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Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

Minas K Balyan
Formulae in the paper by Balyan (2015) [J. Synchrotron Rad. 22, 1410-1418] are corrected.
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Mario Ulises Delgado-Jaime, Kaili Zhang, Josh Vura-Weis, Frank M F de Groot
Two electronic structure descriptions, one based on orbitals and the other based on term symbols, have been implemented in a new Matlab-based program, CTM4DOC. The program includes a graphical user interface that allows the user to explore the dependence of details of electronic structure in transition metal systems, both in the ground and core-hole excited states, on intra-atomic electron-electron, crystal-field and charge-transfer interactions. The program can also track the evolution of electronic structure features as the crystal-field parameters are systematically varied, generating Tanabe-Sugano-type diagrams...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Matthias Vogelgesang, Tomas Farago, Thilo F Morgeneyer, Lukas Helfen, Tomy Dos Santos Rolo, Anton Myagotin, Tilo Baumbach
Real-time processing of X-ray image data acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities allows for smart high-speed experiments. This includes workflows covering parameterized and image-based feedback-driven control up to the final storage of raw and processed data. Nevertheless, there is presently no system that supports an efficient construction of such experiment workflows in a scalable way. Thus, here an architecture based on a high-level control system that manages low-level data acquisition, data processing and device changes is described...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Chris Nicklin, Tom Arnold, Jonathan Rawle, Adam Warne
Beamline I07 at Diamond Light Source is dedicated to the study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces for a wide range of sample types, from soft matter to ultrahigh vacuum. The beamline operates in the energy range 8-30 keV and has two endstations. The first houses a 2+3 diffractometer, which acts as a versatile platform for grazing-incidence techniques including surface X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence small- (and wide-) angle X-ray scattering, X-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Wonsuk Cha, Wenjun Liu, Ross Harder, Ruqing Xu, Paul H Fuoss, Stephan O Hruszkewycz
A method is presented to simplify Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging studies of complex heterogeneous crystalline materials with a two-stage screening/imaging process that utilizes polychromatic and monochromatic coherent X-rays and is compatible with in situ sample environments. Coherent white-beam diffraction is used to identify an individual crystal particle or grain that displays desired properties within a larger population. A three-dimensional reciprocal-space map suitable for diffraction imaging is then measured for the Bragg peak of interest using a monochromatic beam energy scan that requires no sample motion, thus simplifying in situ chamber design...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Ik Hwan Kwon, Jun Lim, Chung Ki Hong
An alignment method for correction of the axial and radial runout errors of the rotation stage in X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography has been developed. Only intensity information was used, without extra hardware or complicated calculation. Notably, the method, as demonstrated herein, can utilize the halo artifact to determine displacement.
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jih Young Yuh, Shang Wei Lin, Liang Jen Huang, Long Life Lee
A digital autocollimator of resolution 0.1 µrad (0.02 arcsec) serves as a handy correction tool for calibrating the angular uncertainty during angular and lateral movements of gratings inside a monochromator chamber under ultra-high vacuum. The photon energy dispersed from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to the soft X-ray region of the synchrotron beamline at the Taiwan Light Source was monitored using molecular ionization spectra at high resolution as energy references that correlate with the fine angular steps during grating rotation...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
M Kafi, A Salar Elahi, M Ghoranneviss, M R Ghanbari, M K Salem
In a tokamak with a toroidal electric field, electrons that exceed the critical velocity are freely accelerated and can reach very high energies. These so-called `runaway electrons' can cause severe damage to the vacuum vessel and are a dangerous source of hard X-rays. Here the effect of toroidal electric and magnetic field changes on the characteristics of runaway electrons is reported. A possible technique for runaways diagnosis is the detection of hard X-ray radiation; for this purpose, a scintillator (NaI) was used...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Hai Tan, Dadong Wang, Rongxin Li, Changming Sun, Ryan Lagerstrom, You He, Yanling Xue, Tiqiao Xiao
The quantification of micro-vasculatures is important for the analysis of angiogenesis on which the detection of tumor growth or hepatic fibrosis depends. Synchrotron-based X-ray computed micro-tomography (SR-µCT) allows rapid acquisition of micro-vasculature images at micrometer-scale spatial resolution. Through skeletonization, the statistical features of the micro-vasculature can be extracted from the skeleton of the micro-vasculatures. Thinning is a widely used algorithm to produce the vascular skeleton in medical research...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jonathan Logan, Ross Harder, Luxi Li, Daniel Haskel, Pice Chen, Robert Winarski, Peter Fuesz, Deborah Schlagel, David Vine, Christa Benson, Ian McNulty
Recent progress in the development of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, a new technique for simultaneous three-dimensional imaging of strain and magnetization at the nanoscale, is reported. This progress includes the installation of a diamond X-ray phase retarder at beamline 34-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the phase retarder for tuning X-ray polarization is demonstrated with temperature-dependent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on a gadolinium foil in transmission and on a Gd5Si2Ge2 crystal in diffraction geometry with a partially coherent, focused X-ray beam...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Maite Ruiz-Yaniz, Irene Zanette, Adrian Sarapata, Lorenz Birnbacher, Mathias Marschner, Michael Chabior, Margie Olbinado, Franz Pfeiffer, Alexander Rack
X-ray phase-contrast imaging is an effective approach to drastically increase the contrast and sensitivity of microtomographic techniques. Numerous approaches to depict the real part of the complex-valued refractive index of a specimen are nowadays available. A comparative study using experimental data from grating-based interferometry and propagation-based phase contrast combined with single-distance phase retrieval applied to a non-homogeneous sample is presented (acquired at beamline ID19-ESRF). It is shown that grating-based interferometry can handle density gradients in a superior manner...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Yunyun Chen, Carlos Sanchez, Yuan Yue, Jorge M González, Dilworth Y Parkinson, Hong Liang
Nanomaterials are being used in medicine, manufacturing and consumer products, but their effects on organisms and the environment are not well understood because of the difficulty in detecting them. Here dual-energy X-ray K-edge subtraction was used to track two-dimensional yttrium oxide nanoparticles (which can be found in such household objects as color televisions) in adult mealworms (Tenebrio molitor). The insects ingested nanoparticle-infused feed for different time periods, up to 24 h, and the nanoparticles could then be identified at several locations in the insects' head, thorax and abdomen, mostly within the digestive tract...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jae Kun Jeon, Sung Mi Han, Jong Ki Kim
Bursts of emissions of low-energy electrons, including interatomic Coulomb decay electrons and Auger electrons (0-1000 eV), as well as X-ray fluorescence produced by irradiation of large-Z element nanoparticles by either X-ray photons or high-energy ion beams, is referred to as the nanoradiator effect. In therapeutic applications, this effect can damage pathological tissues that selectively take up the nanoparticles. Herein, a new nanoradiator dosimetry method is presented that uses probes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) incorporated into three-dimensional gels, on which macrophages containing iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are attached...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Pauline Fournier, Iwan Cornelius, Mattia Donzelli, Herwig Requardt, Christian Nemoz, Marco Petasecca, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Anatoly Rosenfeld, Michael Lerch
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel irradiation technique for brain tumours treatment currently under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The technique is based on the spatial fractionation of a highly brilliant synchrotron X-ray beam into an array of microbeams using a multi-slit collimator (MSC). After promising pre-clinical results, veterinary trials have recently commenced requiring the need for dedicated quality assurance (QA) procedures. The quality of MRT treatment demands reproducible and precise spatial fractionation of the incoming synchrotron beam...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Marcin Sikorski, Yiping Feng, Sanghoon Song, Diling Zhu, Gabriella Carini, Sven Herrmann, Kurtis Nishimura, Philip Hart, Aymeric Robert
A prototype ePix100 detector was used in small-angle scattering geometry to capture speckle patterns from a static sample using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) hard X-ray free-electron laser at 8.34 keV. The average number of detected photons per pixel per pulse was varied over three orders of magnitude from about 23 down to 0.01 to test the detector performance. At high average photon count rates, the speckle contrast was evaluated by analyzing the probability distribution of the pixel counts at a constant scattering vector for single frames...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
G Schiwietz, D Kühn, A Föhlisch, K Holldack, T Kachel, N Pontius
A comprehensive investigation of the emission characteristics for electrons induced by X-rays of a few hundred eV at grazing-incidence angles on an atomically clean Cu(111) sample during laser excitation is presented. Electron energy spectra due to intense infrared laser irradiation are investigated at the BESSY II slicing facility. Furthermore, the influence of the corresponding high degree of target excitation (high peak current of photoemission) on the properties of Auger and photoelectrons liberated by a probe X-ray beam is investigated in time-resolved pump and probe measurements...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Michael W M Jones, Nicholas W Phillips, Grant A van Riessen, Brian Abbey, David J Vine, Youssef S G Nashed, Stephen T Mudie, Nader Afshar, Robin Kirkham, Bo Chen, Eugeniu Balaur, Martin D de Jonge
Owing to its extreme sensitivity, quantitative mapping of elemental distributions via X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) has become a key microanalytical technique. The recent realisation of scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy (SXDM) meanwhile provides an avenue for quantitative super-resolved ultra-structural visualization. The similarity of their experimental geometries indicates excellent prospects for simultaneous acquisition. Here, in both step- and fly-scanning modes, robust, simultaneous XFM-SXDM is demonstrated...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Christian Erny, Christoph Peter Hauri
The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Elena Eggl, Martin Dierolf, Klaus Achterhold, Christoph Jud, Benedikt Günther, Eva Braig, Bernhard Gleich, Franz Pfeiffer
While large-scale synchrotron sources provide a highly brilliant monochromatic X-ray beam, these X-ray sources are expensive in terms of installation and maintenance, and require large amounts of space due to the size of storage rings for GeV electrons. On the other hand, laboratory X-ray tube sources can easily be implemented in laboratories or hospitals with comparatively little cost, but their performance features a lower brilliance and a polychromatic spectrum creates problems with beam hardening artifacts for imaging experiments...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Yogesh Kashyap, Hongchang Wang, Kawal Sawhney
A portable device for in situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors based on the near-field speckle scanning technique has been developed. Ultra-high angular sensitivity is achieved by scanning a piece of abrasive paper or filter membrane in the X-ray beam. In addition to the compact setup and ease of implementation, a user-friendly graphical user interface has been developed to ensure that optimizing active X-ray mirrors is simple and fast. The functionality and feasibility of this device have been demonstrated by characterizing and optimizing X-ray mirrors...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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