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Journal of Plant Research

JianJun Kang, WenZhi Zhao, Ming Zhao
The sand-fixation of plants is considered to be the most effective and fundamental measure in desertification control in many arid and semi-arid regions. Carex brunnescens (Carex spp) and Leymus secalinus (Leymus), two perennial clonal herbs native to the Maqu degraded alpine areas of northwest China, are dominant and constructive species in active sand dunes that have excellent adaptability to fix sand dunes found to date. In order to study the ability and mechanism of sandland blowout remediation by two clone plants C...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Reena Deshmukh, V K Singh, Brahma Deo Singh
The mildew locus O (Mlo) gene family is ubiquitous in land plants. Some members of this gene family are involved in negative regulation of powdery mildew resistance, while others are involved in several other biological functions. Mlo proteins have characteristic seven transmembrane domains and a calmodulin-binding domain at their C-termini, and are associated with plasma membrane. The Mlo gene family has been studied in several economically important cereals, but little information is available on this gene family in the important legumes, Medicago truncatula Gaertn...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Misato Ohtani
Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) represents a distinct class of non-coding RNA molecules. As these molecules have fundamental roles in RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing and ribosomal RNA processing, it is essential that their transcription be tightly regulated in eukaryotic cells. The genome of each organism contains hundreds of snRNA genes. Although the structures of these genes are highly diverse among organisms, the trans-acting factors that regulate snRNA transcription are evolutionarily conserved. Recent studies of the Arabidopsis thaliana srd2-1 mutant, which is defective in the snRNA transcription factor, provide insight into the physiological significance of snRNA regulation in plant development...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Reina Komiya
It has been almost 30 years since RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to silence genes via double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Fire et al. 1998). 20-30-nucleotide (nt) small non-coding RNAs are a key element of the RNAi machinery. Recently, phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs), small RNAs that are generated from a long RNA precursor at intervals of 21 to 26-nt, have been identified in plants and animals. In Drosophila, phasiRNAs are generated by the endonuclease, Zucchini (Zuc), in germlines...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Kaori Takemura, Hiroyuki Kamachi, Atsushi Kume, Tomomichi Fujita, Ichirou Karahara, Yuko T Hanba
The physiological and anatomical responses of bryophytes to altered gravity conditions will provide crucial information for estimating how plant physiological traits have evolved to adapt to significant increases in the effects of gravity in land plant history. We quantified changes in plant growth and photosynthesis in the model plant of mosses, Physcomitrella patens, grown under a hypergravity environment for 25 days or 8 weeks using a custom-built centrifuge equipped with a lighting system. This is the first study to examine the response of bryophytes to hypergravity conditions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Huiyan Li, Zishang Wei, Chaohe Huangfu, Xinwei Chen, Dianlin Yang
In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis (L.) and the dominant co-occurring native species, Setaria viridis (L.). Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Ikuo Nishida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Jun Shigeto, Yukie Ueda, Shinya Sasaki, Koki Fujita, Yuji Tsutsumi
Most of the known 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) isoforms lack CoA-ligation activity for sinapic acid. Therefore, there is some doubt as to whether sinapic acid contributes to sinapyl alcohol biosynthesis. In this study, we characterized the enzyme activity of a protein mixture extracted from the developing xylem of Robinia pseudoacacia. The crude protein mixture contained at least two 4CLs with sinapic acid 4-CoA ligation activity. The crude enzyme preparation displayed negligible sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but showed ferulic acid 5-hydroxylation activity and 5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase activity; these activities were retained in the presence of competitive substrates (coniferaldehyde and 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, respectively)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Manabu Yoshikawa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a variety of biological phenomena, such as development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, by regulating complementary target transcripts. Primary MIRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are processed into miRNA/miRNA* duplexes via pre-miRNA intermediates by DICER family proteins. In plants miRNA/miRNA* duplexes are produced from pri-miRNAs exclusively by a complex containing DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1), Hyponastic leaves1 (HYL1) and SERREATE (SE) in the nucleus. Pri-miRNA or pre-miRNA processing activity has been detected using recombinant DCL1, HYL1 and SE proteins expressed in insect cells and immunopurified DCL1-HYL1-SE-containing complexes that transiently co-overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Akihito Fukudome, Toshiyuki Fukuhara
Dicer, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific endoribonuclease, plays an essential role in triggering both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotes by cleaving dsRNAs or single-stranded RNAs bearing stem-loop structures such as microRNA precursor transcripts into 21- to 24-nt small RNAs. Unlike animals, plants have evolved to utilize at least four Dicer-like (DCL) proteins. Extensive genetic studies have revealed that each DCL protein participates in a specific gene silencing pathway, with some redundancy...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Katsumi Kobayashi, Yota Yokoi
How perennial grass populations are maintained in different climates is poorly understood at the level of individual shoots (ramets). During the years 1982-1987 and 1991-1993, measurements of shoot dynamics and growth in populations of a clonal grass, Miscanthus sinensis, were made at two sites in Japan that differed by approximately 5 °C in mean temperature. While annual shoot births were very stable during the period 1982-1987 at both sites, the number of flowering shoots fluctuated cyclically every year...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Miguel Portillo-Estrada, Taras Kazantsev, Ülo Niinemets
The release of stress-driven volatiles throughout leaf development has been little studied. Therefore, we subjected poplar leaves during their developmental stage (from 2 days to 2 weeks old) to wounding by a single punch hole, and measured online the wound-induced volatile organic compound emissions. Our study shows that the emission of certain volatile compounds fades with increasing leaf age. Among these compounds we found lipoxygenase products (LOX products), acetaldehyde, methyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, and mono- and sesquiterpenes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Lifang Hu, Haohua He, Changlan Zhu, Xiaosong Peng, Junru Fu, Xiaopeng He, Xiaorong Chen, Linjuan Ouyang, Jianmin Bian, Shiqiang Liu
The enzymes of the chalcone synthase family are also known as type III polyketide synthases (PKS), and produce a series of secondary metabolites in bacteria, fungi and plants. In a number of plants, genes encoding PKS comprise a large multigene family. Currently, detailed reports on rice (Oryza sativa) PKS (OsPKS) family genes and tissue expression profiling are limited. Here, 27 candidate OsPKS genes were identified in the rice genome,and 23 gene structures were confirmed by EST and cDNA sequencing; phylogenetic analysis has indicated that these 23 OsPKS members could be clustered into three groups (I-III)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Taichiro Iki
Small RNA-mediated gene silencing encompasses diverse developmental events, stress responses, defense against pathogens, and maintenance of genome integrity. Extensive studies in model organisms have unveiled the molecular mechanisms underpinning the RNA silencing phenomena, and the accumulating knowledge have characterized the intricate pathways and the repertoire of proteins responsible for the actions of small RNAs characterized as microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Although the single-stranded, matured guide small RNAs direct the effector ribonucleoprotein complexes to induce gene silencing in sequence-specific manner, the double-stranded intermediate, the small RNA duplexes, which are processed as nascent products of the RNase III enzyme activities, act as key to determine the downstream molecular pathways and the fate of small RNAs...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Takashi Shiga, Masashi Yokogawa, Shingo Kaneko, Yuji Isagi
Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae) is a critically endangered freshwater macrophyte indigenous to central Japan, with only four small extant populations represented across its entire range. We investigated the genotypic and genetic diversity as well as the genetic structure of all extant individuals of N. submersa based on analysis of 15 microsatellite loci. Among 278 individual ramets, 52 multilocus genotypes were detected: 30 genotypes in Nikko City (NIK), 18 in Nasukarasuyama City (NAS), 3 in Mooka City (MOK), and 1 in Sakura City (SAK)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Shingo Kaneko, Yu Matsuki, Ying-Xiong Qiu, Yuji Isagi
Rehmannia japonica (Thunb.) Makino ex T. Yamaz. is an endangered perennial herb species in Japan. Although earlier the Japanese considered it a variety of R. glutinosa, recent Japanese taxonomists have consistently regarded it as an independent species. According to the historical literature, Rehmannia japonica seems to have been known in China and Japan in the past. However, Chinese taxonomists do not recognize R. japonica at present. In Japan, only two populations are known, and although these populations flower every year, seed reproduction has not been observed...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Qun Zhang, Yana Qu, Qing Wang, Ping Song, Peipei Wang, Qianru Jia, Jinhe Guo
Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are emerging as essential regulators of cytoskeleton organization in plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PA-mediated microtubule reorganization in plants remain largely unknown. In this study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to analyze the function of Arabidopsis thaliana PLDα1 in the regulation of microtubule organization and cell development in response to microtubule-affecting drugs. Treatment with the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel resulted in less growth inhibition and decreased rightward slant of roots, longitudinal alignment of microtubules, and enhanced length of hypocotyl epidermal cells in the pldα1 mutant, the phenotype of which was rescued by exogenous application of PA...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Yu Ito, Norio Tanaka, Dirk C Albach, Anders S Barfod, Bengt Oxelman, A Muthama Muasya
Limosella is a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar regions, two in southern circumpolar regions, two in the Americas, one endemic to Australia, and six in tropical or southern Africa or both. The Australasian L. curdieana has always been considered distinct but its close phylogenetic relationships have never been inferred. Here, we investigated the following alternative phylogenetic hypotheses based on comparative leaf morphology and habitat preferences or floral morphology: (1) L...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Hiromitsu Nakajima, Kiminori Itoh
Scopelophila ligulata is known to be a Fe-hyperaccumulator moss; however, its mechanism of accumulation and the effects of Fe on pigments remain unclear. To clarify the effects, we measured its metal and pigment concentrations. The Fe concentration in S. ligulata was 10-61 times higher than that in normal mosses, confirming that the moss is a Fe-hyperaccumulator. The black samples of S. ligulata had the highest Fe concentration (2.9 wt%) and the second in the order of decreasing Fe concentration (2.2 wt%), which explains their color and indicates that the excess amount of Fe is distributed through the plant body...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Mai Takagi, Takuya Sakamoto, Ritsuko Suzuki, Keiichirou Nemoto, Takeshi Obayashi, Takeshi Hirakawa, Tomoko M Matsunaga, Daisuke Kurihara, Yuko Nariai, Takeshi Urano, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Sachihiro Matsunaga
Aurora kinase (AUR) is a well-known mitotic serine/threonine kinase that regulates centromere formation, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis in eukaryotes. In addition to regulating mitotic events, AUR has been shown to regulate protein dynamics during interphase in animal cells. In contrast, there has been no identification and characterization of substrates and/or interacting proteins during interphase in plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three AUR paralogues, AtAUR1, AtAUR2, and AtAUR3...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
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