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Sara Rodrigues, Sara C Antunes, Alberto T Correia, Bruno Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibacterial agent, is extensively used in aquaculture practices all over the world, but also in human and veterinary medicines. Because of its intensive use, low rates of absorption by treated animals, inadequate disposal, and low efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This work aimed to assess the effects of this antibiotic in rainbow trout, following both acute and chronic exposures. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers, in gills and liver...
December 2, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Andrea L Conine, Paul C Frost
Aquatic environments vary widely in aspects other than their physicochemical properties that could alter the toxicity of novel contaminants. One factor that could affect chemical toxicity to aquatic consumers is their nutritional environment as it can strongly affect their physiology and life history. Nutrition has the potential to alter an organism's response to the toxin or how the toxin interacts with the consumer through its food. Here we determined how growth and survival responses of Daphnia to an emerging contaminant, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are affected by the presence of food and its stoichiometric food quality...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Ingrid L Pollet, Marty L Leonard, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Neil M Burgess, Dave Shutler
Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment, but its levels have been supplemented for decades by a variety of human activities. Mercury can have serious deleterious effects on a variety of organisms, with top predators being particularly susceptible because methylmercury bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in food webs. Among birds, seabirds can have especially high levels of Hg contamination and Leach's storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), in particular, have amongst the highest known levels...
November 25, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Aaron K Bakker, Jessica Dutton, Matthew Sclafani, Nicholas Santangelo
The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs...
November 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Jiyun Lee, Nayeon Park, Younglim Kho, Kiyoung Lee, Kyunghee Ji
Parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in consumer products. Exposure to methylparaben (MP) has been associated with adverse health outcomes, therefore, an alternative compound, 1,2-hexanediol (1,2-H), has been applied for cosmetics. In the present study, the phototoxicity of MP and 1,2-H, as well as the toxic effect caused by chronic exposure, were investigated using Daphnia magna. The 48 h acute toxicity tests with D. magna were conducted under indoor or ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation conditions, i...
November 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Youhui Gong, Qingyun Diao
The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments...
November 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Kamrun Nahar, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Toshisada Suzuki, Masayuki Fujita
We investigated the roles of exogenously applied Spd (0.3 mM spermidine) in alleviating Al (AlCl3, 0.5 mM, 48 and 72 h)- induced injury in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Aluminum toxicity induced oxidative damage overproducing reactive oxygen species (ROS; H2O2 and O2(•-)), increasing lipoxygenase activity and membrane lipid peroxidation. The toxic compound methylglyoxal (MG) also overproduced under Al stress. In order to circumvent Al-induced oxidative stress, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense were activated by the application of exogenous Spd...
November 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
M Teresa Boquete, Valeria Spagnuolo, J Ángel Fernández, Jesús R Aboal, Ivana Imperatore, Simonetta Giordano
In this study, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to investigate the genetic structure of the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hedw.) M. Fleish. naturally exposed to different levels of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. We also determined the heavy metal concentrations in samples of this moss to evaluate whether there was a relationship between atmospheric pollution and population genetic diversity. A low level of genetic diversity and a limited gene flow among populations were observed which is in accordance to the prevalence of asexual reproduction in this species...
November 4, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Jason M Brogan, David J Green, France Maisonneuve, John E Elliott
Among the stressors confronting urban wildlife, chemical contaminants pose a particular problem for high trophic feeding species. Previous data from fortuitous carcass collections revealed surprisingly high levels of persistent organic pollutants in raptor species, including the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), from urbanized areas of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Thus, in 2012 and 2013, we followed up on that finding by measuring POPs in blood samples from 21 adult and 15 nestling Cooper's hawks in Vancouver, a large urban area in southwestern Canada...
October 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Simone Haller, Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
Potentially adverse effects on ecosystem functioning by the planting of insect-resistant, genetically engineered plants or by the direct application of insecticidal compounds are carefully evaluated in pre-market risk assessments. To date, few studies have assessed the potential risks of genetically engineered crops or insecticidal compounds on the survival and fitness of dipteran species, despite their important contribution to ecosystem services such as decomposition in agricultural systems. Therefore, we propose that Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Drosophilidae) be used as a surrogate species for the order Diptera and for the functional guild of soil arthropod decomposers in pre-market risk assessments...
October 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Huifeng Wu, Lanlan Xu, Deliang Yu, Chenglong Ji
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important metal contaminants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, NMR-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration (50 µg L(-1)) in three different life stages (D-shape larval, juvenile and adult) of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Results indicated that the D-shape larval mussel was the most sensitive life stage to Cd. The significantly different metabolic profiles meant that Cd induced differential toxicological effects in three life stages of mussels...
October 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Alexandre Campos, Joana Machado, Marisa Freitas, Joana Azevedo, Edgar Pinto, Agostinho Almeida, Ana M Cameán, Vitor Vasconcelos
Natural toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, such as cylindrospermopsin, have been regarded as an emergent environmental threat. Despite the risks for food safety, the impact of these water contaminants in agriculture is not yet fully understood. Carrots (Daucus carota) are root vegetables, extensively consumed worldwide with great importance for human nourishment and economy. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the possible effects of using water contaminated with cyanotoxins on carrot cultivation...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Christopher James Grant, Allison K Lutz, Aaron D Kulig, Mitchell R Stanton
Unconventional natural gas development and hydraulic fracturing practices (fracking) are increasing worldwide due to global energy demands. Research has only recently begun to assess fracking impacts to surrounding environments, and very little research is aimed at determining effects on aquatic biodiversity and contaminant biomagnification. Twenty-seven remotely-located streams in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale basin were sampled during June and July of 2012 and 2013. At each stream, stream physiochemical properties, trophic biodiversity, and structure and mercury levels were assessed...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology
João Amorim, Miguel Fernandes, Vitor Vasconcelos, Luis Oliva Teles
The aim of this work was to develop a novel methodology to stress test the diagnostic capability of a video tracking system with zebrafish (Danio rerio), against two pre-established disturbances. Eight different treatments were tested varying the presence or absence of a toxicant (NaOCl) and two disturbances: the passing of a shadow (mimicking a predator) and entrapment of the fish. The concentration tested corresponded to a sublethal (1 % 24 h-LC50) and short term exposure (2 h). A total of 56 organisms were tested resulting in 112 diagnoses (before and after the contamination)...
October 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Ying Zhang, Jing Ma, Liu Shi, Di Cao, Xie Quan
Information on joint toxicity is limited. To clarify the joint toxicity and the interactions among toxicants on different aquatic organisms, we investigated the acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, two chemicals with high concerns in Chinese waters, on the immobilization of Daphnia magna (D. magna) and the swimming behavior of Danio rerio (D. rerio). Our results illustrated that cadmium and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate expressed a synergistic effect on the immobilization of D...
October 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Elias M Oziolor, Karel De Schamphelaere, Cole W Matson
The regulatory decision-making process regarding chemical safety is most often informed by evidence based on ecotoxicity tests that consider growth, reproduction and survival as end-points, which can be quantitatively linked to short-term population outcomes. Changes in these end-points resulting from chemical exposure can cause alterations in micro-evolutionary forces (mutation, drift, selection and gene flow) that control the genetic composition of populations. With multi-generation exposures, anthropogenic contamination can lead to a population with an altered genetic composition, which may respond differently to future stressors...
October 3, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Huguier Pierre, Manier Nicolas, Pandard Pascal
The standardized bioassay using the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer (TG 226; as reported by OECD 2008) has already proven its usefulness for the assessment of chemicals. While included in the regulatory assessment scheme of pesticides as a non-target arthropod, it has still been rarely used for the assessment of soils or complex matrices of unknown quality. For such an objective, the extraction of both adults and juveniles from soil is a necessary and crucial step to get reliable data, but may be influenced by the characteristics of the tested soils or matrices...
September 28, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Xuewei Chen, Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Ying Liu, Tianfeng Guo, Dunlun Song, Nicolas Desneux, Xiwu Gao
Sulfoxaflor is a novel insecticide belonging to sulfoximine chemical class that can be used to control sap-feeding insects, notably Aphis gossypii Glover. In addition to its acute toxicity, it is also important to consider the possible sublethal effects when establishing a comprehensive understanding of the toxicity of a new insecticide. We assessed the effects of a low lethal concentration (LC25) of sulfoxaflor on biological parameters of A. gossypii adults (F0) and subsequent transgenerational effects, i...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Miriam Hernández-Zamora, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo, Eliseo Cristiani-Urbina, Rosa Olivia Cañizares-Villanueva
Nearly 7 00000 tons of dyes are produced annually throughout the world. Azo dyes are widely used in the textile and paper industries due to their low cost and ease of application. Their extensive use results in large volumes of wastewater being discharged into aquatic ecosystems. Large volume discharges constitute a health risk since many of these dyes, such as Congo Red, are elaborated with benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound. Information regarding dye toxicity in aquatic ecosystems is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Congo Red on survival and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Da Xiao, Jing Zhao, Xiaojun Guo, Hongying Chen, Mengmeng Qu, Weigang Zhai, Nicolas Desneux, Antonio Biondi, Fan Zhang, Su Wang
The seven-spot ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, is a major natural enemy of aphids in the field and in greenhouses in China and is part of integrated pest management (IPM). Imidacloprid, a highly efficient insecticide that not only kills aphids at lethal concentrations, but also can cause various sublethal effects in nontarget organisms. To strengthen IPM and its sustainability, it is important assessing possible side effects on natural enemies. When the effects of sublethal concentrations (LC5 and 10%LC5) of imidacloprid on C...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
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