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Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824221/production-of-neutral-molecular-clusters-by-controlled-neutralization-of-mobility-standards
#1
G Steiner, A Franchin, J Kangasluoma, V-M Kerminen, M Kulmala, T Petäjä
Measuring aerosols and molecular clusters below the 3 nm size limit is essential to increase our understanding of new particle formation. Instruments for the detection of sub-3 nm aerosols and clusters exist and need to be carefully calibrated and characterized. So far calibrations and laboratory tests have been carried out using mainly electrically charged aerosols, as they are easier to handle experimentally. However, the charging state of the cluster is an important variable to take into account. Furthermore, instrument characterization performed with charged aerosols could be biased, preventing a correct interpretation of data when electrically neutral sub-3 nm aerosols are involved...
August 3, 2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871212/evaluation-of-consumer-monitors-to-measure-particulate-matter
#2
Sinan Sousan, Kirsten Koehler, Laura Hallett, Thomas M Peters
Recently, inexpensive (<$300) consumer aerosol monitors (CAMs) targeted for use in homes have become available. We evaluated the accuracy, bias, and precision of three CAMs (Foobot from Airoxlab, Speck from Carnegie Mellon University, and AirBeam from HabitatMap) for measuring mass concentrations in occupational settings. In a laboratory study, PM2.5 measured with the CAMs and a medium-cost aerosol photometer (personal DataRAM 1500, Thermo Scientific) were compared to that from reference instruments for three aerosols (salt, welding fume, and Arizona road dust, ARD) at concentrations up to 8500 μg/m(3)...
May 2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871214/rapid-analysis-of-the-size-distribution-of-metal-containing-aerosol
#3
Jae Hong Park, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, Kathryn J Crawford, T Renée Anthony, Vicki H Grassian, Thomas M Peters
Conventional methods to measure the metallic content of particles by size are time consuming and expensive, requiring collection of particles with a cascade impactor and subsequent metals analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this work, we describe a rapid way to measure the size distribution of metal-containing particles from 10 nm to 20 μm, using a nano micro-orifice uniform-deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI) to size-selective and collect particles that are then analyzed with a field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to determine metal composition and concentration...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706340/transport-phenomena-governing-nicotine-emissions-from-electronic-cigarettes-model-formulation-and-experimental-investigation
#4
Soha Talih, Zainab Balhas, Rola Salman, Rachel El-Hage, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Ahmad El-Hellani, Mohamad Baassiri, Ezzat Jaroudi, Thomas Eissenberg, Najat Saliba, Alan Shihadeh
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) electrically heat and aerosolize a liquid containing propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), flavorants, water, and nicotine. ECIG effects and proposed methods to regulate them are controversial. One regulatory focal point involves nicotine emissions. We describe a mathematical model that predicts ECIG nicotine emissions. The model computes the vaporization rate of individual species by numerically solving the unsteady species and energy conservation equations. To validate model predictions, yields of nicotine, total particulate matter, PG, and VG were measured while manipulating puff topography, electrical power, and liquid composition across 100 conditions...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690360/absorption-transmission-measurements-of-psap-particle-laden-filters-from-the-biomass-burning-observation-project-bbop-field-campaign
#5
Cary Presser, Ashot Nazarian, Joseph M Conny, Duli Chand, Arthur Sedlacek, John M Hubbe
Absorptivity measurements with a laser-heating approach, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR), were carried out in the infrared and applied at ambient (laboratory) non-reacting conditions to particle-laden filters from a three-wavelength (visible) particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The particles were obtained during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign. The focus of this study was to determine the particle absorption coefficient from field-campaign filter samples using the LDTR approach, and compare results with other commercially available instrumentation (in this case with the PSAP, which has been compared with numerous other optical techniques)...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435179/real-time-measurement-of-size-resolved-elemental-composition-ratio-for-flame-synthesized-composite-nanoparticle-aggregates-using-a-tandem-smps-icp-oes
#6
Nathan Reed, Jiaxi Fang, Sanmathi Chavalmane, Pratim Biswas
Composite nanoparticles find application in catalysis, drug delivery, and energy storage and require increasingly fine control of their physical properties and composition. While composite nanoparticles have been widely synthesized and characterized, little work has systematically correlated the initial concentration of precursors and the final composition of flame synthesized composite nanoparticles. This relationship is explored in a diffusion flame aerosol reactor by coupling a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928195/preparation-and-characterization-of-polycaprolactone-microspheres-by-electrospraying
#7
Feng-Lei Zhou, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce, Stephen J Eichhorn, Geoff J M Parker
The ability to reproducibly produce and effectively collect electrosprayed polymeric microspheres with controlled morphology and size in bulk form is challenging. In this study, microparticles were produced by electrospraying polycaprolactone (PCL) of various molecular weights and solution concentrations in chloroform, and by collecting materials on different substrates. The resultant PCL microparticles were characterized by optical and electron microscopy to investigate the effect of molecular weight, solution concentration, applied voltage, working distance, and flow rate on their morphology and size...
November 1, 2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638174/near-real-time-measurement-of-carbonaceous-aerosol-using-microplasma-spectroscopy-application-to-measurement-of-carbon-nanomaterials
#8
Lina Zheng, Pramod Kulkarni, M Eileen Birch, Gregory Deye, Dionysios D Dionysiou
A sensitive, field-portable microplasma spectroscopy method has been developed for real-time measurement of carbon nanomaterials. The method involves microconcentration of aerosol on a microelectrode tip for subsequent analysis for atomic carbon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) or spark emission spectroscopy (SES). The spark-induced microplasma was characterized by measuring the excitation temperature (15,000 - 35,000 K), electron density (1.0 × 10(17) - 2.2 × 10(17) cm(-3)), and spectral responses as functions of time and interelectrode distance...
August 18, 2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871213/evaluation-of-the-alphasense-optical-particle-counter-opc-n2-and-the-grimm-portable-aerosol-spectrometer-pas-1-108
#9
Sinan Sousan, Kirsten Koehler, Laura Hallett, Thomas M Peters
We compared the performance of a low-cost (∼$500), compact optical particle counter (OPC, OPC-N2, Alphasense) to another OPC (PAS-1.108, Grimm Technologies) and reference instruments. We measured the detection efficiency of the OPCs by size from 0.5 to 5 μm for monodispersed, polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres. We then compared number and mass concentrations measured with the OPCs to those measured with reference instruments for three aerosols: salt, welding fume and Arizona road dust. The OPC-N2 detection efficiency for monodispersed was similar to the PAS-1...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867869/porous-polyurethane-foam-for-use-as-a-particle-collection-substrate-in-a-nanoparticle-respiratory-deposition-sampler
#10
Levi W D Mines, Jae Hong Park, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, T Renée Anthony, Vicki H Grassian, Thomas M Peters
Porous polyurethane foam was evaluated to replace the eight nylon meshes used as a substrate to collect nanoparticles in the Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition (NRD) sampler. Cylindrical (25-mm diameter by 40-mm deep) foam with 110 pores per inch was housed in a 25-mm-diameter conductive polypropylene cassette cowl compatible with the NRD sampler. Pristine foam and nylon meshes were evaluated for metals content via elemental analysis. The size-selective collection efficiency of the foam was evaluated using salt (NaCl) and metal fume aerosols in independent tests...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867868/inter-comparison-of-low-cost-sensors-for-measuring-the-mass-concentration-of-occupational-aerosols
#11
Sinan Sousan, Kirsten Koehler, Geb Thomas, Jae Hong Park, Michael Hillman, Andrew Halterman, Thomas M Peters
Low-cost sensors are effective for measuring the mass concentration of ambient aerosols and secondhand smoke in homes, but their use at concentrations relevant to occupational settings has not been demonstrated. We measured the concentrations of four aerosols (salt, Arizona road dust, welding fume, and diesel exhaust) with three types of low-cost sensors (a DC1700 from Dylos and two commodity sensors from Sharp), an aerosol photometer, and reference instruments at concentrations up to 6500 μg/m(3). Raw output was used to assess sensor precision and develop equations to compute mass concentrations...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663667/practical-limitations-of-aerosol-separation-by-a-tandem-differential-mobility-analyzer-aerosol-particle-mass-analyzer
#12
James G Radney, Christopher D Zangmeister
A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fractal soot agglomerates...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603336/application-of-direct-reading-and-elemental-carbon-analysis-methods-to-measure-mass-based-penetration-of-carbon-nanotubes-through-elastomeric-half-face-and-filtering-facepiece-respirators
#13
Evanly Vo, Ziqing Zhuang, Eileen Birch, Quinn Birch
The aim of this study was to apply a direct-reading aerosol instrument method and an elemental carbon (EC) analysis method to measure the mass-based penetration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) and filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). For the direct-reading aerosol instrument method, two scanning mobility particle sizer/aerodynamic particle sizer systems were used to simultaneously determine the upstream (outside respirator) and downstream (inside respirator) test aerosols...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413241/development-of-portable-aerosol-mobility-spectrometer-for-personal-and-mobile-aerosol-measurement
#14
Pramod Kulkarni, Chaolong Qi, Nobuhiko Fukushima
We describe development of a Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) for size distribution measurement of submicrometer aerosol. The spectrometer is designed for use in personal or mobile aerosol characterization studies and measures approximately 22.5 × 22.5 × 15 cm and weighs about 4.5 kg including the battery. PAMS uses electrical mobility technique to measure number-weighted particle size distribution of aerosol in the 10-855 nm range. Aerosol particles are electrically charged using a dual-corona bipolar corona charger, followed by classification in a cylindrical miniature differential mobility analyzer...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840546/miniature-differential-mobility-analyzer-for-compact-field-portable-spectrometers
#15
Chaolong Qi, Pramod Kulkarni
A low-flow miniature differential mobility analyzer (mDMA) has been developed for compact field-portable mobility spectrometers to classify the submicrometer aerosol. The mDMA was designed for an ultra-low aerosol flow rate of 0.05 L/min. At a sheath flow rate of 0.2 L/min, the mDMA's upper size limit was estimated to be about 921 nm. The mDMA has a classification zone of 2.54 cm long, an outer diameter of 2.54 cm, and an inner diameter of 1.778 cm. The design allows low-cost fabrication and easy assembly. Tandem DMA (TDMA) measurements were carried out to evaluate the performance of the mDMA...
2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26834310/air-sampling-filtration-media-collection-efficiency-for-respirable-size-selective-sampling
#16
Jhy-Charm Soo, Keenan Monaghan, Taekhee Lee, Mike Kashon, Martin Harper
The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10-400 nm...
January 2016: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884641/in-vitro-evaluation-of-a-device-for-intra-pulmonary-aerosol-generation-and-delivery
#17
Zeeshan H Syedain, Amir A Naqwi, Myrna Dolovich, Arif Somani
For infants born with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), liquid bolus delivery of surfactant administered through an endotracheal tube is common practice. While this method is generally effective, complications such as transient hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered cerebral blood flow may occur. Aerosolized surfactant therapy has been explored as an alternative. Unfortunately, past efforts have led to disappointing results as aerosols were generated outside the lungs with significant pharyngeal deposition and minimal intrapulmonary instillation...
September 1, 2015: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900208/a-granular-bed-for-use-in-a-nanoparticle-respiratory-deposition-sampler
#18
Jae Hong Park, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, Levi W D Mines, T Renée Anthony, Vicki H Grassian, Thomas M Peters
A granular bed was designed to collect nanoparticles as an alternative to nylon mesh screens for use in a nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler. The granular bed consisted of five layers in series: a coarse mesh, a large-bead layer, a small-bead layer, a second large-bead layer, and a second coarse mesh. The bed was designed to primarily collect particles in the small-bead layer, with the coarse mesh and large-bead layers designed to hold the collection layer in position. The collection efficiency of the granular bed was measured for varying depths of the small-bead layer and for test particles with different shape (cuboid, salt particles; and fractal, and stainless steel and welding particles)...
2015: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855468/profile-and-morphology-of-fungal-aerosols-characterized-by-field-emission-scanning-electron-microscopy-fesem
#19
Komlavi Anani Afanou, Anne Straumfors, Asbjørn Skogstad, Ida Skaar, Linda Hjeljord, Øivind Skare, Brett James Green, Arne Tronsmo, Wijnand Eduard
Fungal aerosols consist of spores and fragments with diverse array of morphologies; however, the size, shape, and origin of the constituents require further characterization. In this study, we characterize the profile of aerosols generated from Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, and Penicillium chrysogenum grown for 8 weeks on gypsum boards. Fungal particles were aerosolized at 12 and 20 L min(-1) using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) and the Stami particle generator (SPG). Collected particles were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)...
2015: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26726281/a-real-time-fast-flow-tube-study-of-voc-and-particulate-emissions-from-electronic-potentially-reduced-harm-conventional-and-reference-cigarettes
#20
Sandra L Blair, Scott A Epstein, Sergey A Nizkorodov, Norbert Staimer
Tobacco-free electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which are currently not regulated by the FDA, have become widespread as a "safe" form of smoking. One approach to evaluate the potential toxicity of e-cigarettes and other types of potentially "reduced-harm" cigarettes is to compare their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including reactive organic electrophillic compounds such as acrolein, and particulate matter to those of conventional and reference cigarettes. Our newly designed fast-flow tube system enabled us to analyze VOC composition and particle number concentration in real-time by promptly diluting puffs of mainstream smoke obtained from different brands of combustion cigarettes and e-cigarettes...
2015: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
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