practices influence wildfire severity...
April 26, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698558/ecological-niche-modeling-for-a-cultivated-plant-species-a-case-study-on-taro-colocasia-esculenta-in-hawaii
#15
Mali'o Kodis, Peter Galante, Eleanor J Sterling, Mary E Blair
Under the threat of ongoing and projected climate change, communities in the Pacific Islands face challenges of adapting culture and lifestyle to accommodate a changing landscape. Few models can effectively predict how biocultural livelihoods might be impacted. Here, we examine how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence an ecological niche model (ENM) for the realized niche of cultivated taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Hawaii. We created and tuned two sets of ENMs: one using only environmental variables, and one using both environmental and cultural characteristics of Hawaii...
April 26, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696712/adaptive-management-of-animal-populations-with-significant-unknowns-and-uncertainties-a-case-study
#16
Brian D Gerber, William L Kendall
Conservation and management decision making in natural resources is challenging due to numerous uncertainties and unknowns, especially relating to understanding system dynamics. Adaptive resource management (ARM) is a formal process to making logical and transparent recurrent decisions when there are uncertainties about system dynamics. Despite wide recognition and calls for implementing adaptive natural resource management, applications remain limited. More common is a reactive approach to decision making, which ignores future system dynamics...
April 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694698/using-imaging-spectroscopy-to-detect-variation-in-terrestrial-ecosystem-productivity-across-a-water-stressed-landscape
#17
Sean DuBois, Ankur R Desai, Aditya Singh, Shawn P Serbin, Michael L Goulden, Dennis D Baldocchi, Siyan Ma, Walter C Oechel, Sonia Wharton, Eric L Kruger, Philip A Townsend
A central challenge to understanding how climate anomalies, such as drought and heatwaves, impact the terrestrial carbon cycle, is quantification and scaling of spatial and temporal variation in ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). Existing empirical and model-based satellite broadband spectra-based products have been shown to miss critical variation in GPP. Here, we evaluate the potential of high spectral resolution (10 nm) shortwave (400-2500 nm) imagery to better detect spatial and temporal variations in GPP across a range of ecosystems, including forests, grassland-savannas, wetlands, and shrublands in a water-stressed region...
April 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694689/quantifying-shorebird-habitat-in-managed-wetlands-by-modeling-shallow-water-depth-dynamics
#18
Danica Schaffer-Smith, Jennifer J Swenson, Matthew E Reiter, Jennifer E Isola
Over 50% of Western Hemisphere shorebird species are in decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation. In some regions of high wetland loss, shorebirds are heavily reliant on a core network of remaining human-managed wetlands during migration journeys in the spring and fall. While most refuges have been designed and managed to match the habitat needs of waterfowl, shorebirds typically require much shallower water (<10cm deep). Traditional static habitat modeling approaches at relatively coarse spatial and temporal resolution are insufficient to capture dynamic changes within this narrow water depth range...
April 25, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679462/impact-of-urbanization-on-abundance-and-phenology-of-caterpillars-and-consequences-for-breeding-in-an-insectivorous-bird
#19
Gábor Seress, Tamás Hammer, Veronika Bókony, Ernő Vincze, Bálint Preiszner, Ivett Pipoly, Csenge Sinkovics, Karl L Evans, András Liker
Urbanization can have marked effects on plant and animal populations' phenology, population size, predator-prey interactions and reproductive success. These aspects are rarely studied simultaneously in a single system, and some are rarely investigated, e.g. how insect phenology responds to urban development. Here, we study a tri-trophic system of trees - phytophagous insects (caterpillars) - insectivorous birds (great tits) to assess how urbanization influences i) the phenology of each component of this system, ii) insect abundance and iii) avian reproductive success...
April 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679428/estimating-sensitivity-of-seabed-habitats-to-disturbance-by-bottom-trawling-based-on-the-longevity-of-benthic-fauna
#20
Adriaan D Rijnsdorp, Stefan G Bolam, Clement Garcia, Jan Geert Hiddink, Niels T Hintzen, P Daniel van Denderen, Tobias van Kooten
Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e. slower growth, late maturation). We analyse data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i...
April 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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