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Wanxia Shi, Weiwei Wu, Xian-Chun Zeng, Xiaoming Chen, Xianbin Zhu, Shenggao Cheng
The paddy soils in some areas in Jianghan Plain were severely contaminated by arsenic. However, little is known about the activity and diversity of the dissimilatory arsenate-respiring prokaryotes (DARPs) in the paddy soils, and the effects of sulfate on the microbial mobilization and release of arsenic from soils into solution. To address this issue, we collected arsenic-rich soils from the depths of 1.6 and 4.6 m in a paddy region in the Xiantao city, Hubei Province, China. Microcosm assays indicated that all of the soils have significant arsenate-respiring activities using lactate, pyruvate or acetate as the sole electron donor...
August 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Arzoo Malik, Nishith Dharaiya, Silvia Espín
Organochlorine compounds (OCs) pose a serious threat towards the wildlife due to their well-known adverse effects. India is the second largest producer of pesticides in Asia, with DDT production still ongoing, and is ranked amongst the leading countries of pesticide consumption. However, a significant data gap in avian biomonitoring studies has been identified in Asia. The objective of this review is to compile and discuss the available literature on concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Indian birds...
August 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Congyan Wang, Kun Jiang, Bingde Wu, Jiawei Zhou, Yanna Lv
Allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling development of co-occurring native plant species (natives hereafter) are regarded as an important driver facilitating invasion of many invasive plant species (invaders hereafter). The release of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into the environment may affect the allelopathic effects of the invaders on the seed germination and seedling development of natives. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaf extracts) of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L...
August 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Afolarin O Ogungbemi, Cornelis A M van Gestel
Soil properties like organic matter (OM) content show great variation, making it hard to predict the fate and effects of a chemical in different soils. We therefore addressed the question: can we remove the complexity of the soil matrix and yet accurately predict soil toxicity from porewater exposures? Folsomia candida was exposed to imidacloprid in natural (LUFA 2.2 [4.02% OM], Grassland [12.6% OM]) and artificial soils (OECD 5 [6.61% OM], OECD 10 [10.8% OM]), in pore water extracted from spiked LUFA 2.2 soil and in water...
July 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Michiel A Daam, Joana L Pereira
The aim of this special issue was to bring together papers dealing with current challenges and trends in pesticide ecotoxicology. The special issue is composed of 25 papers into various topics, ranging from the development of more ecological ecotoxicological test approaches to an evaluation of citation bias in pesticide ecotoxicology literature. This paper provides a general introduction and an index of the various papers in the special issue. This special issue is trusted to provide a valuable contribution in addressing current challenges in pesticide ecotoxicology...
July 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Musa Kar
In this study, stress-related gene expression levels and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), which are oxidative stress markers, were investigated in the chickpea (Cicer arietinum) plant's roots that are exposed to cadmium (Cd). MDA and H2 O2 concentrations showed a linear increase. It was found that metallothionein-like gene (MT2) stress genes had a high level of expression at the 12-h application, while the kinetics of expression levels of glutathione reductase (GR1) and superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn/SOD) genes increased until 24 h of application with a decrease in expression levels by 48 h of application...
July 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Franz Streissl, Mark Egsmose, José V Tarazona
Each year, the European Food Safety Authority, supported by a network of experts in the EU Member States, assesses and publishes the environmental risks of 30-40 pesticides active substances. The assessments support hundreds of national risk evaluations for marketing (re-)authorisations of Plant Protection Products. These prospective regulatory evaluations are based on worst-case scenarios in order to provide the high level of protection required by the EU legislations, and establishes the conditions for a correct use of the products including risk mitigations options...
July 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nevena Šuškalo, Dino Hasanagić, Ljiljana Topalić-Trivunović, Zoran Kukrić, Ivan Samelak, Aleksandar Savić, Biljana Kukavica
The complexity of ecological conditions in urban areas imposes the plant species need for the development of various biochemical and physiological adaptive strategies. The aim of our research was to examine the antioxidative and antifungal metabolism of species Pinus nigra, Picea omorika, Tilia cordata and Betula pendula from the area of Banja Luka City (urban area) during two vegetation seasons (spring and autumn) and compared with the same species from forest habitats. Changes in the protein concentration, activity and isoenzyme profiles of peroxidases (POD, EC 1...
July 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Milda Stankevičiūtė, Gintarė Sauliutė, Tomas Makaras, Arvydas Markuckas, Tomas Virbickas, Janina Baršienė
The aim of this research was to assess interactions between metals at low exposure concentrations (Maximum-Permissible-Concentrations accepted for the inland waters in EU) and to assess possible influence of background exposure (10-times reduced concentration of a single metal) on toxicological significance of selected biomarkers in Salmo salar after treatment with metal mixture (Zn - 0.1, Cu - 0.01, Ni - 0.01, Cr - 0.01, Pb - 0.005 and Cd - 0.005 mg/L). The tissue-specific bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity responses (erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay) in peripheral blood, kidneys, gills and liver erythrocytes of fish to metal mixtures were assessed after 14 days treatment...
July 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Krisztina Hrács, Zoltán Sávoly, Anikó Seres, Lola Virág Kiss, Ibolya Zita Papp, Ákos Kukovecz, Gyula Záray, Péter Nagy
Despite the increasing number and quantity of nanomaterials released in the environment, our knowledge on their bioavailability and possible toxicity to organisms is rather limited. Thus, we know quite little about sensitivity of various nematode feeding types and life strategies to treatments with nano metal oxides. The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) (with a particle size of 25 nm) and the bulk counterpart was investigated in two free-living nematode species of different life strategies: Xiphinema vuittenezi, a K-strategist plant-feeder nematode and Panagrellus redivivus, an r-strategist bacterivor nematode...
June 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Yanhong Wang, Ping Li, Zhou Jiang, Han Liu, Dazhun Wei, Helin Wang, Yanxin Wang
Arsenic methylation is regarded as an effective way of arsenic detoxification. Current knowledge about arsenic biomethylation in high arsenic groundwater remains limited. In the present study, 16 high arsenic groundwater samples from deep wells of the Hetao Plain were investigated using clone library and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses of arsM genes as well as geochemical analysis. The concentrations of methylated arsenic (including monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)) varied from 2...
June 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Łukasz Wejnerowski, Piotr Rzymski, Mikołaj Kokociński, Jussi Meriluoto
Winter cyanobacterial blooms have become increasingly common in eutrophic lakes advocating a need for their monitoring and risk assessment. The present study evaluated the toxicity of a winter cyanobacterial bloom in a eutrophicated freshwater lake located in Western Poland. The bloom was dominated by potentially toxic species: Planktothrix agardhii, Limnothrix redekei, and Aphanizomenon gracile. The toxin analysis revealed the presence of demethylated forms of microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR in ranges of 24...
June 22, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Chedliya Ghemari, Anas Ayari, Nabil Hamdi, Christophe Waterlot, Francis Douay, Karima Nasri-Ammar
This study aimed to observe the type of asymmetry exhibited by Porcellio laevis sampled from 15 sites belonging to Tunisian industrialized areas. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, organic matter and CaCO3 contents were measured in soils. Moreover, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations were determined in both soils and woodlice. Additionally, 10 metrical traits were measured to evaluate the type of asymmetry on individuals: the basis, the second and the third articles of the antenna, the first article of the flagellum of the antenna and the merus, the carpus, and the propodus of the sixth and the seventh pereopods...
June 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Daniel Alberto Pérez-Aguilar, Marianne Araújo Soares, Luis Clepf Passos, Ana Mabel Martínez, Samuel Pineda, Geraldo Andrade Carvalho
The mirid Engytatus varians (Distant) is a promising biological control agent of the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), one of the most destructive pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The effects of five insecticides commonly used on tomato crops in Brazil were evaluated on E. varians in laboratory and semifield conditions. Glass Petri dish with residues of chlorfenapyr, thiamethoxam, and abamectin caused ˃90% mortality in both stages of the predator 72 h post-treatment, except imidacloprid that caused 78% of nymphs mortality...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
S M Esteves, S F P Almeida, S Gonçalves, F Rimet, A Bouchez, E Figueira
Organic contaminants, and herbicides in particular, represent a risk for aquatic ecosystems. The primary target of herbicides are producers, the base of food webs, but frequently they end up far from the application point affecting non-target species. Its presence can work as sub-lethal stimulus, which sort the genetic and phenotypic differences within a species. Intraspecific variation allows adaptation to changes in the environment but also to new niches due to variations in species' sensitivity and biochemical response to a certain chemical...
June 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ana Santos Pereira, Maria Luísa Dâmaso-Rodrigues, Ana Amorim, Michiel A Daam, Maria José Cerejeira
Studies addressing the predicted effects of pesticides in combination with abiotic and biotic factors on aquatic biota in ditches associated with typical Mediterranean agroecosystems are scarce. The current study aimed to evaluate the predicted effects of pesticides along with environmental factors and biota interactions on macroinvertebrate, zooplankton and phytoplankton community compositions in ditches adjacent to Portuguese maize and tomato crop areas. Data was analysed with the variance partitioning procedure based on redundancy analysis (RDA)...
June 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ricardo Costa, Joana Luísa Pereira, Maria Ana Santos, Mário Pacheco, Sofia Guilherme
The responses of non-target organisms to pesticide exposure are still poorly explored in what concerns the development of adjustments favouring population success. Owing to the vital role of DNA integrity, it is important to identify genome-maintenance skills and their determinant factors. Thus, the major aims of the present study were: (i) to assess the genotoxicity of the penoxsulam-based herbicide (Viper® ) to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii; (ii) to understand the influence of gender and contamination history in the genotoxic responses following exposure to this herbicide; (iii) to investigate the damage mechanisms involved in putative adjustments shown by P...
June 4, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Lauren Sohn, Renae J Brodie, Genevieve Couldwell, Eleanor Demmons, Joachim Sturve
Imidacloprid is the most widely used of the nicotinoid insecticides, the fastest growing class of pesticides on the global market. Although less toxic to mammals and birds compared to organophosphates, nicotinoids have the potential to impact non-target invertebrates, especially through sublehal effects on behavior, physiology, reproduction, and development. We investigated the impact of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the defensive responses of rusty crayfish Orconectes rusticus exposed to 0, 1, 10, and 100 µg•L-1 of imidacloprid for 10 days (n = 7 crayfish per treatment)...
May 25, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Gilvani Carla Mallmann, José Paulo Sousa, Ingvar Sundh, Silvia Pieper, Maria Arena, Sonia Purin da Cruz, Osmar Klauberg-Filho
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are mutualistic symbionts considered a key group in soil systems involved in the provision of several ecosystem services. Recently they have been listed by EFSA as organisms to be included in the test battery for the risk assessment of plant protection product (PPPs). This study aimed to contribute to improve the ISO Protocol (ISO 10832: 2009) by assessing the feasibility of using other AMF species under different test conditions. Overall, results showed that AMF species Gigaspora albida and Rhizophagus clarus (selected out of five AMF species) are suitable to be used in spore germination tests using the ISO protocol (14 days incubation with sand or artificial soil as substrate) to test PPPs...
May 25, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Mohammad Muslim, M Shafiq Ansari, Fazil Hasan
Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important biological control agent of various species of order Lepidoptera and extensively used in biological control program worldwide. Present study evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on B. hebetor using demographic and population growth parameters. Doses of all the tested insecticides were within a maximum range of their recommended field dosages and adults were treated using residual glass vials method. For control experiments adults were treated with distilled water...
May 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
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