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Lihong Li, Huilan Yi, Meizhao Xue, Min Yi
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant that has adverse effects on plants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA that play critical roles in plant development and stress response. In this study, we found that two miRNAs, miR398 and miR395, were differentially expressed in Arabidopsis shoots under SO2 stress. The expression of miR398 was down-regulated, and the transcript levels of its target genes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSD1 and CSD2), were increased during SO2 exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), one of the major antioxidant enzymes, was enhanced with the increase in the CSD transcript level, suggesting an important role of miR398 in response to SO2-induced oxidative stress...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi, Gabriela Pavan Bordini, Aline Aparecida Franco, Cynthia Renata Oliveira Jacob, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
The predator mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma is an important biological-control agent of mite pests, and it is one of the most common species found in citrus orchards. This study assessed, under laboratory conditions, the toxicity and duration of the harmful effects of five insecticides, the three pyrethroids deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin, and the two neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam on I. zuluagai. Furthermore, we estimated the life-table parameters of the predator...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
David A Pillard, William S Eck, Mark S Johnson, Stephanie Packard
New explosive formulations are being developed to be less sensitive to impact and inadvertent explosion, increasing safety for the warfighter. Since testing and training make environmental releases imminent, the toxicity of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), a component of Insensitive Munitions eXplosive (IMX) formulations, was assessed in a one-generation study to the northern leopard frog (Lithobates ( = Rana) pipiens). Because NTO in water creates acidic conditions, acute studies were conducted with non-pH-adjusted NTO, while a long-term (70-d) study was conducted with neutralized NTO...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Laura M Langan, Glenn M Harper, Stewart F Owen, Wendy M Purcell, Simon K Jackson, Awadhesh N Jha
There is an acknowledged need for in vitro fish intestinal model to help understand dietary exposure to chemicals in the aquatic environment. The presence and use of such models is however largely restrictive due to technical difficulties in the culturing of enterocytes in general and the availability of appropriate established cell lines in particular. In this study, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestinal derived cell line (RTgutGC) was used as a surrogate for the "gut sac" method. To facilitate comparison, RTgutGC cells were grown as monolayers (double-seeded) on permeable Transwell supports leading to a two-compartment intestinal model consisting of polarised epithelium...
August 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Yeisson Gutiérrez, Gabryele S Ramos, Hudson V V Tomé, Eugênio E Oliveira, Ana L Salaro
The backswimmer Buenoa tarsalis (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) is a naturally occurring predator of immature stages of mosquitoes. These aquatic predators can suffer from non-targeted exposure to insecticides that are commonly used in aquatic environments to control mosquitoes. Here, we evaluated whether insecticide formulations containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) or the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl would affect the survival and the predatory abilities of B. tarsalis. First, we conducted survival bioassays to estimate the median survival time (LT50) of B...
August 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
David L Haskins, Matthew T Hamilton, Nicole I Stacy, John W Finger, Tracey D Tuberville
Selenium (Se) is a naturally occurring essential element that can be toxic to vertebrates at high concentrations. Despite studies that have documented that wild reptile species can accumulate copious amounts of Se, little is known regarding specific toxicologic effects of Se. In this study, 70 juvenile yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) were exposed to one of three seleno-L-methionine (SetMet) treatments (control, n = 24; 15 mg/kg, n = 23; and 30 mg/kg, n = 23) via weekly oral gavage for 5 weeks...
August 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
A Sarkar, Jacky Bhagat, Munmun Saha Sarker, Dipak C S Gaitonde, Subhodeep Sarker
Marine pollution due to oil spills is of great concern globally for their impact on the health of marine ecosystems. We assessed the genotoxic effects and oxidative stress due to genotoxic pollutants accumulated from the ambient marine environment in the tissues of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata along the Arabian Sea coast around Goa, India. The extent of DNA damage in S. cucullata was determined by comet assay as variation of comet parameter: mean % tail DNA along the coast with respect to that at the reference site (Tiracol, Goa, India)...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Si-Wen Li, Ying Guo, Ying He, Xiao Sun, Hong-Jing Zhao, Yu Wang, Ya-Jun Wang, Ming-Wei Xing
To evaluate the toxicity of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the muscular tissues (wing, thigh and pectoral) of birds, 72 one-day-old Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days and the samples of muscular tissues were collected at 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that As2O3 exposure significantly lowered the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and inhibition ability of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Mariem Smaoui-Jardak, Walid Kriaa, Mohamed Maalej, Mohamed Zouari, Lotfi Kamoun, Wassim Trabelsi, Ferjani Ben Abdallah, Nada Elloumi
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphogypsum (PG) amendment on the physiochemical proprieties of saline and agricultural soils along with the growth, productivity and antioxidant enzyme activities of tomato plants ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown on the amended soils under controlled conditions. Obtained results showed that the amendment of saline soil (H) by PG induced a decrease in pH as well as in electrical conductivity. However, for the non saline soil (MC), there was a decrease in pH associated with an increase in electrical conductivity...
July 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Adriana Olenici, Saúl Blanco, María Borrego-Ramos, Laura Momeu, Călin Baciu
Metal pollution of aquatic habitats is a major and persistent environmental problem. Acid mine drainage (AMD) affects lotic systems in numerous and interactive ways. In the present work, a mining area (Roșia Montană) was chosen as study site, and we focused on two aims: (i) to find the set of environmental predictors leading to the appearance of the abnormal diatom individuals in the study area and (ii) to assess the relationship between the degree of valve outline deformation and AMD-derived pollution. In this context, morphological differences between populations of Achnanthidium minutissimum and A...
July 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi, Dawid Moroń, Anna Nawrocka, Adam Tofilski, Michał Woyciechowski
Wild bees in natural conditions can develop under various environmental stressors. Heavy metal pollution of the environment is one of the most widely studied stressors in insects, yet its effect is poorly described in bees. We have measured how pollution of the environment along a zinc, cadmium and lead contamination gradient in Poland affects bee development, using red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as a model and their forewing asymmetry measures to assess possible developmental instabilities. We have also described wing asymmetry measures in the red mason bee-an important managed pollinator species-for the first time...
July 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Sara M Esteves, Franc Ois Keck, Salomé F P Almeida, Etelvina Figueira, Agne S Bouchez, Fre de Ric Rimet
Diatoms are used as indicators of freshwater ecosystems integrity. Developing diatom-based tools to assess impact of herbicide pollution is expected by water managers. But, defining sensitivities of all species to multiple herbicides would be unattainable. The existence of a phylogenetic signal of herbicide sensitivity was shown among diatoms and should enable prediction of new species sensitivity. However, diatoms present a cryptic diversity that may lead to variation in their sensitivity to herbicides that would need to be taken into account...
July 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Yanyan Qu, Da Xiao, Junjie Liu, Zhou Chen, Lifang Song, Nicolas Desneux, Giovanni Benelli, Xiwu Gao, Dunlun Song
Beta-cypermethrin has long been recommended as an effective pesticide to control the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, a serious pest in soybean crops. Besides acute toxicity, it leads to changes in life history traits of A. glycines, notably its reproductive potential. This study has assessed the effects of five sublethal concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/L) of beta-cypermethrin on different life history traits of A. glycines. Exposure to these concentrations caused shorter oviposition period and reduced adult longevity...
July 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Maureen Murray
Restrictions on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) in the United States, which were partially implemented in 2011, prohibit the sale of SGAR products through general consumer outlets to minimize use by non-professional or non-agricultural applicators. This study analyzed liver tissue from four species of birds of prey admitted to a wildlife clinic in Massachusetts, USA, from 2012-2016 for residues of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). Ninety-four birds were analyzed; 16 were symptomatic for AR toxicosis, and 78 asymptomatic...
July 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Paul K Mensah, Ntombekhaya Mgaba, Neil Griffin, Oghenekaro N Odume, Carolyn G Palmer
Although a plethora of models exist to describe the characteristics and risk assessment of chemical mixtures in ecotoxicology, there is no specific procedure to decide on the mixing ratios (i.e. proportions of the individual chemical substances that form the mixture) at any desired level of concentration in an ecotoxicological mixture experiment. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a procedure for determining the mixing ratios in ecotoxicological experiments. In brief, from a single salt exposure test, the relative toxic fractions, which represent the toxic effect exerted by the individual salts, are determined...
July 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Milda Stankevičiūtė, Gintarė Sauliutė, Gintaras Svecevičius, Nijolė Kazlauskienė, Janina Baršienė
Health impact of metal mixture at environment realistic concentrations are difficult to predict especially for long-term effects where cause-and-effect relationships may not be directly obvious. This study was aimed to evaluate metal mixture (Zn-0.1, Cu-0.01, Ni-0.01, Cr-0.01, Pb-0.005 and Cd-0.005 mg/L, respectively for 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days at concentrations accepted for the inland waters in EU) genotoxicity (micronuclei, nuclear buds, nuclear buds on filament), cytotoxicity (8-shaped nuclei, fragmented-apoptotic erythrocytes), bioaccumulation, steady-state and the reference level of geno-cytotoxicity in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon tissues...
July 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Bo-Ching Chen, Pin-Jie Wang, Pei-Chi Ho, Kai-Wei Juang
Developing a nonlinear biotic ligand model (BLM) that considers the geometrical constraints for binding of different cations on biotic ligands will provide more reliable details about the hypothetical mechanism governing the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity by coexistent cations. Soybean seedlings under Cd stress produced by various activities of coexistent cations such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and potassium (K(+)) were hydroponically assayed for Cd toxicity to soybean roots. The Cd(2+) activity resulting in 50% reduction of root elongation (RE), EA 50, was used for assessing the Cd toxicity to the soybean seedling...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Hannah Hopewell, Kieran G Floyd, Daniel Burnell, John T Hancock, Joel Allainguillaume, Michael R Ladomery, Ian D Wilson
This study investigated the neurological effects of residual ground-water levels of thiacloprid on the non-target organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes treated with thiacloprid showed a dose-dependent and significantly increased twitch response at concentrations above 50 ng mL(-1) that disabled their forward locomotion in liquid culture. In comparison with untreated controls, 10 ng mL(-1) thiacloprid perturbed the chemosensory ability of C. elegans such that the nematodes no longer demonstrated positive chemotaxis towards a NaCl chemo-attractant, reducing their chemotaxis index from +0...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Nada Elloumi, Mohamed Zouari, Imed Mezghani, Ferjani Ben Abdallah, Steve Woodward, Monem Kallel
The biochemical and physiological effects of fluoride were investigated in loquat trees (Eriobotrya japonica) grown in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Tunisia. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assessed; along with photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, electrolytic leakage (EL) and total phenolic contents in foliage and roots of trees at different distances from the phosphate fertilizer plant...
June 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Marta Kandziora-Ciupa, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha, Gabriela Barczyk, Ryszard Ciepał
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in soil, and their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. organs. Analysis also concerned the physiological responses of these plants from three polluted sites (immediate vicinity of a zinc smelter in Miasteczko Śląskie, ArcelorMittal Poland S.A. iron smelter in Dąbrowa Górnicza-Łosień, and Jaworzno III power plant in Jaworzno) and one pseudo-control site (Pazurek nature reserve in Jaroszowiec Olkuski)...
June 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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