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Macromolecular Rapid Communications

Carsten Dingler, Klaus Dirnberger, Sabine Ludwigs
The control of the morphology of semiconducting semicrystalline polymers is crucial to the performance of various electronic devices. Among other superstructures in semicrystalline polymers, spherulites stand out for various reasons. They are highly ordered, relatively easy to grow, and their underlying molecular structure provides anisotropic optical and electronic properties of the resulting polymeric material. In this feature article, a short overview of classical crystallization theory is given as well as a brief introduction to spherulites as supermolecular structures...
November 16, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Fan Gu, Chengjie Zhang, Xiang Ma
Organic photochromic materials have always been a hot topic among scientists, ascribed to its broad applications and characteristic properties of photo-modulating multicolor photoluminescence. Meanwhile, white-light emission of organic materials has drawn considerable attention in recent years. Herein, these two concepts are combined together to make an achievement in a photochromic copolymer with white-light emission. A novel amorphous polyacrylamide copolymer consisting of tetraphenylethylene (TPE) and spiropyran (SP) monomers is synthesized, which is capable of emitting fluorescence with tunable colors including white-light one with Commission Internationale de L'éclairage coordinates (0...
November 14, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Shuaiyuan Han, Erwan Nicol, Frédérick Niepceron, Olivier Colombani, Sandrine Pensec, Laurent Bouteiller
Long and rigid objects formed by self-assembly in water are useful as templates or for their rheological or biological properties. They are usually obtained by combining hydrogen bonding and strong hydrophobic interactions brought by an alkyl or alkylene chain. A simple access to well-defined rod-like assemblies in water is reported based on a penta-urea sticker directly connected to poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. These assemblies are characterized by an average length of several hundreds of nanometers and a monodisperse radius (4...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Timo Hees, Fan Zhong, Markus Stürzel, Rolf Mülhaupt
The world population will rapidly grow from 7 to 9 billion by 2050 and this will parallel a surging annual plastics consumption from today's 350 million tons to well beyond 1 billion tons. The switch from a linear economy with its throwaway culture to a circular economy with efficient reuse of waste plastics is therefore mandatory. Hydrocarbon polymers, accounting for more than half the world's plastics production, enable closed-loop recycling and effective product-stewardship systems. High-molar-mass hydrocarbons serve as highly versatile, cost-, resource-, eco- and energy-efficient, durable lightweight materials produced by solvent-free, environmentally benign catalytic olefin polymerization...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Shuyang Ye, Lukasz Janasz, Wojciech Zajaczkowski, Joseph G Manion, Anirban Mondal, Tomasz Marszalek, Denis Andrienko, Klaus Müllen, Wojciech Pisula, Dwight S Seferos
A series of conjugated polymers comprising polythiophene, polyselenophene, and polytellurophene with branched 3,7-dimethyloctyl side chains, well-matched molecular weight, dispersity, and regioregularity is synthesized. The ionization potential is found to vary from 5.14 to 5.32 eV, with polytellurophene having the lowest potential. Field-effect transistors based on these materials exhibit distinct hole transport mobility that varies by nearly three orders of magnitude, with polytellurophene having the highest mobility (2...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Céline Calvino, Yoshimitsu Sagara, Véronique Buclin, Alexander P Haehnel, Anselmo Del Prado, Christian Aeby, Yoan C Simon, Stephen Schrettl, Christoph Weder
A well-known approach toward mechanochromic polymers relies on the incorporation of excimer-forming fluorophores into a matrix polymer and the disruption of aggregated chromophores when such materials undergo macroscopic mechanical deformation. However, the required aggregates and stress-transfer processes have so far only been realized with select dye/polymer combinations. As demonstrated here, the utility of this approach can be extended by tethering an excimer-forming cyano-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) fluorophore to the two ends of a telechelic poly(ethylene-co-butylene) and blending small amounts (0...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Yu Dai, Xin Chen, Xiaojin Zhang
Click-crosslinking has been widely used for the fabrication of nanocarriers in recent years. Crosslinking can enhance the stability of nanocarriers that have served as an emerging platform for drug delivery to achieve cancer diagnosis and therapy. In crosslinking methods, click reactions have attracted increasing attention owing to their high reaction specificity and physiologically stable products. These reports on click-crosslinked nanocarriers are divided into four sections (nanogels, nanoparticles, micelles, and capsules) according to the types of nanocarriers...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Peiyuan Ma, Benfang Niu, Ji Lin, Ting Kang, Jin Qian, Zi Liang Wu, Qiang Zheng
Sequential deformations of patterned hydrogels into 3D configurations with multilevel structures are reported, which are realized for the first time in self-shaping materials. The periodically patterned single-layer hydrogels with different polymers are fabricated by multi-step photolithography. After swelling in water, the expansion of compartmentalized high-swelling gels is constrained by the dispersed non-swelling gels, resulting in out-of-plane buckling with high cooperativity and thus forming alternating concave-convex configuration...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Shamima Nasreen, Matthew L Baczkowski, Gregory M Treich, Mattewos Tefferi, Caroline Anastasia, Rampi Ramprasad, Yang Cao, Gregory A Sotzing
Flexible films having high dielectric constants with low dielectric loss have promising application in the emerging area of high-energy-density materials. Here, for the first time, an organometallic, Sn-polyester-containing hybrid free-standing film in polyimide matrix is reported. Polyimide, pBTDA-HDA, is used with poly(dimethyltin glutarate) and poly(dimethyltin-3,3-dimethyglutarate) (pDMTDMG) for having a processable film with tunable dielectric properties. Hybrid film with 60% pDMTDMG and 40% PI (HB2) is found to have improved dielectric features over previously synthesized organic polyimide and organometallic Sn-polyester homopolymers...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Zhenzhen Zhang, Md Mushfequr Rahman, Clarissa Abetz, Barbara Bajer, Jiali Wang, Volker Abetz
Isoporous integral asymmetric membranes derived from the self-assembly of block copolymers combined with the non-solvent-induced phase separation (SNIPS) have gained great attention. To extend their utility, good control over pore size and surface functionality in a facile manner is highly desirable. Here, an approach is proposed to achieve this by quaternization of the poly(4-vinylpyridine) moiety of a polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) SNIPS membrane using alkyl iodides via a scalable gas-solid heterogeneous reaction...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Sarang P Gumfekar, Vahid Vajihinejad, João B P Soares
The generation of tailings as a by product of the bitumen extraction process is one of the largest environmental footprints of oil sands operations. Most of the tailings treatment technologies use polymer flocculants to induce solid-liquid separation. However, due to the complex composition of tailings, conventional flocculants cannot reach the same performance achieved in other wastewater treatments. Over the last couple of decades, the oil sands industry has used acrylamide-based flocculants to treat tailings, achieving major progress in process optimization and integration with mechanical operations, but they still could not reach the required land reclamation targets...
November 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Kamran Amin, Lijuan Mao, Zhixiang Wei
Advancement in mobile electronics is driving progress in lithium ion batteries. Recently, organic electrode materials have emerged as promising candidates for lithium ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity, ease of synthesis, versatility of structure, and abundance. Polymerization is a strategy used to overcome the issues associated with small organic molecules for charge storage application. The focus of this review is on the most recent progress in the field of polymeric carbonyl materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs)...
November 9, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Hang Li, Jie Wu, Jia-Fu Yin, Huan Wang, Yongquan Wu, Gui-Chao Kuang
A novel photoresponsive, water-soluble supramolecular dendronized polymer (SDP) is prepared through a γ -cyclodextrin (γ -CD)-coumarin host-guest interaction. The supramolecular formation, photoresponsive process, and fluorescence properties are investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and spectrometric measurements. Upon different-wavelength light irradiation, this supramolecular polymer undergoes noncovalent polymer and covalent polymer conversion due to coumarin cycloaddition and cleavage reactions...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Mussie Gide, Alekhya Nimmagadda, Ma Su, Minghui Wang, Peng Teng, Chunpu Li, Ruixuan Gao, Hai Xu, Qi Li, Jianfeng Cai
There is considerable interest in the development of antimicrobial polymers including dendrimers due to the ease of synthesis and low manufacturing cost compared to host defense peptides (HDPs). Herein, a new class of nanomaterials-lipidated amphiphilic dendrimers-is presented that mimic the antibacterial mechanism of HDPs by compromising bacterial cell membranes. Unlike conventional dendrimers that are prepared generation by generation symmetrically with molecular weight distribution, these lipidated dendrimers are prepared on the solid phase with a hanging lipid tail and precisely controlled structure...
November 8, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Jing-Wen Xu, Xin Ge, Li-Hua Lv, Feng Xu, Yan-Ling Luo
Diselenide-bond-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-paclitaxel chemical conjugates are synthesized as a drug release carrier. The conjugates can self-assemble into "core-shell" nanoscaled micelles in aqueous solution and show thermal and redox dual-responsiveness. The conjugates can afford a high encapsulation efficiency of up to 72.3%, and deliver hydrophobic anticancer drug paclitaxel in a temperature and oxidization or reduction stress-mode. The in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and in vivo anticancer assays are performed to assess the cytotoxicity and anticancer activity of the conjugates, suggesting that the developed conjugates can be used to treat carcinoma as a novel and highly efficient drug delivery system...
November 4, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Sung Hwan Ju, Jin Chul Kim, Seung Man Noh, In Woo Cheong
Development of polymeric materials capable of self-healing at low temperatures is an important issue since their mechanical strength and self-healing performance are often in conflict with each other. Herein, random copolymers with self-healing capability in a wide temperature range prepared from 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), glyceryl monomethacrylate (GlyMA), and butyl methacrylate monomers via free-radical polymerization and subsequent cross-linking with hexamethylene diisocyanate are reported...
November 2, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Gijs Ramakers, Claudio D'Incal, Mick Gagliardi, Daniël G M Molin, Tanja Junkers
Functional synthetic polymers are frequently explored for their use in the biomedical field. To fulfill the stringent demands of biodegradability and compatibility, the materials need to be versatile and tunable. Post-modification is often considered challenging for well-known degradable materials like poly(lactic acid) because of their chemical inertness. In this work a procedure is proposed to produce densely functionalized polymer particles using oligomeric precursors synthesized via the Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction...
November 2, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Rainhard Machatschek, Burkhard Schulz, Andreas Lendlein
Langmuir monolayers provide a fast and elegant route to analyze the degradation behavior of biodegradable polymer materials. In contrast to bulk materials, diffusive transport of reactants and reaction products in the (partially degraded) material can be neglected at the air-water interface, allowing for the study of molecular degradation kinetics in experiments taking less than a day and in some cases just a few minutes, in contrast to experiments with bulk materials that can take years. Several aspects of the biodegradation behavior of polymer materials, such as the interaction with biomolecules and degradation products, are directly observable...
November 2, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Thomas G Ribelli, Francesca Lorandi, Marco Fantin, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski
Approaching 25 years since its invention, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is established as a powerful technique to prepare precisely defined polymeric materials. This perspective focuses on the relation between structure and activity of ATRP catalysts, and the consequent choice of the initiating system, which are paramount aspects to well-controlled polymerizations. The ATRP mechanism is discussed, including the effect of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and side reactions affecting the catalyst...
October 30, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
B Tyler White, Timothy E Long
Electroactive polymers (EAP) provide lightweight and cost-effective materials that enable the next generation of electromechanical devices. Commercial polymers have historically dominated research in EAP devices due to their availability. However, several drawbacks of these materials have limited their commercial applications, necessitating new materials for the commercial success of future EAP devices. This review highlights recent advances in novel EAPs for ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) and dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA)...
October 24, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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