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Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

Maarten Houlleberghs, Johan A Martens, Eric Breynaert
A low-cost, flexible and fast method to create disposable sample cells suitable for in situ catalytic or material synthesis studies based on standard quartz capillaries, heat-shrinkable tubing and standard Swagelok components is described.
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Maksim S Rakitin, Paul Moeller, Robert Nagler, Boaz Nash, David L Bruhwiler, Dmitry Smalyuk, Mikhail Zhernenkov, Oleg Chubar
Sirepo, a browser-based GUI for X-ray source and optics simulations, is presented. Such calculations can be performed using SRW (Synchrotron Radiation Workshop), which is a physical optics computer code, allowing simulation of entire experimental beamlines using the concept of a `virtual beamline' with accurate treatment of synchrotron radiation generation and propagation through the X-ray optical system. SRW is interfaced with Sirepo by means of a Python application programming interface. Sirepo supports most of the optical elements currently used at beamlines, including recent developments in SRW...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Chaofan Xue, Xiangyu Meng, Yanqing Wu, Yong Wang, Liansheng Wang, Shumin Yang, Jun Zhao, Renzhong Tai
A new spatially coherent beamline has been designed and constructed at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Here, the design of the beamline is introduced and the spatial coherence is analyzed throughout the whole process by wave optics. The simulation results show good spatial coherence at the endstation and have been proven by experiment results.
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Simone Anzellini, Annette K Kleppe, Dominik Daisenberger, Michael T Wharmby, Ruggero Giampaoli, Silvia Boccato, Marzena A Baron, Francesca Miozzi, Dean S Keeble, Allan Ross, Stuart Gurney, Jon Thompson, Giles Knap, Mark Booth, Lee Hudson, Dave Hawkins, Michael J Walter, Heribert Wilhelm
In this article, the specification and application of the new double-sided YAG laser-heating system built on beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source are presented. This system, combined with diamond anvil cell and X-ray diffraction techniques, allows in situ and ex situ characterization of material properties at extremes of pressure and temperature. In order to demonstrate the reliability and stability of this experimental setup over a wide range of pressure and temperature, a case study was performed and the phase diagram of lead was investigated up to 80 GPa and 3300 K...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jianhong Liu, Zhiting Liang, Yong Guan, Wenbin Wei, Haobo Bai, Liang Chen, Gang Liu, Yangchao Tian
Full angular rotational projections cannot always be acquired in tomographic reconstructions because of the limited space in the experimental setup, leading to the `missing wedge' situation. In this paper, a recovering `missing wedge' discrete algebraic reconstruction technique algorithm (rmwDART) has been proposed to solve the `missing wedge' problem and improve the quality of the three-dimensional reconstruction without prior knowledge of the material component's number or the material's values. By using oversegmentation, boundary extraction and mathematical morphological operations, `missing wedge' artifact areas can be located...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Akio Yoneyama, Kazuyuki Hyodo, Rika Baba, Satoshi Takeya, Tohoru Takeda
For fine observation of laminar samples, phase-contrast X-ray laminography using X-ray interferometry was developed. An imaging system fitted with a two-crystal X-ray interferometer was used to perform the observations, and the sectional images were calculated by a three-dimensional iterative reconstruction method. Obtained images of an old flat slab of limestone from the Carnic Alps depicted fusulinids in the Carboniferous period with 3 mg cm-3 density resolution, and those of carbon paper used for a fuel-cell battery displayed the inner fibrous structures clearly...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Yongchun Zhou, Jianzhong Hu, Jingyong Zhou, Ziteng Zeng, Yong Cao, Zhanwen Wang, Can Chen, Cheng Zheng, Huabin Chen, Hongbin Lu
Understanding the three-dimensional ultrastructure morphology of tendon-to-bone interface may allow the development of effective therapeutic interventions for enhanced interface healing. This study aims to assess the feasibility of propagation phase-contrast synchrotron radiation microtomography (PPC-SRµCT) for three-dimensional characterization of the microstructure in rabbit patella-patellar tendon interface (PPTI). Based on phase retrieval for PPC-SRµCT imaging, this technique is capable of visualizing the three-dimensional internal architecture of PPTI at a cellular high spatial resolution including bone and tendon, especially the chondrocytes lacuna at the fibrocartilage layer...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Willi L Wagner, Felix Wuennemann, Serena Pacilé, Jonas Albers, Fulvia Arfelli, Diego Dreossi, Jürgen Biederer, Philip Konietzke, Wolfram Stiller, Mark O Wielpütz, Agostino Accardo, Marco Confalonieri, Maria Cova, Joachim Lotz, Frauke Alves, Hans Ulrich Kauczor, Giuliana Tromba, Christian Dullin
In-line free propagation phase-contrast synchrotron tomography of the lungs has been shown to provide superior image quality compared with attenuation-based computed tomography (CT) in small-animal studies. The present study was performed to prove the applicability on a human-patient scale using a chest phantom with ventilated fresh porcine lungs. Local areas of interest were imaged with a pixel size of 100 µm, yielding a high-resolution depiction of anatomical hallmarks of healthy lungs and artificial lung nodules...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Haiyan Yu, Sihao Xia, Chenxi Wei, Yuwei Mao, Daniel Larsson, Xianghui Xiao, Piero Pianetta, Young Sang Yu, Yijin Liu
Novel developments in X-ray sources, optics and detectors have significantly advanced the capability of X-ray microscopy at the nanoscale. Depending on the imaging modality and the photon energy, state-of-the-art X-ray microscopes are routinely operated at a spatial resolution of tens of nanometres for hard X-rays or ∼10 nm for soft X-rays. The improvement in spatial resolution, however, has led to challenges in the tomographic reconstruction due to the fact that the imperfections of the mechanical system become clearly detectable in the projection images...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Amane Kobayashi, Yuki Takayama, Koji Okajima, Mao Oide, Takahiro Yamamoto, Yuki Sekiguchi, Tomotaka Oroguchi, Masayoshi Nakasako, Yoshiki Kohmura, Masaki Yamamoto, Takahiko Hoshi, Yasufumi Torizuka
X-ray diffraction imaging is a technique for visualizing the structure of biological cells. In X-ray diffraction imaging experiments using synchrotron radiation, cryogenic conditions are necessary in order to reduce radiation damage in the biological cells. Frozen-hydrated biological specimens kept at cryogenic temperatures are also free from drying and bubbling, which occurs in wet specimens under vacuum conditions. In a previous study, the diffraction apparatus KOTOBUKI-1 [Nakasako et al. (2013), Rev. Sci...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Zhijun Chi, Yingchao Du, Lixin Yan, Dong Wang, Hongze Zhang, Wenhui Huang, Chuanxiang Tang
Unlike large-scale and expensive synchrotron radiation facilities, the Thomson scattering X-ray source can provide quasi-monochromatic, energy-tunable and high-brightness X-ray pulses with a small footprint and moderate cost, making it an excellent candidate for dual-energy and multi-energy imaging at laboratories and hospitals. Here, the first feasibility study on dual-energy computed tomography (CT) based on this type of light source is reported, and the effective atomic number and electron-density distribution of a standard phantom consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene, water and aluminium is derived...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Catalina Jiménez, Marlen Paeplow, Paul H Kamm, Tillmann R Neu, Manuela Klaus, Guido Wagener, John Banhart, Christoph Genzel, Francisco García-Moreno
High-speed X-ray imaging in two dimensions (radioscopy) and three dimensions (tomography) is combined with fast X-ray diffraction in a new experimental setup at the synchrotron radiation source BESSY II. It allows for in situ studies of time-dependent phenomena in complex systems. As a first application, the foaming process of an aluminium alloy was studied in three different experiments. Radioscopy, optical expansion measurements and diffraction were used to correlate the change of foam morphology to the various phases formed during heating of an AlMg15Cu10 alloy to 620°C in the first experiment...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Andrew M Crawford, Nicole J Sylvain, Huishu Hou, Mark J Hackett, M Jake Pushie, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George, Michael E Kelly
Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging enables visualization and quantification of microscopic distributions of elements. This versatile technique has matured to the point where it is used in a wide range of research fields. The method can be used to quantitate the levels of different elements in the image on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Two approaches to X-ray fluorescence image analysis are commonly used, namely, (i) integrative analysis, or window binning, which simply sums the numbers of all photons detected within a specific energy region of interest; and (ii) parametric analysis, or fitting, in which emission spectra are represented by the sum of parameters representing a series of peaks and other contributing factors...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Gustavo José Querino de Vasconcelos, Eduardo Xavier Miqueles, Gabriel Schubert Ruiz Costa
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique intended to obtain the internal structure and three-dimensional representation of a sample. In general, parallel-beam CT reconstruction algorithms require a precise angular alignment and knowledge of the exact axis of rotation position. Highly brilliant X-ray sources with ever-increasing data-acquisition rates demand optimized alignment techniques to avoid compromising in situ data analysis. This paper presents a method to automatically align the angular orientation and linear position of the rotation axis in a tomography setup, correlating image features from different X-ray projections...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jae Kun Jeon, Jong Ki Kim
The emission of fluorescent X-rays and low-energy electrons by mid-/high-Z nanoparticles upon irradiation with either X-ray photons or high-energy ion beams is referred to as the nanoradiator effect (NRE). A track analysis of NRE was performed using reactive oxygen species (ROS) gels, to which macrophages containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were attached, together with single-cell irradiation of the intracellular nanoparticles from a microbeam of synchrotron X-rays, and the range and distribution of ^\bulletOH and O2 ^{ \bullet - } produced were compared with those of the Fe-nanoradiator by magnetite nanoparticles (FeONP, Fe3 O4 )...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Lin Tang, Jianbin Zhou, Fang Fang, Jie Yu, Xu Hong, Xianli Liao, Chuanwei Zhou, Songke Yu
Facing the technical problem of pulse distortion caused by frequent resetting in the latest high-performance silicon drift detectors, which work under high-counting-rate conditions, a method has been used to remove false peaks in order to obtain a precise X-ray spectrum, the essence of which eliminates distorted pulses. Aiming at solving the problem of counting-loss generated by eliminating distorted pulses, this paper proposes an improved method of pulse repairing. A 238 Pu source with activity of 10 mCi was used as the measurement object, and the energy spectrum obtained by the pulse repairing method was compared with that obtained by the pulse elimination method...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
T Zinn, A Homs, L Sharpnack, G Tinti, E Fröjdh, P A Douissard, M Kocsis, J Möller, Y Chushkin, T Narayanan
Successful implementation of the single-photon-counting Eiger 500k pixel array detector for sub-millisecond X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements in the ultra-small-angle scattering region is reported. The performance is demonstrated by measuring the dynamics of dilute silica colloids in aqueous solvents when the detector is operated at different counter depths, 4, 8 and 12 bit. In the fastest mode involving 4 bit parallel readout, a stable frame rate of 22 kHz is obtained that enabled measurement of intensity-intensity autocorrelation functions with good statistics down to the 50 µs range for a sample with sufficient scattering power...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
G Agostini, D Meira, M Monte, H Vitoux, A Iglesias-Juez, M Fernández-García, O Mathon, F Meunier, G Berruyer, F Perrin, S Pasternak, T Mairs, S Pascarelli, B Gorges
The combination of complementary techniques in the characterization of catalysts under working conditions is a very powerful tool for an accurate and in-depth comprehension of the system investigated. In particular, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and mass spectroscopy (MS) is a powerful combination since XAS characterizes the main elements of the catalytic system (selecting the absorption edge) and DRIFTS monitors surface adsorbates while MS enables product identification and quantification...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jörg Prietzel, Wantana Klysubun
Phosphorus (P) K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of orthophosphate (oPO4 ) bound to soil FeIII minerals (e.g. ferrihydrite, goethite) show a pre-edge signal at 2148-2152 eV. It is unknown whether organic P bound to FeIII oxyhydroxides also show this feature. Otherwise, Fe-bound soil P may be underestimated by P K-edge XANES spectroscopy, because a large portion of Fe oxyhydroxide-bound P in soils is organic P. K-edge XANES spectra were obtained for different organic P compounds present in soils [inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] after sorption to ferrihydrite or goethite and compared with spectra of oPO4 adsorbed to these minerals...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
J P Kappler, E Otero, W Li, L Joly, G Schmerber, B Muller, F Scheurer, F Leduc, B Gobaut, L Poggini, G Serrano, F Choueikani, E Lhotel, A Cornia, R Sessoli, M Mannini, M A Arrio, Ph Sainctavit, P Ohresser
A new ultralow-temperature setup dedicated to soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments is described. Two experiments, performed on the DEIMOS beamline (SOLEIL synchrotron), demonstrate the outstanding performance of this new platform in terms of the lowest achievable temperature under X-ray irradiation (T = 220 mK), the precision in controlling the temperature during measurements as well as the speed of the cooling-down and warming-up procedures. Moreover, owing to the new design of the setup, the eddy-current power is strongly reduced, allowing fast scanning of the magnetic field in XMCD experiments; these performances lead to a powerful device for X-ray spectroscopies on synchrotron-radiation beamlines facilities...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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