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Journal of Plant Research

Masayuki Tsuzuki, Kazuki Motomura, Naoyoshi Kumakura, Atsushi Takeda
Accumulation of an mRNA species is determined by the balance between the synthesis and the degradation of the mRNA. Individual mRNA molecules are selectively and actively degraded through RNA degradation pathways, which include 5'-3' mRNA degradation pathway, 3'-5' mRNA degradation pathway, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-mediated mRNA degradation pathway. Recent studies have revealed that these RNA degradation pathways compete with each other in mRNA turnover in plants and that plants have a hidden layer of non-coding small-interfering RNA production from a set of mRNAs...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Hiroyuki Sekimoto
The sexual reproductive processes of some representative freshwater green algae are reviewed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular volvocine alga having two mating types: mating type plus (mt(+)) and mating type minus (mt(-)), which are controlled by a single, complex mating-type locus. Sexual adhesion between the gametes is mediated by sex-specific agglutinin molecules on their flagellar membranes. Cell fusion is initiated by an adhesive interaction between the mt(+) and mt(-) mating structures, followed by localized membrane fusion...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Kenji Miyado, Woojin Kang, Kenji Yamatoya, Maito Hanai, Akihiro Nakamura, Toshiyuki Mori, Mami Miyado, Natsuko Kawano
In multicellular organisms, cellular components are constantly translocated within cells and are also transported exclusively between limited cells, regardless of their physical distance. Exosomes function as one of the key mediators of intercellular transportation. External vesicles were identified 50 years ago in plants and now reconsidered to be exosome-like vesicles. Meanwhile, a well-known exosomal component, tetraspanin CD9, regulates sperm-egg fusion in mammals. A number of Arabidopsis tetraspanins are also expressed in reproductive tissues at fertilization, and are localized at the plasma membrane of protoplasts...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Ryuichi Nishihama, Katsuyuki T Yamato, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Takayuki Kohchi, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The processes involved in sexual reproduction have been diversified during plant evolution. Whereas charales, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and some gymnosperms utilize motile sperm as male gametes, in other gymnosperms and angiosperms the immotile sperm cells are delivered to the egg cells through elongated pollen tubes. During formation of the motile sperms, cells undergo a dynamic morphological transformation including drastic changes in shape and the generation of locomotor architecture. The molecular mechanism involved in this process remains mostly unknown...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Chih-Ming Chiang, Chiu-Chen Chen, Shi-Peng Chen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Li-Ru Chen, Yu-Huei Su, His-Cheng Yen
Previously, we found that the flood resistance of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) enhanced ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under flooding, and consequently, both the SmAPX and LcAPX genes were cloned. In this study, the SmAPX and LcAPX genes were transferred under a ubiquitin promoter to Arabidopsis (At) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression and amount of APX and APX activities of the SmAPX and LcAPX transgenic lines were significantly higher than those of non-transgenic (NT) plants under a waterlogged condition...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Zhenyi Li, Ruicai Long, Tiejun Zhang, Zhen Wang, Fan Zhang, Qingchuan Yang, Junmei Kang, Yan Sun
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a ubiquitously expressed class of protective proteins that play a key role in plant response to stressful conditions. This study aimed to characterize and investigate the function of an HSP gene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). MsHSP70, which contains a 2028-bp open reading frame, was identified through homology cloning. MsHSP70 shares high sequence identity (94.47%) with HSP70 from Medicago truncatula. Expression analysis of MsHSP70 in alfalfa organs revealed a relatively higher expression level in aerial organs such as flowers, stems and leaves than in roots...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Masayoshi Nakayama, Tsukasa Iwashina
We discovered that some tree species have leaves whose adaxial sides show bright green-blue fluorescence upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. In total, 141 native Japanese species belonging to 47 families were analyzed, and the brightness of the leaf fluorescence, represented by the L* values (Lab color space) of the pictures, was evaluated. The species possessing the brightest fluorescent leaves, with L* > 50, were Camellia japonica, Camellia sasanqua, and Cleyera japonica of Theaceae, Osmanthus heterophyllus and Ligustrum japonicum of Oleaceae, Aucuba japonica of Garryaceae, and Trochodendron aralioides of Trochodendraceae...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
M S Ibañez, M I Mercado, M V Coll Aráoz, M L Zannier, A Grau, G I Ponessa
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Mei-Hwei Tseng, Kuei-Huei Lin, Yi-Jia Huang, Ya-Lan Chang, Sheng-Cih Huang, Li-Yaung Kuo, Yao-Moan Huang
Fern spores were traditionally classified into chlorophyllous (green) and nonchlorophyllous (nongreen) types based on the color visible to the naked eye. Recently, a third type, "cryptochlorophyllous spores", is recognized, and these spores are nongreen under white light but contain chlorophylls. Epifluorescence microscopy was previously used to detect chlorophylls in cryptochlorophyllous spores. In addition to epifluorescence microscopy, current study performed some other approaches, including spore-squash epifluorescence, absorption spectra, laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra, thin layer chromatography (TLC), and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-UV-MS) in order to detect chlorophylls of spores of seven ferns (Sphaeropteris lepifera, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Leptochilus wrightii, Leptochilus pothifolius, Lepidomicrosorum buergerianum, Osmunda banksiifolia, and Platycerium grande)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Noriko Inada
ACTIN DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR (ADF) is a conserved protein among eukaryotes. The main function of ADF is the severing and depolymerizing filamentous actin (F-actin), thus regulating F-actin organization and dynamics and contributing to growth and development of the organisms. Mammalian genomes contain only a few ADF genes, whereas angiosperm plants have acquired an expanding number of ADFs, resulting in the differentiation of physiological functions. Recent studies have revealed functions of ADFs in plant growth and development, and various abiotic and biotic stress responses...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Ajit Pratap Singh, Deepali Johari, Prem Behari Khare
In-vitro studies of the ontogeny and mating system of the gametophytes of Lepisorus nudus were carried out through multispore and isolate cultures lasting 23 weeks. Spore germination begins early, on day 5-6. Spore germination pattern was Vittaria type and the germination percentage reached 82.69% (± 3.20%). Filamentous gametophyte did not branch and never produce separate prothalli. Occasionally the branching and separate prothalli were produced from mature and cordate gametophytes. Prothallial development was Drynaria type (cordate gametophytes with notched apex) contrary to other known species of Lepisorus, where gametophyte development was Kaulinia type (strap gametophytes without apical notch)...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Wataru Shinohara, Atsushi Ebihara, Hiroshi Kudoh, Hirotoshi Sato, Yao-Moan Huang, Wen-Liang Chiou
Independent gametophyte ferns are unique among vascular plants because they are sporophyteless and reproduce asexually to maintain their populations in the gametophyte generation. Such ferns had been primarily discovered in temperate zone, and usually hypothesized with (sub)tropical origins and subsequent extinction of sporophyte due to climate change during glaciations. Presumably, independent fern gametophytes are unlikely to be distributed in tropics and subtropics because of relatively stable climates which are less affected by glaciations...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Linna Leng, Qianqian Liang, Jianjun Jiang, Chi Zhang, Yuhan Hao, Xuelu Wang, Wei Su
Members of the HSP70 family function as molecular chaperones to maintain cellular homeostasis and help plants cope with environmental stimuli. However, due to functional redundancy and lack of effective chemical inhibitors, our knowledge of functions of individual HSP70s has remained limited. Here, we confirmed a subclass of HSP70s, including HSP70-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5, localized to the cytosol and nucleus in Arabidopsis thaliana. Histochemical analyses of promoter:GUS reporter lines showed that HSP70-1, -2, -3, and -4 genes were widely expressed, but HSP70-5 was not...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Xi Li, Tae-Soo Jang, Eva M Temsch, Hidetoshi Kato, Koji Takayama, Gerald M Schneeweiss
Molecular phylogenetic studies have greatly improved our understanding of phylogenetic relationships of non-photosynthetic parasitic broomrapes (Orobanche and related genera, Orobanchaceae), but a few genera have remained unstudied. One of those is Platypholis, whose sole species, Platypholis boninsimae, is restricted to the Bonin-Islands (Ogasawara Islands) about 1000 km southeast of Japan. Based on overall morphological similarity, Platypholis has been merged with Orobanche, but this hypothesis has never been tested with molecular data...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Shinichiro Kameoka, Hitoshi Sakio, Harue Abe, Hajime Ikeda, Hiroaki Setoguchi
How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Hui Li, Defang Li, Anguo Chen, Huijuan Tang, Jianjun Li, Siqi Huang
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is an economically important global natural fiber crop. As a consequence of the increased demand for food crops and the reduction of available arable land, kenaf cultivation has increasingly shifted to saline and alkaline land. To investigate the molecular mechanism of salinity tolerance in kenaf, we performed Illumina high-throughput RNA sequencing on shoot tips of kenaf and identified 71,318 unigenes, which were annotated using four different protein databases. In total, 2,384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the salt-stressed and the control plants, 1,702 of these transcripts were up-regulated and 683 transcripts were down-regulated...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Naokazu Inoue
When a spermatozoon fertilizes an oocyte in mammals, there must be an extremely precise regulation system for successful gamete fusion to occur, which is the final step of fertilization. Using gene-modified animals, IZUMO1 on the sperm side and its receptor, JUNO, on the ovum side, have been unveiled as indispensable factors for triggering membrane fusion. We recently analyzed the detailed molecular machinery of the IZUMO1-JUNO recognition system and clarified the tertiary architecture of the IZUMO1-JUNO complex based on the crystal structure...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Yun-Shiuan Chen, Peter Chesson, Ho-Wei Wu, Shang-Hung Pao, Jian-Wei Liu, Lee-Feng Chien, Jean W H Yong, Chiou-Rong Sheue
The presence of foliar variegation challenges perceptions of leaf form and functioning. But variegation is often incorrectly identified and misinterpreted. The striking variegation found in juvenile Blastus cochinchinensis (Melastomataceae) provides an instructive case study of mechanisms and their ecophysiological implications. Variegated (white and green areas, vw and vg) and non-variegated leaves (normal green leaves, ng) of seedlings of Blastus were compared structurally with microtechniques, and characterized for chlorophyll content and fluorescence...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Yukinosuke Ohnishi, Takashi Okamoto
Fertilization is comprised of two sequential fusion processes; plasmogamy and karyogamy. Karyogamy completes with migration and fusion of the male and female nuclei in the fused cell. In animals, microtubules organized by the centrosome control female/male pronuclei migration. In contrast, the nuclear migration in fused gametes of angiosperms is controlled by actin filaments, but the mechanism that regulates actin filament-dependent nuclear migration is not clear. In this study, we prepared fused rice (Oryza sativa L...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Hiroyuki Kamachi, Daisuke Tamaoki, Ichirou Karahara
The prothalli of the fern Ceratopteris richardii exhibit negative gravitropism when grown in darkness. However, no sedimentable organelles or substances have been detected in the prothallial cells, suggesting that a non-sedimentable gravisensor exists. We investigated whether chloroplasts are involved in the gravisensing system of C. richardii prothalli. We used a clumped-chloroplast mutant, clumped chloroplast 1 (cp1), in which the chloroplasts are detached from the plasma membrane and clustered around the nucleus likely because of a partial deletion in the KINESIN-LIKE PROTEIN FOR ACTIN-BASED CHLOROPLAST MOVEMENT 1 gene...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
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