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Journal of Plant Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642987/chromosome-number-and-genome-size-variation-in-colocasia-araceae-from-china
#1
Guang-Yan Wang, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Min Qian, Xiang-Yang Hu, Yong-Ping Yang
Chromosome number and genome size are important cytological characters that significantly influence various organismal traits. We investigated chromosome number and genome size variation in 73 accessions belonging to four Colocasia species from China. Five different chromosome counts (2n = 26, 28, 38, 42, and 56) were found, the largest one representing a new record in Colocasia. The basic chromosome numbers are x = 13, 14, and 19, corresponding to 2x, 3x, and 4x cytotypes. Yunnan Province, China is considered the center of Colocasia polyploid origin...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642986/viridiuvalis-adhaerens-gen-et-sp-nov-a-novel-colony-forming-chlorarachniophyte
#2
Takashi Shiratori, Sakuya Fujita, Tenma Shimizu, Takeshi Nakayama, Ken-Ichiro Ishida
A new chlorarachniophyte, Viridiuvalis adhaerens gen. et sp. nov. was isolated from the mucus on a coral reef from Zanpa Beach, Okinawa, Japan. The main vegetative stage of V. adhaerens consisted of unicellular coccoid cells with cell walls, although sarcinoid colonies and uniflagellate zoospores were also observed. V. adhaerens had chloroplasts with nucleomorphs and pyrenoids that were completely embedded in the chloroplast. A deep plate-like invagination of the periplastidal compartment (PPC) almost partitioned the pyrenoid and chloroplast components, which were surrounded by two membranes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634853/chloroplast-aggregation-during-the-cold-positioning-response-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#3
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Mayuko Sato, Yuka Ogasawara, Noriko Hamashima, Othmar Buchner, Andreas Holzinger, Kiminori Toyooka, Yutaka Kodama
Under low-light conditions, chloroplasts localize along periclinal cell walls at temperatures near 20 °C, but they localize along anticlinal cell walls near 5 °C. This phenomenon is known as the cold-positioning response. We previously showed that chloroplasts move as aggregates rather than individually during the cold-positioning response in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris. This observation suggested that chloroplasts physically interact with each other during the cold-positioning response. However, the physiological processes underlying chloroplast aggregation are unclear...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593530/erratum-to-two-early-eudicot-fossil-flowers-from-the-kamikitaba-assemblage-coniacian-late-cretaceous-in-northeastern-japan
#4
Masamichi Takahashi, Patrick S Herendeen, Xianghui Xiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550412/differential-expression-of-poplar-sucrose-nonfermenting1-related-protein-kinase-2-genes-in-response-to-abiotic-stress-and-abscisic-acid
#5
Xiang Yu, Arika Takebayashi, Taku Demura, Misato Ohtani
Knowledge on the responses of woody plants to abiotic stress can inform strategies to breed improved tree varieties and to manage tree species for environmental conservation and the production of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of poplar (Populus trichocarpa) genes encoding members of the sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family, which are core components of the abiotic stress response. The P. trichocarpa genome contains twelve SnRK2 genes (PtSnRK2...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536984/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-the-genus-stevia-asteraceae-eupatorieae-an-example-of-diversification-in-the-asteraceae-in-the-new-world
#6
Akiko Soejima, Akifumi S Tanabe, Izumi Takayama, Takayuki Kawahara, Kuniaki Watanabe, Miyuki Nakazawa, Misako Mishima, Tetsukazu Yahara
The genus Stevia comprises approximately 200 species, which are distributed in North and South America, and are representative of the species diversity of the Asteraceae in the New World. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships using sequences of ITS and cpDNA and estimated the divergence times of the major clade of this genus. Our results suggested that Stevia originated in Mexico 7.0-7.3 million years ago (Mya). Two large clades, one with shrub species and another with herb species, were separated at about 6...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536983/temporal-dynamics-and-vertical-variations-in-stem-co2-efflux-of-styphnolobium-japonicum
#7
Fengsen Han, Xiaolin Wang, Hongxuan Zhou, Yuanzheng Li, Dan Hu
CO2 efflux (ECO2) from stems and branches is highly variable within trees. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the temporal dynamics and vertical variations in ECO2, we measured the stem ECO2 by infrared gas analysis (IRGA) and meteorological conditions at 10 different heights from 0.1 to 3.7 m aboveground on two consecutive days every month for 1 year in six Styphnolobium japonicum trees with a similar size. The results indicated that the seasonal change in ECO2 roughly followed the seasonal variations in woody tissue temperature (TW) and stem radial diameter increment (Di)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536982/cytogenetic-evidences-on-the-evolutionary-relationships-between-the-tetraploids-of-the-section-rhizomatosae-and-related-diploid-species-arachis-leguminosae
#8
Alejandra Marcela Ortiz, Germán Robledo, Guillermo Seijo, José Francisco Montenegro Valls, Graciela Inés Lavia
Rhizomatosae is a taxonomic section of the South American genus Arachis, whose diagnostic character is the presence of rhizomes in all its species. This section is of particular evolutionary interest because it has three polyploid (A. pseudovillosa, A. nitida and A. glabrata, 2n = 4x = 40) and only one diploid (A. burkartii, 2n = 2x = 20) species. The phylogenetic relationships of these species as well as the polyploidy nature and the origin of the tetraploids are still controversial. The present study provides an exhaustive analysis of the karyotypes of all rhizomatous species and six closely related diploid species of the sections Erectoides and Procumbentes by cytogenetic mapping of DAPI/CMA heterochromatin bands and 5S and 18-26S rDNA loci...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534179/spines-vs-microspines-an-overview-of-the-sculpture-exine-in-selected-basal-and-derived-asteraceae-with-focus-on-asteroideae
#9
María C Tellería
This study presents a detailed examination of the echinate and microechinate sculpturing in relation to the size of pollen grains in 31 selected species of Asteraceae belonging to the subfamilies Barnadesioideae, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae and Asteroideae. The aims were to recognize sculpturing patterns, under LM and SEM, within large and small pollen of both basal and derived species and to explore the features that could have taxonomic value to apply in palynological disciplines. The detailed examination of the exine surface showed both the relevance and limits of sculptural patterns for taxonomy...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534178/effects-of-foliage-litter-of-a-pioneer-shrub-artemisia-halodendron-on-germination-from-the-soil-seedbank-in-a-semi-arid-sandy-grassland-in-china
#10
Yongqing Luo, Xueyong Zhao, Yuqiang Li, Tao Wang
Vegetation recovery during succession is an important process for ecological restoration of the soil, especially in degraded sandy land. However, the driving mechanisms, such as how a pioneer species competes with other species, is uncertain. In China's Horqin Sandy Land, Artemisia halodendron is an important shrub that is common on semi-fixed dunes, where it replaces Agriophyllum squarrosum during succession, and is an important indicator species of the second stage of dune stabilization. However, how it outcompetes other species is still unclear...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#11
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497291/two-early-eudicot-fossil-flowers-from-the-kamikitaba-assemblage-coniacian-late-cretaceous-in-northeastern-japan
#12
Masamichi Takahashi, Patrick S Herendeen, Xianghui Xiao
Two new fossil taxa referable to the basal eudicot grade are described from the Kamikitaba locality (ca. 89 MYBP, early Coniacian: Late Cretaceous) of the Futaba Group in Japan. These charcoalified mesofossils exhibit well-preserved three-dimensional structure and were analyzed using synchrotron-radiation X-ray microtomography to document their composition and internal structure. Cathiaria japonica sp. nov. is represented by infructescence segments that consist of an axis bearing three to four fruits. The capsular fruits are sessile and dehiscent and consist of a gynoecium subtended by a bract...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474118/genome-wide-analysis-identifies-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-heat-stress-transcription-factors-hsfs-responsive-to-heat-stress-at-the-pod-development-stage
#13
Parameswaran Chidambaranathan, Prasanth Tej Kumar Jagannadham, Viswanathan Satheesh, Deshika Kohli, Santosh Halasabala Basavarajappa, Bharadwaj Chellapilla, Jitendra Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Jain, R Srinivasan
The heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) play a prominent role in thermotolerance and eliciting the heat stress response in plants. Identification and expression analysis of Hsfs gene family members in chickpea would provide valuable information on heat stress responsive Hsfs. A genome-wide analysis of Hsfs gene family resulted in the identification of 22 Hsf genes in chickpea in both desi and kabuli genome. Phylogenetic analysis distinctly separated 12 A, 9 B, and 1 C class Hsfs, respectively. An analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the upstream region of the genes identified many stress responsive elements such as heat stress elements (HSE), abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE) etc...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470336/enhanced-photosynthetic-capacity-increases-nitrogen-metabolism-through-the-coordinated-regulation-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-assimilation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Kumi Otori, Noriaki Tanabe, Toshiki Maruyama, Shigeru Sato, Shuichi Yanagisawa, Masahiro Tamoi, Shigeru Shigeoka
Plant growth and productivity depend on interactions between the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen. The sensing ability of internal carbon and nitrogen metabolites (the C/N balance) enables plants to regulate metabolism and development. In order to investigate the effects of an enhanced photosynthetic capacity on the metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in photosynthetically active tissus (source leaves), we herein generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants (ApFS) that expressed cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in their chloroplasts...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451936/nitrogen-fertilizer-application-affects-lodging-resistance-by-altering-secondary-cell-wall-synthesis-in-japonica-rice-oryza-sativa
#15
Wujun Zhang, Longmei Wu, Yanfeng Ding, Xiong Yao, Xiaoran Wu, Fei Weng, Ganghua Li, Zhenghui Liu, She Tang, Chengqiang Ding, Shaohua Wang
Stem mechanical strength is an important agricultural quantitative trait that is closely related to lodging resistance in rice, which is known to be reduced by fertilizer with higher levels of nitrogen. To understand the mechanism that regulates stem mechanical strength in response to nitrogen, we analysed stem morphology, anatomy, mechanical properties, cell wall components, and expression of cell wall-related genes, in two varieties of japonica rice, namely, Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447204/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-freezing-stress-responses-in-loquat-eriobotrya-japonica-fruitlets
#16
Hong-Xia Xu, Xiao-Ying Li, Jun-Wei Chen
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important subtropical, commercial fruit in China. It blossoms during autumn and winter in most areas of China and its fruitlets usually suffer from freezing stress. However, studies about the mechanisms underlying freezing stress in loquat are very limited. The gene expression profiles of loquat fruitlets subjected to freezing (G2 library) versus non-treated ones (G1 library) were investigated using Illumina sequencing technology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and identify the genes that play vital roles in the freezing stress response...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444520/elevational-plant-species-richness-patterns-and-their-drivers-across-non-endemics-endemics-and-growth-forms-in-the-eastern-himalaya
#17
Kumar Manish, Maharaj K Pandit, Yasmeen Telwala, Dinesh C Nautiyal, Lian Pin Koh, Sudha Tiwari
Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434121/intracellular-position-of-mitochondria-in-mesophyll-cells-differs-between-c3-and-c4-grasses
#18
Yuto Hatakeyama, Osamu Ueno
In C3 plants, part of the CO2 fixed during photosynthesis in chloroplasts is released from mitochondria during photorespiration by decarboxylation of glycine via glycine decarboxylase (GDC), thereby reducing photosynthetic efficiency. The apparent positioning of most mitochondria in the interior (vacuole side of chloroplasts) of mesophyll cells in C3 grasses would increase the efficiency of refixation of CO2 released from mitochondria by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/​oxygenase (Rubisco) in chloroplasts...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424932/inverse-relationship-of-ca-2-dependent-flagellar-response-between-animal-sperm-and-prasinophyte-algae
#19
Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba
Symmetry/asymmetry conversion of eukaryotic flagellar waveform is caused by the changes in intracellular Ca(2+). Animal sperm flagella show symmetric or asymmetric waveform at lower or higher concentration of intracellular Ca(2+), respectively. In Chlamydomonas, high Ca(2+) induces conversion of flagellar waveform from asymmetric to symmetry, resulting in the backward movement. This mirror image relationship between animal sperm and Chlamydomonas could be explained by the distinct calcium sensors used to regulate the outer arm dyneins (Inaba 2015)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421372/vascular-development-of-the-grapevine-vitis-vinifera-l-inflorescence-rachis-in-response-to-flower-number-plant-growth-regulators-and-defoliation
#20
Aude M Gourieroux, Bruno P Holzapfel, Margaret E McCully, Geoffrey R Scollary, Suzy Y Rogiers
The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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