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Bioresource Technology

Mayur Shirish Jain, Rohit Jambhulkar, Ajay S Kalamdhad
Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process...
January 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yanlong Zhang, Haiyuan Ma, Rong Chen, Qigui Niu, Yu-You Li
The nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of an anammox attached film expanded bed (AAFEB) reactor was increased from 5.0 to 60.0 gN/L/d. During the stable operational period, the TN removal efficiency maintained at 87.3 ± 2.5%, and a maximum nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 44.9 ± 0.3 gN/L/d was achieved. Overload resulted in the sharp deterioration of reactor performance, the ratio of (Food/Microorganism)/SAA should be maintained at lower than 66 ± 7% to ensure the stable operation of the AAFEB reactor...
January 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kumar Vikrant, Balendu Shekhar Giri, Nadeem Raza, Kangkan Roy, Ki-Hyun Kim, Birendra Nath Rai, Ram Sharan Singh
The rampant industrialization and unchecked growth of modern textile production facilities coupled with the lack of proper treatment facilities have proliferated the discharge of effluents enriched with toxic, baleful, and carcinogenic pollutants including dyes, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, odorants, and other hazardous materials. Therefore, the development of cost-effective and efficient control measures against such pollution is imperative to safeguard ecosystems and natural resources. In this regard, recent advances in biotechnology and microbiology have propelled bioremediation as a prospective alternative to traditional treatment methods...
January 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Haris Nalakath Abubackar, María C Veiga, Christian Kennes
A two-stage continuous system with two stirred tank reactors in series was utilized to perform syngas fermentation using Clostridium carboxidivorans. The first bioreactor (bioreactor 1) was maintained at pH 6 to promote acidogenesis and the second one (bioreactor 2) at pH 5 to stimulate solventogenesis. Both reactors were operated in continuous mode by feeding syngas (CO:CO2:H2:N2; 30:10:20:40; vol%) at a constant flow rate while supplying a nutrient medium at different flow rates of 8.1, 15, 22 and 30 ml/h...
January 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Dengyu Chen, Anjiang Gao, Zhongqing Ma, Dayi Fei, Yu Chang, Chao Shen
Torrefaction is a promising method for biomass upgrading, and analysis of all products is the essential way to reveal torrefaction mechanism. In this study, torrefaction of rice husk was performed at 210-300 °C. Results showed that the fuel properties of solid products were greatly enhanced upon removal of oxygen. The gaseous products were mainly CO2 (52.9-73.8 vol%), followed by CO (26.3-39.2 vol%). The liquid product was mainly water and some tar, and the latter contained acids, furans, ketones, aldehydes, and phenols, among which the relative content of acids was the highest...
January 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Chun-Yen Chen, I-Chia Lu, Dillirani Nagarajan, Chien-Hsiang Chang, I-Son Ng, Duu-Jong Lee, Jo-Shu Chang
A heterotrophic mutant of Chlorella sorokiniana MB-1-M12 was evaluated for its ability to produce lutein using organic carbon and nitrogen sources and without light irradiation. In batch fermentation, the maximal lutein content (3.67 mg lutein/g biomass) and productivity (2.84 mg/L/d) could be obtained when cultivated in BG-11 medium with 7.5 g/L glucose, 0.75 g/L urea, pH 7.5 and a C/N ratio of 10. A novel two-stage cultivation strategy that integrates fed-batch and semi-batch operations was applied to enhance the lutein production performance...
January 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Arti Mishra, Kristina Medhi, Neha Maheshwari, Shaili Srivastava, Indu Shekhar Thakur
The present study aims to investigate the biofuel production ability and potential of heavy metal remediation of Chlorella sp. ISTLA1 isolated from a landfill site. The strain was cultured in Bold's Basal medium at different concentration of NaHCO3 and pH. Response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of nutrient sources for higher lipid production. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of lipid and biomass was 365.42 and 833.14 mg L-1 respectively. GC-MS analysis of lipid indicated the presence of C8 to C31 organic compounds consisting mainly of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1)...
January 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiaomin Gong, Danlian Huang, Yunguo Liu, Guangming Zeng, Rongzhong Wang, Jingjing Wei, Chao Huang, Piao Xu, Jia Wan, Chen Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the effect of pyrolysis on the stabilization of heavy metals in plant residues obtained after phytoremediation. Ramie residues, being collected after phytoremediation of metal contaminated sediments, were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300-700 °C). Results indicated that pyrolysis was effective in the stabilization of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Pb in ramie residues by converting the acid-soluble fraction of metals into residual form and decreasing the TCLP-leachable metal contents...
January 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Liqiang Meng, Shumei Zhang, Hainan Gong, Xiancheng Zhang, Chuandong Wu, Weiguang Li
The effects of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and sucrose (S) amendment on emissions of nitrogenous gas (mainly NH3 and N2O) and end products quality of sewage sludge (SS) composting were evaluated. Five treatments were composted for 20 days in laboratory-scale using SS with different dosages of SMS and S, without additive amended treatment used as control. The results indicated that SMS amendments especially combination with S promoted dehydrogenase activity, CO2 production, organic matter degradation and humification in the composting, and maturity indices of composting also showed that the 30%SMS+2%S treatment could be much more appropriate to improve the composting process, such as total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrification index, humic acids/fulvic acids ratio and germination index, while the emissions of NH3 and N2O were reduced by 34...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Phunlap Sirisuk, Chae-Hun Ra, Gwi-Taek Jeong, Sung-Koo Kim
Blue and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to study the effects of wavelength mixing ratios, photoperiod regimes, and green wavelength stress on Nannochloropsis salina, Isochrysis galbana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum cell biomass and lipid production. The maximum specific growth rates of I. galbana and P. tricornutum were obtained under a 50:50 mixing ratio of blue and red wavelength LEDs; that of N. salina was obtained under red LED. Maximum cell biomass for N. salina and P. tricornutum was 0.75 and 1...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shi-Kai Wang, Xu Wang, Jing Miao, Yong-Ting Tian
Tofu whey wastewater (TWW) is an abundant, nutrient riched and safety wastewater and is regarded as an excellent alternative medium in fermentation. In this study, the feasibility of algal cultivation using TWW as the basal medium was investigated. Results indicated that through simple pH adjustment, TWW presented a better culture performance at autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic modes compared with that of regular green algae medium, BG-11. The biomass productivities of Chlorella pyrenoidosa at each trophic mode were 4...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Weiliang Hou, Jie Bao
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most efficient operation in biorefining conversion, but aerobic SSF under high solids loading significantly faces the serious oxygen transfer limitation. This study took the first insight into an aerobic SSF by high oxygen demanding filamentous fungi in highly viscous lignocellulose hydrolysate. The results show that oxygen requirement in the aerobic SSF by Aspergillus niger was well satisfied for production of cellulosic citric acid. The record high citric acid titer of 136...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Quanguo Zhang, Zhiping Zhang, Yi Wang, Duu-Jong Lee, Gang Li, Xuehua Zhou, Danping Jiang, Bo Xu, Chaoyang Lu, Yameng Li, Xumeng Ge
Pilot tests of sequential dark and photo fermentation H2 production were for the first time conducted in a 11 m3 reactor (3 m3 for dark and 8 m3 for photo compartments). A combined solar and light-emitting diode illumination system and a thermal controlling system was installed and tested. With dark fermentation unit maintained at pH 4.5 and 35 °C and photo fermentation unit at pH 7.0 and 30 °C, the overall biogas production rate using hydrolyzed corn stover as substrate reached 87.8 ± 3.8 m3/d with 68% H2 content, contributed by dark unit at 7...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Zhi-Hua Li, Yuan-Mo Zhu, Jing Zhang, Cheng-Jian Yang, Tian-Yu Zhang, Han-Qing Yu
Robustness of an activated sludge system, describing uncertainty and operational risk, was evaluated using the absence or presence of calcium-induced enhancement of respiration (CaER) effect. Generally, the fast-growing system was susceptible to external environmental variations, of which the sludge exhibited significant CaER effect under normal operational conditions, while the slow growing system showed less significant CaER effect. However, sludge in both systems exhibited CaER effect under stressed conditions of decreasing temperature or ammonia shocking...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jiaxin Chen, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi, Ji Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Patrick Drogui, Feiyun Sun
Currently, there are mainly two pathways of the biodiesel production from wastewater sludge including 1) directly extracting the lipid in sludge and then converting the lipid to biodiesel through trans-esterification, and 2) employing sludge as medium to cultivate oleaginous microorganism to accumulate lipid and then transferring the lipid to biodiesel. So far, the study was still in research stage and its cost feasibility was not yet investigated. In this study, biodiesel production from wastewater sludge was designed and the cost was estimated with SuperPro Designer...
January 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Souvik Kumar Paul, Saikat Chakraborty
Sunn hemp fibre - a cellulose-rich crystalline non-food energy crop, containing 75.6% cellulose, 10.05% hemicellulose, 10.32% lignin, with high crystallinity (80.17%) and degree of polymerization (650) - is identified as a new non-food substrate for lignocellulosic biofuel production. Microwave irradiation is employed to rapidly rupture the cellulose's glycosidic bonds and enhance glucose yield to 78.7% at 160 °C in only 46 min. The reactants - long-chain cellulose, ionic liquid, transition metal catalyst, and water - form a polar supramolecular complex that rotates under the microwave's alternating polarity and rapidly dissipates the electromagnetic energy through molecular collisions, thus accelerating glycosidic bond breakage...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hongzhen Luo, Rongling Yang, Yuping Zhao, Zhaoyu Wang, Zheng Liu, Mengyu Huang, Qingwei Zeng
Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jiaxin Chen, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi, Patrick Drogui
In this work, methanol in crude glycerol solution was used to assist the lipid production with oleaginous yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus cultivated under non-sterilized conditions. The investigated methanol concentration was 0%, 1.4%, 2.2%, 3.3% and 4.4% (w/v). The results showed that methanol played a significant role in the non-sterilized fermentation for lipid production. The optimal methanol concentration was around 1.4% (w/v) in which the growth of T. oleaginosus was promoted and overcame that of the contaminants...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shuai Luo, Pranav Sai Shankar Sampara, Zhen He
In this work, an innovative design of integrated photobioelectrochemcial system (IPB) and an algal harvesting method based on polyester-mesh membrane (MM) were investigated. The algal growth/harvesting period of 6 days led to the highest surface biomass productivity (SBP) of 0.88 g m-2 day-1 and the highest energy generation of 0.157 ± 0.001 kJ day-1. The harvesting frequency of 3 times in an operational cycle (with three pieces of MM) enhanced the SBP to 1.14 g m-2 day-1. The catholyte recirculation for catholyte mixing resulted in a positive net energy production (NEP) of 0...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ajoy Roy, Avishek Dutta, Siddhartha Pal, Abhishek Gupta, Jayeeta Sarkar, Ananya Chatterjee, Anumeha Saha, Poulomi Sarkar, Pinaki Sar, Sufia K Kazy
Scope for developing an engineered bioremediation strategy for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich petroleum refinery waste was investigated through biostimulation and bioaugmentation approaches. Enhanced (46-55%) total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) attenuation was achieved through phosphate, nitrate or nitrate+phosphate amendment in the sludge with increased (upto 12%) abundance of fermentative, hydrocarbon degrading, sulfate-reducing, CO2-assimilating and methanogenic microorganisms (Bacillus, Coprothermobacter, Rhodobacter, Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Desulfitobacter, Desulfosporosinus, T78, Methanobacterium, Methanosaeta, etc)...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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