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Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Alexandre Campos, Joana Machado, Marisa Freitas, Joana Azevedo, Edgar Pinto, Agostinho Almeida, Ana M Cameán, Vitor Vasconcelos
Natural toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, such as cylindrospermopsin, have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. Despite the risks for food safety, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. Carrots (Daucus carota) are root vegetables, extensively consumed worldwide with great importance for human nourishment and economy. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the possible effects of using water contaminated with cyanotoxins on carrot cultivation...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Christopher James Grant, Allison K Lutz, Aaron D Kulig, Mitchell R Stanton
Unconventional natural gas development and hydraulic fracturing practices (fracking) are increasing worldwide due to global energy demands. Research has only recently begun to assess fracking impacts to surrounding environments, and very little research is aimed at determining effects on aquatic biodiversity and contaminant biomagnification. Twenty-seven remotely-located streams in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale basin were sampled during June and July of 2012 and 2013. At each stream, stream physiochemical properties, trophic biodiversity, and structure and mercury levels were assessed...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology
João Amorim, Miguel Fernandes, Vitor Vasconcelos, Luis Oliva Teles
The aim of this work was to develop a novel methodology to stress test the diagnostic capability of a video tracking system with zebrafish (Danio rerio), against two pre-established disturbances. Eight different treatments were tested varying the presence or absence of a toxicant (NaOCl) and two disturbances: the passing of a shadow (mimicking a predator) and entrapment of the fish. The concentration tested corresponded to a sublethal (1 % 24 h-LC50) and short term exposure (2 h). A total of 56 organisms were tested resulting in 112 diagnoses (before and after the contamination)...
October 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Richard Schmuck, Gavin Lewis
The nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides, which include imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin, are widely used to control a range of important agricultural pests both by foliar applications and also as seed dressings and by soil application. Since they exhibit systemic properties, exposure of bees may occur as a result of residues present in the nectar and/or pollen of seed- or soil-treated crop plants and so they have been the subject of much debate about whether they cause adverse effects in pollinating insects under field conditions...
October 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Ying Zhang, Jing Ma, Liu Shi, Di Cao, Xie Quan
Information on joint toxicity is limited. To clarify the joint toxicity and the interactions among toxicants on different aquatic organisms, we investigated the acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, two chemicals with high concerns in Chinese waters, on the immobilization of Daphnia magna (D. magna) and the swimming behavior of Danio rerio (D. rerio). Our results illustrated that cadmium and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate expressed a synergistic effect on the immobilization of D...
October 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Britta Peters, Zhenglei Gao, Ulrich Zumkier
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km(2) in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location...
October 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Elias M Oziolor, Karel De Schamphelaere, Cole W Matson
The regulatory decision-making process regarding chemical safety is most often informed by evidence based on ecotoxicity tests that consider growth, reproduction and survival as end-points, which can be quantitatively linked to short-term population outcomes. Changes in these end-points resulting from chemical exposure can cause alterations in micro-evolutionary forces (mutation, drift, selection and gene flow) that control the genetic composition of populations. With multi-generation exposures, anthropogenic contamination can lead to a population with an altered genetic composition, which may respond differently to future stressors...
October 3, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Huguier Pierre, Manier Nicolas, Pandard Pascal
The standardized bioassay using the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer (TG 226; as reported by OECD 2008) has already proven its usefulness for the assessment of chemicals. While included in the regulatory assessment scheme of pesticides as a non-target arthropod, it has still been rarely used for the assessment of soils or complex matrices of unknown quality. For such an objective, the extraction of both adults and juveniles from soil is a necessary and crucial step to get reliable data, but may be influenced by the characteristics of the tested soils or matrices...
September 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Fred Heimbach, Anja Russ, Maren Schimmer, Katrin Born
Monitoring studies at the landscape level are complex, expensive and difficult to conduct. Many aspects have to be considered to avoid confounding effects which is probably the reason why they are not regularly performed in the context of risk assessments of plant protection products to pollinating insects. However, if conducted appropriately their contribution is most valuable. In this paper we identify the requirements of a large-scale monitoring study for the assessment of side-effects of clothianidin seed-treated winter oilseed rape on three species of pollinating insects (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis) and present how these requirements were implemented...
September 27, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Guido Sterk, Britta Peters, Zhenglei Gao, Ulrich Zumkier
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado(®)-dressed winter oilseed rape (OSR, 10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed) on the development, reproduction and behaviour of large earth bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where OSR is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km(2) in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and 10 bumble bee hives were placed at each location...
September 27, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Xuewei Chen, Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Ying Liu, Tianfeng Guo, Dunlun Song, Nicolas Desneux, Xiwu Gao
Sulfoxaflor is a novel insecticide belonging to sulfoximine chemical class that can be used to control sap-feeding insects, notably Aphis gossypii Glover. In addition to its acute toxicity, it is also important to consider the possible sublethal effects when establishing a comprehensive understanding of the toxicity of a new insecticide. We assessed the effects of a low lethal concentration (LC25) of sulfoxaflor on biological parameters of A. gossypii adults (F0) and subsequent transgenerational effects, i...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Miriam Hernández-Zamora, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo, Eliseo Cristiani-Urbina, Rosa Olivia Cañizares-Villanueva
Nearly 7 00000 tons of dyes are produced annually throughout the world. Azo dyes are widely used in the textile and paper industries due to their low cost and ease of application. Their extensive use results in large volumes of wastewater being discharged into aquatic ecosystems. Large volume discharges constitute a health risk since many of these dyes, such as Congo Red, are elaborated with benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound. Information regarding dye toxicity in aquatic ecosystems is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Congo Red on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Da Xiao, Jing Zhao, Xiaojun Guo, Hongying Chen, Mengmeng Qu, Weigang Zhai, Nicolas Desneux, Antonio Biondi, Fan Zhang, Su Wang
The seven-spot ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, is a major natural enemy of aphids in the field and in greenhouses in China and is part of integrated pest management (IPM). Imidacloprid, a highly efficient insecticide that not only kills aphids at lethal concentrations, but also can cause various sublethal effects in nontarget organisms. To strengthen IPM and its sustainability, it is important assessing possible side effects on natural enemies. When the effects of sublethal concentrations (LC5 and 10%LC5) of imidacloprid on C...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Annie Chalifour, André LeBlanc, Lekha Sleno, Philippe Juneau
Atrazine is an herbicide frequently detected in watercourses that can affect the phytoplankton community, thus impacting the whole food chain. This study aims, firstly, to measure the sensitivity of monocultures of the green alga Scenedemus obliquus and toxic and non-toxic strains of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa before, during and after a 30-day acclimation period to 0.1 µM of atrazine. Secondly, the sensitivity of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa to atrazine in mixed cultures was evaluated. Finally, the ability of these strains to remove atrazine from the media was measured...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Evelyn G Reátegui-Zirena, Bridgette N Fidder, Christopher J Salice
Diet quality can have a strong impact on organismal fitness although diet quality is infrequently considered as a factor in toxicity tests. The purpose of this study was to assess how diets differing in nutritional content affect sensitivity to Cd as measured by several sublethal responses related directly to bioenergetics. We evaluated feeding rate, growth rate, behavior and macronutrient content in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to Cd and fed two different diets. Hatchlings were fed either lettuce or high-caloric pellets, and exposed to 5, 10, and 20 µg/L Cd for 12 days...
September 23, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Dalel Belhaj, Khaled Athmouni, Bouthaina Jerbi, Monem Kallel, Habib Ayadi, John L Zhou
The occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of selected estrogenic compounds were investigated at Tunisian urban sewage treatment plant. The influents, effluents, as well as primary, secondary and dehydrated sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the target estrogens to evaluate their fate. All target compounds were detected in both sewage and sludge with mean concentrations from 0.062 to 0.993 μg L(-1) and from 11.8 to 792.9 μg kg(-1)dry weight, respectively. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment processes were observed, from 6...
September 22, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Emmanuel R Blankson, Paul L Klerks
The present study investigated the bioavailability and potential toxicity to Daphnia magna of lead released to the water column due to bioturbation by Lumbriculus variegatus. Experiments used microcosms with Pb-spiked sediment, with or without worms in the sediment, and with D. magna present in the water column. The daphniids were allowed free movement or were restricted to flow-through containers, in order to assess the influence of their direct contact with the contaminated sediment. A control group consisted of D...
September 22, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Shun Long Meng, Li Ping Qiu, Geng Dong Hu, Li Min Fan, Chao Song, Yao Zheng, Wei Wu, Jian Hong Qu, Dan Dan Li, Jia Zhang Chen, Pao Xu
Tilapia were exposed to sublethal methomyl concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, and then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. The sexual steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in tilapia testes were examined at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after methomyl exposure, and at 18 days after fish were transferred to methomyl-free water. There were no significant changes in the hormone parameters in testes of tilapia exposed to low concentration 0...
September 22, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Marienne A Colvin, Brian T Hentschel, Dimitri D Deheyn
We performed an experiment in a laboratory flume to test the effects of water flow speed and the concentration of aqueaous copper on the feeding behavior, growth rate, and accumulation of copper in the tissues of juvenile polychaetes Polydora cornuta. The experiment included two flow speeds (6 or 15 cm/s) and two concentrations of added copper (0 or 85 μg/L). Worms grew significantly faster in the faster flow and in the lower copper concentration. In the slower flow, the total time worms spent feeding decreased significantly as copper concentration increased, but copper did not significantly affect the time worms spent feeding in the faster flow...
September 20, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Annamalai Prasath, Logeshwaran Panneerselvan, Arthur Provatas, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
The insensitive munition ingredient, 2, 4-dinitroanisole has emerged as an alternative ingredient to 2, 4, 6-trinitro toluene in melt pourable high explosive formulations mainly due to its improved insensitiveness properties. As a result, production of 2, 4-dinitroanisole has increased and as a consequence 2, 4-dinitroanisole has emerged as a potential ingredient to enter the environment and possibly persist in water and soil ecosystems. The present study showed that 2, 4-dinitroanisole, its metabolites (2-amino 4-nitroanisole and 2,4-dinitroanisole) and 2, 4, 6-trinitro toluene were found to induce DNA damages in a freshwater crustacean Daphnia carinata exposed for 48 h and which was investigated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) method...
September 20, 2016: Ecotoxicology
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