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Atmospheric Environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781568/simultaneously-reducing-co2-and-particulate-exposures-via-fractional-recirculation-of-vehicle-cabin-air
#1
Heejung S Jung, Michael L Grady, Tristan Victoroff, Arthur L Miller
Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle...
July 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959135/exposure-assessment-models-for-elemental-components-of-particulate-matter-in-an-urban-environment-a-comparison-of-regression-and-random-forest-approaches
#2
Cole Brokamp, Roman Jandarov, M B Rao, Grace LeMasters, Patrick Ryan
Exposure assessment for elemental components of particulate matter (PM) using land use modeling is a complex problem due to the high spatial and temporal variations in pollutant concentrations at the local scale. Land use regression (LUR) models may fail to capture complex interactions and non-linear relationships between pollutant concentrations and land use variables. The increasing availability of big spatial data and machine learning methods present an opportunity for improvement in PM exposure assessment models...
February 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848374/regionalized-pm2-5-community-multiscale-air-quality-model-performance-evaluation-across-a-continuous-spatiotemporal-domain
#3
Jeanette M Reyes, Yadong Xu, William Vizuete, Marc L Serre
The regulatory Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a means to understanding the sources, concentrations and regulatory attainment of air pollutants within a model's domain. Substantial resources are allocated to the evaluation of model performance. The Regionalized Air quality Model Performance (RAMP) method introduced here explores novel ways of visualizing and evaluating CMAQ model performance and errors for daily Particulate Matter ≤ 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) concentrations across the continental United States...
January 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062264/characteristics-of-pm2-5-concentrations-across-beijing-during-2013-2015
#4
Stuart Batterman, Lizhong Xu, Feng Chen, Fang Chen, Xuefen Zhong
High concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and frequent air pollution episodes in Beijing have attracted widespread attention. This paper utilizes data from the new air pollution network in China to examine the current spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 at 12 monitoring sites in Beijing over a recent 2-year period (April 2013) to March 2015). The long term (2-year) average concentration was 83 µg·m(-3), well above Chinese and international standards. Across the region, annual average concentrations varied by 20 µg·m(-3) (25% of the average level), with lower levels in suburban areas compared to periurban and urban areas, which had similar concentrations...
November 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667959/a-bias-in-the-mass-normalized-dtt-response-an-effect-of-non-linear-concentration-response-curves-for-copper-and-manganese
#5
Jessica G Charrier, Alexander S McFall, Kennedy K-T Vu, James Baroi, Catalina Olea, Alam Hasson, Cort Anastasio
The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay is widely used to measure the oxidative potential of particulate matter. Results are typically presented in mass-normalized units (e.g., pmols DTT lost per minute per microgram PM) to allow for comparison among samples. Use of this unit assumes that the mass-normalized DTT response is constant and independent of the mass concentration of PM added to the DTT assay. However, based on previous work that identified non-linear DTT responses for copper and manganese, this basic assumption (that the mass-normalized DTT response is independent of the concentration of PM added to the assay) should not be true for samples where Cu and Mn contribute significantly to the DTT signal...
November 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642251/scripted-drives-a-robust-protocol-for-generating-exposures-to-traffic-related-air-pollution
#6
Allison P Patton, Robert Laumbach, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Kathy Black, Shahnaz Alimokhtari, Paul Lioy, Howard M Kipen
Commuting in automobiles can contribute substantially to total traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure, yet measuring commuting exposures for studies of health outcomes remains challenging. To estimate real-world TRAP exposures, we developed and evaluated the robustness of a scripted drive protocol on the NJ Turnpike and local roads between April 2007 and October 2014. Study participants were driven in a car with closed windows and open vents during morning rush hours on 190 days. Real-time measurements of PM2...
October 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795692/ultrafine-particle-size-as-a-tracer-for-aircraft-turbine-emissions
#7
Erin A Riley, Timothy Gould, Kris Hartin, Scott A Fruin, Christopher D Simpson, Michael G Yost, Timothy Larson
Ultrafine particle number (UFPN) and size distributions, black carbon, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured downwind of two of the busiest airports in the world, Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL - Atlanta, GA) using a mobile monitoring platform. Transects were located between 5 km and 10 km from the ATL and LAX airports. In addition, measurements were taken at 43 additional urban neighborhood locations in each city and on freeways. We found a 3-5 fold increase in UFPN concentrations in transects under the landing approach path to both airports relative to surrounding urban areas with similar ground traffic characteristics...
August 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346977/limonene-ozonolysis-in-the-presence-of-nitric-oxide-gas-phase-reaction-products-and-yields
#8
Jason E Ham, Joel C Harrison, Stephen R Jackson, J R Wells
The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OH• generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation...
May 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087779/correlations-between-short-term-mobile-monitoring-and-long-term-passive-sampler-measurements-of-traffic-related-air-pollution
#9
Erin A Riley, LaNae Schaal, Miyoko Sasakura, Robert Crampton, Timothy R Gould, Kris Hartin, Lianne Sheppard, Timothy Larson, Christopher D Simpson, Michael G Yost
Mobile monitoring has provided a means for broad spatial measurements of air pollutants that are otherwise impractical to measure with multiple fixed site sampling strategies. However, the larger the mobile monitoring route the less temporally dense measurements become, which may limit the usefulness of short-term mobile monitoring for applications that require long-term averages. To investigate the stationarity of short-term mobile monitoring measurements, we calculated long term medians derived from a mobile monitoring campaign that also employed 2-week integrated passive sampler detectors (PSD) for NOx, Ozone, and nine volatile organic compounds at 43 intersections distributed across the entire city of Baltimore, MD...
May 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936112/trends-in-pm2-5-emissions-concentrations-and-apportionments-in-detroit-and-chicago
#10
Chad Milando, Lei Huang, Stuart Batterman
PM2.5 concentrations throughout much of the U.S. have decreased over the last 15 years, but emissions and concentration trends can vary by location and source type. Such trends should be understood to inform air quality management and policies. This work examines trends in emissions, concentrations and source apportionments in two large Midwest U.S. cities, Detroit, Michigan, and Chicago, Illinois. Annual and seasonal trends were investigated using National Emission Inventory (NEI) data for 2002 to 2011, speciated ambient PM2...
March 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313488/characterization-of-water-soluble-organic-matter-in-urban-aerosol-by-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#11
Marie-Cecile G Chalbot, Priyanka Chitranshi, Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa, Erik Pollock, Ilias G Kavouras
The functional and (13)C isotopic compositions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosol were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in an urban location in the Southern Mississippi Valley. The origin of WSOC was resolved using the functional distribution of organic hydrogen, δ(13)C ratio, and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were retained based on NMR spectral bins loadings. Two factors (factors 1 and 3) demonstrated strong associations with the aliphatic region in the NMR spectra and levoglucosan resonances...
March 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966551/estimating-daily-pm2-5-and-pm10-across-the-complex-geo-climate-region-of-israel-using-maiac-satellite-based-aod-data
#12
Itai Kloog, Meytar Sorek-Hamer, Alexei Lyapustin, Brent Coull, Yujie Wang, Allan C Just, Joel Schwartz, David M Broday
Estimates of exposure to PM2.5 are often derived from geographic characteristics based on land-use regression or from a limited number of fixed ground monitors. Remote sensing advances have integrated these approaches with satellite-based measures of aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is spatially and temporally resolved, allowing greater coverage for PM2.5 estimations. Israel is situated in a complex geo-climatic region with contrasting geographic and weather patterns, including both dark and bright surfaces within a relatively small area...
December 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642250/development-of-long-term-spatiotemporal-models-for-ambient-ozone-in-six-metropolitan-regions-of-the-united-states-the-mesa-air-study
#13
Meng Wang, Joshua P Keller, Sara D Adar, Sun-Young Kim, Timothy V Larson, Casey Olives, Paul D Sampson, Lianne Sheppard, Adam A Szpiro, Sverre Vedal, Joel D Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Current epidemiologic studies rely on simple ozone metrics which may not appropriately capture population ozone exposure. For understanding health effects of long-term ozone exposure in population studies, it is advantageous for exposure estimation to incorporate the complex spatiotemporal pattern of ozone concentrations at fine scales. OBJECTIVE: To develop a geo-statistical exposure prediction model that predicts fine scale spatiotemporal variations of ambient ozone in six United States metropolitan regions...
December 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865831/disaggregated-n2o-emission-factors-in-china-based-on-cropping-parameters-create-a-robust-approach-to-the-ipcc-tier-2-methodology
#14
Anita Shepherd, Xiaoyuan Yan, Dali Nayak, Jamie Newbold, Dominic Moran, Mewa Singh Dhanoa, Keith Goulding, Pete Smith, Laura M Cardenas
China accounts for a third of global nitrogen fertilizer consumption. Under an International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 assessment, emission factors (EFs) are developed for the major crop types using country-specific data. IPCC advises a separate calculation for the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of rice cultivation from that of cropland and the consideration of the water regime used for irrigation. In this paper we combine these requirements in two independent analyses, using different data quality acceptance thresholds, to determine the influential parameters on emissions with which to disaggregate and create N2O EFs...
December 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807039/dimethylamine-as-a-major-alkyl-amine-species-in-particles-and-cloud-water-observations-in-semi-arid-and-coastal-regions
#15
J-S Youn, E Crosbie, L C Maudlin, Z Wang, A Sorooshian
Aerosol and cloud water measurements of dimethylamine (DMA), the most abundant amine in this study, were conducted in semi-arid (Tucson, Arizona) and marine (Nucleation in California Experiment, NiCE; central coast of California) areas. In both regions, DMA exhibits a unimodal aerosol mass size distribution with a dominant peak between 0.18 and 0.56 μm. Particulate DMA concentrations increase as a function of marine biogenic emissions, sulfate, BVOC emissions, and aerosol-phase water. Such data supports biogenic sources of DMA, aminium salt formation, and partitioning of DMA to condensed phases...
December 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594127/atmospheric-dispersion-of-pcb-from-a-contaminated-lake-michigan-harbor
#16
Andres Martinez, Scott N Spak, Nicholas T Petrich, Dingfei Hu, Gregory R Carmichael, Keri C Hornbuckle
Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago is an industrial waterway on Lake Michigan and a source of PCBs to Lake Michigan and the overlying air. We hypothesized that IHSC is an important source of airborne PCBs to surrounding communities. We used AERMOD to model hourly PCB concentrations, utilizing emission fluxes from a prior study and hourly meteorology provided by the State of Indiana. We also assessed dispersion using hourly observed meteorology from a local airport and high resolution profiles simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model...
December 1, 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26568698/pulmonary-inflammatory-effects-of-source-oriented-particulate-matter-from-california-s-san-joaquin-valley
#17
Laurel E Plummer, Christopher M Carosino, Keith J Bein, Yongjing Zhao, Neil Willits, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Anthony S Wexler, Kent E Pinkerton
The EPA regulates ambient particulate matter (PM) because substantial associations have been established between PM and health impacts. Presently, regulatory compliance involves broad control of PM emission sources based on mass concentration rather than chemical composition, although PM toxicity is likely to vary depending upon PM physicochemical properties. The overall objective of this study was to help inform source-specific PM emission control regulations. For the first time, source-oriented PM was collected from the atmosphere in Fresno, CA, onto 38 source/size substrates...
October 1, 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557023/is-there-a-hispanic-health-paradox-in-sensitivity-to-air-pollution-hospital-admissions-for-asthma-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-congestive-heart-failure-associated-with-no2-and-pm2-5-in-el-paso-tx-2005-2010
#18
Sara Elizabeth Grineski, Juana M Herrera, Priyangi Bulathsinhala, Joan G Staniswalis
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Linkages between pollution and morbidity have been observed in numerous studies. But race/ethnicity has been underemphasized as a modifier of that association, and few studies have tested for a Hispanic Health Paradox in sensitivity to air pollution. METHODS: Daily asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) hospital admissions in El Paso, Texas were studied in age groups and insurance groups. Daily PM2...
October 1, 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26435684/improving-spatial-nitrogen-dioxide-prediction-using-diffusion-tubes-a-case-study-in-west-central-scotland
#19
Francesca Pannullo, Duncan Lee, Eugene Waclawski, Alastair H Leyland
It has been well documented that air pollution adversely affects health, and epidemiological pollution-health studies utilise pollution data from automatic monitors. However, these automatic monitors are small in number and hence spatially sparse, which does not allow an accurate representation of the spatial variation in pollution concentrations required for these epidemiological health studies. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) diffusion tubes are also used to measure concentrations, and due to their lower cost compared to automatic monitors are much more prevalent...
October 2015: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26034383/occupational-exposure-to-roadway-emissions-and-inside-informal-settlements-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-pilot-study-in-nairobi-kenya
#20
Nicole S Ngo, Michael Gatari, Beizhan Yan, Steven N Chillrud, Kheira Bouhamam, Patrick L Kinneym
Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2...
June 2015: Atmospheric Environment
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