Read by QxMD icon Read

Breeding Science

Liangzi Cao, Kazuki Hayashi, Mayumi Tokui, Masahiko Mori, Hideho Miura, Kazumitsu Onishi
[This corrects the article on p. 260 in vol. 66, PMID: 27162497.].
June 2016: Breeding Science
Toshikazu Kuranouchi, Tadashi Kumazaki, Toru Kumagai, Makoto Nakatani
Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Bettina Faehnrich, Sarah Wagner, Chlodwig Franz
Self-incompatible (SI) plants are able to form ideal mother lines for hybrid crossing in hermaphroditic plants, assuring fertilization from the desired father line. To find out suitable ways to maintain SI was the aim of this study. Among 220 plants of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita (L.) Rauschert) within six accessions SI-genotypes were selected. SI was determined as staying seedless in three flower heads per plant. Initial SI-plants formed the basic paternal generation (P1) of i) maintaining the same genotypes over six months and repeating seed set analysis (P2) and of ii) conducting crossings in three versions (SI × SI, SI × NSI (not SI evaluated plants) and NSI × SI), thereby producing the F1 population...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Masashi Yamamoto, Shingo Terakami, Norio Takada, Toshiya Yamamoto
Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of 'Osa Gold' were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Williams Esuma, Robert Sezi Kawuki, Liezel Herselman, Maryke Tine Labuschagne
Efforts are underway to develop staple crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which has afflicted the health of resource-poor people in the developing world. As a staple crop for more than 500 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, cassava enriched with provitamin A carotenoids could have a widespread nutritional impact. To this effect, 13 provitamin A clones were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in six environments to assess genotype by environment interaction (GEI) effects for total carotenoid (TCC) and dry matter content (DMC) in roots...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Mitsukazu Sakata, Mari Seno, Hiroaki Matsusaka, Kiyomi Takahashi, Yuki Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Enrique R Angeles, Toshihiro Mochizuki, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Masao Sato, Akiko Enomoto, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Hikaru Satoh, Atsushi Yoshimura
Rice bran oil is a byproduct of the milling of rice (Oryza sativa L.). It offers various health benefits and has a beneficial fatty acid composition. To increase the amount of rice bran as a sink for triacylglycerol (TAG), we developed and characterized new breeding materials with giant embryos. To induce mutants, we treated fertilized egg cells of the high-yielding cultivar 'Mizuhochikara' with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). By screening M2 seeds, we isolated four giant embryo mutant lines. Genetic analysis revealed that the causative loci in lines MGE12 and MGE13 were allelic to giant embryo (ge) on chromosome 7, and had base changes in the causal gene Os07g0603700...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Takanori Yoshikawa, Shin-Ya Tanaka, Yuuki Masumoto, Naoya Nobori, Hiroto Ishii, Ken-Ichiro Hibara, Jun-Ichi Itoh, Takatoshi Tanisaka, Shin Taketa
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth most-produced cereal in the world and is mainly utilized as animal feed and malts. Recently barley attracts considerable attentions as healthy food rich in dietary fiber. However, limited knowledge is available about developmental aspects of barley leaves. In the present study, we investigated barley narrow leafed dwarf1 (nld1) mutants, which exhibit thin leaves accompanied by short stature. Detailed histological analysis revealed that leaf marginal tissues, such as sawtooth hairs and sclerenchymatous cells, were lacked in nld1, suggesting that narrowed leaf of nld1 was attributable to the defective development of the marginal regions in the leaves...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Auchithya Dissanayaka, Tito O Rodriguez, Shaokang Di, Fan Yan, Stephen M Githiri, Felipe Rojas Rodas, Jun Abe, Ryoji Takahashi
Time to flowering and maturity in soybean is controlled by loci E1 to E5, and E7 to E9. These loci were assigned to molecular linkage groups (MLGs) except for E5. This study was conducted to map the E5 locus using F2 populations expected to segregate for E5. F2 populations were subjected to quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for days to flowering (DF) and maturity (DM). In Harosoy-E5 × Clark-e2 population, QTLs for DF and DM were found at a similar position with E2. In Harosoy × Clark-e2E5 population, QTLs for DF and DM were found in MLG D1a and B1, respectively...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Satoru Maeda, Nagao Hayashi, Takahide Sasaya, Masaki Mori
Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Yao-Wen Yang, Zi-Gang Qian, Ai-Rong Li, Chun-Xia Pu, Xiao-Li Liu, Kai-Yun Guan
Amomum tsaoko is a flexistylous ginger. Flexistyly is a unique floral mechanism promoting outcrossing, which is known only in some species of Zingiberaceae till date. This is a pioneer report on flexistyly in A. tsaoko from the aspect of fructification percentage to clarify its influence on reproduction. We observed in 2007 and 2008 that the fructification percentage of the anaflexistyled and the cataflexistyled inflorescence were 14.89 ± 10.35% and 11.31 ± 7.91% respectively, with significant difference (d...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Zhijun Tong, Bingguang Xiao, Fangchan Jiao, Dunhuang Fang, Jianmin Zeng, Xingfu Wu, Xuejun Chen, Jiankang Yang, Yongping Li
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), particularly flue-cured tobacco, is one of the most economically important nonfood crops and is also an important model system in plant biotechnology. Despite its importance, only limited molecular marker resources are available for genome analysis, genetic mapping, and breeding. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are one of the most widely-used molecular markers, having significant advantages including that they are generally co-dominant, easy to use, abundant in eukaryotic organisms, and produce highly reproducible results...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Xu Wang, Lili Zhang, Xiaochun Xu, Wei Qu, Jingfu Li, Xiangyang Xu, Aoxue Wang
In an experimental field, seed vivipary occurred in one accession of tomato rin mutant fruit at approximately 45-50 days after pollination (DAP). In this study, the possible contributory factors to this viviparous germination were investigated. Firstly, developing seeds were freshly excised from the fruit tissue every 5 days from 25-60 DAP. Germination occurred when isolated seeds were incubated on water, but was inhibited when they remained ex situ in fruit mucilage gel. The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, separate and together, on germination of developing seeds was investigated...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Ying Yang, Jiawu Zhou, Jing Li, Peng Xu, Yu Zhang, Dayun Tao
In order to know the genetic nature of hybrid sterility further, three populations, a BC4F2 population derived from Oryza nivara crossed with Yundao 1, a BC4F2 population derived from O. rufipogon crossed with Yundao 1, and a BC10F1 population derived from a cross between O. barthii and Dianjingyou 1 were developed, respectively. Three hybrid sterility QTLs, qHS-6a, qHS-6b, and qHS-6c, detected from those three populations, were mapped into the region between RM190 and RM510, RM190 and RM3414, RM190 and RM587 on chromosome 6, respectively...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Lei Zhao, Jianguo Lei, Yingjin Huang, Shan Zhu, Hongping Chen, Renliang Huang, Zhiqin Peng, Qinghua Tu, Xianhua Shen, Song Yan
To study the genetic basis of heat tolerance at anthesis, a set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from Sasanishiki (japonica ssp. heat susceptible) and Habataki (indica spp. heat tolerant) were used for analysis across three high temperature environments. Spikelet fertility (SF), daily flowering time (DFT) and pollen shedding level (PSL) under high temperature (HT) were assessed. Eleven related QTLs were detected, of which, two QTLs qSF (ht) 2 and qSF (ht) 4.2 for spikelet fertility were identified on chromosomes 2 and 4...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Tao Li, Meng Luo, Dadong Zhang, Di Wu, Lei Li, Guihua Bai
Molecular markers associated with known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for type 2 resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in bi-parental mapping population usually have more than two alleles in breeding populations. Therefore, understanding the association of each allele with FHB response is particularly important to marker-assisted enhancement of FHB resistance. In this paper, we evaluated FHB severities of 192 wheat accessions including landraces and commercial varieties in three field growing seasons, and genotyped this panel with 364 genome-wide informative molecular markers...
June 2016: Breeding Science
Kaoru Tonosaki, Kenji Osabe, Takahiro Kawanabe, Ryo Fujimoto
Inter-specific hybrids are a useful source for increasing genetic diversity. Some reproductive barriers before and/or after fertilization prevent production of hybrid plants by inter-specific crossing. Therefore, techniques to overcome the reproductive barrier have been developed, and have contributed to hybridization breeding. In recent studies, identification of molecules involved in plant reproduction has been studied to understand the mechanisms of reproductive barriers. Revealing the molecular mechanisms of reproductive barriers may allow us to overcome reproductive barriers in inter-specific crossing, and to efficiently produce inter-specific hybrids in cross-combinations that cannot be produced through artificial techniques...
June 2016: Breeding Science
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 277 in vol. 59.].
March 2016: Breeding Science
Dorota Soltys-Kalina, Jarosław Plich, Danuta Strzelczyk-Żyta, Jadwiga Śliwka, Waldemar Marczewski
Drought tolerance in plants is a complex trait involving morphological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms. Hundreds of genes underlie the response of plants to the stress. For crops, selecting cultivars that can produce economically significant yields under drought is a priority. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is considered as drought sensitive crop, although cultivar-dependent differences in tolerance have been described. Cultivar 'Katahdin' possesses many appropriate characteristics and is widely used for breeding purposes worldwide; it also has enhanced tolerance to drought stress...
March 2016: Breeding Science
Shin Kato, Yoshitake Takada, Satoshi Shimamura, Kaori Hirata, Takashi Sayama, Fumio Taguchi-Shiobara, Masao Ishimoto, Akio Kikuchi, Takeshi Nishio
Resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is imperative for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production in the Tohoku region. Molecular markers for SMV resistance were previously reported for U.S. SMV strains, but they cannot be applied because of the differences in strain classification between Japan and the U.S. A U.S. variety 'Harosoy' has been used mainly as a donor of resistance to SMV strains C and D in a Japanese breeding program, resulting in resistant varieties such as 'Fukuibuki.' Because 'Harosoy' harbors the Rsv3 gene conferring resistance to the virulent SMV strain groups, G5 through G7, it appears that the Rsv3 gene confers resistance to strains C and D...
March 2016: Breeding Science
Kiyosumi Hori, Keitaro Suzuki, Ken Iijima, Kaworu Ebana
The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits...
March 2016: Breeding Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"