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Breeding Science

Takayoshi Shimazaki, Tsukasa Endo, Mie Kasuga, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo N Watanabe, Akira Kikuchi
[This corrects the article on p. 703 in vol. 66, PMID: 28163586.].
March 2017: Breeding Science
Mika Oozeki, Toshinori Sotome, Naoto Haruyama, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hirohisa Watanabe, Takeshi Okiyama, Tsuneo Kato, Toshiyuki Takayama, Makoto Oyama, Takashi Nagamine, Yasuo Suzuki, Takako Toyoshima, Takahiro Sekiwa, Kaori Oono, Tetsuya Saito, Masao Usui, Shin Arai, Terunobu Kumekawa, Emiko Suzuki, Kaori Shirama, Makoto Kihara, Takehiro Hoki, Hideki Matsubara, Ryo Ohsawa
Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) null 'New Sachiho Golden' is a two-row malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar released in 2015 that was developed at the Tochigi Prefectural Agricultural Experimental Station by backcross breeding using the high-yield leading cultivar 'Sachiho Golden' as a recurrent parent and the LOX-1 null mutant 'Daikei LM1' as a non-recurrent parent. To develop 'New Sachiho Golden' we used a simple LOX activity assay and marker-assisted selection. This is the first LOX-1 null malting barley cultivar in Japan that is resistant to barley yellow mosaic virus (types I-III)...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Ichiro Nagaoka, Hideki Sasahara, Hiroaki Tabuchi, Akiko Shigemune, Kei Matsushita, Hideo Maeda, Akitoshi Goto, Shuichi Fukuoka, Tsuyu Ando, Kiyoyuki Miura
To investigate the genetic background responsible for blast resistance in Oryza sativa L. 'Hokuriku 193', QTL analysis was conducted using the F3 lines from the cross [ms-bo] Nekken 2 × Hokuriku 193 that were artificially infected with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 6 and 12 that correlated with greater blast resistance in the Hokuriku 193-type lines. Notably, the QTL on chromosome 12 had a major effect and localized to the same region where Pi20(t), a broad-spectrum blast resistance gene, is positioned, suggesting strongly that the blast resistance of Hokuriku 193 was controlled by Pi20(t)...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Ken Naito, Yu Takahashi, Bubpa Chaitieng, Kumi Hirano, Akito Kaga, Kyoko Takagi, Eri Ogiso-Tanaka, Charaspon Thavarasook, Masao Ishimoto, Norihiko Tomooka
Seed size is one of the most important traits in leguminous crops. We obtained a recessive mutant of blackgram that had greatly enlarged leaves, stems and seeds. The mutant produced 100% bigger leaves, 50% more biomass and 70% larger seeds though it produced 40% less number of seeds. We designated the mutant as multiple-organ-gigantism (mog) and found the mog phenotype was due to increase in cell numbers but not in cell size. We also found the mog mutant showed a rippled leaf (rl) phenotype, which was probably caused by a pleiotropic effect of the mutation...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Benard Yada, Gina Brown-Guedira, Agnes Alajo, Gorrettie N Ssemakula, Eric Owusu-Mensah, Edward E Carey, Robert O M Mwanga, G Craig Yencho
Molecular markers are needed for enhancing the development of elite sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars with a wide range of commercially important traits in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to estimate the heritability and determine trait correlations of storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in a cross between 'New Kawogo' × 'Beauregard'. The study was also conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with these traits. A total of 287 progeny and the parents were evaluated for two seasons at three sites in Uganda and genotyped with 250 SSR markers...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Chenli Zhou, Liping Xi, Wenjun Mao, Jianing Wan, Yan Li, Ying Wang, Dapeng Bao
The uracil auxotrophic monokaryotic strain 423-9 of Lentinula edodes was crossed with nine monokaryons (cro2-2-9, W66-1, xd2-3-2, QingKe 20A, 241-1-1, 9015-1, L66-2, 241-1-2, and Qing 23A) derived from wild type strains of L. edodes. Nine dikaryotic hybrids were established from these crosses. These hybrids were fruited and 496 single spore isolates were obtained. Among these single spore isolates, 166 were identified as monokaryons under a microscope. We screened these monokaryons on selective medium and obtained 19 uracil auxotrophic monokaryons...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Ali Aliakbari Sadeghabad, Ali Dadkhodaie, Bahram Heidari, Hooman Razi, Reza Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common wheat disease worldwide. Developing resistant cultivars through deploying new or pyramiding resistance genes in a suitable line, is the most effective approach to control this disease. However, to stack genes in a genotype, efficient and reliable markers are required. In the present study, F2 plants and their corresponding F3 families from a cross between the resistant line; Thatcher (Tc) Lr18, and the susceptible cultivar 'Boolani' were used to map rust resistance gene, Lr18 using SSR markers on chromosome 5BL of hexaploid wheat...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Masayoshi Teraishi, Yuka Tojo, Naohiro Yamada, Yutaka Okumoto
Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured the saponin content in soybean by removing the sugar chain from the saponin using acidic hydrolysis and detected novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for saponin content...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Thomas R Famula, Thomas M Gradziel
Fruit brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Several phenotyping protocols to accurately characterize and evaluate brown rot infection have been proposed; however, the outcomes from those studies have not led to consistent advances in resistance breeding programs. Breeding for disease resistance is one of the most challenging objectives for crop improvement because disease expression is tetrahedral: it is simultaneously influenced by agent, host, environment, and human management...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Eri Ogiso-Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Keisuke Tanaka, Yasunori Nonoue, Takuji Sasaki, Erina Fushimi, Yohei Koide, Yutaka Okumoto, Masahiro Yano, Hiroki Saito
Heading date is one of the most important traits in rice breeding. It is governed by multiple genes, including known quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In general, almost all japonica cultivars, including Nipponbare, head early under short-day (SD) conditions, but some indica cultivars, including Kasalath, head late. To explain this difference, we identified QTLs controlling heading date under SD conditions. We used NILs, CSSLs, and BILs from a cross between Nipponbare and Kasalath, and evaluated days to heading (DTH) under SD conditions...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Anita Rani, Vineet Kumar, B S Gill, Pushpendra Rathi, Shruti Shukla, R K Singh, S M Husain
Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) is one of the most prevalent pathogen that limits soybean production in India. In this study RILs derived from JS335, dominant but MYMIV susceptible variety and PI171443, donor of MYMIV resistance gene in most of the MYMIV resistant varieties released in India and F2 population derived from SL525, a resistant variety released for northern India and NRC101, a susceptible genotype were used to study the inheritance of MYMIV resistance and map the gene responsible for MYMIV resistance...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Salih A I Sabiel, Sisi Huang, Xin Hu, Xifeng Ren, Chunjie Fu, Junhua Peng, Dongfa Sun
In the present study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were observed for major seedling traits and their growth. The accessions were evaluated for major seedling traits under controlled conditions of hydroponics at the 13(th), 20(th), 27(th) and 34(th) day-after germination. Biomass traits were measured at the 34(th) day-after germination. Correlation analysis was conducted among the seedling traits and three field traits at maturity, plant height, grain weight and 1000-grain weight observed in four consecutive years...
March 2017: Breeding Science
Yoshihiro Okada, Akira Kobayashi, Hiroaki Tabuchi, Toshikazu Kuranouchi
Sweetpotato (Ipomoeae batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important food crop affected by several pests throughout the world, especially in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Although Japan is relatively free from many serious sweetpotato pests, some pests, especially soil-borne pathogens, viruses, and insects such as plant-parasitic nematodes and weevils, cause severe damage in Japan. In this review, we describe the current status and management options for sweetpotato pests and diseases in Japan and review research related to sweetpotato breeding that can promote resistance to these problems...
January 2017: Breeding Science
Kanefumi Kitahara, Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Motoyasu Otani, Tatsuro Hamada, Osamu Nakayachi, Yasuhiro Takahata
Carbohydrates are important components in sweetpotatoes in terms of both their industrial use and eating quality. Although there has been a narrow range of diversity in the properties of sweetpotato starch, unique varieties and experimental lines with different starch traits have been produced recently both by conventional breeding and genetic engineering. The diversity in maltose content, free sugar composition and textural properties in sweetpotato cultivars is also important for their eating quality and processing of storage roots...
January 2017: Breeding Science
Masaru Tanaka, Koji Ishiguro, Tomoyuki Oki, Shigenori Okuno
In addition to the nutritionally important components such as starches, vitamins and minerals, storage roots and leaves of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) contains several components with health-promoting functions. Of these, the functionalities of carotenoids, anthocyanins and caffeoylquinic acids have been well established by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Several sweetpotato cultivars containing high levels of these components have been developed in Japan; e.g., 'Ayamurasaki', which has high amounts of anthocyanin in its storage roots...
January 2017: Breeding Science
Yuki Monden, Makoto Tahara
Sweetpotato is one of the most important food crop species in the world, with more than 104,000,000 tons produced each year, and the breeding of superior cultivars with agronomically important traits, such as improved disease resistance, yield, and nutrient richness, is necessary, especially in developing countries. However, as a result of the crop's complex genomic architecture, which results from its hexaploidy (2n = 6× = 90), high heterozygosity, huge genome, and outcrossing nature, the analysis of genetic linkage in sweetpotato has been challenging...
January 2017: Breeding Science
Sachiko Isobe, Kenta Shirasawa, Hideki Hirakawa
The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has enabled the determination of whole genome sequences in many non-model plant species. However, genome sequencing in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is still difficult because of the hexaploid genome structure. Previous studies suggested that a diploid wild relative, I. trifida (H.B.K.) Don., is the most possible ancestor of sweetpotato. Therefore, the genetic and genomic features of I. trifida have been studied as a potential reference for sweetpotato...
January 2017: Breeding Science
Le Kang, Sung-Chul Park, Chang Yoon Ji, Ho Soo Kim, Haeng-Soon Lee, Sang-Soo Kwak
Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], which contains high levels of antioxidants such as ascorbate and carotenoids in its storage root, is one of the healthiest foods, as well as one of the best starch crops for growth on marginal lands. In plants, carotenoid pigments are involved in light harvesting for photosynthesis and are also essential for photo-protection against excess light. As dietary antioxidants in humans, these compounds benefit health by alleviating aging-related diseases. The storage root of sweetpotato is a good source of both carotenoids and carbohydrates for human consumption...
January 2017: Breeding Science
Qingchang Liu
Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop in the world. It is mainly used for human food, animal feed, and for manufacturing starch and alcohol. This crop, a highly heterozygous, generally self-incompatible, outcrossing polyploidy, poses numerous challenges for the conventional breeding. Its productivity and quality are often limited by abiotic and biotic stresses. Gene engineering has been shown to have the great potential for improving the resistance to these stresses as well as the nutritional quality of sweetpotato...
January 2017: Breeding Science
Kenji Katayama, Akira Kobayashi, Tetsufumi Sakai, Toshikazu Kuranouchi, Yumi Kai
Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is an outcrossing hexaploid that is cultivated in the tropics and warm-temperate regions of the world. Sweetpotato has played an important role as a famine-relief crop during its long history and has recently been reevaluated as a health-promoting food. In Japan, sweetpotato is used for a wide range of applications, such as table use, processed foods, and alcohol and starch production, and two groups at National Agriculture Research Organization (NARO) undertake the breeding of cultivars for these applications...
January 2017: Breeding Science
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