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Breeding Science

Tomoyuki Furuta, Kanako Uehara, Rosalyn B Angeles-Shim, Junghyun Shim, Keisuke Nagai, Motoyuki Ashikari, Tomonori Takashi
Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are rich genetic resources that can be mined for novel, agriculturally useful loci or that can be used directly as materials for breeding. To date, a number of rice CSSLs have been developed by crossing rice cultivars with its wild relatives as a means to tap into the potential of wild alleles in rice improvement. Oryza nivara is a wild relative of rice that is thought to be a progenitor of O. sativa spp. indica. In the present study, 26 CSSLs that covers the entire genome of O...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Shuto Fukuhara, Narathid Muakrong, Shinji Kikuchi, Patcharin Tanya, Hidenori Sassa, Takato Koba, Peerasak Srinives
Genetic variation in Jatropha curcas, a prospective biodiesel plant, is limited, and interspecific hybridization needed for its genetic improvement. Progeny from interspecific crosses between J. curcas and Jatropha integerrima can be used to improve agronomic characters and to increase oil content and yield. However, these hybrids have not been characterized cytologically. The present study was aimed at the analysis of chromosome behavior during meiosis and chromosome composition of S1 plants derived from an interspecific F1 hybrid using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Navinder Saini, Naveen Singh, Anil Kumar, Nitika Vihan, Sangita Yadav, Sujata Vasudev, D K Yadava
Low erucic acid is a major breeding target to improve the edible oil quality in Brassica juncea. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1.1 and FAE1.2) gene was exploited to expedite the breeding program. The paralogs of FAE1 gene were sequenced from low erucic acid genotype Pusa Mustard 30 and SNPs were identified through homologous alignment with sequence downloaded from NCBI GenBank. Two SNPs in FAE1.1 at position 591 and 1265 and one in FAE1.2 at 237 were found polymorphic among low and high erucic acid genotypes...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Charfeddine Gharsallah, Ahmed Ben Abdelkrim, Hatem Fakhfakh, Amel Salhi-Hannachi, Faten Gorsane
Salt stress was applied to tomato commercial genotypes to study adverse effects on their phenotypic traits. Three were saline tolerant (San Miguel, Romelia and Llanero), two were mildly tolerant (Perfect peel HF1 and Heinz 1350) whereas the remaining were sensitive. Genotyping cultivars using 19 polymorphic SSRs out of 25 tested produced a total of 70 alleles with an average of 3.68 alleles per locus and PIC values ranging from 0.22 (SSR 26, 92, 66 and TG35) to 0.82 (SSR 356). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed two contrasting panels discriminating tolerant and sensitive groups and one panel with scattered genotypes...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Emdadul Haque, Aziz Ahmad Osmani, Sayed Hasibullah Ahmadi, Tomohiro Ban
To enhance a root trait-based selection program for rain-fed wheat breeding in Afghanistan, we simulated an efficient pre-breeding drought system. Plants were grown in 1 m pipes as control or 2 m pipes to simulate drought conditions soaking ground water up by capillary action supplemented by two different life supporting irrigations from top of the pipes (T1 and T2 droughts). T1 was used for studying genetic diversity in 360 Kihara Afghan wheat landraces (KAWLR). Both drought treatments were used to evaluate root traits in 30 selected genotypes...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Tshering Penjor, Takashi Mimura, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Ryoji Matsumoto, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Hiroshi Kudoh, Masashi Yamamoto, Yukio Nagano
We analyzed the reduced-representation genome sequences of Citrus species by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq) using 44 accessions, including typical and minor accessions, such as Bhutanese varieties. The results of this analysis using typical accessions were consistent with previous reports that citron, papeda, pummelo, and mandarin are ancestral species, and that most Citrus species are derivatives or hybrids of these four species. Citrus varieties often reproduce asexually and heterozygosity is highly conserved within each variety...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Md Nashir Uddin, Asami Tomita, Mitsuhiro Obara, Seiji Yanagihara, Yoshimichi Fukuta
We characterized a rice introgression line, YTH34, harboring a chromosome segment from a New Plant Type (NPT) cultivar, IR65600-87-2-2-3, in the genetic background of an Indica Group elite rice cultivar, IR 64, under upland and irrigated lowland conditions in Japan. The number of panicles (as an indicator of tiller number) and number of spikelets per panicle of YTH34 were lower than those of IR 64 under irrigated lowland conditions, but both of those as well as culm length, panicle length, seed fertility, panicle weight, whole plant weight, and harvest index were dramatically reduced under upland conditions...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Katsuyuki Ichitani, Satoru Taura, Muneharu Sato, Tsutomu Kuboyama
A pair of complementary genes, Hwc1-1 at HWC1 locus and Hwc2-1 at HWC2 locus, cause a weakness phenomenon in rice. For this study, we performed haplotype analysis around the HWC2 locus in two core collections comprising 119 accessions. We also examined reactions to phenol and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) Japanese race I. To elucidate the genetic relations among all accessions, we analyzed their banding patterns of 40 Indel markers covering the rice genome. The classification by Indel markers was almost consistent with that using 4,357 SNPs...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Ziju Dai, Qing Lu, Xin Luan, Lian Ouyang, Jie Guo, Jiayan Liang, Haitao Zhu, Wenjuan Wang, Shaokui Wang, Ruizhen Zeng, Ziqiang Liu, Zemin Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhu, Guiquan Zhang
Exploitation of the heterosis of hybrid rice has shown great success in the improvement of rice yields. However, few genotypes exhibit strong restoration ability as effective restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in the development of hybrid rice. In this study, we developed a platform for the breeding by design of CMS restorer lines based on a library of chromosomal single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) in the Huajingxian74 (HJX74) genetic background. The target genes for breeding by design, Rf3(4) and Rf4(4), which are associated with a strong restoration ability, and gs3, gw8, Wx(g1) and Alk, which are associated with good grain quality, were selected from the HJX74 SSSL library...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Wunna, Kazuo N Watanabe, Ryo Ohsawa, Mitsuhiro Obara, Seiji Yanagihara, Pa Pa Aung, Yoshimichi Fukuta
The genetic diversity of 175 rice accessions from Myanmar, including landraces and improved types from upland and lowland ecosystems in five different areas-Western (hilly), Northern (mountainous), North and South-eastern (plateau), and Southern (plain)-was evaluated on the basis of polymorphism data for 65 DNA markers and phenol reactions. On the basis of the DNA polymorphism data, high genetic diversity was confirmed to conserve in the accessions from each ecosystem and area. And the accessions were classified into two cluster groups I and II, which corresponded to Indica Group and Japonica Group, respectively...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Liying Meng, Zihan Liu, Lingli Zhang, Gan Hu, Xiyue Song
Male sterility is an important tool for obtaining crop heterosis. A thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile (TCMS) line was developed recently using a new method based on tiller regeneration. In the present study, we explored the critical growth stages required to maintain thermo-sensitive male sterility in TCMS lines and found that fertility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development. We investigated the fertility and cytology of temperature-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Noriko Kinoshita, Sho Takano, Naomi Shimoda, Itsuro Takamure, Takashi Sato, Kiyoaki Kato
Appearance of rice grain is an important property, affecting its acceptance by consumers. Moreover, appearance is a complex characteristic involving many components, including glossiness and whiteness. The genetic bases for the glossiness of cooked rice and the whiteness of polished rice (WPR) were determined using 133 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two closely related cultivars from Hokkaido, Joiku462, with high glossiness and whiteness, and Yukihikari, an ancestor of Joiku462 with low glossiness and whiteness...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Kazuhiko Tarora, Ayano Shudo, Shinji Kawano, Keiji Yasuda, Hiroki Ueno, Hideo Matsumura, Naoya Urasaki
In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Emily Gichuhi, Eiko Himi, Hidekazu Takahashi, Sinhao Zhu, Kazuyuki Doi, Kazuo Tsugane, Masahiko Maekawa
To improve rice yield, a wide genetic pool is necessary. It is therefore important to explore wild rice relatives. Oryza longistaminata is a distantly related wild rice relative that carries the AA genome. Its potential for improving agronomic traits is not well studied. Introgression line (pLIA-1) that carries Oryza longistaminata's chromosome segments, showed high performance in yield-related traits under non-fertilized conditions. Therefore, to illustrate Oryza longistaminata's potential for improving yield-related traits, RILs from the F1 of a cross between pLIA-1 and Norin 18 were developed and QTL analysis was done using the RAD-Seq method...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Qianglong Zhu, Peng Gao, Shi Liu, Sikandar Amanullah, Feishi Luan
A variety of melons are cultivated worldwide, and their specific biological properties make them an attractive model for molecular studies. This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear genomes of seven melon accessions (Cucumis melo L.) to identify the phylogenetic relationships among melon cultivars with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and bioinformatical analyses. The data showed that there were a total of 658 mitochondrial SNPs (207-295 in each), while there were 0-60 chloroplast SNPs among these seven melon cultivars, compared to the reference genome...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Takayoshi Shimazaki, Tsukasa Endo, Mie Kasuga, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo N Watanabe, Akira Kikuchi
Cultivated potato is a drought-, salinity-, and frost-sensitive species. The transgenic approach is one of the methods used to mitigate abiotic stress. The utility of transgenic potatoes that have abiotic stress tolerance should be judged from their yield under stress conditions. In order to establish transgenic potato lines with the AtDREB1A gene that could be used in practical applications, we screened candidate lines in a growth room with growth profiles under non-stress conditions rather than the expression level of transgene...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Abdelfattah A Dababat, Gomez-Becerra Hugo Ferney, Gul Erginbas-Orakci, Susanne Dreisigacker, Mustafa Imren, Halil Toktay, Halil I Elekcioglu, Tesfamariam Mekete, Julie M Nicol, Omid Ansari, Francis Ogbonnaya
To identify loci linked to nematode resistance genes, a total of 126 of CIMMYT advanced spring wheat lines adapted to semi-arid conditions were screened for resistance to Heterodera avenae, Pratylenchus neglectus, and P. thornei, of which 107 lines were genotyped with 1,310 DArT. Association of DArT markers with nematode response was analyzed using the general linear model. Results showed that 11 markers were associated with resistance to H. avenae (pathotype Ha21), 25 markers with resistance to P. neglectus, and 9 significant markers were identified to be linked with resistance to P...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Hiroshi Fujii, Satoshi Ohta, Keisuke Nonaka, Yuichi Katayose, Toshimi Matsumoto, Tomoko Endo, Terutaka Yoshioka, Mitsuo Omura, Takehiko Shimada
Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) are the predominant cultivated citrus variety in Japan. Clarification of its origin would prove valuable for citrus taxonomy and mandarin breeding programs; however, current information is limited. We applied genome-wide genotyping using a 384 citrus single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and MARCO computer software to investigate the satsuma mandarin parentage. Genotyping data from 206 validated SNPs were obtained to evaluate 67 citrus varieties and lines. A total of five parent-offspring relationships were newly found by MARCO based on the 206 SNP genotypes, indicating that 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins (Citrus kinokuni hort...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Youichi Kondou, Alagu Manickavelu, Kenji Komatsu, Mujiburahman Arifi, Mika Kawashima, Takayoshi Ishii, Tomohiro Hattori, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Tomohiro Ban, Minami Matsui
This study was carried out with the aim of developing the methodology to determine elemental composition in wheat and identify the best germplasm for further research. Orphan and genetically diverse Afghan wheat landraces were chosen and EDXRF was used to measure the content of some of the elements to establish elemental composition in grains of 266 landraces using 10 reference lines. Four elements, K, Mg, P, and Fe, were measured by standardizing sample preparation. The results of hierarchical cluster analysis using elemental composition data sets indicated that the Fe content has an opposite pattern to the other elements, especially that of K...
December 2016: Breeding Science
Zenta Nishio, Chihiro Onoe, Miwako Ito, Tadashi Tabiki, Koichi Nagasawa, Hideho Miura
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and the development of cultivars with FHB resistance is the most effective way to control the disease. Yumechikara is a Japanese hard red winter wheat cultivar that shows moderate resistance to FHB with superior bread-making quality. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for FHB resistance in Yumechikara, we evaluated doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Yumechikara and a moderate susceptible cultivar, Kitahonami, for FHB resistance in a 5-year field trial, and we analyzed polymorphic molecular markers between the parents...
December 2016: Breeding Science
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