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Breeding Science

Maria Stefanie Dwiyanti, Shouhei Maruyama, Mari Hirono, Masako Sato, Euiho Park, Sei Hyung Yoon, Tetsuya Yamada, Jun Abe
Alpha-tocopherol is one of four tocopherol isoforms and has the highest vitamin E activity in humans. Most cultivated soybean seeds contain γ-tocopherol as the predominant form, and the ratio of α-tocopherol content to total tocopherol content (α-tocopherol ratio) is <10%. Three soybean accessions from Eastern Europe have α-tocopherol ratios of >20%. This higher content is likely due to mutations in the promoter region of the γ-tocopherol methytransferase-3 (γ-TMT3) gene. We surveyed a wild soybean germplasm collection and detected 16 accessions with stable seed α-tocopherol ratios of >20% under different growth conditions...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Yanchun Peng, Zitong Yu, Shahidul Islam, Yujuan Zhang, Xiaolong Wang, Zhensheng Lei, Kan Yu, Dongfa Sun, Wujun Ma
Low molecular weight glutenin subunits are important components of wheat storage proteins, which play an important role in determining end-use quality of common wheat. A newly established matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) procedure was used to analyze 478 landraces of bread wheat collected from the Yangtze-River region in China. Results indicated that 17 alleles at three loci: Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 were identified, resulting in 87 different allele combinations...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Constantine Busungu, Satoru Taura, Jun-Ichi Sakagami, Katsuyuki Ichitani
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a chief factor limiting rice productivity worldwide. XM14, a rice mutant line resistant to Xoo, has been obtained by treating IR24, which is susceptible to six Philippine Xoo races and six Japanese Xoo races, with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. XM14 showed resistance to six Japanese Xoo races. The F2 population from XM14 × IR24 clearly showed 1 resistant : 3 susceptible segregation, suggesting control of resistance by a recessive gene. The approximate chromosomal location of the resistance gene was determined using 10 plants with shortest lesion length in the F2 population from XM14 × Koshihikari, which is susceptible to Japanese Xoo races...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Williams Esuma, Robert S Kawuki, Liezel Herselman, Maryke Tine Labuschagne
Global efforts are underway to biofortify cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency afflicting the health of more than 500 million resource-poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further the biofortification initiative in Uganda, a 6×6 diallel analysis was conducted to estimate combining ability of six provitamin A clones and gene actions controlling total carotenoid content (TCC), dry matter content (DMC) in cassava roots and other relevant traits...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Md Kamal Hossain, Kshirod Kumar Jena, Md Atiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Ratnam Wickneswari
Sheath blight is considered the most significant disease of rice and causes enormous yield losses over the world. Breeding for resistant varieties is the only viable option to combat the disease efficiently. Seventeen diverged rice genotypes along with 17 QTL-linked SSR markers were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pearson's correlation showed only the flag leaf angle had a significant correlation with sheath blight resistance under greenhouse screening. Multivariate analysis based on UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the flag leaf angle, flag leaf length, and plant compactness were significantly associated with the following SSR marker alleles: RM209 (116,130), RM202 (176), RM224 (126), RM257 (156), RM426 (175), and RM6971 (196), which are linked to the SB QTLs: QRlh11, qSBR11-3, qSBR11-1, qSBR9-1, qShB3-2, and qSB-9...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Manuel Blasco, María Luisa Badenes, María Del Mar Naval
Successful haploid induction in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) through in situ-induced parthenogenesis with gamma-ray irradiated pollen has been achieved. Female flowers of cultivar 'Algerie' were pollinated using pollen of cultivars 'Changhong-3', 'Cox' and 'Saval Brasil' irradiated with two doses of gamma rays, 150 and 300 Gy. The fruits were harvested 90, 105 and 120 days after pollination (dap). Four haploid plants were obtained from 'Algerie' pollinated with 300-Gy-treated pollen of 'Saval Brasil' from fruits harvested 105 dap...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Mingzhu Zhao, Jian Sun, Zhiqiu Xiao, Fei Cheng, Hai Xu, Liang Tang, Wenfu Chen, Zhengjin Xu, Quan Xu
Rice is one of mankind's major food staples, and the erect panicle architecture in rice is an important morphological improvement. The dense and erect panicle 1 (DEP1) locus corresponds with the formation of erect panicles and has been widely used in rice breeding. However, the genetic diversity of DEP1 remains narrow. In order to improve the genetic diversity of DEP1, we used a rice germplasm collection of 72 high yielding japonica rice varieties to analyze the contribution of DEP1 to the panicle traits. We found 45 SNPs and 26 insertions and deletions (indels) within the DNA fragment of DEP1...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Xin Liu, Cuicui Zhang, Xiaogang Li, Jumin Tu
Gene pyramiding is an efficient approach for the genetic improvement of multiple agronomic traits simultaneously. In this study, we pyramided two foreign genes, cry1Ac driven by the rice Actin I promoter, and lysine-rich protein (LRP), driven by the endosperm-specific GLUTELIN1 (GT1) promoter, into the elite indica cultivar 9311. These two genes were chosen in an attempt to enhance insect-resistance and Lysine (Lys) content. In the pyramided line, the foreign gene cry1Ac was efficiently expressed in the leaves and stems, and exhibited highly efficient resistance to striped stem borer (SSB, Chilo suppressalis Walker) in the laboratory and rice leaf folder (RLF, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) in the field...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Chiaki Muto, Ryuji Ishikawa, Kenneth M Olsen, Kazuaki Kawano, Chay Bounphanousay, Toru Matoh, Yo-Ichiro Sato
A glutinous texture of endosperm is one of the important traits of rice (Oyza sativa L.). Northern Laos is known as a center of glutinous rice diversity. We genotyped INDEL, SSR and SNP markers in a sample of 297 rice landraces collected in northern Laos. These glutinous varieties were confirmed to share a loss-of-function mutation in Granule bound starch synthase I (Wx). INDEL markers revealed a high frequency of recombinant genotypes between indica and japonica. Principal component analysis using SSR genotypes of Wx flanking region revealed that glutinous indica landraces were scattered between non-glutinous indica and glutinous-japonica types...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Ermelinda Botticella, Francesco Sestili, Gianluca Ferrazzano, Paola Mantovani, Alessandro Cammerata, Maria Grazia D'Egidio, Domenico Lafiandra
Starch represents a major nutrient in the human diet providing essentially a source of energy. More recently the modification of its composition has been associated with new functionalities both at the nutritional and technological level. Targeting the major starch biosynthetic enzymes has been shown to be a valuable strategy to manipulate the amylose-amylopectin ratio in reserve starch. In the present work a breeding strategy aiming to produce a set of SSIIa (starch synthases IIa) null durum wheat is described...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Robert Sezi Kawuki, Tadeo Kaweesi, Williams Esuma, Anthony Pariyo, Ismail Siraj Kayondo, Alfred Ozimati, Vincent Kyaligonza, Alex Abaca, Joseph Orone, Robooni Tumuhimbise, Ephraim Nuwamanya, Philip Abidrabo, Teddy Amuge, Emmanuel Ogwok, Geoffrey Okao, Henry Wagaba, Gerald Adiga, Titus Alicai, Christopher Omongo, Anton Bua, Morag Ferguson, Edward Kanju, Yona Baguma
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production is currently under threat from cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), a disease that is among the seven most serious obstacles to world's food security. Three issues are of significance for CBSD. Firstly, the virus associated with CBSD, has co-evolved with cassava outside its center of origin for at least 90 years. Secondly, that for the last 74 years, CBSD was only limited to the low lands. Thirdly, that most research has largely focused on CBSD epidemiology and virus diversity...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Hung Nguyen, Xiao-Yang Chen, Meng Jiang, Qing Wang, Li Deng, Wei-Zhang Zhang, Qing-Yao Shu
Doubled haploid (DH) populations, particularly those from subspecies crosses possessing the wide compatible gene S5(n) , are important germplasm resources for rice genetic studies and breeding, but their feature and potential have not been fully assessed and explored. In the present study, we produced a DH population from the hybrid of japonica 668B and wide compatible indica T23. Genotyping of the S5 locus with allele-specific markers for ORF3, ORF4 and ORF5 revealed a potential recombination hot spot in the ORF3-ORF4 region...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Junichi Tanaka, Takeshi Hayashi, Hiroyoshi Iwata
A new plant breeding method-the biotron breeding system (BBS)-can rapidly produce advanced generations in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding. This method uses a growth chamber (biotron) with CO2 control, accompanied by tiller removal and embryo rescue to decrease the period before seed maturity. However, tiller removal and embryo rescue are laborious and impractical for large populations. We investigated the influences of increased CO2, tiller removal, and root restriction on the days to heading (DTH) from seeding in growth chambers...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Guizhen Kan, Lihua Ning, Yakai Li, Zhenbin Hu, Wei Zhang, Xiaohong He, Deyue Yu
Salt tolerance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] at the seed germination stage is a critical determinant of stable stand establishment in saline soil. This study examined one population of 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F7:11) derived from a cross between Kefeng1 and Nannong1138-2 and one natural population consisting of 196 soybean landraces. A total of 11 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci associated with three salt tolerance indices were detected by linkage and association mapping...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Laibin Zhao, Shunzong Ning, Jianjun Yu, Ming Hao, Lianquan Zhang, Zhongwei Yuan, Youliang Zheng, Dengcai Liu
Aegilops variabilis (UUS(v)S(v)), an important sources for wheat improvement, originated from chromosome doubling of a natural hybrid between Ae. umbellulata (UU) with Ae. longissima (S(l)S(l)). The Ae. variabilis karyotype was poorly characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH probe combination of pSc119.2, pTa71 and pTa-713 identified each of the 14 pairs of Ae. variabilis chromosomes. Our FISH ideogram was further used to detect an Ae. variabilis chromosome carrying stripe rust resistance in the background of wheat lines developed from crosses of the stripe rust susceptible bread wheat cultivar Yiyuan 2 with a resistant Ae...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Laurencja Szała, Katarzyna Sosnowska, Wiesława Popławska, Alina Liersch, Anna Olejnik, Katarzyna Kozłowska, Jan Bocianowski, Teresa Cegielska-Taras
Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Miyuki Kunihisa, Shigeki Moriya, Kazuyuki Abe, Kazuma Okada, Takashi Haji, Takeshi Hayashi, Yoshihiro Kawahara, Ryutaro Itoh, Takeshi Itoh, Yuichi Katayose, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Toshimi Matsumoto, Satomi Mori, Harumi Sasaki, Takashi Matsumoto, Chikako Nishitani, Shingo Terakami, Toshiya Yamamoto
'Fuji' is one of the most popular and highly-produced apple cultivars worldwide, and has been frequently used in breeding programs. The development of genotypic markers for the preferable phenotypes of 'Fuji' is required. Here, we aimed to define the haplotypes of 'Fuji' and find associations between haplotypes and phenotypes of five traits (harvest day, fruit weight, acidity, degree of watercore, and flesh mealiness) by using 115 accessions related to 'Fuji'. Through the re-sequencing of 'Fuji' genome, total of 2,820,759 variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions or deletions (indels) were detected between 'Fuji' and 'Golden Delicious' reference genome...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Ryuji Ishikawa, Nathan Badenoch, Kunimasa Miyagi, Kaname Medoruma, Toshiki Osada, Masayuki Onishi
Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is distributed from the South-west of the Japanese archipelago to Taiwan. In this study, re-sequencing against the orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) chloroplast genome was applied to one superior landrace of Shiikuwasha cultivated in Oku ward, Okinawa, Japan. The chloroplast genome of the landrace was estimated to comprise 160,118 bp, including 48 indels and 71 nucleotide substitutions against the reference genome. The presumptive chloroplast indels were confirmed by subsequent experiments, and these identified multiple maternal lineages among other landraces...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Ruifang Yang, Jianjiang Bai, Jun Fang, Ying Wang, Gangseob Lee, Zhongze Piao
Foods rich in resistant starch can help prevent various diseases, including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea, and chronic renal and hepatic diseases. Variations in starch biosynthesis enzymes could contribute to the high content of resistant starch in some cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previously published work indicated that the sbe3-rs gene in the rice mutant line, 'Jiangtangdao1' was a putative allele of the rice starch branching enzyme gene SBEIIb (previously known as SBE3); sbe3-rs might control the biosynthesis of the high resistant starch content in the rice line...
September 2016: Breeding Science
Yohei Terasawa, Miwako Ito, Tadashi Tabiki, Koichi Nagasawa, Koichi Hatta, Zenta Nishio
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling wheat grain protein content (GPC) and flour protein content (FPC) was identified using doubled haploid (DH) lines developed from a cross between the hard red winter wheat variety 'Yumechikara' with a high protein content used for bread making, and the soft red winter wheat 'Kitahonami' with a low protein content used for Japanese white salted noodles. A single major QTL, QGpc.2B-yume, was identified on the short arm of wheat chromosome 2B for both the GPC and FPC over 3 years of testing...
September 2016: Breeding Science
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