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Journal of Plant Research

Inoue Mizuki, Kiyoshi Ishida, Masaaki Chiwa, Yoshitoshi Uehara, Ken'ichi Shinozuka, Atsushi Kume
In populations of dioecious plants, the differences in the cost of reproduction between male and female plants can promote a male-biased sex ratio. In this study, we examine the macronutrient levels in tissues of the dioecious wetland shrub Myrica gale to identify the cost of reproduction for male and female plants and to examine the effect of nutrients on the apparent sex ratio at the ramet level. We examined plants across 12 populations of M. gale inhabiting bogs and fens in Japan. For each population, we used line transects to estimate the apparent sex ratio and measured the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the leaves sampled from male and female plants and in the fruits from female plants...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Atsushi Kume, Tomoko Akitsu, Kenlo Nishida Nasahara
Chlorophylls (Chl) are important pigments in plants that are used to absorb photons and release electrons. There are several types of Chls but terrestrial plants only possess two of these: Chls a and b. The two pigments form light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding protein complexes (LHC), which absorb most of the light. The peak wavelengths of the absorption spectra of Chls a and b differ by c. 20 nm, and the ratio between them (the a/b ratio) is an important determinant of the light absorption efficiency of photosynthesis (i...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Roghieh Hajiboland, Sara Bahrami-Rad, Hossein Akhani, Charlotte Poschenrieder
Salt tolerance mechanisms were studied in three Irano-Turanian halophytic species from the Brassicaceae ‎‎(Lepidium latifolium, L. perfoliatum and Schrenkiella parvula) and compared with the glycophyte Arabidopsis thaliana. According to seed germination under salt stress, L. perfoliatum was the most tolerant species, while L. latifolium and S. parvula were rather susceptible. Contrastingly, based on biomass production L. perfoliatum was more salt sensitive than the other two species. In S. parvula biomass was increased up to 2...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Yuko Yasuda, Yasuhiro Utsumi, Xianfang Tan, Naoaki Tashiro, Kenji Fukuda, Shinya Koga
The suppression of apical growth and radial trunk growth in trees under shade is a key factor in the competition mechanism among individuals in natural and artificial forests. However, the timing of apical and radial growth suppression after shading and the physiological processes involved have not been evaluated precisely. Twenty-one Abies sachalinensis seedlings of 5-years-old were shaded artificially under a relative light intensity of 5% for 70 days from August 1, and the histological changes of the terminal bud and terminally lateral bud of terminal leader and the cambial zone of the trunk base were analyzed periodically...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Kengo Arima, Daisuke Tamaoki, Yoshinobu Mineyuki, Hiroki Yasuhara, Tomonori Nakai, Teruo Shimmen, Tohru Yoshihisa, Seiji Sonobe
In plant cytokinesis, actin is thought to be crucial in cell plate guidance to the cortical division zone (CDZ), but its organization and function are not fully understood. To elucidate actin organization during cytokinesis, we employed an experimental system, in which the mitotic apparatus is displaced and separated from the CDZ by centrifugation and observed using a global-local live imaging microscope that enabled us to record behavior of actin filaments in the CDZ and the whole cell division process in parallel...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Yamato Yoshida
Chloroplasts (plastids) and mitochondria evolved from endosymbiotic bacteria. These organelles perform vital functions in photosynthetic eukaryotes, such as harvesting and converting energy for use in biological processes. Consistent with their evolutionary origins, plastids and mitochondria proliferate by the binary fission of pre-existing organelles. Here, I review the structures and functions of the supramolecular machineries driving plastid and mitochondrial division, which were discovered and first studied in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Lassina Sanou, Didier Zida, Patrice Savadogo, Adjima Thiombiano
Grazing removes a plant's aboveground vegetative and reproductive tissues and can modify the soil seed bank, potentially impacting the restoration of preferred species. Knowledge about aboveground vegetation and species composition of soil seed bank and the processes that contribute to vegetation recovery on and surrounding watering points subjected to grazing is lacking. Successful restoration strategies hinge on addressing these knowledge gaps. We assessed the effects of livestock grazing on aboveground vegetation and soil seed bank characteristics along a river bank and surrounding areas subject to different grazing intensities and draw implications for restoration...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Shin-Ichi Miyazawa, Mitsuru Nishiguchi, Norihiro Futamura, Tomohisa Yukawa, Mitsue Miyao, Tsuyoshi Emilio Maruyama, Takayuki Kawahara
Glutamine synthetase (GS) localized in the chloroplasts, GS2, is a key enzyme in the assimilation of ammonia (NH3 ) produced from the photorespiration pathway in angiosperms, but it is absent from some coniferous species belonging to Pinaceae such as Pinus. We examined whether the absence of GS2 is common in conifers (Pinidae) and also addressed the question of whether assimilation efficiency of photorespiratory NH3 differs between conifers that may potentially lack GS2 and angiosperms. Search of the expressed sequence tag database of Cryptomeria japonica, a conifer in Cupressaceae, and immunoblotting analyses of leaf GS proteins of 13 species from all family members in Pinidae revealed that all tested conifers exhibited only GS1 isoforms...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
José Antonio Fernández Prieto, Mauro Sanna, Álvaro Bueno Sánchez, Joaquín Molero-Mesa, Leonardo Llorens García, Eduardo Cires
The genus Pimpinella L. comprises about 150 species, being one of the largest genera within the family Apiaceae (subfamily Apioideae). Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Pimpinella is a taxonomically complex group. In this study, evolutionary relationships among representatives from Western Europe have been inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1 and ITS 2) and plastid sequences (trnL intron and the trnL-F spacer), with a representative sampling included (168 accessions in the ITS analysis, representing 158 species; and 42 accessions in the cpDNA analysis representing 35 taxa of Pimpinella and closely related species)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Yuki Tsuchikane, Hiroka Kobayashi, Machi Kato, Juri Watanabe, Jiunn-Tzong Wu, Hiroyuki Sekimoto
Reproductive isolation is essential for the process of speciation. In order to understand speciation, it is necessary to compare one mating group with other phylogenetically related but reproductively isolated groups. The Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale (C. psl.) complex is a unicellular isogamous zygnematophycean alga, which is believed to share a close phylogenetic relationship with the land plants. In this study, we identified a new mating group, named group G, of C. psl. complex and compared its physiological and biochemical characteristics with the mating group I-E, which was closely related to the mating group G...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Li-Jie Li, Xiao-Chen Lu, Huai-Yu Ma, De-Guo Lyu
Soil temperature is known to affect plant growth and productivity. In this study we found that low root-zone temperature (LRT) inhibited the growth of apple (Malus baccata Borkh.) seedlings. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of LRT response, we performed comparative proteome analysis of the apple roots under LRT for 6 days. Total proteins of roots were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and 29 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Hiroyoshi Kubo, Shunsuke Nozawa, Takuma Hiwatashi, Youichi Kondou, Ryo Nakabayashi, Tetsuya Mori, Kazuki Saito, Kojiro Takanashi, Takayuki Kohchi, Kimitsune Ishizaki
R2R3-MYB transcription factors constitute the largest gene family among plant transcription factor families. They became largely divergent during the evolution of land plants and regulate various biological processes. The functions of R2R3-MYBs are mostly characterized in seed plants but are poorly understood in non-seed plants. Here, we examined the function of two R2R3-MYB genes of Marchantia polymorpha (Mapoly0073s0038 and Mapoly0006s0226) that are closely related to subgroup 4 of the R2R3-MYB family. We performed LC/MS/MS metabolomics, RNA-seq analysis and expression analysis in overexpressors and knockout mutants of MpMYB14 and MpMYB02...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Koichi Takahashi, Kosuke Homma, Jiří Doležal, Kotaro Yamagata, Valentina P Vetrova, Toshihiko Hara
In the original publication of the article, one of the author names was published incorrectly as "Jiri Dorezal". The correct name is Jiří Doležal.
May 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Kohtaroh Shutoh, Kenji Suetsugu, Shingo Kaneko, Takahide Kurosawa
The genus Pyrola includes species with different degree of mycoheterotrophy; some species possess individuals that rely on all carbon through their associations with fungi (full mycoheterotrophy, FM), whereas some species obtain carbon through both fungi and photosynthesis by itself (partial mycoheterotrophy, PM). To investigate how plant functional traits of photosynthesis and reproduction are related to the degree of mycoheterotrophy in the initial stage of the transition from PM to FM, we determined morphological traits in FM (or nearly FM) and PM species in two independent lineages, P...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Kanako Bessho-Uehara, Jovano Erris Nugroho, Hirono Kondo, Rosalyn B Angeles-Shim, Motoyuki Ashikari
Oryza longistaminata, the African wild rice, can propagate vegetatively through rhizomes. Rhizomes elongate horizontally underground as sink organs, however, they undergo a developmental transition that shifts their growth to the surface of the ground to become aerial stems. This particular stage is essential for the establishment of new ramets. While several determinants such as abiotic stimuli and plant hormones have been reported as key factors effecting developmental transition in aerial stem, the cause of this phenomenon in rhizome remains elusive...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Fanlu Meng, Yao Xiao, Lihua Guo, Hongmei Zeng, Xiufen Yang, Dewen Qiu
PeaT1 is a proteinaceous elicitor from fungal pathogen Alternaria tenuissima. Our previous research revealed that this elicitor could induce defense response and enhance disease resistance in various plants including Nicotiana plants. However, immune activation mechanisms whereby PeaT1 elicits defense response remain unclear. In this study, the association between elicitor protein PeaT1 and the plasma membrane was assessed using the FITC (Fluorescein isothiocyanate) labeling method. A PeaT1-interacting protein was isolated via 125 I-PeaT1 cross-linking and Far Western blot analyses, and designated PtBP1 (PeaT1 Binding Protein 1)...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Hidenobu Uchida, Koremitsu Sumimoto, Tomoka Oki, Ichiro Nishii, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The B race of a green microalga Botryococcus braunii Kützing produces triterpene hydrocarbons that is a promising source for biofuel. In this algal race, precursors of triterpene hydrocarbons are provided from the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The terminal enzyme of this pathway, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) is regarded as one of the key enzymes that affect yields of products in terpene biosynthesis. In order to better understand the MEP pathway of the alga, cDNA and genomic clones of HDR were obtained from B...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Koichi Takahashi, Kosuke Homma, Jiri Dorezal, Kotaro Yamagata, Valentina P Vetrova, Toshihiko Hara
Alders (Alnus spp.) often dominate at nutrient-poor sites by symbiotic relations with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about quantitative relationships between root nodule as a nitrogen acquisition organ and leaf as a carbon acquisition organ. To examine carbon allocation, nitrogen acquisition and net production in nutrient-poor conditions, we examined allocation patterns among organs of shrub Alnus fruticosa at a young 80-year-old moraine in Kamchatka. Slopes of double-log allometric equations were significantly smaller than 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Meg C Gravley, George K Sage, Sandra L Talbot, Matthew L Carlson
Codominant marker systems are better suited to analyze population structure and assess the source of an individual in admixture analyses. Currently, there is no codominant marker system using microsatellites developed for the sea sandwort, Honckenya peploides (L.) Ehrh., an early colonizer in island systems. We developed and characterized novel microsatellite loci from H. peploides, using reads collected from whole genome shotgun sequencing on a 454 platform. The combined output from two shotgun runs yielded a total of 62,669 reads, from which 58 loci were screened...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Vu Thanh Nam, Niels P R Anten, Marijke van Kuijk
Wood density (WD) is believed to be a key trait in driving growth strategies of tropical forest species, and as it entails the amount of mass per volume of wood, it also tends to correlate with forest carbon stocks. Yet there is relatively little information on how interspecific variation in WD correlates with biomass dynamics at the species and population level. We determined changes in biomass in permanent plots in a logged forest in Vietnam from 2004 to 2012, a period representing the last 8 years of a 30 years logging cycle...
July 2018: Journal of Plant Research
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