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Breeding Science

Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Atsushi Yoshimura, Toyoaki Anai, Satoshi Watanabe
DNA markers are useful for identifying genes and developing new genetic materials for breeding and genetic research. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis can detect a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments as a melting temperature (Tm) difference without additional experimental steps, such as gel electrophoresis. To design a method for developing reliable HRM markers that discriminate between homozygous alleles containing SNPs, we tested new evaluation indexes related to the thermodynamics of double-stranded DNA to find one that maximizes the difference in Tm values between PCR fragments...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Taira Miyahara, Natsu Sugishita, Madoka Ishida-Dei, Emi Okamoto, Takanobu Kouno, Emilio A Cano, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Aiko Watanabe, Keisuke Tasaki, Masahiro Nishihara, Yoshihiro Ozeki
Carnations carrying a recessive I gene show accumulation of the yellow pigment chalcononaringenin 2'-glucoside (Ch2'G) in their flowers, whereas those with a dominant I gene do accumulation the red pigment, anthocyanin. Although this metabolic alternative at the I gene could explain yellow and red flower phenotypes, it does not explain the development of orange flower phenotypes which result from the simultaneous accumulation of both Ch2'G and anthocyanin. The carnation whole genome sequencing project recently revealed that two chalcone isomerase genes are present, one that is consistent with the I gene (Dca60979) and another (Dca60978) that had not been characterized...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Ma LaRue E Ballesfin, Ricky B Vinarao, Janice Sapin, Sung-Ryul Kim, Kshirod K Jena
An intergeneric hybrid was successfully developed between Oryza sativa L. (IRRI 154) and Leersia perrieri (A. Camus) Launert using embryo rescue technique in this study. A low crossability value (0.07%) implied that there was high incompatibility between the two species of the hybrid. The F1 hybrid showed intermediate phenotypic characteristics between the parents but the plant height was very short. The erect plant type resembled the female parent IRRI 154 but the leaves were similar to L. perrieri . Cytological analysis revealed highly non-homology between chromosomes of the two species as the F1 plants showed 24 univalents without any chromosome pairing...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Rahul Vasudeo Ramekar, Kyu Jin Sa, Kyong-Cheul Park, Neha Roy, Nam-Soo Kim, Ju Kyong Lee
Transposable elements (TEs), are a rich source for molecular marker development as they constitute a significant fraction of the eukaryotic genome and impact the overall genome structure. Here, we utilize Mutator- based transposon display ( Mu -TD), and CACTA-derived sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) anchored by simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to agriculturally important traits on a genetic map. Specifically, we studied recombinant inbred line populations derived from a cross between dent corn and waxy corn...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Shu-Fen Li, Bing-Xiao Wang, Yu-Jiao Guo, Chuan-Liang Deng, Wu-Jun Gao
Spinach is a nutritional leafy green vegetable, and it also serves as a model species for studying sex chromosome evolution. Genetic marker development and genome structure analysis are important in breeding practice and theoretical evolution studies of spinach. In this study, the frequency and distribution of different microsatellites in the recently released draft spinach genome were characterized. A total of 261,002 perfect microsatellites were identified (estimated frequency: ~262.1 loci/Mbp). The most abundant microsatellites were tetranucleotide and trinucleotide, accounting for 33...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Kenji Fujino, Yuji Hirayama, Mari Obara, Tomohito Ikegaya
The control of insects that consume cereal grains is important for the production and storage of grains. Hull-cracked rice, which has splits in the hull, becomes more susceptible to insects both in the paddy field and during storage. The development of varieties with a low frequency of hull-cracked rice is the most economical and effective strategy to avoid insect damage and the environmental risks from agricultural chemical entering rice grains. In this study, we identified that QTLs for the frequency of hull-cracked rice and for grain width are located on the same chromosome using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the elite rice varieties in Hokkaido, Japan, which are from the same pedigree and are genetically closely related...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Dequan Liu, Yongliang Yan, Yasunari Fujita, Donghe Xu
The 100-seed weight (100SW) is one of the most important traits that control soybean yield. To identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) of 100SW, 120 BC3 F5 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) were cultivated over three years. The CSSLs were developed from a cross between the cultivated soybean variety 'Jackson' and the wild soybean accession 'JWS156-1', followed by continuous backcrossing using 'Jackson' variety as a recurrent parent. A total of nine QTLs ( qSW8.1 , qSW9.1 , qSW12.1 , qSW13.1 , qSW14...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Shinnosuke Ohmori, Setsuo Koike, Takami Hayashi, Tomoya Yamaguchi, Makoto Kuroki, Hitoshi Yoshida
We reported previously that the rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cleistogamous mutation superwoman1-cleistogamy1 ( spw1-cls1 ) was applicable to inhibit outcrossing between genetically modified varieties and their relatives, which causes pollen-mediated gene flow or disturbance of line purity. The cleistogamy of spw1-cls1 is caused by decreased protein-protein interactions between the mutant SPW1 and its partner proteins. Importantly, these interactions are restored under low-temperature conditions, but whether the cleistogamy of spw1-cls1 is affected by this phenomenon was unclear...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Maiko Akasaka, Yojiro Taniguchi, Masao Oshima, Kiyomi Abe, Yutaka Tabei, Junichi Tanaka
Because genomic selection is designed for the population breeding of allogamous species, a successive outcrossing system is required for efficient use of genomic selection in autogamous crops, such as Oryza sativa L. (rice). Transgenic and dominant male-sterility is a suitable tool for efficient outcrossing of autogamous crops. Though there have been some reports of dominant male-sterile rice developed using transgenic technology, the flowering habit was substandard. Here, to isolate promoters that, when linked to a lethal gene, induce dominant male-sterility while retaining a good flowering habit, we identified 38 candidate genes with anther-specific expression by using the 'RiceXPro' database...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Ritsuko Mizobuchi, Shuichi Fukuoka, Chikako Tsuiki, Seiya Tsushima, Hiroyuki Sato
Bacterial grain rot (BGR), caused by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae , is one of the most destructive rice ( Oryza sativa ) diseases in Japan; however, there are no BGR-resistant cultivars for use in Japan. We previously developed a cut-panicle inoculation method to assess the levels of BGR resistance in the World Rice Collection (WRC). Here, we evaluated major Japanese cultivars for BGR resistance and found that none showed "strong" or "medium to strong" resistance; most were categorized as "medium to weak"...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Om Prakash Meena, Major Singh Dhaliwal, Salesh Kumar Jindal
A breeding program was initiated in 2009 to develop temperature stable CMS lines in chilli. 'CCA 4261' was used as a CMS donor. From the 11 testcross progeny screened, maintainer plants were identified from 'SL 461', 'SL 462' and 'SD 463'. After 6 backcrosses to the maintainer plants, 17 CMS lines in diverse genetic backgrounds were established. The CMS lines were evaluated for stability of sterility over four environments during 2014-15 and 2015-16. The environments E1 and E3 represented the low temperature regime, and E2 and E4 the high temperature regime...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Chengqi Li, Bihua Chen, Xinjuan Xu, Dandan Li, Jinyuan Dong
Analyzing the genetic differences among crop germplasm resources scientifically and accurately is very important for the selection of core accessions, the identification of new cultivars, and the determination of seed purity. However, phenotypic selection per se is not sufficient to identify genetically distinct accessions. In this study, 26 out of 83 simple sequence repeat markers associated/linked with cotton important agronomic traits derived from our previous and other published research, corresponding to the 26 chromosomes of Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L...
September 2018: Breeding Science
Muhammad Jakir Hasan, Habibur Rahman
The oilseed crop Brassica juncea carries many desirable traits; however, resistance to clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae , is not available in this species. We are the first to report the clubroot resistant resynthesized B. juncea lines, developed through interspecific crosses between a clubroot resistant B. rapa ssp. rapifera and two susceptible B. nigra lines, and the stability of the resistance in self-pollinated generations. The interspecific nature of the resynthesized B. juncea plants was confirmed by using A- and B-genome specific SSR markers, and flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Wan-Yi Chiou, Kazuo Tsugane, Tadafumi Kawamoto, Masahiko Maekawa
To obtain a clear intact section of a ripened rice grain, which is suitable for biochemical and histological analysis, the Kawamoto method using a specific adhesive film was applied using a cryomicrotome. The longitudinal and sagittal sections were easily obtained together with the cross-section, and cell characteristics were clearly discerned in the ripened grain. It was demonstrated that the Kawamoto method is readily applicable for intact sectioning of hard tissue, including ripened grain. Intact section sampling may be useful for enzymatic analysis and transcriptomic analysis of plant tissue...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Daniel J Shea, Motoki Shimizu, Etsuko Itabashi, Naomi Miyaji, Junji Miyazaki, Kenji Osabe, Makoto Kaji, Keiichi Okazaki, Ryo Fujimoto
The genome-wide characterization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between cultivars or between inbred lines contributes to the creation of genetic markers that are important for plant breeding. Functional markers derived from polymorphisms within genes that affect phenotypic variation are especially valuable in plant breeding. Here, we report on the genome re-sequencing and analysis of the two parental inbred lines of the commercial F1 hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar "W77". Through the genome-wide identification and classification of the SNPs and indels present in each parental line, we identified about 1,500 putative non-functional genes in each parent...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Osvin Arriagada, Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Junior, Freddy Mora
We present an association analysis for seven key traits related to flowering, stem form and growth in Eucalyptus cladocalyx , a tree species suitable for low rainfall sites, using a long-term progeny trial with 49 open-pollinated maternal families in the southern Atacama Desert, Chile. The progeny trial was carried out in an arid environment with a mean annual rainfall of 152 mm. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) from a full consensus map of Eucalyptus were used for genotyping 245 individual trees. Twenty-three significant marker-trait associations were identified, explaining between 5...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Yoichiro Hoshino, Noriko Kanematsu, Masahiro Mii
Lilies ( Lilium spp.) are one of the most important floricultural crops. As most lily cultivars have originated from interspecific hybridization, they usually have complex genome composition and occasionally fail to develop normal gametes. Further improvement of lily cultivars by sexual crossing requires evaluation of gamete development and subsequent male and female fertility. Although male fertility is easily evaluated through microscopic observation after staining or by pollen culture for germination, evaluation of female fertility is difficult, because gametes develop inside an ovule within an ovary...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Shin Kato, Takashi Sayama, Masao Ishimoto, Setsuzo Yumoto, Akio Kikuchi, Takeshi Nishio
The timing of flower formation and length of the seed-filling period of indeterminate growth soybean varieties vary more than those of determinate varieties ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill). These variations have been hypothesized to affect single seed weight and its uniformity which determine the processing quality of soybean used in foods. We derived near isogenic lines (NILs) with different growth characteristics from an indeterminate line (donor parent) and three determinate lines with heavy seeds (recurrent parents), and evaluated the effects of growth habit on seed weight and its uniformity...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Jing Li, Jiawu Zhou, Peng Xu, Xianneng Deng, Wei Deng, Mingzhu He, Ying Yang, Yu Zhang, Dayun Tao
Hybrid sterility between Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima is a main reproduction barrier when transferring the favorable alleles from O. glaberrima to O. sativa and it happens due to allelic interaction at sterility loci. Neutral alleles at each locus have the potential to overcome the sterility between the two cultivated rice species. In this study, an O. sativa cultivar Dianjingyou 1 (DJY1) and its near-isogenic lines (NILs) harboring the single sterility allele S1 -glab, S19 -glab, S20 -glab, S37 -glab, S38 -glab and S39 -glab as the tested lines were crossed with O...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Kana Takehara, Kazumasa Murata, Takuya Yamaguchi, Kohei Yamaguchi, Genki Chaya, Shintaro Kido, Yukimoto Iwasaki, Hitoshi Ogiwara, Takeshi Ebitani, Kotaro Miura
High-temperature stress during the ripening stage leads to quality deterioration due to an increase in chalky grains in brown rice ( Oryza sativa L.). In a previous study, we identified a QTL for Appearance quality of brown rice 1 ( Apq1 ) using chromosome segment substitution lines of the indica cultivar 'Habataki' in the japonica cultivar 'Koshihikari' background and narrowed down the locus to a 48-kb region on chromosome 7. To verify the function and mechanisms of this QTL in grain appearance, in this study, we fine-mapped the gene and conducted high-temperature tolerance tests...
June 2018: Breeding Science
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