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Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

Xianchao Cheng, Lin Zhang
Multilayer optical elements for hard X-rays are an attractive alternative to crystals whenever high photon flux and moderate energy resolution are required. Prediction of the temperature, strain and stress distribution in the multilayer optics is essential in designing the cooling scheme and optimizing geometrical parameters for multilayer optics. The finite-element analysis (FEA) model of the multilayer optics is a well established tool for doing so. Multilayers used in X-ray optics typically consist of hundreds of periods of two types of materials...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Wantana Klysubun, Pinit Kidkhunthod, Pongjakr Tarawarakarn, Panidtha Sombunchoo, Chanapa Kongmark, Sukit Limpijumnong, Saroj Rujirawat, Rattikorn Yimnirun, Gamolwan Tumcharern, Kajornsak Faungnawakij
The SUT-NANOTEC-SLRI beamline was constructed in 2012 as the flagship of the SUT-NANOTEC-SLRI Joint Research Facility for Synchrotron Utilization, co-established by Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC) and Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI). It is an intermediate-energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamline at SLRI. The beamline delivers an unfocused monochromatic X-ray beam of tunable photon energy (1.25-10 keV). The maximum normal incident beam size is 13 mm (width) × 1 mm (height) with a photon flux of 3 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(10) photons s(-1) (100 mA)(-1) varying across photon energies...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Xiaodong Li, Hui Li, Pengshan Li, Rui Li, Jing Liu, Yanchun Li, Weiran Cui
Information on the structural evolution of materials under high pressure is of great importance for understanding the properties of materials exhibited under high pressure. High-pressure powder diffraction is widely used to investigate the structure evolution of materials at such pressure. Unfortunately, powder diffraction data are usually insufficient for retrieving the atomic structures, with high-pressure single-crystal diffraction being more desirable for such a purpose. Here, a high-pressure single-crystal diffraction experimental system developed recently at beamline 4W2 of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is reported...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Cheolwoong Lim, Huixiao Kang, Vincent De Andrade, Francesco De Carlo, Likun Zhu
The electrode of Li-ion batteries is required to be chemically and mechanically stable in the electrolyte environment for in situ monitoring by transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). Evidence has shown that continuous irradiation has an impact on the microstructure and the electrochemical performance of the electrode. To identify the root cause of the radiation damage, a wire-shaped electrode is soaked in an electrolyte in a quartz capillary and monitored using TXM under hard X-ray illumination. The results show that expansion of the carbon-binder matrix by the accumulated X-ray dose is the key factor of radiation damage...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
R F C Vescovi, M B Cardoso, E X Miqueles
A hybrid method of stitching X-ray computed tomography (CT) datasets is proposed and the feasibility to apply the scheme in a synchrotron tomography beamline with micrometre resolution is shown. The proposed method enables the field of view of the system to be extended while spatial resolution and experimental setup remain unchanged. The approach relies on taking full tomographic datasets at different positions in a mosaic array and registering the frames using Fourier phase correlation and a residue-based correlation...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
P Deman, S Tan, G Belev, N Samadi, M Martinson, D Chapman, N L Ford
In this study, contrast-enhanced X-ray tomographic imaging for monitoring and quantifying respiratory disease in preclinical rodent models is proposed. A K-edge imaging method has been developed at the Canadian Light Source to very accurately obtain measurements of the concentration of iodinated contrast agent in the pulmonary vasculature and inhaled xenon in the airspaces of rats. To compare the iodine and xenon concentration maps, a scout projection image was acquired to define the region of interest within the thorax for imaging and to ensure the same locations were imaged in each K-edge subtraction (KES) acquisition...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Shengqi Chu, Lirong Zheng, Pengfei An, Hui Gong, Tiandou Hu, Yaning Xie, Jing Zhang
A new quick-scanning X-ray absorption fine-structure (QXAFS) system has been established on beamline 1W1B at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. As an independent device, the QXAFS system can be employed by other beamlines equipped with a double-crystal monochromator to carry out quick energy scans and data acquisition. Both continuous-scan and trapezoidal-scan modes are available in this system to satisfy the time scale from subsecond (in the X-ray absorption near-edge structure region) to 1 min...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Hao Wang, Can Yu, Xu Wei, Zhenhua Gao, Guang Lei Xu, Da Rui Sun, Zhenjie Li, Yangfan Zhou, Qiu Ju Li, Bing Bing Zhang, Jin Qiang Xu, Lin Wang, Yan Zhang, Ying Lei Tan, Ye Tao
A new setup and commissioning of transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy are described, based on the high-repetition-rate laser pump/X-ray probe method, at the 1W2B wiggler beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A high-repetition-rate and high-power laser is incorporated into the setup with in-house-built avalanche photodiodes as detectors. A simple acquisition scheme was applied to obtain laser-on and laser-off signals simultaneously. The capability of picosecond transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurement was demonstrated for a photo-induced spin-crossover iron complex in 6 mM solution with 155 kHz repetition rate...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Y Friedman, I Nowik, I Felner, J M Steiner, E Yudkin, S Livshitz, H C Wille, G Wortmann, A I Chumakov
New results, additional techniques and know-how acquired, developed and employed in a recent HC-1898 experiment at the Nuclear Resonance Beamline ID18 of ESRF are presented, in the quest to explore the acceleration effect on time dilation. Using the specially modified Synchrotron Mössbauer Source and KB-optics together with a rotating single-line semicircular Mössbauer absorber on the rim of a specially designed rotating disk, the aim was to measure the relative spectral shift between the spectra of two states when the acceleration of the absorber is anti-parallel and parallel to the source...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Akinobu Yamaguchi, Takao Fukuoka, Iukuo Okada, Mari Ishihara, Ikuya Sakurai, Yuichi Utsumi
X-ray radiolysis of a Cu(CH3COO)2 solution was observed to produce caltrop-shaped particles of cupric oxide (CuO, Cu2O), which were characterized using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectrometry. X-ray irradiation from a synchrotron source drove the room-temperature synthesis of submicrometer- and micrometer-scale cupric oxide caltrop particles from an aqueous Cu(CH3COO)2 solution spiked with ethanol. The size of the caltrop particles depended on the ratio of ethanol in the stock solution and the surface of the substrate...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
D C F Wieland, T Zander, V M Garamus, C Krywka, A Dedinaite, P Claesson, R Willumeit-Römer
A newly developed high-pressure rheometer for in situ X-ray scattering experiments is described. A commercial rheometer was modified in such a way that X-ray scattering experiments can be performed under different pressures and shear. First experiments were carried out on hyaluronan, a ubiquitous biopolymer that is important for different functions in the body such as articular joint lubrication. The data hint at a decreased electrostatic interaction at higher pressure, presumably due to the increase of the dielectric constant of water by 3% and the decrease of the free volume at 300 bar...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
V B Mykhaylyk, A Wagner, H Kraus
Temperature is a very important parameter when aiming to minimize radiation damage to biological samples during experiments that utilize intense ionizing radiation. A novel technique for remote, non-contact, in situ monitoring of the protein crystal temperature has been developed for the new I23 beamline at the Diamond Light Source, a facility dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) with long-wavelength X-rays. The temperature is derived from the temperature-dependent decay time constant of luminescence from a minuscule scintillation sensor (<0...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Luca Rebuffi, Manuel Sánchez Del Río, Edoardo Busetto, Paolo Scardi
A Monte Carlo algorithm has been developed to calculate the instrumental profile function of a powder diffraction synchrotron beamline. Realistic models of all optical elements are implemented in a ray-tracing software. The proposed approach and the emerging paradigm have been investigated and verified for several existing X-ray powder diffraction beamlines. The results, which can be extended to further facilities, show a new and general way of assessing the contribution of instrumental broadening to synchrotron radiation data, based on ab initio simulations...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Ioana T Nistea, Simon G Alcock, Paw Kristiansen, Adam Young
Actively bent X-ray mirrors are important components of many synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser beamlines. A high-quality optical surface and good bending performance are essential to ensure that the X-ray beam is accurately focused. Two elliptically bent X-ray mirror systems from FMB Oxford were characterized in the optical metrology laboratory at Diamond Light Source. A comparison of Diamond-NOM slope profilometry and finite-element analysis is presented to investigate how the 900 mm-long mirrors sag under gravity, and how this deformation can be adequately compensated using a single, spring-loaded compensator...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
V G Kohn
A new definition of the effective aperture of the X-ray compound refractive lens (CRL) is proposed. Both linear (one-dimensional) and circular (two-dimensional) CRLs are considered. It is shown that for a strongly absorbing CRL the real aperture does not influence the focusing properties and the effective aperture is determined by absorption. However, there are three ways to determine the effective aperture in terms of transparent CRLs. In the papers by Kohn [(2002). JETP Lett. 76, 600-603; (2003). J. Exp. Theor...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
M Calvi, C Camenzuli, E Prat, Th Schmidt
Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jianpeng Liu, Xin Li, Shuo Chen, Sichao Zhang, Shanshan Xie, Chen Xu, Yifang Chen, Biao Deng, Chenwen Mao
In the development of full-field transmission X-ray microscopy for basic study in science and technology, a condenser capable of providing intense illumination with high uniformity and stability on tested specimens in order to achieve high-quality images is essential. The latest design of a square-shaped condenser based on diffractive gratings has demonstrated promising uniformity in illumination. This paper describes in more detail the development of such a beam shaper for hard X-rays at 10 keV with regard to its design, manufacture and optical characterization...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Akihisa Takeuchi, Kentaro Uesugi, Yoshio Suzuki, Seiichi Itabashi, Masatoshi Oda
Fresnel zone plates with apodized apertures [apodization FZPs (A-FZPs)] have been developed to realise Gaussian beam optics in the hard X-ray region. The designed zone depth of A-FZPs gradually decreases from the center to peripheral regions. Such a zone structure forms a Gaussian-like smooth-shouldered aperture function which optically behaves as an apodization filter and produces a Gaussian-like focusing spot profile. Optical properties of two types of A-FZP, i.e. a circular type and a one-dimensional type, have been evaluated by using a microbeam knife-edge scan test, and have been carefully compared with those of normal FZP optics...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
A Baud, L Aymé, F Gonnet, I Salard, Y Gohon, P Jolivet, K Brodolin, P Da Silva, A Giuliani, B Sclavi, T Chardot, P Mercère, P Roblin, R Daniel
Synchrotron X-ray footprinting complements the techniques commonly used to define the structure of molecules such as crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. It is remarkably useful in probing the structure and interactions of proteins with lipids, nucleic acids or with other proteins in solution, often better reflecting the in vivo state dynamics. To date, most X-ray footprinting studies have been carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source, USA, and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Harry Westfahl, Sérgio A Lordano Luiz, Bernd C Meyer, Florian Meneau
In this work the coherence properties of the synchrotron radiation beam from an X-ray undulator in a fourth-generation storage ring are analyzed. A slightly focused X-ray beam is simulated using a wavefront propagation through a non-redundant array of slits and the mutual coherence function is directly obtained and compared with the Gaussian-Schell approximation. The numerical wave propagation and the approximate analytical approaches are shown to agree qualitatively, and it is also shown that, when the coherent fraction is selected by a finite aperture before the focusing element, even achromatic focusing systems like total reflection mirrors become slightly chromatic...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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