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Divya Singh, Arun Kumar
In the past decade, there has been an unprecedented growth in the application of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide. Even though the acute toxicity of CuO and ZnO NPs to plants has been investigated in past, the trans-generational effects of these NPs in the environment are still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the treatment of radish plants with CuO and ZnO NPs as single compound and as a binary mixture (10, 100 and 1000 mg/Kg soil) through their lifecycle would affect the seed quality and the development of second-generation seedlings or not...
October 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Juan Wang, Yuande Peng, Huilin Yang, Zhenzhen Yan, Qinjin Li, Yixue Shi, Chunliang Xie, Yunshan Liang, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song
In this research, we carried out a tritrophic bioassay to assess the potential effect of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on the foraging behavior of the common wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata and its underlying molecular mechanism. Results indicated the Bt-containing spiders expressed a higher foraging range when compared to controls. The high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing was further carried out for central nervous system (CNS) of P. pseudoannulata with and without Cry1Ab intake. We obtained 120, 985 unigenes with a mean length of 529...
October 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Thomas W Custer, Christine M Custer, Paul M Dummer, Emilie Bigorgne, Elias M Oziolor, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Sandra Schultz, Richard A Erickson, Kevin Aagaard, Cole W Matson
Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis...
October 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Shengyong Wu, Liangde Tang, Xingrui Zhang, Zhenlong Xing, Zhongren Lei, Yulin Gao
The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an invasive polyphagous pest with an expanding global range that damages a wide variety of crops. F. occidentalis was first reported in China from Yunnan province during 2000, and has rapidly expanded its range since then. It is currently distributed across at least 10 provinces in China and has become a particularly devastating pest, causing substantial damage and economic losses. At present, the still heavy reliance on frequent use of insecticides for control of F...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Stephanie Y Chin, William A Hopkins, Daniel A Cristol
Mercury is an environmental contaminant that impairs avian reproduction, but the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime dietary exposure to mercury (1.2 µg/g wet weight in food) impacted avian parental behaviors, and how this might influence reproductive success. To distinguish between the direct effects of mercury on parents and offspring, we created four treatment groups of captive-bred zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), with control and mercury-exposed adults raising cross-fostered control or mercury-exposed eggs (from maternal transfer)...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Lilian Marchand, Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Isabelle Lamy, Michel Mench, Celine Pelosi
Biochars are used as amendments to improve soil quality, but their effects on edaphic organisms such as earthworms remain controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects of adding a poultry manure-derived biochar into a contaminated technosol on trace element (TE) (i.e. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) bioavailability for two earthworm species, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa. Three components of the bioavailability concept were determined using a pot experiment: (1) total soil TE (potentially reactive) and TE concentrations in the soil pore water (environmental availability), (2) TE concentrations in depurated whole earthworm bodies (environmental bioavailability) and (3) ecophysiological and biochemical effects on earthworms (toxicological bioavailability)...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Esther U Kadiene, Capucine Bialais, Baghdad Ouddane, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Sami Souissi
This study determined the effect of cadmium (Cd) toxicity comparatively on two copepods, Eurytemora affinis (Poppe 1880) from a temperate region (Seine Estuary, France) and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Sewell 1919) from a subtropical region (Danshuei Estuary, Taiwan), according to their sex and reproductive stages. In addition, the effect of Cd to their life cycle traits was quantified. In the first experiment, both copepod sexes were exposed to 40, 80, 150, 220, and 360 µg/L of Cd and a control cultured in salinity 15, except that the temperature was 18 °C for E...
October 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Christopher W Theodorakis, S Marshall Adams, Chandra Smith, Jamie Rotter, Ashley Hay, Joy Eslick
Department of Defense lands are essential for providing important habitat for threatened, endangered, and at-risk species (TER-S). However, there is little information on the effects of military-related contaminants on TER-S on these lands in field situations. Thus, this study examined genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) on Camp Shelby, MS-the largest known population of this species, which is listed as an "endangered species" in Mississippi and a "threatened species" by the U...
October 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Yien Fang Ting, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Ahmad Zaharin Aris, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Irniza Rasdi
Steroid estrogens such as 17β-Estradiol (E2) and 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) are highly potent estrogens that widely detected in environmental samples. Mathematical modelling such as concentration addition (CA) and estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) models are usually associated with measuring techniques to assess risk, predict the mixture response and evaluate the estrogenic activity of mixture. Wastewater has played a crucial role because wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is the major sources of estrogenic activity in aquatic environment...
October 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Ricardo Silva de Sousa, Vilma Maria Santos, Wanderley Jose de Melo, Luis Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes, Paul J van den Brink, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araújo
Composting has been suggested as an efficient method for tannery sludge recycling before its application to the soil. However, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be monitored to evaluate its effect on the chemical and microbial properties of soil. This study evaluated the time-dependent effect of CTS on the chemical and microbial properties of soil. CTS was applied at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 Mg ha(-1) and the soil chemical and microbial properties were evaluated at 0, 45, 75, 150, and 180 days...
October 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Hiroyuki Mano, Yoshinari Tanaka
This study examines the spatial difference in genetic variation for tolerance to a pesticide, fenitrothion, in Daphnia galeata at field sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. We estimated genetic values of isofemale lines established from dormant eggs of D. galeata collected from field sampling sites with the toxicant threshold model applied using acute toxicity. We compared genetic values and variances and broad-sense heritability across different sites in the lake. Results showed that the mean tolerance values to fenitrothion did not differ spatially...
September 26, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Dun Jiang, Shanchun Yan
In order to investigate the effects of heavy metal stress on woody plant defense against phytophagous insects, we studied development and reproduction traits of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar that were separately fed with leaves plucked from poplar seedlings (Populus alba berolinensis) grown in either non-contaminated soil (control), Cd-contaminated soil (1.5 mg/kg), Zn-contaminated soil (500 mg/kg) or Pb-contaminated soil (500 mg/kg). The results showed that feeding on Cd or Pb stressed poplar leaves significantly decreased L...
September 26, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Molly E Shuman-Goodier, Grant R Singleton, Catherine R Propper
Increased pesticide use in rice agricultural ecosystems may alter competitive interactions between invasive and native amphibian species. We conducted an experiment with two rice paddy amphibians found in Luzon, Philippines, the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina) and the endemic Luzon wart frog (Fejervarya vittigera), to determine whether exposure to a common herbicide, butachlor, drives competitive interactions in favor of the invasive amphibian. Our results revealed that competition had a strong effect on the development of both species, but in opposing directions; Luzon wart frog tadpoles were smaller and developed slower than when raised alone, whereas cane toad tadpoles were larger and developed faster...
September 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Agnieszka J Bednarska, Zuzanna M Świątek, Karolina Paciorek, Natalia Kubińska
Metals assimilated by organisms are sequestered in various compartments and some forms are more stable than others. Sequestration mechanisms used by invertebrates to detoxify metals and prevent interaction with important biomolecules include metal binding to proteins and other ligands, and storage in inorganic granules. The rate and extent at which metal concentrations in different compartments respond to metal concentrations in food and food characteristics has not received much attention, despite being of great relevance...
September 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Kai Zhang, Zhi-Guang Niu, Zhiwei Lv, Ying Zhang
Jingjinji area occupies important position in developing of the Chinese economy, while there exists a sharp conflict between economic growth and limited water resources in this area. To ensure the safety of water consumption of cities in Jingjinji area, we investigated the abundance of three classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water and sediment of six water supply reservoirs in this area. The results showed that the detection frequency of sul1, tetM and ermB were 100%. However, the content ranges of these genes were different (10(-5) to 10(-2)/16S gene copies for sul1, 10(-5) to 10(-3)/16S gene copies for ermB, and 10(-5) to 10(-3)/16S gene copies for tetM)...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Federico G Baudou, Natalia A Ossana, Patricia M Castañé, Martina M Mastrángelo, Lucrecia Ferrari
This work is focused on the responses of some energy metabolism variables in Cnesterodon decemmaculatus adults exposed to cadmium under controlled laboratory conditions. This species has been used as bioindicator for evaluating the effects of different chemicals on diverse biological processes and is frequently used as test organism in ecotoxicity studies that include cadmium as reference toxicant. Animals were exposed for 12 days to the following concentrations: 0, 0.45, and 0.8 mg Cd/L. Food intake, fecal production, specific assimilation, condition factor, mortality percentage, oxygen consumption, oxygen extraction efficiency, specific metabolic rate, ammonia excretion, and ammonia quotient were measured...
September 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Nadine V Gerner, Kevin Cailleaud, Anne Bassères, Matthias Liess, Mikhail A Beketov
Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators...
September 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Bushra Saddiq, Masood Ejaz, Sarfraz Ali Shad, Muhammad Aslam
Reduced susceptibility to insecticides often results in failure of insect pest control and repetitive use of broad-spectrum insecticides, which could have detrimental effects on beneficial arthropods and surrounding agro-ecosystems. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley is a pest of worldwide importance that can be effectively controlled using a number of insecticides. This insect has developed resistance due to injudicious use and repeated exposure to insecticides throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, spinosad, emamectin benzoate and indoxacarb tested either singly or in combination on laboratory susceptible (Lab-PK) and field population (Field Pop) of P...
September 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Dong Hua, Jianwei Wang, Denghang Yu, Jun Liu
We evaluated the acute toxicity effects of lanthanum (La(III)) on gill and liver of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). The median lethal concentration of La (III) at 96 h was 1.92 mg L(-1). Rare minnow were reared in freshwater and exposed to 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32 and 0.80 mg L(-1) La (III) for 21 d. Gill and liver samples were analyzed by light microscopy. The main histopathological changes induced by La (III) in gills were epithelial lifting, filamentary epithelial proliferation,edema, lamellar fusion, desquamation, and necrosis...
August 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Luc Belzunces, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
A previous study claimed a differential behavioural resilience between spring or summer honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) after exposure to syrup contaminated with 125 µg L(-1) imidacloprid for 8 days. The authors of that study based their assertion on the lack of body residues and toxic effects in honey bees, whereas bumble bees showed body residues of imidacloprid and impaired locomotion during the exposure. We have reproduced their experiment using winter honey bees subject to the same protocol...
August 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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