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Journal of Plant Research

Nur Diyana Jamaluddin, Emelda Rosseleena Rohani, Normah Mohd Noor, Hoe-Han Goh
Papaya is one of the most nutritional fruits, rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other antioxidants. Previous studies showed phytonutrient improvement without affecting quality in tomato fruit and rapeseed through the suppression of DE-ETIOLATED-1 (DET1), a negative regulator in photomorphogenesis. This study is conducted to study the effects of DET1 gene suppression in papaya embryogenic callus. Immature zygotic embryos were transformed with constitutive expression of a hairpin DET1 construct (hpDET1)...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Naoto Sano, Mitsunori Seo
Seed priming is a treatment that controls seed water content to partially activate germination processes such as metabolism but prevents full germination of the seeds. The treatment is well known to enhance seed performance, including germination, but sometimes reduces seed storability or longevity as a side effect. Toward developing a novel priming technique that can maintain seed longevity for a longer time period, chemicals that suppress the seed deterioration under a controlled condition were screened from 80 known biologically active compounds contained in the RIKEN NPDepo authentic library using Arabidopsis thaliana seeds...
January 12, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Satoshi Koi, Hyosig Won, Masahiro Kato
Podostemaceae, the river-weeds, are characterized by remarkable differences between species and genera, which resulted from saltational evolution. This paper presents additional cases of such two genera, which are described here from the Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area in northern Central Laos. Molecular phylogenetic data show that Ctenobryum mangkonense (gen. & sp. nov.) is sister to Hydrodiscus koyamae, while Laosia ramosa (gen. & sp. nov.) is isolated from all Asian genera of subfamily Podostemoideae...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Dong-Mei Zhang, Wen-Zhi Zhao, Wei-Cheng Luo
Clonal propagation is the main strategy for clonal plants to adapt to wind-sand habitat, and underground bud bank could reflect the potential ability of clonal propagation. However, the effects of population density on belowground bud bank are unknown, hindering efforts in the process of dune stabilization. We investigated the horizontal density and vertical distribution of belowground bud bank of a typical rhizomatous grass Leymus secalinus, and soil water content in four dune types with different population density (dune type I: 11...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Claudia Azucena Durán-Ruiz, Rocío Cruz-Ortega, Alejandro Zaldívar-Riverón, Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera, Iván De-la-Cruz-Chacón, Alma Rosa González-Esquinca
The seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. contain idioblasts with toxic acetogenins, including laherradurin and rolliniastatin-2, in relatively high proportions. Both metabolites are cataloged as potent insecticides for several species, even so, the wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead fulfills almost its entire life cycle inside the seeds of this and other annonaceous species, to such a degree, that they constitute a strong selection pressure. In order to document the chemical relationship between the two species, it is reported for the first time in this paper the presence of idioblasts and acetogenins during the ontogenic development of the seeds of A...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Minoru Nagano, Chikako Kakuta, Yoichiro Fukao, Masayuki Fujiwara, Hirofumi Uchimiya, Maki Kawai-Yamada
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a widely conserved cell death regulator that confers resistance to environmental stress in plants. Previous studies suggest that Arabidopsis thaliana BI-1 (AtBI-1) modifies sphingolipids by interacting with cytochrome b5 (AtCb5), an electron-transfer protein. To reveal how AtBI-1 regulates sphingolipid synthesis, we screened yeast sphingolipid-deficient mutants and identified yeast ELO2 and ELO3 as novel enzymes that are essential for AtBI-1 function. ELO2 and ELO3 are condensing enzymes that synthesize very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), major fatty acids in plant sphingolipids...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Teruyoshi Nagamitsu, Hajime Shimizu, Mineaki Aizawa, Atsushi Nakanishi
In northern Japan, coastal oak forests consist of Quercus dentata (Qd) on the coastal side and Q. mongolica var. crispula (Qc) on the inland side. In the forests of northern Hokkaido, Qd is rare, and a coastal ecotype of Qc with some Qd-like traits grows on the coastal side. To reveal the genetic background of this ecotype, nuclear microsatellite genotypes in closely related oak taxa were obtained from the Eurasian continent, Sakhalin, and Hokkaido. The clustering of these genotypes suggests an admixture of Qd in the coastal ecotype of Qc...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Matthew R Jahnke, Julie R Etterson
The mating systems of wild plant populations have profound effects on their genetic structure and evolution, yet remain unknown or incompletely described for many species. One such species, the herbaceous native annual Linum sulcatum Riddell (Linaceae), is thought to be self-compatible, but there has been no experimental evidence to date to support this claim. To assess the breeding system of this species, seeds were collected from wild populations and reared in a controlled environment. Floral manipulations and controlled pollinations were conducted to determine the degree of self-compatibility of this species and to distinguish between autonomous and facilitated modes of selfing...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
F J Ruiz-Ruano, B Navarro-Domínguez, J P M Camacho, Manuel A Garrido-Ramos
We provide here the first full chloroplast genome sequence, i.e., the plastome, for a species belonging to the fern order Hymenophyllales. The phylogenetic position of this order within leptosporangiate ferns, together with the general scarcity of information about fern plastomes, places this research as a valuable study on the analysis of the diversity of plastomes throughout fern evolution. Gene content of V. speciosa plastome was similar to that in most ferns, although there were some characteristic gene losses and lineage-specific differences...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Tsubasa Shoji, Takashi Hashimoto
The jasmonate-responsive transcription factor ERF189 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and its ortholog JRE4 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) regulate a series of biosynthetic genes involved in the nicotine and steroidal glycoalkaloid pathways. In tobacco, QUINOLINATE PHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE 2 (NtQPT2) is regulated by ERF189; however, we found that the tomato QPT gene is not regulated by JRE4. Here, we explored whether and how NtQPT2 is regulated in a heterogenous tomato host. We used a NtQPT2 promoter-driven reporter gene to examine the cell type-specific and jasmonate-induced expression of this gene in transgenic tomato hairy roots...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Laddawan Saelim, Nobuhiro Akiyoshi, Tian Tian Tan, Ayumi Ihara, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Ko Hirano, Makoto Matsuoka, Taku Demura, Misato Ohtani
The cell wall determines morphology and the environmental responses of plant cells. The primary cell wall (PCW) is produced during cell division and expansion, determining the cell shape and volume. After cell expansion, specific types of plant cells produce a lignified wall, known as a secondary cell wall (SCW). We functionally analyzed Group IIId Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP genes, namely ERF34, ERF35, ERF38, and ERF39, which are homologs of a rice ERF gene previously proposed to be related to SCW biosynthesis. Expression analysis revealed that these four genes are expressed in regions related to cell division and/or cell differentiation in seedlings (i...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Leonardo Rosati, Vito Antonio Romano, Luca Cerone, Simonetta Fascetti, Giovanna Potenza, Erika Bazzato, Davide Cillo, Marisabel Mecca, Rocco Racioppi, Maurizio D'Auria, Emmanuele Farris
The discovery of few isolated populations of Gymnospermium scipetarum (since now considered as an amphi-Adriatic endemic) in the S-Apennines prompted to investigate, also for conservation purposes, some aspects of its reproductive biology. We aim: (1) to determine if insects play an important role in pollination; (2) to describe the pollinator community; (3) to detect floral scent composition. Experiments of insect exclusion were carried out in the field using 24 flowering individuals: one raceme was capped whereas the nearest one was used as control to ascertain differences in seed set...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Noriaki Tanabe, Masahiro Noshi, Daisuke Mori, Kotaro Nozawa, Masahiro Tamoi, Shigeru Shigeoka
Iron (Fe) is a micronutrient that is essential for plant development and growth. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are a superfamily of transcription factors that are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in plants. bHLH transcription factors have been divided into subclasses based on their amino acid sequences and domain structures. Among the members of clade IVb (PYE, bHLH121, and bHLH11), the functions of bHLH11 remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized bHLH11 as a negative regulator of Fe homeostasis...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Huanfa Sun, Quan Li, Zhaofeng Lei, Junbo Zhang, Xuzhong Song, Xinzhang Song
The ecological stoichiometry of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) during the "explosive growth period" (EGP) remains unknown. In a previous study, we showed that the carbon (C) required by shoots during the EGP is derived from attached mature bamboos. In this study, we attempted to answer the following two questions: (1) Is the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) required by shoots during the EGP also derived from attached mature bamboos? (2) Is the ecological stoichiometry of Moso bamboo during the EGP consistent with the growth rate hypothesis (GRH)? We simultaneously investigated changes in the N and P concentrations and N:P ratios of shoots (young bamboos) and attached mature bamboo over an 11-month period...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Lu Zhang, Yasutomo Hoshika, Elisa Carrari, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Elisa Pellegrini, Elena Paoletti
Ozone (O3 ) pollution and the availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the soil both affect plant photosynthesis and chlorophyll (Chl) content, but the interaction of O3 and nutrition is unclear. We postulated that the nutritional condition changes plant photosynthetic responses to O3 . An O3 -sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) was subject to two N levels (N0, 0 kg N ha- 1 ; N80, 80 kg N ha- 1 ), two P levels (P0, 0 kg P ha- 1 ; P80, 80 kg P ha- 1 ) and three levels of O3 exposure (ambient concentration, AA; 1...
November 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Yasutomo Hoshika, Takayoshi Koike
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Weiwei Wang, Deborah Page-Dumroese, Martin Jurgensen, Joanne Tirocke, Yong Liu
The effects of forest thinning and wood quality on wood decomposition in the mineral soil were investigated in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carriére) plantation in northern China by measuring mass loss and changes in wood properties (carbohydrates, lignin and nitrogen (N) concentrations) in wood stakes of two tree species-loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Stakes were inserted to a 20 cm soil depth in stands with three thinning levels (low, moderate, and heavy) and an unharvested control and removed after 1 year...
November 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Koichi Takahashi
Natural plant communities are exposed to environmental changes such as global warming and increased human activities. It is thought that alpine and subalpine ecosystems with cool climatic conditions are sensitive to environmental changes. This virtual issue introduces multidisciplinary research at alpine and subalpine plant communities. The articles include research on (1) species diversity, vegetation and biomass, (2) species assembly, (3) climate and growth of alpine plants, (4) reproduction of alpine plants, (5) differences of growth traits among coexisting species, (6) vegetation changes by human activities and overgrazing of deer, and (7) differentiation of growth traits among ecotypes in relation to climatic conditions...
November 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Tetsuto Abe, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Yoshikazu Shimizu
Native forests on oceanic islands are among the most threatened ecosystems. The forests formed on Sekimon uplifted limestone in Haha-jima Island (Ogasawara Islands) have not yet been destroyed by human activities and remain as primary forests harboring several narrow endemic endangered plants. In this paper, we described the plant species diversity, community structure, and status of invasion by alien plants in the mesic forests of Sekimon. The Sekimon forest was characterized by low tree diversity (37 species), high stem density (1731 ha-1 ), and high basal area (63...
November 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Makoto Watanabe, Yu Kamimaki, Marino Mori, Shigeaki Okabe, Izumi Arakawa, Yoshiyuki Kinose, Satoshi Nakaba, Takeshi Izuta
Ozone is an air pollutant that negatively affects photosynthesis in woody plants. Previous studies suggested that ozone-induced reduction in photosynthetic rates is mainly attributable to a decrease of maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ) and/or maximum electron transport rate (Jmax ) estimated from response of net photosynthetic rate (A) to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ) (A/Ci curve) assuming that mesophyll conductance for CO2 diffusion (gm ) is infinite. Although it is known that Ci -based Vcmax and Jmax are potentially influenced by gm , its contribution to ozone responses in Ci -based Vcmax and Jmax is still unclear...
November 2018: Journal of Plant Research
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