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Breeding Science

Ichiro Nagaoka, Hideki Sasahara, Kei Matsushita, Hideo Maeda, Shuichi Fukuoka, Masayuki Yamaguchi, Akiko Shigemune, Kiyoyuki Miura
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted on grain appearance in Emi-no-kizuna, a rice cultivar that has superior and stable appearance of the brown rice grain and high tolerance to high temperature stress, by using F3 lines derived from Emi-no-kizuna and Tomohonami. The investigation was performed 2013 and 2015. In summer 2013 the air temperature was higher and the larger differences in grain appearance were observed. In the QTL analysis, a highly contributing locus, qGA8, was detected at the end of the short arm of chromosome 8...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Dorota Milczarek, Jarosław Plich, Beata Tatarowska, Bogdan Flis
Cultivating resistant varieties of potato is the most effective and environmentally safe method of protecting against pests and diseases that affect potato crops. Therefore, potato breeding is focused on developing more resistant varieties so that the use of plant health products can be reduced during the cultivation cycle. Resistance to late blight, viruses and nematodes is the most important agricultural requirement. The use of molecular markers allows for the effective selection of resistant genotypes at early stages of breeding...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Kanako Bessho-Uehara, Tomoyuki Furuta, Kengo Masuda, Shuto Yamada, Rosalyn B Angeles-Shim, Motoyuki Ashikari, Tomonori Takashi
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food in the world. To meet the increasing demand for food, a strategy for improving rice yield is needed. Alleles of wild relatives are useful because they confer adaptation to plants under diverse harsh environments and have the potential to improve rice. O. barthii is a wild rice species endemic to Africa and the known progenitor of the African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima. To explore the genetic potential of the O. barthii as a genetic resource, 40 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSL) of O...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Jong-Yeol Lee, You-Ran Jang, Hye-Rang Beom, Susan B Altenbach, Sun-Hyung Lim, Choung Keun Lee
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) was used as a complement to SDS-PAGE to determine the allelic compositions of LMW-GS in 32 Korean wheat cultivars. Protein patterns generated by 2-DGE from each cultivar were compared to patterns from standard wheat cultivars for each allele. At the Glu-A3 locus, thirteen c, twelve d, three e (null), two g and two new alleles were identified. At the Glu-B3 locus, one b, nineteen d, four h, one i and five ad alleles were identified. At the Glu-D3 locus, twenty-three a, four b, four c and one l alleles were identified...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Shuhei Segami, Kana Takehara, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Shintaro Kido, Saki Kondo, Yukimoto Iwasaki, Kotaro Miura
Grain size is a trait that is important for rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield potential. Many genes regulating grain size have been identified, deepening our understanding of molecular mechanisms of grain size determination in rice. Previously, we cloned SMALL AND ROUND SEED 5 (SRS5) gene (encoding alpha-tubulin) from a small and round seed mutant and revealed that this gene regulates grain length independently of the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway, although BR-related mutants set small grain. In this study, we showed that overexpression of SRS5 can promote grain length and demonstrated that the overexpression of SRS5 in BR-related mutants rescued the shortened grain length, which is an unfavorable phenotype in the yield potential of BR-related mutants, while preserving the useful semi-dwarf and erect leaf phenotypes...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Aiko Sugiyama, Yoshinori Ikoma, Hiroshi Fujii, Tomoko Endo, Hirohisa Nesumi, Takehiko Shimada, Mitsuo Omura
Phytoene synthase (PSY) is one of the key regulatory enzyme on the biosynthesis and accumulation of carotenoid in citrus fruits. The transcriptional diversity of PSY is mainly attributed to the structural variation in promoter region among PSY alleles. In aim to clarify how this transcriptional diversity is regulated among them, PSY alleles responsible for carotenoid biosynthesis in the fruits are characterized and their promoter sequences were compared. Based on gene structure and expression pattern of PSY homologues on the clementine mandarin genome sequence, PSY alleles responsible for carotenoid biosynthesis are derived from a single locus in the scaffold 6...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Takuya Wada, Koichiro Oku, Soichiro Nagano, Sachiko Isobe, Hideyuki Suzuki, Miyuki Mori, Kinuko Takata, Chiharu Hirata, Katsumi Shimomura, Masao Tsubone, Takao Katayama, Keita Hirashima, Yosuke Uchimura, Hidetoshi Ikegami, Takayuki Sueyoshi, Ko-Ichi Obu, Tatsuya Hayashida, Yasushi Shibato
A strawberry Multi-parent Advanced Generation Intercrosses (MAGIC) population, derived from crosses using six strawberry cultivars was successfully developed. The population was composed of 338 individuals; genome conformation was evaluated by expressed sequence tag-derived simple short repeat (EST-SSR) markers. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) based on EST-SSR marker polymorphisms revealed that the MAGIC population was a mosaic of the six founder cultivars and covered the genomic regions of the six founders evenly...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Takashi Sayama, Takanari Tanabata, Masayasu Saruta, Testsuya Yamada, Toyoaki Anai, Akito Kaga, Masao Ishimoto
Most soybean cultivars possess broad leaflets; however, a recessive allele on the Ln locus is known to cause the alteration of broad to narrow leaflets. The recessive allele ln has also been considered to increase the number of seeds per pod (NSP) and has the potential to improve yield. Recently, Gm-JAG1 (Glyma20g25000), a gene controlling Ln, has been shown to complement leaf shape and silique length in Arabidopsis mutants. However, whether Gm-JAG1 is responsible for those traits in soybean is not yet known...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Saki Hatono, Kaori Nishimura, Yoko Murakami, Mai Tsujimura, Hiroshi Yamagishi
The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for two cultivars of Brassica rapa. After determining the sequence of a Chinese cabbage variety, 'Oushou hakusai', the sequence of a mizuna variety, 'Chusei shiroguki sensuji kyomizuna', was mapped against the sequence of Chinese cabbage. The precise sequences where the two varieties demonstrated variation were ascertained by direct sequencing. It was found that the mitochondrial genomes of the two varieties are identical over 219,775 bp, with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) between the genomes...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Hidetoshi Goto, Marc A McPherson, Bradley A Comstock, Duška Stojšin, Ryo Ohsawa
Environmental risk assessment is required for genetically modified (GM) crops before their import into Japan. Annual roadside monitoring along transportation routes from ports to processing facilities for GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) have been requested as a condition of import only approval because of lack of information on the likelihood of persistence of imported GM soybean for food, feed and processing and the potential for transfer of transgenes into wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) through gene flow under the Japanese environment...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Sheng-Shan Wang, Rong-Kuen Chen, Kai-Yi Chen, Chu-Yin Liu, Shu-Min Kao, Chia-Lin Chung
Secondary branch number (SBN) is an important component affecting spikelet number per panicle (SPP) and yield in rice. During recurrent backcross breeding, four BC2F4 populations derived from the high-yield donor parent IR65598-112-2 and the recurrent parent Tainan 13 (a local japonica cultivar) showed discontinuous variations of SPP and SBN within populations. Genetic analysis of 92 BC2F4 individuals suggested that both SPP and SBN are controlled by a single recessive allele. Two parents and 37 BC2F4 individuals showing high- and low-SBN type phenotypes were analyzed by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq)...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Katsunori Miyahara, Takuya Wada, Jun-Ya Sonoda, Tadashi Tsukaguchi, Masayuki Miyazaki, Masao Tsubone, Osamu Yamaguchi, Masafumi Ishibashi, Norio Iwasawa, Takayuki Umemoto, Motohiko Kondo
The occurrence of chalky rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains caused by high temperature is a serious problem in rice production. Of the several kinds of chalky grains, milky-white grains are not well analyzed. The milky-white rice grain phenomenon is caused by genetic factors as well as environmental and nutritional conditions. To analyze the genetic control system for rice grain quality, we raised recombinant inbred lines from progeny produced from 'Tsukushiroman' (high temperature sensitive) and 'Chikushi 52' (high temperature tolerant) cultivars...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Hiroyuki Tsuji
Florigen is a mobile flowering signal in plants that has a strong impact on plant reproduction and is considered one of the important targets for crop improvement. At the molecular level, florigen is represented as a protein product encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which is highly conserved across flowering plants and thus the understanding of this protein is expected to be applied to the improvement of many crops. Recent advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and structural biology in plants revealed the presence of intercellular receptors for florigen, a transcriptional complex essential for florigen to function, and also shed light on the molecular basis of pleiotropic function of florigen beyond flowering...
September 2017: Breeding Science
Yu Sakamoto, Kazuyuki Mori, Yuuki Matsuo, Nobuhiro Mukojima, Wataru Watanabe, Norio Sobaru, Seiji Tamiya, Takashi Nakao, Kazuya Hayashi, Hitomi Watanuki, Kazuhiro Nara, Kaoru Yamazaki, Masataka Chaya
'Nagasaki Kogane' is a new potato variety bred from a cross between 'Saikai 35' as a female parent and 'Saikai 33' as a male. 'Saikai 35' is resistant to bacterial wilt, contains the H1 and Rychc genes for resistance to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, and has high carotenoid content, while 'Saikai 33' has large and high-yielding tubers and is resistant to both bacterial wilt and PCN. The carotenoid content of 'Nagasaki Kogane' is higher than that of 'Dejima', a common double cropping variety...
June 2017: Breeding Science
Tomoko M Matsunaga, Daisuke Ogawa, Fumio Taguchi-Shiobara, Masao Ishimoto, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Yoshiki Habu
Leaf color is an important indicator when evaluating plant growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stress. Acquisition of images by digital cameras allows analysis and long-term storage of the acquired images. However, under field conditions, where light intensity can fluctuate and other factors (shade, reflection, and background, etc.) vary, stable and reproducible measurement and quantification of leaf color are hard to achieve. Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive processes involved often induce deformation of plant materials (curled leaves and faded colors, etc...
June 2017: Breeding Science
Anpeng Zhang, Chaolei Liu, Guang Chen, Kai Hong, Yang Gao, Peng Tian, Youlin Peng, Bin Zhang, Banpu Ruan, Hongzhen Jiang, Longbiao Guo, Qian Qian, Zhenyu Gao
Seedling vigor is an important agricultural trait as direct-seeded rice technology becomes widely applied. In order to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling vigor in rice, seeds of 132 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from 93-11 and PA64s, harvested from Lingshui and Hangzhou were cultivated in the nutrient solution, and four indices for seedling vigor were measured including seedling shoot length (SSL), seedling root length (SRL), seedling wet weight (SWW) and seedling dry weight (SDW)...
June 2017: Breeding Science
Jun Chen, Bo Wang, Yueli Zhang, Xiaopeng Yue, Zhaohong Li, Kede Liu
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops almost all over the world. Seed-related traits, including oil content (OC), silique length (SL), seeds per silique (SS), and seed weight (SW), are primary targets for oil yield improvement. To dissect the genetic basis of these traits, 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were derived from two parents with distinct oil content and silique length. High-density linkage map with a total length of 1610.4 cM were constructed using 1,329 double-digestion restriction site associated DNA (ddRAD) markers, 107 insertion/deletions (INDELs), and 90 well-distributed simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers...
June 2017: Breeding Science
Wen Jing, Ping Deng, Chengjuan Cao, Wenhua Zhang
Shoot K(+) concentration (SKC) is an important physiological parameter used to evaluate salt tolerance at the seedling stage in rice (Oryza sativa L.). qSKC-1, a major quantitative trait locus for SKC in rice under salt stress, was detected on chromosome 1 using three F2 populations constructed by crossing 'Nipponbare' and its two salt-sensitive mutants (rss2 and rss4) with an indica cultivar 'Zhaiyeqing8' ('ZYQ8'). In this study, the chromosomal location of qSKC-1 was determined precisely by fine mapping. First, the presence of qSKC-1 was confirmed by QTL analysis of a re-constructed 'Nipponbare' × 'ZYQ8' F2 population...
June 2017: Breeding Science
Satoshi Watanabe, Chikaharu Tsukamoto, Tatsuki Oshita, Tetsuya Yamada, Toyoaki Anai, Akito Kaga
Soybean (Glycine max) has a paleopolyploid genome, and many re-sequencing experiments to characterize soybean genotypes have been conducted using next-generation sequencing platforms. The accumulation of information about single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the soybean genome has accelerated identification of genomic regions related to agronomically important traits through association studies. However, although many efficient mapping techniques that use next-generation sequencing are available, the number of practical approaches to identify genes/loci is still limited...
June 2017: Breeding Science
Kaori Kohzuma, Motoko Chiba, Soichiro Nagano, Toyoaki Anai, Miki U Ueda, Riichi Oguchi, Kazumasa Shirai, Kousuke Hanada, Kouki Hikosaka, Nobuharu Fujii
Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC1M1 line, that is, progenies of M1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC1M1 individuals with mutations...
June 2017: Breeding Science
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