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Breeding Science

Muhammad Jakir Hasan, Habibur Rahman
The oilseed crop Brassica juncea carries many desirable traits; however, resistance to clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae , is not available in this species. We are the first to report the clubroot resistant resynthesized B. juncea lines, developed through interspecific crosses between a clubroot resistant B. rapa ssp. rapifera and two susceptible B. nigra lines, and the stability of the resistance in self-pollinated generations. The interspecific nature of the resynthesized B. juncea plants was confirmed by using A- and B-genome specific SSR markers, and flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Wan-Yi Chiou, Kazuo Tsugane, Tadafumi Kawamoto, Masahiko Maekawa
To obtain a clear intact section of a ripened rice grain, which is suitable for biochemical and histological analysis, the Kawamoto method using a specific adhesive film was applied using a cryomicrotome. The longitudinal and sagittal sections were easily obtained together with the cross-section, and cell characteristics were clearly discerned in the ripened grain. It was demonstrated that the Kawamoto method is readily applicable for intact sectioning of hard tissue, including ripened grain. Intact section sampling may be useful for enzymatic analysis and transcriptomic analysis of plant tissue...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Daniel J Shea, Motoki Shimizu, Etsuko Itabashi, Naomi Miyaji, Junji Miyazaki, Kenji Osabe, Makoto Kaji, Keiichi Okazaki, Ryo Fujimoto
The genome-wide characterization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between cultivars or between inbred lines contributes to the creation of genetic markers that are important for plant breeding. Functional markers derived from polymorphisms within genes that affect phenotypic variation are especially valuable in plant breeding. Here, we report on the genome re-sequencing and analysis of the two parental inbred lines of the commercial F1 hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar "W77". Through the genome-wide identification and classification of the SNPs and indels present in each parental line, we identified about 1,500 putative non-functional genes in each parent...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Osvin Arriagada, Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Junior, Freddy Mora
We present an association analysis for seven key traits related to flowering, stem form and growth in Eucalyptus cladocalyx , a tree species suitable for low rainfall sites, using a long-term progeny trial with 49 open-pollinated maternal families in the southern Atacama Desert, Chile. The progeny trial was carried out in an arid environment with a mean annual rainfall of 152 mm. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) from a full consensus map of Eucalyptus were used for genotyping 245 individual trees. Twenty-three significant marker-trait associations were identified, explaining between 5...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Yoichiro Hoshino, Noriko Kanematsu, Masahiro Mii
Lilies ( Lilium spp.) are one of the most important floricultural crops. As most lily cultivars have originated from interspecific hybridization, they usually have complex genome composition and occasionally fail to develop normal gametes. Further improvement of lily cultivars by sexual crossing requires evaluation of gamete development and subsequent male and female fertility. Although male fertility is easily evaluated through microscopic observation after staining or by pollen culture for germination, evaluation of female fertility is difficult, because gametes develop inside an ovule within an ovary...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Shin Kato, Takashi Sayama, Masao Ishimoto, Setsuzo Yumoto, Akio Kikuchi, Takeshi Nishio
The timing of flower formation and length of the seed-filling period of indeterminate growth soybean varieties vary more than those of determinate varieties ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill). These variations have been hypothesized to affect single seed weight and its uniformity which determine the processing quality of soybean used in foods. We derived near isogenic lines (NILs) with different growth characteristics from an indeterminate line (donor parent) and three determinate lines with heavy seeds (recurrent parents), and evaluated the effects of growth habit on seed weight and its uniformity...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Jing Li, Jiawu Zhou, Peng Xu, Xianneng Deng, Wei Deng, Mingzhu He, Ying Yang, Yu Zhang, Dayun Tao
Hybrid sterility between Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima is a main reproduction barrier when transferring the favorable alleles from O. glaberrima to O. sativa and it happens due to allelic interaction at sterility loci. Neutral alleles at each locus have the potential to overcome the sterility between the two cultivated rice species. In this study, an O. sativa cultivar Dianjingyou 1 (DJY1) and its near-isogenic lines (NILs) harboring the single sterility allele S1 -glab, S19 -glab, S20 -glab, S37 -glab, S38 -glab and S39 -glab as the tested lines were crossed with O...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Kana Takehara, Kazumasa Murata, Takuya Yamaguchi, Kohei Yamaguchi, Genki Chaya, Shintaro Kido, Yukimoto Iwasaki, Hitoshi Ogiwara, Takeshi Ebitani, Kotaro Miura
High-temperature stress during the ripening stage leads to quality deterioration due to an increase in chalky grains in brown rice ( Oryza sativa L.). In a previous study, we identified a QTL for Appearance quality of brown rice 1 ( Apq1 ) using chromosome segment substitution lines of the indica cultivar 'Habataki' in the japonica cultivar 'Koshihikari' background and narrowed down the locus to a 48-kb region on chromosome 7. To verify the function and mechanisms of this QTL in grain appearance, in this study, we fine-mapped the gene and conducted high-temperature tolerance tests...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Dan Peng, Xiaofeng Tan, Lin Zhang, Deyi Yuan, Jianzhong Lin, Xuanming Liu, Yueqiao Jiang, Bo Zhou
Branching is a predominant element in the plant architecture of Brassica napus L. and represents an important determinant of seed yield. OsPAT15 ( OsDHHC1 ), a novel DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene, was reported to regulate rice plant architecture by altering the tillering. However, whether heterologous overexpression of the OsPAT15 gene from the monocot rice into the dicot B. napus L. would have the same effect on branching or seed yield is unknown. In this study, the DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene OsPAT15 was determined to have sulfur acyl transferase activity in the akr1Δ yeast mutant in a complementation experiment...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Daniel J Shea, Yuki Tomaru, Etsuko Itabashi, Yuri Nakamura, Toshio Miyazaki, Tomohiro Kakizaki, Tonu Nazmoon Naher, Motoki Shimizu, Ryo Fujimoto, Eigo Fukai, Keiichi Okazaki
Flowering time is an important agronomic trait for Brassica rapa crops, and previous breeding work in Brassica has successfully transmitted other important agronomic traits from donor species. However, there has been no previous attempts to produce hybrids replacing the original Brassica FLC alleles with alien FLC alleles. In this paper, we introduce the creation of a chromosome substitution line (CSSL) containing a homozygous introgression of Flowering Locus C from Brassica oleracea ( BoFLC2 ) into a B. rapa genomic background, and characterize the CSSL line with respect to the parental cultivars...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Atsunori Fukuda, Katsuhiko Kondo, Takashi Ikka, Toshiyuki Takai, Takanari Tanabata, Toshio Yamamoto
Canopy temperature can be a good indicator of stomatal conductance. To understand the genetic basis of phenotypic differences in stomatal conductance between average and high-yielding rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, we conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of canopy temperature. We developed reciprocal series of backcross inbred lines (BC1 F6 ) derived from a cross between the average-yielding japonica cultivar 'Koshihikari' and the high-yielding indica cultivar 'Takanari'. A stable QTL, qCTd11 (QTL for canopy temperature difference on chromosome 11) on the short arm of chromosome 11, accounted for 10...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Shingo Nakamura
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) remains a long-standing problem for the production of barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) worldwide. Grain dormancy, a key trait for the prevention of PHS, controls the timing of germination. Discovery of the causal sequence polymorphisms (CSPs) that produce naturally occurring variation in dormancy will help improve PHS tolerance. The identification of CSPs for dormancy remains difficult, especially for barley and wheat, because they are the last major cereals to have their genomes sequenced...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Xuye Du, Xin Ma, Jingzhi Min, Xiaocun Zhang, Zhenzhen Jia
A wheat- Aegilops searsii substitution line GL1402, in which chromosome 1B was substituted with 1Ss from Ae. searsii , was developed and detected using SDS-PAGE and GISH. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the HMW-GS encoded by the Glu-B1 loci of Chinese Spring was replaced by the HMW-GS encoded by the Glu-1S s loci of Ae. searsii . Glutenin macropolymer (GMP) investigation showed that GL1402 had a much higher GMP content than Chinese Spring did. A dough quality comparison of GL1402 and Chinese Spring indicated that GL1402 showed a significantly higher protein content and middle peak time (MPT), and a smaller right peak slope (RPS)...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Masaki Fujimatsu, Hirokazu Hashizume, Tetsuo Fudan, Yasushi Koma, Rena Sanetomo, Seijiro Ono, Kazuyoshi Hosaka
'Harimaru' is a new potato variety bred from a cross between 'Saikai 35' as a female parent and 'Pike' as a male parent. Marker selection was performed for 1,647 seedlings to combine resistance genes to late blight ( R1 ), Potato virus Y ( Ry chc ), Potato virus X ( Rx1 ), and golden cyst nematode ( H1 ). In total, 194 selected clones were evaluated in the field, among which the best clone was officially released as 'Harimaru'. Its yield was slightly lower than the local standard variety, 'May Queen'. However, it produces tasty potatoes, that do not become mushy with long boiling times despite its high starch content...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Takuya Wada, Osamu Yamaguchi, Masayuki Miyazaki, Katsunori Miyahara, Masafumi Ishibashi, Takeshi Aihara, Takanobu Shibuta, Takashi Inoue, Masao Tsubone, Yoshiko Toyosawa, Hikaru Satoh, Ryuuichirou Akaishi, Youichi Yoshii, Ken'ichi Ohtsubo
A new super-hard rice cultivar, 'Chikushi-kona 85', which was derived from a cross between 'Fukei 2032' and 'EM129', was developed via bulk method breeding. 'Chikushi-kona 85' showed a higher content of resistant starch than the normal non-glutinous rice cultivar, 'Nishihomare', and a higher grain yield than the first super-hard rice cultivar, 'EM10'. The amylopectin chain length of 'Chikushi-kona 85' and its progenitor line 'EM129' was longer than that of 'Nishihomare', and was similar to that of 'EM10'. This suggests that the starch property of 'Chikushi-kona 85' was inherited from 'EM129', which is a mutant line deficient in a starch branching enzyme similar to 'EM10'...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Zhigang Liu, Xiangsheng Liu, Eric J Craft, Lixing Yuan, Lingyun Cheng, Guohua Mi, Fanjun Chen
Root system architecture (RSA) plays an important role in the acquisition of mineral nutrients. Nevertheless, RSA has seldom been selected as an important agricultural trait in conventional breeding programs. Little is known about the response of RSA and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) in regards to phosphorus (P) availability between parental inbred lines and their F1 . In this study, 6 maize inbred lines and their 15 F1 generated by a diallel mating system, were used to analyze the genetic associations between RSA and PUE...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Yaping Liu, Aixia Xu, Fenghao Liang, Xueqin Yao, Yang Wang, Xia Liu, Yan Zhang, Jazira Dalelhan, Bingbing Zhang, Mengfan Qin, Zhen Huang, Lei Shaolin
Clubroot is an economically important disease affecting plants in the family Cruciferae worldwide. In this study, a collection of 50 Cruciferae accessions was screened using Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype 4 in China. Eight of these demonstrated resistance, including three Chinese cabbages, two cabbages, one radish, one kale, and one Brassica juncea . The three clubroot-resistant Chinese cabbages (1003, 1007 and 1008) were then used to transfer the clubroot resistance genes to B. napus by distant hybridization combined with embryo rescue...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Kiyomi Abe, Masao Oshima, Maiko Akasaka, Ken-Ichi Konagaya, Yoshihiko Nanasato, Ayako Okuzaki, Yojiro Taniguchi, Junichi Tanaka, Yutaka Tabei
Genomic selection is attracting attention in the field of crop breeding. To apply genomic selection effectively for autogamous (self-pollinating) crops, an efficient outcross system is desired. Since dominant male sterility is a powerful tool for easy and successive outcross of autogamous crops, we developed transgenic dominant male sterile rice ( Oryza sativa L.) using the barnase gene that is expressed by the tapetum-specific promoter BoA9 . Barnase -induced male sterile rice No. 10 (BMS10) was selected for its stable male sterility and normal growth characteristics...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Yu Zhang, Jiawu Zhou, Jing Li, Ying Yang, Peng Xu, Dayun Tao
Oryza glumaepatula originates from South America continent and contains many valuable traits, such as tolerance to abiotic stress, high yield and good cooking qualities. However, hybrid sterility severely hindered the utilization of favorable genes of O. glumaepatula by interspecific hybridization. In order to further understand the nature of hybrid sterility between O. sativa and O. glumaepatula , a near isogenic line (NIL) was developed using a japonica variety Dianjingyou 1 as the recurrent parent and an accession of O...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Ning Li, Yanxu Yin, Fei Wang, Minghua Yao
Pepper ( Capsicum ) is one of the most important vegetable and spice crops. Aphid-transmitted cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes significant damage to pepper crops across the world. The genetic basis of CMV resistance in pepper is complex, and the mechanisms underlying resistance remain largely unknown. Here, we employed a SLAF-seq approach to generate a high-density genetic map of pepper. The map spanned 1,785.46 cM, containing 12,727 markers on 12 chromosomes, with a mean marker distance of 0.16 cM between adjacent markers...
March 2018: Breeding Science
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