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Breeding Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681756/repressed-expression-of-a-gene-for-a-basic-helix-loop-helix-protein-causes-a-white-flower-phenotype-in-carnation
#1
Akane Totsuka, Emi Okamoto, Taira Miyahara, Takanobu Kouno, Emilio A Cano, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Aiko Watanabe, Keisuke Tasaki, Masahiro Nishihara, Yoshihiro Ozeki
In a previous study, two genes responsible for white flower phenotypes in carnation were identified. These genes encoded enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis, namely, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and showed reduced expression in the white flower phenotypes. Here, we identify another candidate gene for white phenotype in carnation flowers using an RNA-seq analysis followed by RT-PCR. This candidate gene encodes a transcriptional regulatory factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681755/recent-advances-in-flower-color-variation-and-patterning-of-japanese-morning-glory-and-petunia
#2
REVIEW
Yasumasa Morita, Atsushi Hoshino
The Japanese morning glory ( Ipomoea nil ) and petunia ( Petunia hybrida ), locally called "Asagao" and "Tsukubane-asagao", respectively, are popular garden plants. They have been utilized as model plants for studying the genetic basis of floricultural traits, especially anthocyanin pigmentation in flower petals. In their long history of genetic studies, many mutations affecting flower pigmentation have been characterized, and both structural and regulatory genes for the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have been identified...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681754/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-diverse-array-of-petal-colors-in-chrysanthemum-flowers
#3
REVIEW
Akemi Ohmiya
Chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is one of the most important floricultural crops in the world. Although the origin of modern chrysanthemum cultivars is uncertain, several species belonging to the family Asteraceae are considered to have been integrated during the long history of breeding. The flower color of ancestral species is limited to yellow, pink, and white, and is derived from carotenoids, anthocyanins, and the absence of both pigments, respectively. A wide range of flower colors, including purplish-red, orange, red, and dark red, has been developed by increasing the range of pigment content or the combination of both pigments...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681753/florigen-and-anti-florigen-flowering-regulation-in-horticultural-crops
#4
REVIEW
Yohei Higuchi
Flowering time regulation has significant effects on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Plants respond to changing environments and produce appropriate floral inducers (florigens) or inhibitors (anti-florigens) that determine flowering time. Recent studies have demonstrated that members of two homologous proteins, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), act as florigen and anti-florigen, respectively. Studies in diverse plant species have revealed universal but diverse roles of the FT/TFL1 gene family in many developmental processes...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681752/molecular-aspects-of-flower-senescence-and-strategies-to-improve-flower-longevity
#5
REVIEW
Kenichi Shibuya
Flower longevity is one of the most important traits for ornamental plants. Ethylene plays a crucial role in flower senescence in some plant species. In several species that show ethylene-dependent flower senescence, genetic modification targeting genes for ethylene biosynthesis or signaling has improved flower longevity. Although little is known about regulatory mechanisms of petal senescence in flowers that show ethylene-independent senescence, a recent study of Japanese morning glory revealed that a NAC transcription factor, EPHEMERAL1 (EPH1), is a key regulator in ethylene-independent petal senescence...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681751/utilization-of-transcription-factors-for-controlling-floral-morphogenesis-in-horticultural-plants
#6
REVIEW
Katsutomo Sasaki
Transcription factors play important roles not only in the development of floral organs but also in the formation of floral characteristics in various plant species. Therefore, transcription factors are reasonable targets for modifying these floral traits and generating new flower cultivars. However, it has been difficult to control the functions of transcription factors because most plant genes, including those encoding transcription factors, exhibit redundancy. In particular, it has been difficult to understand the functions of these redundant genes by genetic analysis...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681750/recent-advances-in-the-research-and-development-of-blue-flowers
#7
REVIEW
Naonobu Noda
Flower color is the most important trait in the breeding of ornamental plants. In the floriculture industry, however, bluish colored flowers of desirable plants have proved difficult to breed. Many ornamental plants with a high production volume, such as rose and chrysanthemum, lack the key genes for producing the blue delphinidin pigment or do not have an intracellular environment suitable for developing blue color. Recently, it has become possible to incorporate a blue flower color trait through progress in molecular biological analysis of pigment biosynthesis genes and genetic engineering...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681749/mutation-breeding-of-ornamental-plants-using-ion-beams
#8
REVIEW
Hiroyasu Yamaguchi
Ornamental plants that have a rich variety of flower colors and shapes are highly prized in the commercial flower market, and therefore, mutant cultivars that produce different types of flowers while retaining their growth habits are in demand. Furthermore, mutation breeding is well suited for ornamental plants because many species can be easily vegetatively propagated, facilitating the production of spontaneous and induced mutants. The use of ion beams in mutation breeding has rapidly expanded since the 1990s in Japan, with the prospect that more ion beam-specific mutants will be generated...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681748/recent-progress-in-whole-genome-sequencing-high-density-linkage-maps-and-genomic-databases-of-ornamental-plants
#9
REVIEW
Masafumi Yagi
Genome information is useful for functional analysis of genes, comparative genomic analysis, breeding of new varieties by marker-assisted selection, and map-based gene isolation. Genome-related research in ornamentals plants has been relatively slow to develop because of their heterozygosity or polyploidy. Advances in analytical instruments, such as next-generation sequencers and information processing technologies have revolutionized biology, and have been applied in a large number and variety of species, including ornamental plants...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681747/heredity-of-flake-and-stripe-variegated-traits-and-their-introduction-into-japanese-day-neutral-winter-flowering-sweet-pea-lathyrus-odoratus-l-cultivars
#10
REVIEW
Yoshimi Yagishita, Yasuhide Hara, Masayoshi Nakayama
Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) is a major cut flower in Japan, generally grown in greenhouses in winter to spring. The wild-type sweet pea is a long-day summer-flowering plant. The day-neutral winter-flowering ability, which allows cut-flower production in Japan, is a recessive phenotype that emerged by spontaneous mutation. Although Japanese winter-flowering cultivars and additionally spring-flowering cultivars, which have semi-long-day flowering ability generated by crossing the winter- and summer-flowering cultivars, have superior phenotypes for cut flowers, they have limited variation in color and fragrance...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681746/breeding-of-lilies-and-tulips-interspecific-hybridization-and-genetic-background
#11
REVIEW
Agnieszka Marasek-Ciolakowska, Tomotaro Nishikawa, Daniel J Shea, Keiichi Okazaki
Lilies and tulips (Liliaceae family) are economically very important ornamental bulbous plants. Here, we summarize major breeding goals, the role of an integrated method of cut-style pollination and fertilization followed by embryo rescue and mitotic and meiotic polyploidization involved in new assortment development. Both crops have been subjected to extensive interspecific hybridization followed by selection. Additionally, spontaneous polyploidization has played a role in their evolution. In lilies, there is a tendency to replace diploids with polyploid cultivars, whereas in tulip a majority of the cultivars that exist today are still diploid except for triploid Darwin hybrid tulips...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681745/breeding-of-fragrant-cyclamen-by-interspecific-hybridization-and-ion-beam-irradiation
#12
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ishizaka
Conventional breeding of cyclamen has relied on crossings among Cyclamen persicum cultivars without consideration of the scent of the flowers. Cyclamen purpurascens is a wild species with the most fragrant flowers in the genus Cyclamen. Allodiploid (2 n = 2 x = 41, AB) and allotriploid (2 n = 3 x = 65, AAB) plants have been produced from crosses of diploid and autotetraploid cultivars of C. persicum (2 n = 2 x = 48, AA; 4 x = 96, AAAA) × diploid wild C. purpurascens (2 n = 2 x = 34, BB) by embryo rescue, but are sterile...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681744/development-of-basic-technologies-for-improvement-of-breeding-and-cultivation-of-japanese-gentian
#13
REVIEW
Masahiro Nishihara, Keisuke Tasaki, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Hideyuki Takahashi
Japanese gentians are the most important ornamental flowers in Iwate Prefecture and their breeding and cultivation have been actively conducted for half a century. With its cool climate and large hilly and mountainous area, more than 60% of gentian production in Japan occurs in Iwate Prefecture. Recent advances in gentian breeding and cultivation have facilitated the efficient breeding of new cultivars; disease control and improved cultivation conditions have led to the stable production of Japanese gentians...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681743/breeding-of-carnations-dianthus-caryophyllus-l-for-long-vase-life
#14
REVIEW
Takashi Onozaki
Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the main floricultural crops in Japan and worldwide. The vase life of cut ornamental flowers, including carnations, is important in determining their quality and consumers' preference. To improve the vase life of carnation flowers, my group started a breeding research program in 1992 using conventional cross-breeding techniques. We repeatedly crossed and selected promising offspring with long vase life for seven generations, from 1992 to 2008. In 2005, we developed two cultivars, 'Miracle Rouge' and 'Miracle Symphony', with genetically determined long vase lives of 17...
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681742/current-researches-in-ornamental-plant-breeding
#15
EDITORIAL
Ryutaro Aida, Akemi Ohmiya, Takashi Onozaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398950/a-set-of-tetra-nucleotide-core-motif-ssr-markers-for-efficient-identification-of-potato-solanum-tuberosum-cultivars
#16
Masahiro Kishine, Katsuji Tsutsumi, Kazumi Kitta
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) is a popular tool for individual fingerprinting. The long-core motif (e.g. tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are preferred because they make it easier to separate and distinguish neighbor alleles. In the present study, a new set of 8 tetra-nucleotide SSRs in potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) is reported. By using these 8 markers, 72 out of 76 cultivars obtained from Japan and the United States were clearly discriminated, while two pairs, both of which arose from natural variation, showed identical profiles...
December 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398949/identification-of-qtls-for-rice-brown-spot-resistance-in-backcross-inbred-lines-derived-from-a-cross-between-koshihikari-and-ch45
#17
Kengo Matsumoto, Yuya Ota, Satomi Seta, Yukinori Nakayama, Teppei Ohno, Ritsuko Mizobuchi, Hiroyuki Sato
Rice brown spot (BS), caused by Bipolaris oryzae , is one of the major diseases of rice in Japan. Quantitative resistance has been observed in local cultivars (e.g., CH45), but no economically useful resistant variety has been bred. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphic markers, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of BS resistance in backcross inbred lines (BILs) from a cross between indica CH45 (resistant) and japonica Koshihikari (susceptible). On the basis of field disease evaluations in 2015 and 2016, four QTLs contributing to BS resistance were identified on chromosomes 2 ( qBSR2-kc ), 7 ( qBSR7-kc ), 9 ( qBSR9-kc ), and 11 ( qBSR11-kc )...
December 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398948/development-and-validation-of-a-functional-co-dominant-snp-marker-for-the-photoperiod-thermo-sensitive-genic-male-sterility-pms3-p-tms12-1-gene-in-rice
#18
Yongbin Qi, Linyou Wang, Junmei Gui, Lixia Zhang, Qinglong Liu, Jianjun Wang
The fertility conversion of photoperiod thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS) lines in rice is mostly regulated by the P/TGMS genes in different environmental conditions. A point mutation with G-C on the pms3 ( p/tms12-1 ) gene regulates the pollen fertility of Nongken58S and a large amount of Nongken58S-derived lines. In this study, we developed and designed a functional co-dominant marker according to the SNP loci for the pms3 ( p/tms12-1 ) gene. We can differentiate the SNP loci in pms3 ( p/tms12-1 ) gene from another TGMS lines and inbred cultivars using the dpms3-54 marker...
December 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398947/phenotypic-changes-during-100-year-rice-breeding-programs-in-hokkaido
#19
Kenji Fujino, Tsutomu Nishimura, Hitoshi Kiuchi, Yuji Hirayama, Takashi Sato
Plant breeding programs in local regions may have genetic and phenotypic variations that are desirable and shape adaptability during the establishment of local populations. Despite the characterization of genetic population structures in various kinds of populations, the effects of variations in phenotype on agro-economical traits currently remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated phenotypic changes in 26 agro-economical traits among the local population during rice breeding programs in Hokkaido. Wide variations were observed in all 26 agro-economical traits with continuous distributions...
December 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398946/qtl-seq-analysis-identifies-two-genomic-regions-determining-the-heading-date-of-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica-l-p-beauv
#20
Yuki Yoshitsu, Masato Takakusagi, Akira Abe, Hiroki Takagi, Aiko Uemura, Hiroki Yaegashi, Ryohei Terauchi, Yoshihito Takahata, Katsunori Hatakeyama, Shuji Yokoi
Heading date is an important event to ensure successful seed production. Although foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.) is an important foodstuff in semiarid regions around the world, the genetic basis determining heading date is unclear. To identify genomic regions regulating days to heading (DTH), we conducted a QTL-seq analysis based on combining whole-genome re-sequencing and bulked-segregant analysis of an F2 population derived from crosses between the middle-heading cultivar Shinanotsubuhime and the early-heading cultivar Yuikogane...
December 2017: Breeding Science
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