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Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

Giorgio Margaritondo
A new elementary model of the bending magnet synchrotron radiation is presented, with minimal mathematical formalism. The model explains features not justified by other simplified approaches; in particular, it brings to light the key role of the directional Doppler effect.
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Ronald J Pandolfi, Daniel B Allan, Elke Arenholz, Luis Barroso-Luque, Stuart I Campbell, Thomas A Caswell, Austin Blair, Francesco De Carlo, Sean Fackler, Amanda P Fournier, Guillaume Freychet, Masafumi Fukuto, Dogˇa Gürsoy, Zhang Jiang, Harinarayan Krishnan, Dinesh Kumar, R Joseph Kline, Ruipeng Li, Christopher Liman, Stefano Marchesini, Apurva Mehta, Alpha T N'Diaye, Dilworth Y Parkinson, Holden Parks, Lenson A Pellouchoud, Talita Perciano, Fang Ren, Shreya Sahoo, Joseph Strzalka, Daniel Sunday, Christopher J Tassone, Daniela Ushizima, Singanallur Venkatakrishnan, Kevin G Yager, Peter Zwart, James A Sethian, Alexander Hexemer
Xi-cam is an extensible platform for data management, analysis and visualization. Xi-cam aims to provide a flexible and extensible approach to synchrotron data treatment as a solution to rising demands for high-volume/high-throughput processing pipelines. The core of Xi-cam is an extensible plugin-based graphical user interface platform which provides users with an interactive interface to processing algorithms. Plugins are available for SAXS/WAXS/GISAXS/GIWAXS, tomography and NEXAFS data. With Xi-cam's `advanced' mode, data processing steps are designed as a graph-based workflow, which can be executed live, locally or remotely...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Andrew A McCarthy, Ray Barrett, Antonia Beteva, Hugo Caserotto, Fabien Dobias, Franck Felisaz, Thierry Giraud, Matias Guijarro, Robert Janocha, Akim Khadrouche, Mario Lentini, Gordon A Leonard, Marcos Lopez Marrero, Stephanie Malbet-Monaco, Sean McSweeney, Didier Nurizzo, Gergely Papp, Christopher Rossi, Jeremy Sinoir, Clement Sorez, John Surr, Olof Svensson, Ulrich Zander, Florent Cipriani, Pascal Theveneau, Christoph Mueller-Dieckmann
ID30B is an undulator-based high-intensity, energy-tuneable (6.0-20 keV) and variable-focus (20-200 µm in diameter) macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamline at the ESRF. It was the last of the ESRF Structural Biology Group's beamlines to be constructed and commissioned as part of the ESRF's Phase I Upgrade Program and has been in user operation since June 2015. Both a modified microdiffractometer (MD2S) incorporating an in situ plate screening capability and a new flexible sample changer (the FlexHCD) were specifically developed for ID30B...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Pavle Juranić, Jens Rehanek, Christopher A Arrell, Claude Pradervand, Rasmus Ischebeck, Christian Erny, Peter Heimgartner, Ishkhan Gorgisyan, Vincent Thominet, Kai Tiedtke, Andrey Sorokin, Rolf Follath, Mikako Makita, Gediminas Seniutinas, Christian David, Christopher J Milne, Henrik Lemke, Milan Radovic, Christoph P Hauri, Luc Patthey
The SwissFEL Aramis beamline, covering the photon energies between 1.77 keV and 12.7 keV, features a suite of online photon diagnostics tools to help both users and FEL operators in analysing data and optimizing experimental and beamline performance. Scientists will be able to obtain information about the flux, spectrum, position, pulse length, and arrival time jitter versus the experimental laser for every photon pulse, with further information about beam shape and size available through the use of destructive screens...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Yuki Takayama, Yuki Takami, Keizo Fukuda, Takamasa Miyagawa, Yasushi Kagoshima
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a promising technique for non-destructive structural analysis of micrometre-sized non-crystalline samples at nanometre resolutions. This article describes an atmospheric CXDI system developed at SPring-8 Hyogo beamline BL24XU for in situ structural analysis and designed for experiments at a photon energy of 8 keV. This relatively high X-ray energy enables experiments to be conducted under ambient atmospheric conditions, which is advantageous for the visualization of samples in native states...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Zhao Wu, Kun Gao, Zhili Wang, Chenxi Wei, Faiz Wali, Guibin Zan, Wenbin Wei, Peiping Zhu, Yangchao Tian
Grating-based X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging has attracted a great amount of attention and has been considered as a potential imaging method in clinical medicine because of its compatibility with the traditional X-ray tube source and the possibility of a large field of view. Moreover, phase-contrast computed tomography provides three-dimensional phase-contrast visualization. Generally, two-dimensional information retrieval performed on every projection is required prior to three-dimensional reconstruction in phase-contrast computed tomography...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Simone Sala, Venkata S C Kuppili, Stefanos Chalkidis, Darren J Batey, Xiaowen Shi, Christoph Rau, Pierre Thibault
The success of ptychography and other imaging experiments at third-generation X-ray sources is apparent from their increasingly widespread application and the improving quality of the images they produce both for resolution and contrast and in terms of relaxation of experimental constraints. The wider availability of highly coherent X-rays stimulates the development of several complementary techniques which have seen limited mutual integration in recent years. This paper presents a framework in which some of the established imaging techniques - with particular regard for ptychography - are flexibly applied to tackle the variable requirements occurring at typical synchrotron experiments...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Zhili Wang, Dalin Liu, Jin Zhang, Wanxia Huang, Qingxi Yuan, Kun Gao, Zhao Wu
A three-image algorithm is proposed in order to retrieve the absorption, refraction and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) properties of the object in X-ray analyzer-based imaging. Based on the Gaussian fitting to the rocking curve, the novel algorithm is theoretically derived and presented, and validated by synchrotron radiation experiments. Compared with multiple-image radiography, this algorithm only requires a minimum of three intensity measurements, and is therefore advantageous in terms of simplified acquisition procedure and reduced data collection times, which are especially important for specific applications such as in vivo imaging and phase tomography...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jan David Nicolas, Johannes Hagemann, Michael Sprung, Tim Salditt
For almost half a century, optical tweezers have successfully been used to micromanipulate micrometre and sub-micrometre-sized particles. However, in recent years it has been shown experimentally that, compared with single-beam traps, the use of two opposing and divergent laser beams can be more suitable in studying the elastic properties of biological cells and vesicles. Such a configuration is termed an optical stretcher due to its capability of applying high deforming forces on biological objects such as cells...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
M Rauwolf, A Turyanskaya, D Ingerle, N Szoboszlai, I Pape, A W Malandain, O J L Fox, L Hahn, K J S Sawhney, C Streli
An X-ray fluorescence setup has been tested on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron with two different excitation energies (12.7 and 17 keV). This setup allows the scanning of thin samples (thicknesses up to several micrometers) with a sub-micrometer resolution (beam size of 500 nm × 600 nm determined with a 50 µm Au wire). Sensitivities and detection limits reaching values of 249 counts s-1  fg-1 and 4 ag in 1000 s, respectively (for As Kα excited with 17 keV), are presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities of this setup...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Hongchang Wang, Biao Cai, Matthew James Pankhurst, Tunhe Zhou, Yogesh Kashyap, Robert Atwood, Nolwenn Le Gall, Peter Lee, Michael Drakopoulos, Kawal Sawhney
X-ray phase-contrast imaging can substantially enhance image contrast for weakly absorbing samples. The fabrication of dedicated optics remains a major barrier, especially in high-energy regions (i.e. over 50 keV). Here, the authors perform X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using engineered porous materials as random absorption masks, which provides an alternative solution to extend X-ray phase-contrast imaging into previously challenging higher energy regions. The authors have measured various samples to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed engineering materials...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Marko Kudrna Prašek, Mattia Pistone, Don R Baker, Nicola Sodini, Nicoletta Marinoni, Gabriele Lanzafame, Lucia Mancini
A compact and versatile induction furnace for in situ high-resolution synchrotron and laboratory hard X-ray microradiography and computed microtomography is described. The furnace can operate from 773 to 1723 K. Its programmable controller enables the user to specify multiple heating and cooling ramp rates as well as variable dwell times at fixed temperatures allowing precise control of heating and cooling rates to within 5 K. The instrument can work under a controlled atmosphere. Thanks to the circular geometry of the induction coils, the heat is homogeneously distributed in the internal volume of the graphite cell (ca...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Eirik Torbjørn Bakken Skjønsfjell, Yuriy Chushkin, Federico Zontone, Dag Werner Breiby
A major limitation to the use of coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) for imaging soft materials like polymers and biological tissue is that the radiation can cause extensive damage to the sample under investigation. In this study, CXDI has been used to monitor radiation-induced structural changes in metal-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres. Using a coherent undulator X-ray beam with 8.10 keV photon energy, 14 tomograms at a resolution of ∼30 nm were measured consecutively, which resulted in an accumulated dose of 30 GGy...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Mara Saccomano, Jonas Albers, Giuliana Tromba, Marina Dobrivojević Radmilović, Srećko Gajović, Frauke Alves, Christian Dullin
Synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRµCT) based virtual histology, in combination with dedicated ex vivo staining protocols and/or phase contrast, is an emerging technology that makes use of three-dimensional images to provide novel insights into the structure of tissue samples at microscopic resolution with short acquisition times of the order of minutes or seconds. However, the high radiation dose creates special demands on sample preparation and staining. As a result of the lack of specific staining in virtual histology, it can supplement but not replace classical histology...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Aurelio Hierro-Rodriguez, Doga Gürsoy, Charudatta Phatak, Carlos Quirós, Andrea Sorrentino, Luis Manuel Álvarez-Prado, Maria Vélez, José Ignacio Martín, José Maria Alameda, Eva Pereiro, Salvador Ferrer
The development of magnetic nanostructures for applications in spintronics requires methods capable of visualizing their magnetization. Soft X-ray magnetic imaging combined with circular magnetic dichroism allows nanostructures up to 100-300 nm in thickness to be probed with resolutions of 20-40 nm. Here a new iterative tomographic reconstruction method to extract the three-dimensional magnetization configuration from tomographic projections is presented. The vector field is reconstructed by using a modified algebraic reconstruction approach based on solving a set of linear equations in an iterative manner...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Faisal Khan, Suresh Narayanan, Roger Sersted, Nicholas Schwarz, Alec Sandy
Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is a powerful technique for characterizing the dynamic nature of complex materials over a range of time scales. XPCS has been successfully applied to study a wide range of systems. Recent developments in higher-frame-rate detectors, while aiding in the study of faster dynamical processes, creates large amounts of data that require parallel computational techniques to process in near real-time. Here, an implementation of the multi-tau and two-time autocorrelation algorithms using the Hadoop MapReduce framework for distributed computing is presented...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Tsubasa Tobase, Akira Yoshiasa, Tatsuya Hiratoko, Akihiko Nakatsuka
Pre-edge peaks in 3d transition-metal element (Sc, Ti, V, Cr and Mn) K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) spectra in AO2 (A = Ti and V), A2 O3 (A = Sc, Cr and Mn) and AO (A = Mn) are measured at various temperatures. Quantitative comparisons for the XANES spectra were investigated by using absorption intensity invariant point normalization. The energy position of the difference peak (D peak) is obtained from the difference between the low- and high-temperature XANES spectra. There are two kinds of temperature dependence for pre-edge peak intensity: rutile- and anatase-type...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Jie Cheng, Peng Dong, Bin Li, Shengli Liu, Xiangfu Wang, Yu Wang, Xing'ao Li
Sr2 IrO4 , known as the Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulator, was predicted to be an unconventional superconductor upon doping since it highly resembles the high-temperature cuprates. However, recent work pointed out an enhanced insulating behavior in the Ir-vacant Sr2 Ir1-x O4 system. In this contribution, to investigate the microscopic mechanism of its enhanced insulating behavior, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied to study the electronic structure and local structure distortion of Sr2 Ir1-x O4 . Due to the presence of Ir5+ ions, the preconceived holes are barely doped in the Ir-vacant system...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Martin A Schroer, Clement E Blanchet, Andrey Yu Gruzinov, Melissa A Gräwert, Martha E Brennich, Nelly R Hajizadeh, Cy M Jeffries, Dmitri I Svergun
Radiation damage by intense X-ray beams at modern synchrotron facilities is one of the major complications for biological small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) investigations of macromolecules in solution. To limit the damage, samples are typically measured under a laminar flow through a cell (typically a capillary) such that fresh solution is continuously exposed to the beam during measurement. The diameter of the capillary that optimizes the scattering-to-absorption ratio at a given X-ray wavelength can be calculated a priori based on fundamental physical properties...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Bridget Ingham, Nigel Kirby, Cheng Wang, Mike Brady, Alistair Carr
Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) and resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSoXS) are two related techniques that can enable element-specific structural information to be obtained. The development of iron-fortified milk products can greatly benefit from such techniques, allowing the structure of iron and other minerals (such as native calcium) within the casein micelle to be determined. Each method has advantages and disadvantages: for ASAXS, the sample preparation is straightforward, but the signal is relatively low and information about the structure of Ca is difficult to access...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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