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Breeding Science

Xuye Du, Xin Ma, Jingzhi Min, Xiaocun Zhang, Zhenzhen Jia
A wheat- Aegilops searsii substitution line GL1402, in which chromosome 1B was substituted with 1Ss from Ae. searsii , was developed and detected using SDS-PAGE and GISH. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the HMW-GS encoded by the Glu-B1 loci of Chinese Spring was replaced by the HMW-GS encoded by the Glu-1S s loci of Ae. searsii . Glutenin macropolymer (GMP) investigation showed that GL1402 had a much higher GMP content than Chinese Spring did. A dough quality comparison of GL1402 and Chinese Spring indicated that GL1402 showed a significantly higher protein content and middle peak time (MPT), and a smaller right peak slope (RPS)...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Masaki Fujimatsu, Hirokazu Hashizume, Tetsuo Fudan, Yasushi Koma, Rena Sanetomo, Seijiro Ono, Kazuyoshi Hosaka
'Harimaru' is a new potato variety bred from a cross between 'Saikai 35' as a female parent and 'Pike' as a male parent. Marker selection was performed for 1,647 seedlings to combine resistance genes to late blight ( R1 ), Potato virus Y ( Ry chc ), Potato virus X ( Rx1 ), and golden cyst nematode ( H1 ). In total, 194 selected clones were evaluated in the field, among which the best clone was officially released as 'Harimaru'. Its yield was slightly lower than the local standard variety, 'May Queen'. However, it produces tasty potatoes, that do not become mushy with long boiling times despite its high starch content...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Takuya Wada, Osamu Yamaguchi, Masayuki Miyazaki, Katsunori Miyahara, Masafumi Ishibashi, Takeshi Aihara, Takanobu Shibuta, Takashi Inoue, Masao Tsubone, Yoshiko Toyosawa, Hikaru Satoh, Ryuuichirou Akaishi, Youichi Yoshii, Ken'ichi Ohtsubo
A new super-hard rice cultivar, 'Chikushi-kona 85', which was derived from a cross between 'Fukei 2032' and 'EM129', was developed via bulk method breeding. 'Chikushi-kona 85' showed a higher content of resistant starch than the normal non-glutinous rice cultivar, 'Nishihomare', and a higher grain yield than the first super-hard rice cultivar, 'EM10'. The amylopectin chain length of 'Chikushi-kona 85' and its progenitor line 'EM129' was longer than that of 'Nishihomare', and was similar to that of 'EM10'. This suggests that the starch property of 'Chikushi-kona 85' was inherited from 'EM129', which is a mutant line deficient in a starch branching enzyme similar to 'EM10'...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Zhigang Liu, Xiangsheng Liu, Eric J Craft, Lixing Yuan, Lingyun Cheng, Guohua Mi, Fanjun Chen
Root system architecture (RSA) plays an important role in the acquisition of mineral nutrients. Nevertheless, RSA has seldom been selected as an important agricultural trait in conventional breeding programs. Little is known about the response of RSA and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) in regards to phosphorus (P) availability between parental inbred lines and their F1 . In this study, 6 maize inbred lines and their 15 F1 generated by a diallel mating system, were used to analyze the genetic associations between RSA and PUE...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Yaping Liu, Aixia Xu, Fenghao Liang, Xueqin Yao, Yang Wang, Xia Liu, Yan Zhang, Jazira Dalelhan, Bingbing Zhang, Mengfan Qin, Zhen Huang, Lei Shaolin
Clubroot is an economically important disease affecting plants in the family Cruciferae worldwide. In this study, a collection of 50 Cruciferae accessions was screened using Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype 4 in China. Eight of these demonstrated resistance, including three Chinese cabbages, two cabbages, one radish, one kale, and one Brassica juncea . The three clubroot-resistant Chinese cabbages (1003, 1007 and 1008) were then used to transfer the clubroot resistance genes to B. napus by distant hybridization combined with embryo rescue...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Kiyomi Abe, Masao Oshima, Maiko Akasaka, Ken-Ichi Konagaya, Yoshihiko Nanasato, Ayako Okuzaki, Yojiro Taniguchi, Junichi Tanaka, Yutaka Tabei
Genomic selection is attracting attention in the field of crop breeding. To apply genomic selection effectively for autogamous (self-pollinating) crops, an efficient outcross system is desired. Since dominant male sterility is a powerful tool for easy and successive outcross of autogamous crops, we developed transgenic dominant male sterile rice ( Oryza sativa L.) using the barnase gene that is expressed by the tapetum-specific promoter BoA9 . Barnase -induced male sterile rice No. 10 (BMS10) was selected for its stable male sterility and normal growth characteristics...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Yu Zhang, Jiawu Zhou, Jing Li, Ying Yang, Peng Xu, Dayun Tao
Oryza glumaepatula originates from South America continent and contains many valuable traits, such as tolerance to abiotic stress, high yield and good cooking qualities. However, hybrid sterility severely hindered the utilization of favorable genes of O. glumaepatula by interspecific hybridization. In order to further understand the nature of hybrid sterility between O. sativa and O. glumaepatula , a near isogenic line (NIL) was developed using a japonica variety Dianjingyou 1 as the recurrent parent and an accession of O...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Ning Li, Yanxu Yin, Fei Wang, Minghua Yao
Pepper ( Capsicum ) is one of the most important vegetable and spice crops. Aphid-transmitted cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes significant damage to pepper crops across the world. The genetic basis of CMV resistance in pepper is complex, and the mechanisms underlying resistance remain largely unknown. Here, we employed a SLAF-seq approach to generate a high-density genetic map of pepper. The map spanned 1,785.46 cM, containing 12,727 markers on 12 chromosomes, with a mean marker distance of 0.16 cM between adjacent markers...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Xia Chen, Hang-Gui Lai, Qi Sun, Jin-Ping Liu, Song-Bi Chen, Wen-Li Zhu
Apomixis, or asexual seed formation, is of great value for plant breeding and seed production, and is desirable in modern agriculture, but natural apomixis occurs in cassava at very low frequency. In present study, apomixis was induced by the treatments of female flower buds with 1%, 1.5% and 2% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and the results showed that 1.5% DMSO treatment was most effective for the induction of apomictic seed formation in cassava cultivar SC5 with the highest percentages of fruit set and true apomictic seeds...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Konana Arjun, Major S Dhaliwal, Salesh K Jindal, Bashasab Fakrudin
Fruit length in chilli is quantitatively inherited trait and selection based on phenotypic performance is tedious and time consuming. To detect QTLs determining fruit length in Capsicum spp., an interspecific F2 mapping population was developed from the cross of C. annuum L. cv. 'FL 201' with C. galapagoense Hunz. accession 'TC 07245'. Fruit length in this cross showed a quantitative inheritance with the population depicting a symmetric distribution in histogram. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit length 400 SSR markers were surveyed on the parental genotypes but only 28 markers were observed to be polymorphic indicating less genetic diversity between the two Capsicum species...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Satoshi Okada, Akio Onogi, Ken Iijima, Kiyosumi Hori, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Wakana Yokoyama, Miki Suehiro, Masanori Yamasaki
Grain size is important for brewing-rice cultivars, but the genetic basis for this trait is still unclear. This paper aims to identify QTLs for grain size using novel chromosomal segment substitution lines (CSSLs) harboring chromosomal segments from Yamadanishiki, an excellent sake-brewing rice, in the genetic background of Koshihikari, a cooking cultivar. We developed a set of 49 CSSLs. Grain length (GL), grain width (GWh), grain thickness (GT), 100-grain weight (GWt) and days to heading (DTH) were evaluated, and a CSSL-QTL analysis was conducted...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Yosuke Mizuno, Utako Yamanouchi, Tomoki Hoshino, Yasunori Nonoue, Kazufumi Nagata, Shuichi Fukuoka, Tsuyu Ando, Masahiro Yano, Kazuhiko Sugimoto
Seed dormancy is important in rice breeding because it confers resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for pre-harvest sprouting resistance, we used chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from a cross between the Japanese upland rice cultivar 'Owarihatamochi' and the lowland rice cultivar 'Koshihikari'. In the CSSLs, several chromosomal regions were associated with PHS resistance. Among these, the chromosome 9 segment from 'Owarihatamochi' had the greatest association with increased PHS resistance...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Constantine Busungu, Satoru Taura, Jun-Ichi Sakagami, Toyoaki Anai, Katsuyuki Ichitani
Improvement of resistance against rice bacterial blight (BB) disease is an important breeding strategy in breeding programs across the world, especially in Africa and southern Asia where BB is more prevalent. This report describes a high-resolution map and characterization of xa42 at XA42 locus, a rice BB resistance gene in XM14, a mutant line originating from IR24. The candidate gene region was narrowed down from 582 kb, which had been obtained in our previous study, to 57 kb. XM14 shows brown spots in its leaves like lesion mimic mutants...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Kenichiro Fujii, Takashi Sayama, Kyoko Takagi, Kazumasa Kosuge, Katsunori Okano, Akito Kaga, Masao Ishimoto
Single seed weight (SSW), or seed size, is a seed yield components (SYC) in soybean, and it is suggested that the genetic factors regulating SSW are involved in the control of other SYCs. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SSW and their effects on the other SYCs were investigated using a recombinant inbred line population derived from typical small- and large-seeded cultivars that were cultivated in two different environments. QTL analysis detected four environmentally stable QTLs for SSW, two of which coincided with the defined loci, qSw17-1 and Ln ...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Yukari Masuta, Akira Kawabe, Kosuke Nozawa, Ken Naito, Atsushi Kato, Hidetaka Ito
In plants, several transposable elements are conserved across species. We found a homolog of ONSEN , which is a heat-activated retrotransposon originally isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana , in Vigna . The ONSEN -like elements ( VaONS ) were detected in all the analyzed Japanese accessions of Vigna angularis (adzuki bean) by Southern blot analysis. However, VaONS sequences were observed to be polymorphic in the different accessions. Interestingly, extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) was detected in some accessions of adzuki bean, indicating the conserved heat-activation of VaONS ...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Kul Bhushan Saxena, Arbind K Choudhary, Rachit K Saxena, Rajeev K Varshney
Pigeonpea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is an ideal pulse crop of rainfed tropics and sub-tropics due to its high nutritive value and ability to survive various biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus it has continued to be cultivated on marginal land mostly under rainfed situation where the risk of crop failure is very high. To have insurance against crop failures and harvest more food in time and space, most farmers grow pigeonpea as an intercrop with short-aged cereals and other crops. Presently, intercropping system accounts for over 70% of the pigeonpea area...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Ryo Fujimoto, Kosuke Uezono, Sonoko Ishikura, Kenji Osabe, W James Peacock, Elizabeth S Dennis
Heterosis or hybrid vigor is a phenomenon where hybrid progeny have superior performance compared to their parental inbred lines. This is important in the use of F1 hybrid cultivars in many crops and vegetables. However, the molecular mechanism of heterosis is not clearly understood. Gene interactions between the two genomes such as dominance, overdominance, and epistasis have been suggested to explain the increased biomass and yield. Genetic analyses of F1 hybrids in maize, rice, and canola have defined a large number of quantitative trait loci, which may contribute to heterosis...
March 2018: Breeding Science
Akane Totsuka, Emi Okamoto, Taira Miyahara, Takanobu Kouno, Emilio A Cano, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Aiko Watanabe, Keisuke Tasaki, Masahiro Nishihara, Yoshihiro Ozeki
In a previous study, two genes responsible for white flower phenotypes in carnation were identified. These genes encoded enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis, namely, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and showed reduced expression in the white flower phenotypes. Here, we identify another candidate gene for white phenotype in carnation flowers using an RNA-seq analysis followed by RT-PCR. This candidate gene encodes a transcriptional regulatory factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Yasumasa Morita, Atsushi Hoshino
The Japanese morning glory ( Ipomoea nil ) and petunia ( Petunia hybrida ), locally called "Asagao" and "Tsukubane-asagao", respectively, are popular garden plants. They have been utilized as model plants for studying the genetic basis of floricultural traits, especially anthocyanin pigmentation in flower petals. In their long history of genetic studies, many mutations affecting flower pigmentation have been characterized, and both structural and regulatory genes for the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have been identified...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Akemi Ohmiya
Chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is one of the most important floricultural crops in the world. Although the origin of modern chrysanthemum cultivars is uncertain, several species belonging to the family Asteraceae are considered to have been integrated during the long history of breeding. The flower color of ancestral species is limited to yellow, pink, and white, and is derived from carotenoids, anthocyanins, and the absence of both pigments, respectively. A wide range of flower colors, including purplish-red, orange, red, and dark red, has been developed by increasing the range of pigment content or the combination of both pigments...
January 2018: Breeding Science
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