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IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence

Vincenzo Carletti, Pasquale Foggia, Alessia Saggese, Mario Vento
Graph matching is essential in several fields that use structured information, such as biology, chemistry, social networks, knowledge management, document analysis and others. Except for special classes of graphs, graph matching has in the worst-case an exponential complexity; however, there are algorithms that show an acceptable execution time, as long as the graphs are not too large and not too dense. In this paper we introduce a novel subgraph isomorphism algorithm, VF3, particularly efficient in the challenging case of graphs with thousands of nodes and a high edge density...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Bin Wang, Zhijian Ou, Zhiqiang Tan
To describe trans-dimensional observations in sample spaces of different dimensions, we propose a probabilistic model, called the trans-dimensional random field (TRF) by explicitly mixing a collection of random fields. In the framework of stochastic approximation (SA), we develop an effective training algorithm, called augmented SA, which jointly estimates the model parameters and normalizing constants while using trans-dimensional mixture sampling to generate observations of different dimensions. Furthermore, we introduce several statistical and computational techniques to improve the convergence of the training algorithm and reduce computational cost, which together enable us to successfully train TRF models on large datasets...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Raghudeep Gadde, Varun Jampani, Renaud Marlet, Peter Gehler
This paper introduces a fast and efficient segmentation technique for 2D images and 3D point clouds of building facades. Facades of buildings are highly structured and consequently most methods that have been proposed for this problem aim to make use of this strong prior information. Contrary to most prior work, we are describing a system that is almost domain independent and consists of standard segmentation methods. We train a sequence of boosted decision trees using auto-context features. This is learned using stacked generalization...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Xu-Yao Zhang, Fei Yin, Yan-Ming Zhang, Cheng-Lin Liu, Yoshua Bengio
Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Haoxiang Li, Gang Hua
Pose variation remains to be a major challenge for real-world face recognition. We approach this problem through a probabilistic elastic part model. We extract local descriptors (e.g., LBP or SIFT) from densely sampled multi-scale image patches. By augmenting each descriptor with its location, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is trained to capture the spatial-appearance distribution of the face parts of all face images in the training corpus, namely the probabilistic elastic part (PEP) model. Each mixture component of the GMM is confined to be a spherical Gaussian to balance the influence of the appearance and the location terms, which naturally defines a part...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Martin Storath, Andreas Weinmann
Median filtering is among the most utilized tools for smoothing real-valued data, as it is robust, edge-preserving, valuepreserving, and yet can be computed efficiently. For data living on the unit circle, such as phase data or orientation data, a filter with similar properties is desirable. For these data, there is no unique means to define a median; so we discuss various possibilities. The arc distance median turns out to be the only variant which leads to robust, edge-preserving and value-preserving smoothing...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Shu Tian, Xu-Cheng Yin, Ya Su, Hong-Wei Hao
Video text extraction plays an important role for multimedia understanding and retrieval. Most previous research efforts are conducted within individual frames. A few of recent methods, which pay attention to text tracking using multiple frames, however, do not effectively mine the relations among text detection, tracking and recognition. In this paper, we propose a generic Bayesian-based framework of Tracking based Text Detection And Recognition (T2DAR) from web videos for embedded captions, which is composed of three major components, i...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Suren Kumar, Vikas Dhiman, Parker A Koch, Jason J Corso
Various perceptual domains have underlying compositional semantics that are rarely captured in current models. We suspect this is because directly learning the compositional structure has evaded these models. Yet, the compositional structure of a given domain can be grounded in a separate domain thereby simplifying its learning. To that end, we propose a new approach to modeling bimodal perceptual domains that explicitly relates distinct projections across each modality and then jointly learns a bimodal sparse representation...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Avishek Chatterjee, Venu Govindu
This paper addresses the problem of robust and efficient relative rotation averaging in the context of large-scale Structure from Motion. Relative rotation averaging finds global or absolute rotations for a set of cameras from a set of observed relative rotations between pairs of cameras. We propose a generalized framework of relative rotation averaging that can use different robust loss functions and jointly optimizes for all the unknown camera rotations. Our method uses a quasi-Newton optimization which results in an efficient iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) formulation that works in the Lie algebra of the 3D rotation group...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Jakob Engel, Vladlen Koltun, Daniel Cremers
Direct Sparse Odometry (DSO) is a visual odometry method based on a novel, highly accurate sparse and direct structure and motion formulation. It combines a fully direct probabilistic model (minimizing a photometric error) with consistent, joint optimization of all model parameters, including geometry - represented as inverse depth in a reference frame - and camera motion. This is achieved in real time by omitting the smoothness prior used in other direct methods and instead sampling pixels evenly throughout the images...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Seung-Hwan Bae, Kuk-Jin Yoon
Online multi-object tracking aims at estimating the tracks of multiple objects instantly with each incoming frame and the information provided up to the moment. It still remains a difficult problem in complex scenes, because of the large ambiguity in associating multiple objects in consecutive frames and the low discriminability between objects appearances. In this paper, we propose a robust online multi-object tracking method that can handle these difficulties effectively. We first define the tracklet confidence using the detectability and continuity of a tracklet, and decompose a multi-object tracking problem into small subproblems based on the tracklet confidence...
April 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Hossein Rahmani, Ajmal Mian, Mubarak Shah
Recognizing human actions from unknown and unseen (novel) views is a challenging problem. We propose a Robust Non-Linear Knowledge Transfer Model (R-NKTM) for human action recognition from novel views. The proposed R-NKTM is a deep fully-connected neural network that transfers knowledge of human actions from any unknown view to a shared high-level virtual view by finding a set of non-linear transformations that connects the views. The R-NKTM is learned from 2D projections of dense trajectories of synthetic 3D human models fitted to real motion capture data and generalizes to real videos of human actions...
April 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Wei Liao, Stefan Worz, Chang-Ki Kang, Zang-Hee Cho, Karl Rohr
We propose a novel minimal path method for the segmentation of 2D and 3D line structures. Minimal path methods perform propagation of a wavefront emanating from a start point at a speed derived from image features, followed by path extraction using backtracing. Usually, the computation of the speed and the propagation of the wave are two separate steps, and point features are used to compute a static speed. We introduce a new continuous minimal path method which steers the wave propagation progressively using dynamic speed based on path features...
April 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Tomas F Yago Vicente, Minh Hoai, Dimitris Samaras
The objective of this work is to detect shadows in images. We pose this as the problem of labeling image regions, where each region corresponds to a group of superpixels. To predict the label of each region, we train a kernel Least-Squares Support Vector Machine(LSSVM) for separating shadow and non-shadow regions. The parameters of the kernel and the classifier are jointly learned to minimize the leave-one-out cross validation error. Optimizing the leave-one-out cross validation error is typically difficult, but it can be done efficiently in our framework...
April 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Amir Shahroudy, Tian-Tsong Ng, Yihong Gong, Gang Wang
Single modality action recognition on RGB or depth sequences has been extensively explored recently. It is generally accepted that each of these two modalities has different strengths and limitations for the task of action recognition. Therefore, analysis of the RGB+D videos can help us to better study the complementary properties of these two types of modalities and achieve higher levels of performance. In this paper, we propose a new deep autoencoder based shared-specific feature factorization network to separate input multimodal signals into a hierarchy of components...
April 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Ugo Moschini, Arnold Meijster, Michael Wilkinson
Max-trees, or component trees, are graph structures that represent the connected components of an image in a hierarchical way. Nowadays, many application fields rely on images with high-dynamic range or floating point values. Efficient sequential algorithms exist to build trees and compute attributes for images of any bit depth. However, we show that the current parallel algorithms perform poorly already with integers at bit depths higher than 16 bits per pixel. We propose a parallel method combining the two worlds of flooding and merging max-tree algorithms...
March 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Canyi Lu, Jiashi Feng, Shuicheng Yan, Zhouchen Lin
Accompanied with the rising popularity of compressed sensing, the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) has become the most widely used solver for linearly constrained convex problems with separable objectives. In this work, we observe that many existing ADMMs update the primal variable by minimizing different majorant functions with their convergence proofs given case by case. Inspired by the principle of majorization minimization, we respectively present the unified frameworks of Gauss-Seidel ADMMs and Jacobian ADMMs, which use different historical information for the current updating...
March 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Xiaobai Liu, Yibiao Zhao, Song-Chun Zhu
In this paper, we present an attribute grammar for solving two coupled tasks: i) parsing an 2D image into semantic regions; and ii) recovering the 3D scene structures of all regions. The proposed grammar consists of a set of production rules, each describing a kind of spatial relation between planar surfaces in 3D scenes. These production rules are used to decompose an input image into a hierarchical parse graph representation where each graph node indicates a planar surface or a composite surface. Different from other stochastic image grammars, the proposed grammar augments each graph node with a set of attribute variables to depict scene-level global geometry, e...
March 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Xiantong Zhen, Mengyang Yu, Xiaofei He, Shuo Li
Multi-target regression has recently regained great popularity due to its capability of simultaneously learning multiple relevant regression tasks and its wide applications in data mining, computer vision and medical image analysis, while great challenges arise from jointly handling inter-target correlations and input-output relationships. In this paper, we propose Multilayer Multi-target Regression (MMR) which enables simultaneously modeling intrinsic inter-target correlations and nonlinear input-output relationships in a general framework via robust low-rank learning...
March 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Afshin Dehghan, Mubarak Shah
Multi-object tracking has been studied for decades. However, when it comes to tracking pedestrians in extremely crowded scenes, we are limited to only few works. This is an important problem which gives rise to several challenges. Pre-trained object detectors fail to localize targets in crowded sequences. This consequently limits the use of data-association based multi-target tracking methods which rely on the outcome of an object detector. Additionally, the small apparent target size makes it challenging to extract features to discriminate targets from their surroundings...
March 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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