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Journal of Plant Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236179/effects-of-glucose-and-ethylene-on-root-hair-initiation-and-elongation-in-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l-seedlings
#1
Wakana Harigaya, Hidenori Takahashi
Root hair formation occurs in lettuce seedlings after transfer to an acidic medium (pH 4.0). This process requires cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization in root epidermal cells and the plant hormone ethylene. We investigated the interaction between ethylene and glucose, a new signaling molecule in plants, in lettuce root development, with an emphasis on root hair formation. Dark-grown seedlings were used to exclude the effect of photosynthetically produced glucose. In the dark, neither root hair formation nor the CMT randomization preceding it occurred, even after transfer to the acidic medium (pH 4...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234988/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-genes-involved-in-steroidal-saponin-biosynthesis-in-dracaena-cambodiana
#2
Jia-Hong Zhu, Hui-Liang Li, Dong Guo, Ying Wang, Hao-Fu Dai, Wen-Li Mei, Shi-Qing Peng
Dracaena cambodiana is a traditional medicinal plant used for producing dragon's blood. The plants and dragon's blood of D. cambodiana contain a rich variety of steroidal saponins. However, little is known about steroidal saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in D. cambodiana. Here, 122 genes encoding enzymes involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis were identified based on transcriptome data, with 29 of them containing complete open reading frames (ORF). Transcript expression analysis revealed that several genes related to steroidal saponin biosynthesis showed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns; the expression levels of genes encoding the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and early modification of steroidal saponins were significantly down-regulated in the stems in response to the inducer of dragon's blood, exhibiting positive correlations with the content of steroidal saponins...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204753/phloem-differentiation-an-integrative-model-for-cell-specification
#3
Bernhard Blob, Jung-Ok Heo, Yka Helariutta
Plant vasculature consists of two major conductive cell types, xylem tracheary elements and phloem sieve elements (SEs). Both cell types undergo a highly specialized differentiation process. The root meristem of Arabidopsis displays a stereotypical anatomy in which the central vasculature is surrounded by concentric layers of outer tissues. Each cell file is derived from stem cells located in the root tip. A series of formative and proliferative divisions take place in the meristem; these are followed by cell expansion and differentiation...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204752/monitoring-circadian-rhythms-of-individual-cells-in-plants
#4
Tomoaki Muranaka, Tokitaka Oyama
The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system based on the self-sustained oscillation in individual cells. These cellular circadian clocks compose a multicellular circadian system working at respective levels of tissue, organ, plant body. However, how numerous cellular clocks are coordinated within a plant has been unclear. There was little information about behavior of circadian clocks at a single-cell level due to the difficulties in monitoring circadian rhythms of individual cells in an intact plant...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204751/opening-new-avenues-for-plant-developmental-research
#5
Yuki Kondo, Shigeo S Sugano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181650/reconstitutive-approach-for-investigating-plant-vascular-development
#6
Yuki Kondo
Plants generate various tissues and organs via a strictly regulated developmental program. The plant vasculature is a complex tissue system consisting of xylem and phloem tissues with a layer of cambial cells in between. Multiple regulatory steps are involved in vascular development. Although molecular and genetic studies have uncovered a variety of key factors controlling vascular development, studies of the actual functions of these factors have been limited due to the inaccessibility of the plant vasculature...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181649/cell-cell-communications-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-plant-sexual-reproduction
#7
Masahiro M Kanaoka
Sexual reproduction is achieved by precise interactions between male and female reproductive organs. In plant fertilization, sperm cells are carried to ovules by pollen tubes. Signals from the pistil are involved in elongation and control of the direction of the pollen tube. Genetic, reverse genetic, and cell biological analyses using model plants have identified various factors related to the regulation of pollen tube growth and guidance. In this review, I summarize the mechanisms and molecules controlling pollen tube growth to the ovule, micropylar guidance, reception of the guidance signal in the pollen tube, rupture of the pollen tube to release sperm cells, and cessation of the tube guidance signal...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181648/molecular-characterization-of-cytosolic-cysteine-synthase-in-mimosa-pudica
#8
Md Harun-Ur- Rashid, Hironori Iwasaki, Shigeki Oogai, Masakazu Fukuta, Shahanaz Parveen, Md Amzad Hossain, Toyoaki Anai, Hirosuke Oku
In the cysteine and mimosine biosynthesis process, O-acetyl-L-serine (OAS) is the common substrate. In the presence of O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OASTL, cysteine synthase) the reaction of OAS with sulfide produces cysteine, while with 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P) produces mimosine. The enzyme OASTL can either catalyze Cys synthesis or both Cys and mimosine. A cDNA for cytosolic OASTL was cloned from M. pudica for the first time containing 1,410 bp nucleotides. The purified protein product from overexpressed bacterial cells produced Cys only, but not mimosine, indicating it is Cys specific...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181647/the-role-of-plant-hormones-during-grafting
#9
Amrit K Nanda, Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plant tissues together through a process known as grafting. By creating a chimeric organism, desirable properties from two plants combine to enhance disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, vigour or facilitate the asexual propagation of plants. In addition, grafting has been extremely informative in science for studying and identifying the long-distance movement of molecules. Despite its increasing use in horticulture and science, how plants undertake the process of grafting remains elusive...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177755/are-cytological-parameters-of-maize-landraces-zea-mays-ssp-mays-adapted-along-an-altitudinal-cline
#10
María Florencia Fourastié, Alexandra Marina Gottlieb, Lidia Poggio, Graciela Esther González
The Northwestern Argentina (NWA) highland region is one of the southernmost areas of native maize cultivation. We studied variations of different cytological parameters, such as DNA contents, presence/absence of B chromosomes (Bs), and number and sequence composition of heterochromatic knobs in ten accessions of four maize landraces growing along a broad altitudinal cline in NWA. The aim of this work was to assess variations in cytological parameters and their relationship with the crop altitude of cultivation, in an adaptive context...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170834/emerging-roles-of-cortical-microtubule-membrane-interactions
#11
Yoshihisa Oda
Plant cortical microtubules have crucial roles in cell wall development. Cortical microtubules are tightly anchored to the plasma membrane in a highly ordered array, which directs the deposition of cellulose microfibrils by guiding the movement of the cellulose synthase complex. Cortical microtubules also interact with several endomembrane systems to regulate cell wall development and other cellular events. Recent studies have identified new factors that mediate interactions between cortical microtubules and endomembrane systems including the plasma membrane, endosome, exocytic vesicles, and endoplasmic reticulum...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134443/circadian-clock-during-plant-development
#12
Keisuke Inoue, Takashi Araki, Motomu Endo
Plants have endogenous biological clocks that allow organisms to anticipate and prepare for daily and seasonal environmental changes and increase their fitness in changing environments. The circadian clock in plants, as in animals and insects, mainly consists of multiple interlocking transcriptional/translational feedback loops. The circadian clock can be entrained by environmental cues such as light, temperature and nutrient status to synchronize internal biological rhythms with surrounding environments. Output pathways link the circadian oscillator to various physiological, developmental, and reproductive processes for adjusting the timing of these biological processes to an appropriate time of day or a suitable season...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124465/the-origin-of-wild-populations-of-toxicodendron-succedaneum-on-mainland-japan-revealed-by-genetic-variation-in-chloroplast-and-nuclear-dna
#13
Yuichiro Hiraoka, Ichiro Tamaki, Atsushi Watanabe
Toxicodendron succedaneum: (L.) Kuntze is a tree cultivated for the production of sumac wax, which is extracted from the mesocarp. There are several hypotheses regarding the origin of T. succedaneum on mainland Japan. In this study, the geographical distribution of genetic variation in 13 wild populations on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Ryukyu Islands, Japan was investigated and compared with that of individuals from continental Asia. Seven chloroplast DNA haplotypes of T. succedaneum were observed in Japan and could be divided into three lineages based on relatedness between haplotypes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110195/a-transposition-active-phyllostachys-edulis-long-terminal-repeat-ltr-retrotransposon
#14
Mingbing Zhou, Linlin Liang, Heikki Hänninen
Due to infrequent sexual reproduction, moso bamboo breeding by hybridization is extremely technically difficult. Insertional mutagenesis based on endogenous active transposons may thus serve as an alternative method to create new germplasm of moso bamboo. In the present study, using LTR-STRUC, a full-length intact long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was identified in the moso bamboo genome and was named PHRE2 (Phyllostachys edulis retrotransposon 2). The 5' and 3' LTR sequences of PHRE2 were highly (98...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101488/relicts-of-the-mid-miocene-climatic-optimum-may-contribute-to-the-floristic-diversity-of-japan-a-case-study-of-pinus-mikii-pinaceae-and-its-extant-relatives
#15
Mariko Yamada, Toshihiro Yamada
The epidermis of Pinus mikii leaves was studied. Pinus mikii is a fossil species from the lower Miocene to lower Pleistocene of Japan. In P. mikii, the stomata are closely set and guard cells have polar extensions of cuticle on their inner cell walls. These features suggest that P. mikii is closely related to P. luchuensis, an extant species endemic to the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. Pinus mikii also shares some epidermal characters with P. thunbergii, which is semiendemic to Japan. It is possible that P. mikii is a common ancestor of both of these extant species...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098479/the-responses-of-photosystem-ii-and-intracellular-atp-production-of-arabidopsis-leaves-to-salt-stress-are-affected-by-extracellular-atp
#16
Qin-Zheng Hou, Kun Sun, Hui Zhang, Xue Su, Bao-Qiang Fan, Han-Qing Feng
Hypertonic salt stress with different concentrations of NaCl increased the levels of extracellular ATP of Arabidopsis leaves. And, hypertonic salt stress decreased the levels of F v /F m (the maximal efficiency of photosystem II), Φ PSII (the photosystem II operating efficiency), qP (photochemical quenching), and intracellular ATP (iATP) production. The treatment with β,γ-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (AMP-PCP), which can exclude extracellular ATP from its binding sites of extracellular ATP receptors, caused a further decrease in the levels of F v /F m , Φ PSII, qP, and iATP production of the salt-stressed Arabidopsis leaves, while the addition of exogenous ATP rescued the inhibitory effects of AMP-PCP on Φ PSII , qP, and iATP production under hypertonic salt stress...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090369/induction-and-relaxation-of-extrafloral-nectaries-in-response-to-simulated-herbivory-in-young-mallotus-japonicus-plants
#17
Akira Yamawo, Nobuhiko Suzuki
The disadvantage of induced defenses compared with constitutive defenses is the time during which a plant is vulnerable to herbivory before activation. There is obvious importance in determining the costs and benefits of induced defenses. Some plants produce extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), which attract ants that protect against herbivores, and induce EFNs and extrafloral nectar in response to leaf damage. To understand induction of indirect defense by ants, we investigated the induction and relaxation of extrafloral nectar secretion and EFN formation after artificial leaf damage in young Mallotus japonicus...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082451/nutrient-concentration-in-wheat-and-soil-under-allelopathy-treatments
#18
Nayer Mohammadkhani, Moslem Servati
Allelopathy is related to soil nutrient availability and allelochemicals can change the soil and therefore the plant nutrient status. Wheat is one of the most important crops for the production of human food in the world. Alhagi maurorum and Cardaria draba are the most important weeds in wheat fields. We performed experiments to assess the allelopathic effect of A. maurorum and C. draba shoots on mineral nutrient concentrations in pot-grown wheat plants and soil. The presence of dry powder of A. maurorum and C...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075953/a-novel-indicator-of-karyotype-evolution-in-the-tribe-leucocoryneae-allioideae-amaryllidaceae
#19
Agostina B Sassone, Alicia López, Diego H Hojsgaard, Liliana M Giussani
The tribe Leucocoryneae is taxonomically and cytogenetically complex, mainly due to its extraordinary morphological and karyological variation. Robertsonian translocations had long been recognized as a central factor contributing to karyotype diversity within the Leucocoryneae, but so far no major tendency prevailing on the observed complexity of karyotype formula among species has been identified. The assessment of nuclear DNA contents by flow cytometry using propidium iodide in 23 species, representing all genera within the tribe, showed a monoploid genome size variation of 1Cx = 9...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063977/highly-expressed-polyamine-oxidases-catalyze-polyamine-back-conversion-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#20
Yoshihiro Takahashi, Kaede Ono, Yuuta Akamine, Takuya Asano, Masatoshi Ezaki, Itsupei Mouri
To understand the polyamine (PA) catabolic pathways in Brachypodium distachyon, we focused on the flavin-containing polyamine oxidase enzymes (PAO), and characterized them at the molecular and biochemical levels. Five PAO isoforms were identified from database searches, and we named them BdPAO1 to BdPAO5. By gene expression analysis using above-ground tissues such as leaf, stem and inflorescence, it was revealed that BdPAO2 is the most abundant PAO gene in normal growth conditions, followed by BdPAO3 and BdPAO4...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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