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Journal of Plant Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342111/ckb1-is-involved-in-abscisic-acid-and-gibberellic-acid-signaling-to-regulate-stress-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Congying Yuan, Jianping Ai, Hongping Chang, Wenjun Xiao, Lu Liu, Cheng Zhang, Zhuang He, Ji Huang, Jinyan Li, Xinhong Guo
Casein kinase II (CK2), an evolutionarily well-conserved Ser/Thr kinase, plays critical roles in all higher organisms including plants. CKB1 is a regulatory subunit beta of CK2. In this study, homozygous T-DNA mutants (ckb1-1 and ckb1-2) and over-expression plants (35S:CKB1-1, 35S:CKB1-2) of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied to understand the role of CKB1 in abiotic stress and gibberellic acid (GA) signaling. Histochemical staining showed that although CKB1 was expressed in all organs, it had a relatively higher expression in conducting tissues...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332056/allelopathic-interference-of-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l-genotypes-to-annual-ryegrass-lolium-rigidum
#2
Hasan Muhammad Zubair, James E Pratley, G A Sandral, A Humphries
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes at varying densities were investigated for allelopathic impact using annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) as the target species in a laboratory bioassay. Three densities (15, 30, and 50 seedlings/beaker) and 40 alfalfa genotypes were evaluated by the equal compartment agar method (ECAM). Alfalfa genotypes displayed a range of allelopathic interference in ryegrass seedlings, reducing root length from 5 to 65%. The growth of ryegrass decreased in response to increasing density of alfalfa seedlings...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324190/exogenous-application-of-urea-and-a-urease-inhibitor-improves-drought-stress-tolerance-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#3
Wei Gou, Pufan Zheng, Li Tian, Mei Gao, Lixin Zhang, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Muhammad Ashraf
Drought is believed to cause many metabolic changes which affect plant growth and development. However, it might be mitigated by various inorganic substances, such as nitrogen. Thus, the study was carried out to investigate the effect of foliar-applied urea with or without urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on a maize cultivar under drought stress simulated by 15% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000. Foliar-applied urea resulted in a significant increase in plant dry weight, relative water content, and photosynthetic pigments under water stress condition...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315970/a-root-penetration-model-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-phytagel-medium-with-different-strength
#4
Jie Yan, Bochu Wang, Yong Zhou
Phytagel media were evaluated as systems to mechanically impede roots of A. thaliana. Studying mechanical properties of Phytagel and exploring the root response to mechanical stimulation can facilitate plant culture and plant development. Breaking strengths of 0.5-2.0% phytagel media were tested by uniaxial compression test. Different phytagel concentrations were set to alter the strength of layers in growth medium. Negative correlations were observed between root length, straightness and medium strength. When roots elongated through soft upper-layer (0...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303406/drought-induced-expression-of-aquaporin-genes-in-leaves-of-two-common-bean-cultivars-differing-in-tolerance-to-drought-stress
#5
Mateja Zupin, Aleš Sedlar, Marjetka Kidrič, Vladimir Meglič
Aquaporin proteins are part of the complex response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to drought which affects the quality and quantity of yield of this important crop. To better understand the role of aquaporins in common bean, drought-induced gene expression of several aquaporins was determined in two cultivars, the more drought tolerant Tiber and the less tolerant Starozagorski čern. The two bean cultivars were selected among 16 European genotypes based on the tolerance to drought determined by time needed for plants to wilt after withholding irrigation and yield at harvest...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303405/synthesis-and-degradation-of-long-chain-base-phosphates-affect-fumonisin-b1-induced-cell-death-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Daiki Yanagawa, Toshiki Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Imai
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inducer of cell death, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism; large accumulations of de novo synthesized free long-chain bases (LCBs) are observed. However, it remains unclear whether tolerance to FB1 toxicity in plants is connected with preventing the accumulation of free LCBs through their phosphorylation. Here a workflow for the extraction, detection and quantification of LCB phosphates (LCBPs) in Arabidopsis thaliana was developed. We studied the effect of expression of genes for three enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of LCBPs, LCB kinase (LCBK1), LCBP phosphatase (SPP1) and lyase (DPL1) on FB1-induced cell death...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303404/phylogenetic-analysis-of-proteins-involved-in-the-stringent-response-in-plant-cells
#7
Doshun Ito, Yuta Ihara, Hidenori Nishihara, Shinji Masuda
The nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a second messenger that controls the stringent response in bacteria. The stringent response modifies expression of a large number of genes and metabolic processes and allows bacteria to survive under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent genome sequencing analyses have revealed that genes responsible for the stringent response are also found in plants. These include (p)ppGpp synthases and hydrolases, RelA/SpoT homologs (RSHs), and the pppGpp-specific phosphatase GppA/Ppx. However, phylogenetic relationship between enzymes involved in bacterial and plant stringent responses is as yet generally unclear...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299516/effects-of-nitrogen-and-water-addition-on-trace-element-stoichiometry-in-five-grassland-species
#8
Jiangping Cai, Jacob Weiner, Ruzhen Wang, Wentao Luo, Yongyong Zhang, Heyong Liu, Zhuwen Xu, Hui Li, Yuge Zhang, Yong Jiang
A 9-year manipulative experiment with nitrogen (N) and water addition, simulating increasing N deposition and changing precipitation regime, was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of trace elements, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soil, and their uptake by plants under the two environmental change factors in a semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia. We measured concentrations of trace elements in soil and in foliage of five common herbaceous species including 3 forbs and 2 grasses...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299515/the-influence-of-slope-on-spartium-junceum-root-system-morphological-anatomical-and-biomechanical-adaptation
#9
Fabio Lombardi, G S Scippa, B Lasserre, A Montagnoli, R Tognetti, M Marchetti, D Chiatante
Root systems have a pivotal role in plant anchorage and their mechanical interactions with the soil may contribute to soil reinforcement and stabilization of slide-prone slopes. In order to understand the responses of root system to mechanical stress induced by slope, samples of Spartium junceum L., growing in slope and in plane natural conditions, were compared in their morphology, biomechanical properties and anatomical features. Soils sampled in slope and plane revealed similar characteristics, with the exception of organic matter content and penetrometer resistance, both higher in slope...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293810/importance-of-the-green-color-absorption-gradient-and-spectral-absorption-of-chloroplasts-for-the-radiative-energy-balance-of-leaves
#10
Atsushi Kume
Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290079/silicon-alleviates-salt-and-drought-stress-of-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-seedling-by-altering-antioxidant-metabolism-and-osmotic-adjustment
#11
Wenjin Zhang, Zhicai Xie, Lianhong Wang, Ming Li, Duoyong Lang, Xinhui Zhang
This study was conducted to determine effect and mechanism of exogenous silicon (Si) on salt and drought tolerance of Glycyrrhiza uralensis seedling by focusing on the pathways of antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment. Seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant metabolism, osmolytes concentration and Si content of G. uralensis seedlings were analyzed under control, salt and drought stress [100 mM NaCl with 0, 10 and 20% of PEG-6000 (Polyethylene glycol-6000)] with or without 1 mM Si. Si addition markedly affected the G...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290078/factors-influencing-distribution-and-local-coexistence-of-diploids-and-tetraploids-of-vicia-cracca-inferences-from-a-common-garden-experiment
#12
Anežka Eliášová, Zuzana Münzbergová
Vicia cracca diploids and autotetraploids are highly parapatric in Europe; tetraploids reside in western and northern part, whereas diploids occupy much drier south-eastern part. They meet together in a Central European contact zone. This distribution pattern raised questions about a transformative effect of polyploidization on plant performance and environmental tolerances. We investigated plant survival, growth, and seed production in two water regimes in a common garden experiment using seeds collected from five localities in the Central European contact zone where diploids and tetraploids occur in sympatry...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275885/development-of-polyspermic-zygote-and-possible-contribution-of-polyspermy-to-polyploid-formation-in-angiosperms
#13
Takashi Okamoto, Yukinosuke Ohnishi, Erika Toda
Fertilization is a general feature of eukaryotic uni- and multicellular organisms to restore a diploid genome from female and male gamete haploid genomes. In angiosperms, polyploidization is a common phenomenon, and polyploidy would have played a major role in the long-term diversification and evolutionary success of plants. As for the mechanism of formation of autotetraploid plants, the triploid-bridge pathway, crossing between triploid and diploid plants, is considered as a major pathway. For the emergence of triploid plants, fusion of an unreduced gamete with a reduced gamete is generally accepted...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271338/phototaxis-and-chemotaxis-of-brown-algal-swarmers
#14
Nana Kinoshita, Chikako Nagasato, Taizo Motomura
Brown algae exhibit three patterns of sexual reproduction: isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy. Unicellular swarmers including gametes and zoospores bear two heterogenous flagella, an anterior flagellum with mastigonemes (fine tripartite hairs) and a posterior one. In seawater, these flagellates usually receive physico-chemical signals for finding partners and good habitats. It is well known that brown algal swarmers change their swimming direction depending on blue light (phototaxis), and male gametes do so, based on the sex pheromones from female gametes (chemotaxis)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258381/a-glabra1-ortholog-on-lg-a9-controls-trichome-number-in-the-japanese-leafy-vegetables-mizuna-and-mibuna-brassica-rapa-l-subsp-nipposinica-l-h-bailey-evidence-from-qtl-analysis
#15
Yaichi Kawakatsu, Hokuto Nakayama, Kaori Kaminoyama, Kaori Igarashi, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Atsushi J Nagano, Kentaro Yano, Nakao Kubo, Seisuke Kimura
Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255816/morphological-analysis-of-vessel-elements-for-systematic-study-of-three-zingiberaceae-tribes
#16
Kathlyn Vasconcelos Gevú, Helena Regina Pinto Lima, John Kress, Maura Da Cunha
Zingiberaceae containing over 1,000 species that are divided into four subfamilies and six tribes. In recent decades, there has been an increase in the number of studies about vessel elements in families of monocotyledon. However, there are still few studies of Zingiberaceae tribes. This study aims to establish systematic significance of studying vessel elements in two subfamilies and three tribes of Zingiberaceae. The vegetative organs of 33 species processed were analysed by light and scanning electron microscopy and Principal Component Analysis was used to elucidate genera boundaries...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247062/reduced-abscisic-acid-content-is-responsible-for-enhanced-sucrose-accumulation-by-potassium-nutrition-in-vegetable-soybean-seeds
#17
Bingjie Tu, Changkai Liu, Bowen Tian, Qiuying Zhang, Xiaobing Liu, Stephen J Herbert
In order to understand the physiological mechanism of potassium (K) application in enhancing sugar content of vegetable soybean seeds, pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with two vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars (c.v. Zhongkemaodou 1 and c.v. 121) under normal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application. Three potassium (K) fertilization treatments were imposed: No K application (K0), 120 kg K2SO4 ha(-1) at seeding (K1), and 120 kg K2SO4 ha(-1) at seedling + 1% K2SO4 foliar application at flowering (K2)...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247061/embryology-of-pera-peraceae-malpighiales-systematics-and-evolutionary-implications
#18
Rafael de Olivera Franca, Orlando Cavalari De-Paula
Pera is a neotropical genus that currently belongs to the family Peraceae. This circumscription resulted from an inclusion of the Rafflesiaceae between the old tribe Pereae and all other Euphorbiaceae, and wherein Pereae was elevated to family rank making Euphorbiaceae monophyletic again. These changes are necessary although Rafflesiaceae are holoparasitic with extremely reduced vegetative bodies and large flowers while Peraceae and Euphorbiaceae have well developed vegetative parts and reduced flowers. As the embryology of Peraceae was poorly known, and embryological processes are conservative, we studied the embryology of Pera glabrata, searching for similarities between Peraceae, Rafflesiaceae, and Euphorbiaceae that could support this grouping...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243831/biochemical-response-of-hybrid-black-poplar-tissue-culture-populus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-canadensis-on-water-stress
#19
B M Popović, D Štajner, R Ždero-Pavlović, I Tari, J Csiszár, Á Gallé, P Poór, V Galović, B Trudić, S Orlović
In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197782/interconnections-between-mrna-degradation-and-rdr-dependent-sirna-production-in-mrna-turnover-in-plants
#20
Masayuki Tsuzuki, Kazuki Motomura, Naoyoshi Kumakura, Atsushi Takeda
Accumulation of an mRNA species is determined by the balance between the synthesis and the degradation of the mRNA. Individual mRNA molecules are selectively and actively degraded through RNA degradation pathways, which include 5'-3' mRNA degradation pathway, 3'-5' mRNA degradation pathway, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-mediated mRNA degradation pathway. Recent studies have revealed that these RNA degradation pathways compete with each other in mRNA turnover in plants and that plants have a hidden layer of non-coding small-interfering RNA production from a set of mRNAs...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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