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Ecotoxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547324/ecotoxicity-and-fate-of-a-silver-nanomaterial-in-an-outdoor-lysimeter-study
#1
Karsten Schlich, Martin Hoppe, Marco Kraas, Elke Fries, Kerstin Hund-Rinke
Sewage sludge is repeatedly applied as fertilizer on farmland due to its high nutrient content. This may lead to a significant increase of silver nanomaterials (AgNM) in soil over years. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ecotoxicity and fate of AgNM under environmentally relevant conditions in outdoor lysimeters over 25 months. Two AgNM concentrations (1.7 and 8.0 mg/kg dry matter soil) were applied via sewage sludge into soil. In subsamples of the soil, incubated under laboratory conditions for 180 days, the comparability of outdoor and laboratory results regarding ecotoxicity was determined...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536793/detection-of-insecticide-resistance-in-bradysia-odoriphaga-yang-et-zhang-diptera-sciaridae-in-china
#2
Chengyu Chen, Xueyan Shi, Nicolas Desneux, Peng Han, Xiwu Gao
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang is a destructive insect pest of Chinese chives. To understand the current status of insecticide resistance of B. odoriphaga in China, the sensitivity variation of eight field populations to six commonly used insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phoxim, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin and beta-cypermethrin were evaluated. The results showed that almost all the tested B. odoriphaga populations had developed moderate to high resistance to chlorpyrifos and phoxim. There were different resistance levels found in the eight field populations among the three neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin...
May 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536792/cotton-gherf38-gene-is-involved-in-plant-response-to-salt-drought-and-aba
#3
Liufeng Ma, Longxing Hu, Jibiao Fan, Erick Amombo, A B M Khaldun, Yong Zheng, Liang Chen
ERF (ethylene-responsive factor) transcription factors play important roles in plant stress signaling transduction pathways. However, their specific roles during diverse abiotic stresses tolerance in Gossypium hirsutum are largely unknown. Here, a novel ERF transcription factor, designated GhERF38, homologous to AtERF38 in Arabidopsis, was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). GhERF38 expression was up-regulated by salt, drought and ABA treatments. Subcellular localization results indicated that GhERF38 was localized in the cell nucleus...
May 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516210/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-surface-water-of-eutrophic-urban-lakes-are-related-to-heavy-metals-antibiotics-lake-morphology-and-anthropic-impact
#4
Yuyi Yang, Chen Xu, Xinhua Cao, Hui Lin, Jun Wang
Urban lakes are impacted by heavy human activities and represent potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, six urban lakes in Wuhan, central China were selected to analyze the distribution of sulfonamide resistance (sul) genes, tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and quinolone resistance (qnr) genes and their relationship with heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact. sul1 and sul2 were detected in all six lakes and dominated the types of antibiotic resistance genes, which accounted for 86...
May 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508143/great-tit-response-to-decreasing-industrial-heavy-metal-emissions
#5
R A Costa, T Gomes, C Eira, J Vaqueiro, J V Vingada
This study evaluated the effects of environmental pollution on decreasing great tit (Parus major) breeding parameters in an industrial area in the west coast of Portugal. Several great tit breeding parameters were monitored in the industrial area, as well as in a rural area not affected by industrial emissions. Low levels of air pollution in both industrial and rural areas were confirmed by assessing trace element concentrations in pine needles. Concentrations of Cd and Hg in pine needles from the industrial area (Cd = 0...
May 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500397/analysis-of-lethal-and-sublethal-impacts-of-environmental-disasters-on-sperm-whales-using-stochastic-modeling
#6
Azmy S Ackleh, Ross A Chiquet, Baoling Ma, Tingting Tang, Hal Caswell, Amy Veprauskas, Natalia Sidorovskaia
Mathematical models are essential for combining data from multiple sources to quantify population endpoints. This is especially true for species, such as marine mammals, for which data on vital rates are difficult to obtain. Since the effects of an environmental disaster are not fixed, we develop time-varying (nonautonomous) matrix population models that account for the eventual recovery of the environment to the pre-disaster state. We use these models to investigate how lethal and sublethal impacts (in the form of reductions in the survival and fecundity, respectively) affect the population's recovery process...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470376/sublethal-effects-in-perinereis-gualpensis-polychaeta-nereididae-exposed-to-mercury-pyrene-sediment-mixture-observed-in-a-multipolluted-estuary
#7
M Díaz-Jaramillo, K S B Miglioranza, P Carriquiriborde, D Marino, C N Pegoraro, G Valenzuela, R Barra
Sediment-living organisms can be subjected to a multi-pollution condition due to an increase in the diversity of contaminants. Sediment mixtures of Mercury (Hg) and some polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons like Pyrene (Pyr) are common in heavily industrialized coastal zones. In the present study, greater than (>) and less than (<) probable effect concentration levels (PELs) of Hg and Pyr were assessed using spiked sediments in order to determine combined (Hg + Pyr) effects in uptake, metabolization and oxidative balance in the polychaete Perinereis gualpensis at short and medium-term exposure...
May 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466205/effect-of-pure-microcystin-lr-on-activity-and-transcript-level-of-immune-related-enzymes-in-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#8
Yanyan Chen, Xianghu Huang, Jianzhu Wang, Changling Li
Microcystins (MCs) in freshwater and marine waters released by toxin-producing cyanobacteria have negative impacts to the aquatic environment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pure microcystin-LR on activity and transcript level of immune-related enzymes in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. After exposed to varying concentrations of pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR) for 30 days, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and transcript level of cMn-sod, lzm, gpx were investigated in the hepatopancreas of white shrimp (L...
May 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466204/assessment-of-bacterial-biodetoxification-of-herbicide-atrazine-using-aliivibrio-fischeri-cytotoxicity-assay-with-prolonged-contact-time
#9
Judit Háhn, Sándor Szoboszlay, Gergő Tóth, Balázs Kriszt
In our study, we determined and compared the atrazine-biodetoxification ability of 41 bacterial strains and 21 consortia created of those with over 50% degradation rate in pure cultures. Biodegradation capacity was measured with GC-MS. Detoxification was assessed based on the cytotoxic effect of end-products to Aliivibrio fischeri in chronic bioluminescence inhibition assay with 25 h contact time. Chronic A. fischeri assay adapted to a microplate, which is suitable for examine numerous residues simultaneously, also appeared to be significantly more sensitive to atrazine compared to the standard acute (30 min) test...
May 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451857/assessing-the-environmental-hazard-of-individual-and-combined-pharmaceuticals-acute-and-chronic-toxicity-of-fluoxetine-and-propranolol-in-the-crustacean-daphnia-magna
#10
Valentina Varano, Elena Fabbri, Andrea Pasteris
Pharmaceuticals are widespread emerging contaminants and, like all pollutants, are present in combination with others in the ecosystems. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the toxic response of the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to individual and combined pharmaceuticals. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor widely prescribed as antidepressant, and propranolol, a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent used to treat hypertension, were tested. Several experimental trials of an acute immobilization test and a chronic reproduction test were performed...
April 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444511/scale-dependence-in-polychlorinated-biphenyl-pcb-exposure-effects-on-waterbird-habitat-occupancy
#11
James P Gibbs, Shahrokh Rouhani, Leyla Shams
Spatial scale is rarely considered in population-level assessments of contaminant impacts on wild animals; as a result misinterpretation of the relationship between contaminant exposure and population status may occur. We assessed the strength of expression of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure effects at local vs. regional spatial scales on population status in five species of waterbirds, "bioaccumulators" often promoted as indicators of contaminant effects in aquatic ecosystems. Our focus was the upper Hudson River where PCBs occur at levels reported to have adverse impacts on wild birds...
April 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439681/side-effects-of-pesticides-used-in-irrigated-rice-areas-on-telenomus-podisi-ashmead-hymenoptera-platygastridae
#12
Juliano de Bastos Pazini, Rafael Antonio Pasini, Enio Júnior Seidel, Matheus Rakes, José Francisco da Silva Martins, Anderson Dionei Grützmacher
Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an important agent for the biological control of stink bug eggs in irrigated rice areas and the best strategy for its preservation is the use of selective pesticides. The aim of this study was to know the side-effects of pesticides used in Brazilian irrigated rice areas on egg parasitoid T. podisi. We evaluated, under laboratory conditions, 13 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 11 herbicides, and a control (distilled water) in choice and no-choice tests. In the no-choice tests, the pesticides were sprayed at pre and post-parasitism stages (egg and larval stages of T...
April 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432496/reproductive-effects-of-life-cycle-exposure-to-difenoconazole-on-female-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#13
Xiaocui Dong, Zhenghong Zuo, Jiaojiao Guo, Hongbin Li, Lemeng Zhang, Meng Chen, Zhibin Yang, Chonggang Wang
Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide which has been detected in some estuaries and embayments. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on ovarian development in female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). After 180 days exposure of the embryo to DFZ (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/L), the gonadosomatic index and percentage of mature oocytes produced were significantly reduced in the 1, 10 and 100 ng/L treatments but not the 1000 ng/L treatment compared to the control, thus exhibiting a U-shaped dose response curve...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429184/interactive-effects-of-salicylic-acid-and-nitric-oxide-in-alleviating-zinc-toxicity-of-safflower-carthamus-tinctorius-l
#14
Shahram Namdjoyan, Hossein Kermanian, Ali Abolhasani Soorki, Sedigheh Modarres Tabatabaei, Nazli Elyasi
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide, and their combination on 21-day-old safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seedlings grown under zinc (Zn) stress. The results revealed that exposure to 500 µM ZnSO4.7H2O for 10 days markedly reduced the root and shoot dry weights in Zn-treated plants, while the application of SA, SNP and specially SA + SNP significantly increased the root and shoot dry weights in seedlings subjected to Zn stress...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409416/tributyltin-bioaccumulation-and-toxic-effects-in-freshwater-gastropods-pomacea-canaliculata-after-a-chronic-exposure-field-and-laboratory-studies
#15
María L Martínez, María N Piol, Norma Sbarbati Nudelman, Noemí R Verrengia Guerrero
Freshwater samples and gastropod mollusks (Pomacea canaliculata) were collected at 5 sampling stations located along the lower Río de la Plata basin, Argentina, to assess the extent of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. Determined data revealed the presence of TBT and some of its breakdown products (dibutyltin: DBT, and monobutyltin: MBT) in all freshwater samples and also in soft tissues of P. canaliculata gastropods. Chronic bioassays (6 months) were performed using female gastropods that had been reared under laboratory conditions and exposed to a similar TBT concentration than the value determined in freshwater samples (1 µg L(-1))...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409415/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-confers-chromium-stress-tolerance-in-brassica-juncea-l-by-modulating-the-antioxidant-defense-and-glyoxalase-systems
#16
Jubayer Al Mahmud, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Anisur Rahman, Md Shahadat Hossain, Masayuki Fujita
Chromium (Cr) toxicity is hazardous to the seed germination, growth, and development of plants. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid and is involved in stress tolerance in plants. To investigate the effects of GABA in alleviating Cr toxicity, we treated eight-d-old mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings with Cr (0.15 and 0.3 mM K2CrO4, 5 days) alone and in combination with GABA (125 µM) in a semi-hydroponic medium. The roots and shoots of the seedlings accumulated Cr in a dose-dependent manner, which led to an increase in oxidative damage [lipid peroxidation; hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content; superoxide (O2(•-)) generation; lipoxygenase (LOX) activity], methylglyoxal (MG) content, and disrupted antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409414/survival-and-development-of-bullfrog-tadpoles-in-microcosms-treated-with-abamectin
#17
Ana M Vasconcelos, Michiel A Daam, Juliana C de Resende, Maressa P Casali-Pereira, Evaldo L G Espíndola
As compared to other aquatic taxonomic groups, few studies have been conducted so far evaluating the potential risks of pesticides to amphibians. Furthermore, most existing studies with amphibians consist of acute laboratory toxicity tests that mostly only evaluated single peak pesticide exposure. In the present study, potential chronic effects of single and repeated abamectin applications on the survival and development of L. catesbeianus tadpoles under (semi-) field conditions were evaluated. To this end, tadpoles were housed in microcosms treated with single or repeated applications of abamectin (as the commercial product Vertimec® 18 EC)...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409413/impact-of-ammonium-nitrate-and-sodium-nitrate-on-tadpoles-of-alytes-obstetricans
#18
Núria Garriga, A Montori, G A Llorente
The presence of pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers negatively affect aquatic communities in general, and particularly amphibians in their larval phase, even though sensitivity to pollutants is highly variable among species. The Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) has experienced a decline of amphibian populations, possibly related to the reduction in water quality due to the high levels of farming activity, but also to habitat loss and alteration. We studied the effects of increasing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate levels on the survival and growth rate of Alytes obstetricans tadpoles under experimental conditions...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382549/microcystins-and-cyanophyte-extracts-inhibit-or-promote-the-photosynthesis-of-fluvial-algae-ecological-and-management-implications
#19
Laura García-Espín, Enrique A Cantoral, Antonia D Asencio, Marina Aboal
The ecological influence of cyanotoxins on aquatic biota remains unclear despite the numerous published references on toxicological and sanitary problems related with cyanophyte proliferation. The effects of microcystins and cyanophyte extracts on the photosynthesis of the algae that belong to two taxonomic groups, Rhodophyta and Bacillariophyta, were studied in an attempt to elucidate their role in the intraspecific competence and physiognomy of fluvial communities. The data showed that both cyanobacteria extracts and pure microcystin-LR affected the photosynthetic activity of all the tested organisms, diatoms (Fistulifera pelliculosa, Gomphonema parvulum, Nitzschia frustulum and Stephanodiscus minutulus) and red algae (Chroothece richteriana) at environmentally relevant concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382548/study-of-persistent-toxic-pollutants-in-a-river-basin-ecotoxicological-risk-assessment
#20
Evangelia Terzopoulou, Dimitra Voutsa
This study presents a complementary approach for the evaluation of water quality in a river basin by employing active and passive sampling. Persistent toxic pollutants representing three classes: organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were studied in grab water samples, in passive samplers/SemiPermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) and in fish tissues collected along the Strymonas River, northern Greece at three sampling campaigns during the year 2013...
April 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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