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Journal of Plant Research

Anjali Chaudhary, S R Yadav, Rajesh Tandon
Numerous bladderwort (Utricularia) species are distributed worldwide, but their reproductive biology is rarely investigated. Bladderworts are known to depend on tiny organisms to meet a significant proportion of their energy requirement by trapping them in bladders. However, information on the extent of their reliance on insects for pollination success is limited. We examined the reproductive strategy of two Utricularia species viz. Utricularia praeterita and U. babui, endemic to Western Ghats, India. The main aspects of the investigation involved floral biology, breeding system, pollination mechanism, and reproductive success...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Tazro Ohta, Takeshi Kawashima, Natsuko O Shinozaki, Akito Dobashi, Satoshi Hiraoka, Tatsuhiko Hoshino, Keiichi Kanno, Takafumi Kataoka, Shuichi Kawashima, Motomu Matsui, Wataru Nemoto, Suguru Nishijima, Natsuki Suganuma, Haruo Suzuki, Y-H Taguchi, Yoichi Takenaka, Yosuke Tanigawa, Momoka Tsuneyoshi, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Yukuto Sato, Riu Yamashita, Kazuharu Arakawa, Wataru Iwasaki
Recent studies have shown that environmental DNA is found almost everywhere. Flower petal surfaces are an attractive tissue to use for investigation of the dispersal of environmental DNA in nature as they are isolated from the external environment until the bud opens and only then can the petal surface accumulate environmental DNA. Here, we performed a crowdsourced experiment, the "Ohanami Project", to obtain environmental DNA samples from petal surfaces of Cerasus × yedoensis 'Somei-yoshino' across the Japanese archipelago during spring 2015...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Piotr Robakowski, Ernest Bielinis, Kerrie Sendall
This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Ashraf M Metwally, Abeer A Radi, Rasha M El-Shazoly, Afaf M Hamada
Boron (B) toxicity often limits crop yield and the quality of production in agricultural areas. Here, we investigated the effects of calcium (Ca), silicon (Si) and salicylic acid (SA) on development of B toxicity, B allocation in canola (Brassica napus cultivar Sarw 4) and its role in non-enzymatic antioxidants in relation to yield of this cultivar under B toxicity. Canola seedlings were subjected to four B levels induced by boric acid in the absence or presence of Ca, Si and SA. The results showed that Ca, Si and SA addition ameliorated the inhibition in canola growth, water content (WC), and improved siliqua number, siliqua weight and seed index...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahiro Sueyoshi
The monocot genus Aspidistra comprises rhizomatous perennials that are distributed in tropical to warm temperate regions of Asia. Little is known about the pollinators of almost all the species, probably due to the inconspicuous nature of Aspidistra flowers. Nevertheless, the unusual floral morphology suggests biotic pollination, since pollen grains are hidden under each flower's stigma. Aspidistra elatior has been suspected to have a very peculiar pollination ecology. So far, pollination by mollusks, crustaceans, or collembolans has been suspected...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Kouki Hikosaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Takashi Baba, Satoshi Nakaba, Satoshi Noma, Ryo Funada, Takuya Ban
All fine root systems consist of individual fine roots. Individual roots have morphological, anatomical, and functional heterogeneity (heterorhizy). Heterorhizy plays crucial roles in plant ecosystems. However, in many species, the heterorhizy and fine root system architecture based on individual root units are unclear. This study investigated heterorhizy along the root system architecture of Vaccinium virgatum Ait (rabbiteye blueberry) softwood-cuttings (propagated from annual shoots in growing season) using protoxylem groups (PGs), a classification according to the number of protoxylem poles, as an indicator of individual root traits...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Ermelinda Botticella, Anna Pucci, Francesco Sestili
Starch synthase IIa, also known as starch granule protein 1 (SGP-1), plays a key role in amylopectin biosynthesis. The absence of SGP-1 in cereal grains is correlated to dramatic changes in the grains' starch content, structure, and composition. An extensive investigation of starch granule proteins in this study revealed a polymorphism in the electrophoretic mobility of SGP-1 between two species of wheat, Triticum urartu and T. monococcum; this protein was, however, conserved among all other Triticum species that share the A genome inherited from their progenitor T...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Wakana Harigaya, Hidenori Takahashi
Root hair formation occurs in lettuce seedlings after transfer to an acidic medium (pH 4.0). This process requires cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization in root epidermal cells and the plant hormone ethylene. We investigated the interaction between ethylene and glucose, a new signaling molecule in plants, in lettuce root development, with an emphasis on root hair formation. Dark-grown seedlings were used to exclude the effect of photosynthetically produced glucose. In the dark, neither root hair formation nor the CMT randomization preceding it occurred, even after transfer to the acidic medium (pH 4...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Jia-Hong Zhu, Hui-Liang Li, Dong Guo, Ying Wang, Hao-Fu Dai, Wen-Li Mei, Shi-Qing Peng
Dracaena cambodiana is a traditional medicinal plant used for producing dragon's blood. The plants and dragon's blood of D. cambodiana contain a rich variety of steroidal saponins. However, little is known about steroidal saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in D. cambodiana. Here, 122 genes encoding enzymes involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis were identified based on transcriptome data, with 29 of them containing complete open reading frames (ORF). Transcript expression analysis revealed that several genes related to steroidal saponin biosynthesis showed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns; the expression levels of genes encoding the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and early modification of steroidal saponins were significantly down-regulated in the stems in response to the inducer of dragon's blood, exhibiting positive correlations with the content of steroidal saponins...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Tomoaki Muranaka, Tokitaka Oyama
The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system based on the self-sustained oscillation in individual cells. These cellular circadian clocks compose a multicellular circadian system working at respective levels of tissue, organ, plant body. However, how numerous cellular clocks are coordinated within a plant has been unclear. There was little information about behavior of circadian clocks at a single-cell level due to the difficulties in monitoring circadian rhythms of individual cells in an intact plant...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Yuki Kondo, Shigeo S Sugano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Yuki Kondo
Plants generate various tissues and organs via a strictly regulated developmental program. The plant vasculature is a complex tissue system consisting of xylem and phloem tissues with a layer of cambial cells in between. Multiple regulatory steps are involved in vascular development. Although molecular and genetic studies have uncovered a variety of key factors controlling vascular development, studies of the actual functions of these factors have been limited due to the inaccessibility of the plant vasculature...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Masahiro M Kanaoka
Sexual reproduction is achieved by precise interactions between male and female reproductive organs. In plant fertilization, sperm cells are carried to ovules by pollen tubes. Signals from the pistil are involved in elongation and control of the direction of the pollen tube. Genetic, reverse genetic, and cell biological analyses using model plants have identified various factors related to the regulation of pollen tube growth and guidance. In this review, I summarize the mechanisms and molecules controlling pollen tube growth to the ovule, micropylar guidance, reception of the guidance signal in the pollen tube, rupture of the pollen tube to release sperm cells, and cessation of the tube guidance signal...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Md Harun-Ur- Rashid, Hironori Iwasaki, Shigeki Oogai, Masakazu Fukuta, Shahanaz Parveen, Md Amzad Hossain, Toyoaki Anai, Hirosuke Oku
In the cysteine and mimosine biosynthesis process, O-acetyl-L-serine (OAS) is the common substrate. In the presence of O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OASTL, cysteine synthase) the reaction of OAS with sulfide produces cysteine, while with 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P) produces mimosine. The enzyme OASTL can either catalyze Cys synthesis or both Cys and mimosine. A cDNA for cytosolic OASTL was cloned from M. pudica for the first time containing 1,410 bp nucleotides. The purified protein product from overexpressed bacterial cells produced Cys only, but not mimosine, indicating it is Cys specific...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Amrit K Nanda, Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plant tissues together through a process known as grafting. By creating a chimeric organism, desirable properties from two plants combine to enhance disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, vigour or facilitate the asexual propagation of plants. In addition, grafting has been extremely informative in science for studying and identifying the long-distance movement of molecules. Despite its increasing use in horticulture and science, how plants undertake the process of grafting remains elusive...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Bernhard Blob, Jung-Ok Heo, Yka Helariutta
Plant vasculature consists of two major conductive cell types, xylem tracheary elements and phloem sieve elements (SEs). Both cell types undergo a highly specialized differentiation process. The root meristem of Arabidopsis displays a stereotypical anatomy in which the central vasculature is surrounded by concentric layers of outer tissues. Each cell file is derived from stem cells located in the root tip. A series of formative and proliferative divisions take place in the meristem; these are followed by cell expansion and differentiation...
January 2018: Journal of Plant Research
María Florencia Fourastié, Alexandra Marina Gottlieb, Lidia Poggio, Graciela Esther González
The Northwestern Argentina (NWA) highland region is one of the southernmost areas of native maize cultivation. We studied variations of different cytological parameters, such as DNA contents, presence/absence of B chromosomes (Bs), and number and sequence composition of heterochromatic knobs in ten accessions of four maize landraces growing along a broad altitudinal cline in NWA. The aim of this work was to assess variations in cytological parameters and their relationship with the crop altitude of cultivation, in an adaptive context...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Yoshihisa Oda
Plant cortical microtubules have crucial roles in cell wall development. Cortical microtubules are tightly anchored to the plasma membrane in a highly ordered array, which directs the deposition of cellulose microfibrils by guiding the movement of the cellulose synthase complex. Cortical microtubules also interact with several endomembrane systems to regulate cell wall development and other cellular events. Recent studies have identified new factors that mediate interactions between cortical microtubules and endomembrane systems including the plasma membrane, endosome, exocytic vesicles, and endoplasmic reticulum...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Plants have endogenous biological clocks that allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for daily and seasonal environmental changes and increase their fitness in changing environments. The circadian clock in plants, as in animals and insects, mainly consists of multiple interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops. The circadian clock can be entrained by environmental cues such as light, temperature and nutrient status to synchronize internal biological rhythms with surrounding environments. Output pathways link the circadian oscillator to various physiological, developmental, and reproductive processes for adjusting the timing of these biological processes to an appropriate time of day or a suitable season...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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