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Charrid Resgalla, Marcus Vinícius Máximo, Mirella do Nascimento Brasil, Marcos Luiz Pessatti
The aim of this study was to improve the methodological procedure for the evaluation of sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) sperm sensitivity in MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) enzyme reduction assays with the formation of formazan (purple color) in the interior of viable cells. Assays were carried out with the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), copper, zinc, cadmium and ammonium, using a sperm solution previously activated in sea water and a sperm solution prepared in sea water containing 400 μg L-1 verapamil, which enabled activation of the sperm to occur only when exposed to the toxicants...
April 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Odete Rocha, Antônio José Gazonato Neto, Júlio César Dos Santos Lima, Emanuela Cristina Freitas, Mariana Miguel, Adrislaine da Silva Mansano, Raquel Aparecida Moreira, Michiel Adriaan Daam
As compared to their temperate counterparts, few toxicity tests have been conducted so far into the evaluation of the sensitivity of indigenous tropical species to pesticides. Especially mixture toxicity assessments appear to be scarce. To contribute to increase our knowledge in this arena, we evaluated the acute toxicity of diuron and carbofuran and their mixtures to the neotropical oligochaetes Allonais inaequalis and Dero furcatus, and the ostracod Strandesia trispinosa. Tests were performed with both the pure active ingredients, as well as their formulated products...
April 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Stephen Boyle, Thomais Kakouli-Duarte
This study set out to determine the suitability of the nematode Steinernema feltiae as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution, specifically chromium VI. Nematodes were introduced into sand contaminated with concentrations of Cr VI+ , in a range between 10 and 100 ppm, in increments of 10. Reproductive potential, development times and infectivity vs exposure times to Cr VI were employed as endpoints. It was observed that infective juveniles (IJ) from this nematode can survive and successfully infect host insects in the presence of Cr VI for as much as 13 days, and that the nematode increases its reproductive potential at concentrations up to 100 ppm Cr VI+ ...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Chunyan Zheng, Dongyu Yang, Zhiqiang Li, Yijuan Xu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of flavor enhancers to the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The flavor enhancers glycine, disodium guanylate, succinic acid disodium salt, monosodium glutamate (MSG), disodium inosinate, and L-alanine significantly increased the mortality of B. dorsalis flies. The mortality of flies that fed on glycine, disodium guanylate, succinic acid disodium salt, and MSG was greater than 90%. Additionally, fruit fly mortality increased with increases in both time and concentration...
April 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
R S Prosser, P L Gillis, D Milani, E A M Holman, H Ikert, D Schissler, J Toito, V Palabrica, J L Parrott, A J Bartlett, V K Balakrishnan
Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are additives in a variety of commercial polymers (e.g., lubricants, plastics, etc.). Based on their physicochemical properties, if SPAs were to enter an aquatic system, they would likely partition into sediment and have the capacity to bioaccumulate in biota. This study investigated the potential of four sediment-associated SPAs, diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-naphthalene (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), and 4,4'-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA) to accumulate in the tissues of freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and oligochaete worms (Tubifex tubifex)...
April 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Jason E Bruggeman, William T Route, Patrick T Redig, Rebecca L Key
Most studies examining bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) exposure to lead (Pb) have focused on adults that ingested spent Pb ammunition during the fall hunting season, often at clinical or lethal levels. We sampled live bald eagle nestlings along waterbodies to quantify Pb concentrations in 3 national park units and 2 nearby study areas in the western Great Lakes region. We collected 367 bald eagle nestling feather samples over 8 years during spring 2006-2015 and 188 whole blood samples over 4 years during spring 2010-2015...
April 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
R Beiras, T Tato
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a organochlorine biocide that, unlike most other organochlorines, is still in use as timber preservative. Its water solubility, high toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and the concentrations reported in estuarine waters (up to 0.1 µg L-1 ) indicate it may pose a risk in coastal environments. Aquatic environrmental regulations are commonly based on standard freshwater organisms that may not represent the sensitivity of marine species. The present study consists of a water quality criteira reevalutation of PCP in coastal waters based on toxicity tests conducted recording sensitive endpoints of marine species representative of coastal ecosystems, following QA/QC standard procedures...
April 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology
John E Elliott, David Anthony Kirk, Pamela A Martin, Laurie K Wilson, Gabriela Kardosi, Sandi Lee, Tana McDaniel, Kimberley D Hughes, Barry D Smith, Abde Miftah Idrissi
The concept of the Anthropocene, that humans are now re-engineering global ecosystems, is in part evidenced by the pervasive pollution by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Certain POPs are hormone mimics and can disrupt endocrine and hence reproductive processes, shown mainly by laboratory studies with model species. There are, in contrast, fewer confirmations of such disruption from eco-epidemiological studies of wild mammals. Here we used the American mink (Neovison vison) as a sentinel species for such a study...
April 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Camila Gonçalves Athanasio, Ulf Sommer, Mark R Viant, James Kevin Chipman, Leda Mirbahai
Short-term exposures at critical stages of development can lead to delayed adverse effects long after the initial stressor has been removed, a concept referred to as developmental origin of adult disease. This indicates that organisms' phenotypes may epigenetically reflect their past exposure history as well as reflecting chemicals currently present in their environment. This concept has significant implications for environmental monitoring. However, there is as yet little or no implementation of epigenetics in environmental risk assessment...
April 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Cláudia de Lima E Silva, Justine Mariette, Rudo A Verweij, Cornelis A M van Gestel
In the field, long-term exposure is a rule rather than an exception. As a consequence, the relatively short-term standard toxicity tests may not be adequate for assessing long-term effects of pesticide exposure. This study determined the toxicity of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, both pure and in the formulation Actara® (25% active substance), to the springtail Folsomia candida, over three generations (P, F1 and F2). For the parental generation (P), the toxicity of pure thiamethoxam and Actara® did not differ significantly, with LC50 s and EC50 s of 0...
April 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Fátima N Gil, Alina C Gonçalves, Jörg D Becker, Cristina A Viegas
Accidental spills and misuse of pesticides may lead to current and/or legacy environmental contamination and may pose concerns regarding possible risks towards non-target microbes and higher eukaryotes in ecosystems. The present study was aimed at comparing transcriptomic responses to effects of sub-lethal levels of six environmentally relevant pesticide active substances in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae eukaryotic model. The insecticide carbofuran, the fungicide pyrimethanil and the herbicides alachlor, S-metolachlor, diuron and methyl(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetate were studied...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Elena A Erofeeva
Formaldehyde is a widespread pollutant of soil near roads including agricultural lands. Non-monotonic changes (hormesis and paradoxical effects) in chlorophyll (Ch) and carotenoid (Car) contents, the lipid peroxidation (LP) rate in plant leaves and growth parameters (GP) of plants can be caused by various pollutants. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response phenomenon, characterised by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. The remaining types of non-monotonic responses are classified as paradoxical effects...
March 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Paula Sá-Pereira, Mário S Diniz, Liliana Moita, Teresa Pinheiro, Elsa Mendonça, Susana M Paixão, Ana Picado
The mode of action for nanoparticle (NP) toxicity in aquatic organisms is not yet fully understood. In this work, a strategy other than toxicity testing was applied to Daphnia magna exposed to TiO2 -NPs: the use of nuclear microscopy and the assessment of protein profile. D. magna is a keystone species broadly used as a model system in ecotoxicology. Titanium (Ti) was found in the D. magna digestive tract, mainly in the gut. The penetration of Ti into the epithelial region was greater at higher exposure levels and also observed in eggs in the brood pouch...
March 23, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Brad J Gemmell, Hernando P Bacosa, Ben O Dickey, Colbi G Gemmell, Lama R Alqasemi, Edward J Buskey
Field data from the first several days after an oil spill is rare but crucial for our understanding of a spill's impact on marine microbiota given their short generation times. Field data collected within days of the Texas City "Y" oil spill showed that exposure to crude oil can rapidly imbalance populations of marine microbiota, which leads to the proliferation of more resistant organisms. Vibrionales bacteria were up to 48 times higher than background concentrations at the most impacted sites and populations of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum texanum increased significantly as well...
March 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Jin Zheng, Xiao-Qian Gu, Tai-Jie Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Qiao-Jing Ou, Chang-Lian Peng
Seagrasses play an important role in coastal marine ecosystems, but they have been increasingly threatened by human activities. In recent years, seagrass communities have rapidly degenerated in the coastal marine ecosystems of China. To identify the reasons for the decline in seagrasses, the phytotoxic effects of trace metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) on the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were investigated, and the environmental contents of the metals were analyzed where the seagrass grows. The results showed that leaf necrosis in T...
March 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Richard Odemer, Lisa Nilles, Nadine Linder, Peter Rosenkranz
Neonicotinoids alone or in combination with pathogens are considered to be involved in the worldwide weakening of honey bees. We here present a new approach for testing sublethal and/or synergistic effects in free flying colonies. In our experiment individually marked honey bees were kept in free flying mini-hives and chronically exposed to sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin. Additional groups of bees were challenged with Nosema infections or with combinations of the pesticide and pathogens. Longevity and flight activity of the differentially treated bees were monitored for a period of 18 days...
March 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Sebastian V Nielsen, Martin Kellner, Per G Henriksen, Håkan Olsén, Steen H Hansen, Erik Baatrup
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are pharmaceuticals used to treat a range of psychological disorders. They are frequently found in surface waters in populated areas. In recent years, they have been shown to affect the behaviour of various aquatic organisms in a way that can have ecological effects. In this study, we exposed zebrafish of both sexes to nominally 0.00, 0.15 and 1.50 µg L-1 Escitalopram in flow-through tanks for three weeks. Subsequently, ten swimming behaviour parameters were quantified using high-resolution video tracking...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Alex T Ford, Bernice Hyett, Daniel Cassidy, Graham Malyon
Recent studies have highlighted that antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) entering aquatic systems through wastewater discharges might impact organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this study, two snail species (Gibbula unbilicalis and Lymnea stagnalis) representing the marine and freshwater environments were exposed to a large range of fluoxetine concentrations (1 ng L-1 -1 mg L-1 ) and two distinct behaviours (foot detachment and righting time) were recorded...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Christine M Custer, Thomas W Custer, Matthew A Etterson, Paul M Dummer, Diana Goldberg, J Christian Franson
During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
M L Hanson, L E Deeth, R S Prosser
As scientists, we are tasked with letting evidence guide our conclusions. In the world of pesticides this takes on added importance as the data can influence ecological and human health outcomes and regulations, and even the manner in which we grow food. Yet, there seems to be a reticence to engage with the totality of the pesticide ecotoxicology literature, especially papers that report few or no effects or low risk to non-target organisms. We suspected that these studies would have fewer citations than studies that report significant effects or risk for the same compound, and this would be unrelated to the strength of the study, e...
March 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology
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