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Leigh M Damare, Kristin N Bridges, Matthew M Alloy, Thomas E Curran, Brianne K Soulen, Heather P Forth, Claire R Lay, Jeffrey M Morris, James A Stoeckel, Aaron P Roberts
The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either <10, 50, or 100% ambient sunlight, achieved with filters that allowed for variable UV penetration...
February 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Simone Hasenbein, Helen Poynton, Richard E Connon
Global climate change (GCC) is likely to intensify the synergistic effects between altered physicochemical parameters [of changing habitats] and other anthropogenic threats, such as water pollution, posing increased risks to aquatic biodiversity. As such, it is critical to understand how organisms will respond to changes in water temperature and salinity in the presence of contaminants. We exposed the epibenthic amphipod Hyalella azteca to a 3 × 3 factorial treatment design of three temperatures and three salinities ranging from 12 to 18 °C and 0 to 8 parts per thousand (ppt), respectively, in combination with a low-level environmentally relevant concentration of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin (1 ng/L)...
February 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ana Clara Ribeiro de Paiva, Vitor Hugo Beloti, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
To control crop pests, parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma are one alternative to the use of insecticides. Since a wide variety of agrochemicals may be applied to the same crops, it is essential to assess the selectivity of insecticides used for pest control on Trichogramma pretiosum. Information on which insecticides are less harmful to T. pretiosum can improve biological control using this insect, an important tactic in IPM programs for field crops. This study aimed to determine the effects of insecticides on the pupal stage and on the parasitism capacity of T...
February 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nagore Cuevas, Marta Martins, Pedro M Costa
Estuaries, coastal lagoons and other transition ecosystems tend to become the ultimate reservoirs of pollutants transported by continental runoff, among which pesticides constitute the class of most concern. High amounts of dissolved and particulated organic matter greatly contribute to the accumulation of pesticides that eventually become trapped in sediments or find their way along food chains. Perhaps not so surprisingly, it is common to find elevated levels of pesticides in estuarine sediments decades after their embargo...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Jiji Li, Simona Schiavo, Dong Xiangli, Gabriella Rametta, Maria Lucia Miglietta, Maria Oliviero, Wu Changwen, Sonia Manzo
Recently, China became one of the largest nanomaterial markets in the world. The wide use of ZnO nanoparticles in a number of products implies an increasing release in marine environment and consequently the evaluation of the potential effects upon marine organisms largely cultured in China for commercial purposes, such as invertebrate bivalves is a current need. To this aim, survival, bioaccumulation, and transcription pattern of key genes, p53, PDRP, SOD, CAT, and GST, involved in DNA damage/repair and antioxidation, in Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland, exposed to ZnO NPs (<100 nm) and ZnO bulk (150-200 nm) for 4 weeks, were evaluated...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Chojniak Joanna, Libera Marcin, Król Ewa, Płaza Grażyna
The present study focused on the evaluation of a nonspecific synergistic effect of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in combination with biosurfactants against environmental bacteria and fungi. The AgNPs were synthesized in the culture supernatants of the biosurfactant producer Bacillus subtilis grown in brewery effluent, molasses or Luria-Bertani media. Antibacterial activities were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while the antifungal activity was tested against phytopathogens...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Anna Katharina Vingskes, Nicole Spann
Many widely used healthcare products contain antiseptics, whose persistence in aquatic environments, soils, and sediments leads to the contamination of ecosystems and adversely affects wildlife. Recently, the impact not only of high but also low doses of contaminants and mixtures of several chemicals has become a focus of concern. In this study, toxicity tests of the antiseptics triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) were performed in an aquatic test medium using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nominal concentrations of TCS and TCC were tested in separate single-substance toxicity tests (96-h-exposure), focussing on growth and reproduction endpoints...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Silvia Filippi, Roberta Meschini, Sara Spognardi, Patrizia Papetti, Dario Angeletti
Coal plants can be a major source of mutagenic pollutants. In this study we used the common land snail Helix aspersa, to detect the mutagenic effect of pollution from a coal plant in central Italy applying the micronucleus test (MN) on snail's haemocytes and evaluating trace elements concentration (As Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn) in soil and snails. Snails from a biological farm were exposed for 13 days in five locations at different distances from the plant. Wild snails collected in the same locations were also analysed...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Huike Dong, Guanghua Lu, Zhenhua Yan, Jianchao Liu, Haohan Yang, Matthew Nkoom
As a cycloaliphatic brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been widely used in building thermal insulation and fireproof materials. However, there is little information on the bioconcentration as well as effects with respect to HBCD exposure in the aquatic environment. To investigate the bioconcentration of HBCD in tissues (muscle and liver) and its biochemical and behavioural effects, juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to different concentrations of technical HBCD (nominal concentrations, 2, 20, 200 μg/L) for 7 days, using a flow-through exposure system...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Jun Zhu, Yao Li, Hua Jiang, Chen Liu, Weiwei Lu, Wei Dai, Jianxiang Xu, Fang Liu
The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Joël Amossé, Sylvain Bart, Alexandre R R Péry, Céline Pelosi
Because of the wide use of pesticides in agriculture, there is still a need of higher-tier field studies to assess ecotoxicological effects of commercial formulations on a wider variety of non-target soil organisms such as soil annelids. We here tested the effects of different concentrations of two fungicide formulations, i.e., Cuprafor Micro® (composed of 500 g kg-1 copper oxychloride) and Swing Gold® (composed of 50 g l-1 epoxiconazole and 133 g l-1 dimoxystrobin) on two families of terrestrial oligochaetes (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) after 1 month of exposure...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Xiao-Zhang Yu, Wei-Jia Fan, Yu-Juan Lin, Fei-Fei Zhang, Dharmendra K Gupta
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is one of the principle enzymes involved in plant's secondary metabolism. Expression of individual isogene from the PAL gene family is variable with species of plants in responses to different stresses. In this study, transcriptome analysis of the PAL gene family in rice seedlings exposed to potassium chromate Cr(VI) or chromium nitrate Cr(III) was conducted using Agilent 44K rice microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Uptake and accumulation of both Cr species by rice seedlings and their effect on PAL activity were also determined...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Wihan Pheiffer, Laura P Quinn, Hindrik Bouwman, Nico J Smit, Rialet Pieters
Soweto and Lenasia, the most densely populated area of South Africa, is simultaneously a thriving metropolis, with a fair share of people still living in squalor conditions directly dependant on the natural resources. Because of industrialisation the populace and environment in this urban area are exposed to various pollutants. The aquatic environment was selected as a proxy to study the effect of industrial pollution in this area. The concentrations, source identification, and various environmental risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in sediments of the upper reaches of the Klip River...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
U Reno, S R Doyle, F R Momo, L Regaldo, A M Gagneten
The general objective of this work is to experimentally assess the effects of acute glyphosate pollution on two freshwater cladoceran species (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and to use this information to predict the population dynamics and the potential for recovery of exposed organisms. Five to six concentrations of four formulations of glyphosate (4-Gly) (Eskoba®, Panzer Gold®, Roundup Ultramax® and Sulfosato Touchdown®) were evaluated in both cladoceran species through acute tests and 15-day recovery tests in order to estimate the population dynamics of microcrustaceans...
February 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Juliana Wrubleswski, Francisco Wilson Reichert, Leandro Galon, Paulo Afonso Hartmann, Marilia Teresinha Hartmann
Brazil is the largest consumer of pesticides in the world. However, knowledge on how these pesticides affect wildlife is scarce. Among the vertebrates, amphibians are particularly important in research to assess the impact of pesticides because of the correlation between pesticide and the decline of these species. This study aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of commercial formulations of pesticides, i.e., atrazine (herbicide), cypermethrin (insecticide), and tebuconazole (fungicide) in Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles...
February 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Thiago Lopes Rocha, Eider Bilbao, Cátia Cardoso, Manu Soto, Maria João Bebianno
Quantum dots (QDs) are a class of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with several biomedical, industrial and commercial applications. However, their metabolism and detoxification process in aquatic invertebrates and environmental health hazards remain unclear. This study investigate the transcriptional changes of metallothioneins (MTs) isoforms (mt10IIIa and mt20IV) induced by CdTe QDs, in comparison with its dissolved counterpart, in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and to the same Cd concentration (10 µg Cd L-1) of dissolved Cd for 14 days and mt transcription levels were measured by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
February 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Agata Miska-Schramm, Joanna Kapusta, Małgorzata Kruczek
The impact of human activity on the environment has led to a steady increase of the amounts of copper in the ecosystems. This element accumulates in plants and water, potentially exposing rodents to its harmful effects. In industrial districts, a decrease in the density of small rodent populations has been observed. This decline may be caused by many factors, including mortality, decreased fertility, or impaired sexual behavior. The decline in the reproductive abilities of small rodents after copper exposure was demonstrated in our previous work (Miska-Schramm A, Kruczek M, Kapusta J, Ecotoxicology 23:1546-1554, 2014)...
February 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Frederico Guilherme de Souza Beghelli, Julio César Lopez-Dovál, André Henrique Rosa, Marcelo Pompêo, Viviane Moschini Carlos
The Cantareira Complex is one of the most important water supplies of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Previously, it was demonstrated that the sediments in this complex were polluted with metals and that Paiva Castro Reservoir-the last reservoir in the sequence, which receives water from the five previous reservoirs-was the reservoir with the greatest concentration of pollutants. Based on field data, it was noticed that copper concentrations in sediments were related to morphological alterations in chironomids...
January 25, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Alyssa J Calomeni, Ciera M Kinley, Tyler D Geer, Kyla J Iwinski, Maas Hendrikse, John H Rodgers
Copper algaecide exposures in situ are often of shorter duration than exposures for static toxicity experiments because aqueous concentrations in situ dissipate as a function of site-specific fate processes. Consequently, responses of organisms to static copper exposures may overestimate effects following in situ exposures. To understand the role of exposure duration for altering responses, Pimephales promelas survival was compared following static (96 h) and pulse (1.5, 4, 8, and 15 h half-lives) exposures of CuSO4•5H2O...
January 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Yueheng Zhang, Qingping Ma, Bingmei Su, Rui Chen, Juan Lin, Zhifen Lin, Dali Wang, Yang Yu
Horizontal genes transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. However, the mechanisms of HGT of ARGs under the influence of antibiotics in sub-MIC remain rarely explored. Moreover, given its collective nature, HGT was considered to be relative to quorum sensing (QS) system. To investigate whether QS has any impact on horizontal gene transfer of ARGs, experiments were conducted to determine the conjugative efficiency of plasmid RP4 on Escherichia coli (E...
January 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
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