Read by QxMD icon Read

Breeding Science

Masahiro Kishine, Katsuji Tsutsumi, Kazumi Kitta
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) is a popular tool for individual fingerprinting. The long-core motif (e.g. tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are preferred because they make it easier to separate and distinguish neighbor alleles. In the present study, a new set of 8 tetra-nucleotide SSRs in potato (Solanum tuberosum) is reported. By using these 8 markers, 72 out of 76 cultivars obtained from Japan and the United States were clearly discriminated, while two pairs, both of which arose from natural variation, showed identical profiles...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Kengo Matsumoto, Yuya Ota, Satomi Seta, Yukinori Nakayama, Teppei Ohno, Ritsuko Mizobuchi, Hiroyuki Sato
Rice brown spot (BS), caused by Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the major diseases of rice in Japan. Quantitative resistance has been observed in local cultivars (e.g., CH45), but no economically useful resistant variety has been bred. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphic markers, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of BS resistance in backcross inbred lines (BILs) from a cross between indica CH45 (resistant) and japonica Koshihikari (susceptible). On the basis of field disease evaluations in 2015 and 2016, four QTLs contributing to BS resistance were identified on chromosomes 2 (qBSR2-kc), 7 (qBSR7-kc), 9 (qBSR9-kc), and 11 (qBSR11-kc)...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Yongbin Qi, Linyou Wang, Junmei Gui, Lixia Zhang, Qinglong Liu, Jianjun Wang
The fertility conversion of photoperiod thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS) lines in rice is mostly regulated by the P/TGMS genes in different environmental conditions. A point mutation with G-C on the pms3 (p/tms12-1) gene regulates the pollen fertility of Nongken58S and a large amount of Nongken58S-derived lines. In this study, we developed and designed a functional co-dominant marker according to the SNP loci for the pms3 (p/tms12-1) gene. We can differentiate the SNP loci in pms3 (p/tms12-1) gene from another TGMS lines and inbred cultivars using the dpms3-54 marker...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Kenji Fujino, Tsutomu Nishimura, Hitoshi Kiuchi, Yuji Hirayama, Takashi Sato
Plant breeding programs in local regions may have genetic and phenotypic variations that are desirable and shape adaptability during the establishment of local populations. Despite the characterization of genetic population structures in various kinds of populations, the effects of variations in phenotype on agro-economical traits currently remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated phenotypic changes in 26 agro-economical traits among the local population during rice breeding programs in Hokkaido. Wide variations were observed in all 26 agro-economical traits with continuous distributions...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Yuki Yoshitsu, Masato Takakusagi, Akira Abe, Hiroki Takagi, Aiko Uemura, Hiroki Yaegashi, Ryohei Terauchi, Yoshihito Takahata, Katsunori Hatakeyama, Shuji Yokoi
Heading date is an important event to ensure successful seed production. Although foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.) is an important foodstuff in semiarid regions around the world, the genetic basis determining heading date is unclear. To identify genomic regions regulating days to heading (DTH), we conducted a QTL-seq analysis based on combining whole-genome re-sequencing and bulked-segregant analysis of an F2 population derived from crosses between the middle-heading cultivar Shinanotsubuhime and the early-heading cultivar Yuikogane...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Chisato Nabeuchi, Misaki Kurogaki, Monika Garg, Mika Saito, Goro Ishikawa, Toshiki Nakamura, Hisashi Tsujimoto
Wheat flours are used to produce bread, pasta, breakfast cereals, and biscuits; the various properties of these end-products are attributed to the gluten content, produced as seed storage proteins in the wheat endosperm. Thus, genes encoding gluten protein are major targets of wheat breeders aiming to improve the various properties of wheat flour. Here, we describe a novel compensating wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Robertsonian translocation (T1AS.1EL) line involving the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A (1AS) and the long arm of Th...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Theophile Odjo, Yohei Koide, Drissa Silue, Seiji Yanagihara, Takashi Kumashiro, Yoshimichi Fukuta
The genetic variation in resistance to blast (Pyricularia oryzae Cavara) in 195 rice accessions comprising 3 species of the AA genome complex (Asian rice [Oryza sativa L.], African rice [Oryza glaberrima Steud.] and wild rice [Oryza barthii]) was investigated based on their patterns of reaction to standard differential blast isolates (SDBIs) and SSR marker polymorphism data. Cluster analysis of the polymorphism data of 61 SSR markers identified 3 major clusters: cluster A (mainly Japonica Group or upland accessions), cluster B (mainly Indica Group or lowland accessions) and cluster C (O...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Mohammad Ashik Iqbal Khan, Mohammad Abdul Latif, Mohammad Khalequzzaman, Asami Tomita, Mohammad Ansar Ali, Yoshimichi Fukuta
Genetic variation in blast resistance was clarified in 334 Bangladesh rice accessions from 4 major ecotypes (Aus, Aman, Boro and Jhum). Cluster analysis of polymorphism data of 74 SSR markers separated these accessions into cluster I (corresponding to the Japonica Group) and cluster II (corresponding to the Indica Group). Cluster II accessions were represented with high frequency in all ecotypes. Cluster II was further subdivided into subclusters IIa and IIb. Subcluster IIa accessions were represented with high frequency in only Aus and Jhum ecotypes...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Awad A E Elbashir, Yasir S A Gorafi, Izzat S A Tahir, Ashraf M A Elhashimi, Modather G A Abdalla, Hisashi Tsujimoto
In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) high temperature (≥30°C) during grain filling leads to considerable reduction in grain yield. We studied 400 multiple synthetic derivatives (MSD) lines to examine the genetic variability of heat stress-adaptive traits and to identify new sources of heat tolerance to be used in wheat breeding programs. The experiment was arranged in an augmented randomized complete block design in four environments in Sudan. A wide range of genetic variability was found in most of the traits in all environments...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Lan Qi, Yan Sun, Jing Li, Long Su, Xiaoming Zheng, Xiaoning Wang, Kaimian Li, Qingwen Yang, Weihua Qiao
Grain size and weight are important determinants of rice yield. The identification of beneficial genes from wild rice that have been lost or weakened in cultivated rice has become increasingly important for modern breeding strategies. In this study, we constructed a set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) of wild rice, Oryza rufipogon with the indica cultivar 9311 genetic background. Four grain-related traits, i.e., grain length (GL), grain width (GW), length-width ratio (LWR), and thousand grain weight (TGW), were screened across six environments...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Keita Kato, Wakako Maruyama-Funatsuki, Mikiko Yanaka, Yusuke Ban, Kanenori Takata
Preharvest sprouting (PHS) of durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) is an important problem in Japan, where the rainy season overlaps with the harvest season. Since there are few PHS-resistant genetic resources in durum wheat, we introduced an R -gene for red seeds, the MFT gene, and the QPhs-5AL QTL, all of which are associated with PHS resistance, into durum wheat from a PHS-resistant bread wheat ( T. aestivum L.) cultivar, 'Zenkoujikomugi' (Zen), by backcross breeding. Developed near isogenic lines (NILs) with red seeds had a lower percentage germination (PG) and germination index (GI) than the recurrent parent, and seed color had the greatest effect...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Grazyna Korbecka-Glinka, Anna Czubacka, Marcin Przybys, Teresa Doroszewska
Growing resistant cultivars is the best method of protecting the crops against Potato virus Y (PVY). There are a few sources of PVY resistance/tolerance in tobacco acquired through mass selection, X-ray induced mutagenesis and introgressions from wild Nicotiana species. Here, we compare major sources of PVY resistance/tolerance in inoculation tests using ten PVY isolates collected in Central Europe (Poland and Germany) and differing with their virulence. The diversity of collected isolates was confirmed by DAS-ELISA tests and two PCR assays targeting the most common recombination sites in the PVY genome...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Mingyu Fan, Xiaojing Wang, Jian Sun, Qun Zhang, Zhengjin Xu, Quan Xu
Amylopectin is one of the major determinants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain quality, and a large difference in amylopectin is found between two subspecies: japonica and indica. However, the relationship among rice grain quality, indica/japonica genetic background, and amylopectin has not been clearly established. In this study, a series of backcross inbred lines derived from the cross between japonica (cv. Sasanishiki) and indica (cv. Habataki) were used to survey eating and cooking quality (ECQ), rapid visco analyzer (RVA) profiles, and the chain length distribution of amylopectin...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Rodrigo Iván Contreras-Soto, Freddy Mora, Fabiane Lazzari, Marco Antônio Rott de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Scapim, Ivan Schuster
Knowledge of the genetic architecture of flowering and maturity is needed to develop effective breeding strategies in tropical soybean. The aim of this study was to identify haplotypes across multiple environments that contribute to flowering time and maturity, with the purpose of selecting desired alleles, but maintaining a minimal impact on yield-related traits. For this purpose, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was undertaken to identify genomic regions that control days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM) using a soybean association mapping panel genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Kiyosumi Hori, Toshio Yamamoto, Masahiro Yano
Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomically important traits such as grain yield, disease resistance, and stress tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) have been detected by using segregating populations derived from crosses between indica and japonica subspecies or with wild relatives. However, the QTLs involved in the control of natural variation in agronomic traits among closely related cultivars are still unclear. Decoding the whole genome sequences of Nipponbare and other temperate japonica rice cultivars has accelerated the collection of a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
December 2017: Breeding Science
Ichiro Nagaoka, Hideki Sasahara, Kei Matsushita, Hideo Maeda, Shuichi Fukuoka, Masayuki Yamaguchi, Akiko Shigemune, Kiyoyuki Miura
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted on grain appearance in Emi-no-kizuna, a rice cultivar that has superior and stable appearance of the brown rice grain and high tolerance to high temperature stress, by using F3 lines derived from Emi-no-kizuna and Tomohonami. The investigation was performed 2013 and 2015. In summer 2013 the air temperature was higher and the larger differences in grain appearance were observed. In the QTL analysis, a highly contributing locus, qGA8, was detected at the end of the short arm of chromosome 8...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Dorota Milczarek, Jarosław Plich, Beata Tatarowska, Bogdan Flis
Cultivating resistant varieties of potato is the most effective and environmentally safe method of protecting against pests and diseases that affect potato crops. Therefore, potato breeding is focused on developing more resistant varieties so that the use of plant health products can be reduced during the cultivation cycle. Resistance to late blight, viruses and nematodes is the most important agricultural requirement. The use of molecular markers allows for the effective selection of resistant genotypes at early stages of breeding...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Kanako Bessho-Uehara, Tomoyuki Furuta, Kengo Masuda, Shuto Yamada, Rosalyn B Angeles-Shim, Motoyuki Ashikari, Tomonori Takashi
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food in the world. To meet the increasing demand for food, a strategy for improving rice yield is needed. Alleles of wild relatives are useful because they confer adaptation to plants under diverse harsh environments and have the potential to improve rice. O. barthii is a wild rice species endemic to Africa and the known progenitor of the African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima. To explore the genetic potential of the O. barthii as a genetic resource, 40 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSL) of O...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Jong-Yeol Lee, You-Ran Jang, Hye-Rang Beom, Susan B Altenbach, Sun-Hyung Lim, Choung Keun Lee
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) was used as a complement to SDS-PAGE to determine the allelic compositions of LMW-GS in 32 Korean wheat cultivars. Protein patterns generated by 2-DGE from each cultivar were compared to patterns from standard wheat cultivars for each allele. At the Glu-A3 locus, thirteen c, twelve d, three e (null), two g and two new alleles were identified. At the Glu-B3 locus, one b, nineteen d, four h, one i and five ad alleles were identified. At the Glu-D3 locus, twenty-three a, four b, four c and one l alleles were identified...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Shuhei Segami, Kana Takehara, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Shintaro Kido, Saki Kondo, Yukimoto Iwasaki, Kotaro Miura
Grain size is a trait that is important for rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield potential. Many genes regulating grain size have been identified, deepening our understanding of molecular mechanisms of grain size determination in rice. Previously, we cloned SMALL AND ROUND SEED 5 (SRS5) gene (encoding alpha-tubulin) from a small and round seed mutant and revealed that this gene regulates grain length independently of the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway, although BR-related mutants set small grain. In this study, we showed that overexpression of SRS5 can promote grain length and demonstrated that the overexpression of SRS5 in BR-related mutants rescued the shortened grain length, which is an unfavorable phenotype in the yield potential of BR-related mutants, while preserving the useful semi-dwarf and erect leaf phenotypes...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"