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Karolina M Czajka, Paul Michael, Kabwe Nkongolo
It has been demonstrated that a number of metals including mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) decrease seed germination rates and plant growth. The threshold levels of metal toxicity on seed germination, plant development, and gene regulation have not been studied in detail. The main objective of this study was to assess in vitro and in vivo the effects of different doses of nickel on Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seed germination and regulation of the high affinity nickel transporter family protein (AT2G16800) gene...
December 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nicholas T Hayman, Brian T Hentschel, Violet C Renick, Todd W Anderson
Hydrodynamics and pollution affect estuarine populations, but their ecological effects have rarely been studied in combination. We conducted two laboratory experiments to quantify whether predator-prey interactions between California killifish, Fundulus parvipinnis, and the polychaete Polydora cornuta vary with flow speed and chlorpyrifos exposure. In one experiment, only F. parvipinnis was exposed to chlorpyrifos; in the other, only P. cornuta was exposed. The flume included a 300-cm2 area of sediment with 24 P...
December 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Antonio José Gazonato Neto, Raquel Aparecida Moreira, Júlio César Dos Santos Lima, Michiel Adriaan Daam, Odete Rocha
The toxicity of metals, whether isolated or in mixtures, involves changes in biochemical processes as well as in cell membranes, which may lead to deleterious short- and long-term effects on the affected organisms. Among metals, cadmium and mercury stand out due to their abundance in nature, frequent use for industrial activities and biological accumulation, with high levels of residence in trophic chains. Benthic communities are particularly prone to metal pollution since metals usually accumulate in sediments...
December 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Congyan Wang, Bingde Wu, Kun Jiang
Allelopathic effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of the natives play a crucial role in the successful invasion of numerous invaders. Meanwhile, soil salinity is an emerging driver of the spread of many invaders, especially in the colonization of saline habitats. Thus, the allelopathic effects of the invaders on the seed germination and seedling growth of the natives may be altered or even reinforced under salt stress. This study aims to address the allelopathic effects of the notorious invader Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L...
December 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Sarah Leclaire, Marion Chatelain, Anaïs Pessato, Bruno Buatois, Adrien Frantz, Julien Gasparini
Trace metals are chemical pollutants that have well-known noxious effects on wildlife and that are current major environmental issues in urban habitats. Previous studies have demonstrated their negative (e.g. lead) or positive (e.g. zinc) effects on body condition, immunity and reproductive success. Because of their effects on condition, trace metals are likely to influence the production of condition-dependent ornaments. The last decade has revealed that bird odors, like mammal odors, can convey information on individual quality and might be used as secondary sexual ornaments...
November 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Signe Lemcke, Johnna Holding, Eva Friis Møller, Jakob Thyrring, Kim Gustavson, Thomas Juul-Pedersen, Mikael K Sejr
Arctic shipping and oil exploration are expected to increase, as sea ice extent is reduced. This enhances the risk for accidental oil spills throughout the Arctic, which emphasises the need to quantify potential consequences to the marine ecosystem and to evaluate risk and choose appropriate remediation methods. This study investigated the sensitivity of Arctic marine plankton to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of heavy fuel oil. Arctic marine phytoplankton and copepods (Calanus finmarchicus) were exposed to three WAF concentrations corresponding to total hydrocarbon contents of 0...
November 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ying Wang, Mei Zhang, Lifang Zhao, Wei Zhang, Ting Zhao, Jingxuan Chu, Yanhao Qiu, Hangyuan Gong, Ruijin Li
TetrabromobisphenolA (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant, and it has the characteristics of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), attracting considerable attention. Many studies mainly focus on TBBPA toxicological effects in aquatic animals and rodents, but the ecotoxicology data of TBBPA on plant-soil system are limited so far. In this study, we assessed the impacts of TBBPA on maize (Zea mays L.) physiological indexes, soil enzyme activity, and soil microbial biomass at different concentrations of TBBPA (0, 0...
November 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Oluwatosin G Oladipo, Adam F Burt, Mark S Maboeta
Soil microorganisms exhibit varying levels of metal tolerance across a diverse range of environmental conditions. The use of metal-based fungicides such as mancozeb and copper oxychloride could potentially result in increased levels of manganese, zinc and copper which may adversely affect soil mesofauna. Under standardized earthworm bioassay conditions (temperature, pH, soil type and water content), we investigated the effect of Bacillus cereus on mancozeb and copper oxychloride ecotoxicity towards Eisenia andrei...
November 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ana Laura Navas Romero, Mario Andrés Herrera Moratta, María Rosa Rodríguez, Lorena Beatriz Quiroga, Marcelo Echegaray, Eduardo Alfredo Sanabria
We evaluated the toxicity of the winery effluent and the efficiency of a symbiotic depuration system by means an experiment with Rhinella arenarum tadpoles. The studied effluent was taken from warehouses during the cleaning season. These effluents subsequently subjected to the purification treatment under evaluation. The effluent samples differentiated into two treatment levels: "raw" where the effluent was evaluated with field conditions and "treated" where the effluent was previously filtered with the symbiotic depuration system...
November 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology
E Silva, C Martins, A S Pereira, S Loureiro, M J Cerejeira
Acknowledgements This work was supported by LEAF (UID/AGR/04129/2013) and CESAM (UID/AMB/50017/2013) from FCT/MEC through national funds, and the cofunding by FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete2020.
October 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
André Sangineto Resendes, Diego Sales Dos Santos, Fernanda Menezes França, Maria Letizia Petesse, Cintia Badaró-Pedroso, Cláudia Maris Ferreira
Formalin is a readily soluble chemical used as a sanitizing agent in the home and hospital. Formaldehyde solutions are routinely used in aquaculture for the prophylaxis and treatment of parasites and fungi, but the adverse effects of their application need to be further investigated. Danio rerio or zebrafish has characteristics favorable to its handling and breeding, and it is highly sensitive to various chemicals, being an ideal experimental model for this type of investigation. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the toxic and genotoxic effects of formalin and to determine the lethal concentrations of this chemical to support its safe use in disinfection processes...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Susmita Das, Barsha Majumder, Asok K Biswas
Arsenic is a carcinogenic metalloid, exists in two important oxidation states-arsenate (As-V) and arsenite (As-III). The influence of arsenate with or without silicate on the growth and thiol metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. MTU-1010) seedlings were investigated. Arsenate was more toxic for root growth than shoot growth where the root lengths were short, characteristically fragile and root tips turned brown. The multiple comparison analysis using Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) tests indicated that the rate of arsenate accumulation and its conversion to arsenite by arsenate reductase were significantly increased in all arsenate treated seedlings while in seedlings treated jointly with arsenate and silicate, arsenate accumulation and its conversion to arsenite decreased...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Roseline Xalxo, S Keshavkant
Understanding ill effects of simultaneous existence of various abiotic stresses, commonly observed due to various anthropogenic activities and global climate change these days, over plants growth, metabolic activity and yield responses are important for continued agricultural productivity and food security. In the present study, seedlings of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) were subjected to lead (Pb, 1200 ppm) and/or simulated acid rain (SAR, pH 3.5) for 30 days, and were then analysed. The results revealed reduced growth, and total lipid and DNA contents, while enhanced Pb accumulation, biological concentration factor, biological accumulation coefficient, translocation factor, lipase activity, and levels of free fatty acid, conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, DNA oxidation and DNase activity under Pb and/or SAR exposure...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Marco José Chaprão, Rita de Cássia F Soares da Silva, Raquel D Rufino, Juliana M Luna, Valdemir A Santos, Leonie A Sarubbo
The aim of the present study was to produce a microbial biosurfactant for use in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with petroleum products. Bacillus methylotrophicus was isolated from seawater taken from a port area and cultivated using industrial waste as substrate (corn steep liquor and sugarcane molasses [both at 3%]). Surface tension measurements and motor oil emulsification capacity were used for the evaluation of the production of the biosurfactant, which demonstrated stability in a broad range of pH and temperature as well as a high concentration of saline, with the reduction of the surface tension of water to 29 mN/m...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
E D Bempelou, J G Vontas, K S Liapis, V N Ziogas
The possible involvement of the epiphytic yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodotorula rubra in the biodegradation of the insecticide chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), in pure cultures and in plant surfaces (tomato fruits) was investigated. Higher biodegradation rates were observed as the concentration of chlorpyrifos and the inoculum of the microorganisms were increased, while the yeasts proved to be more active at 25 and 15 °C. The presence of glucose in the mineral nutrient medium, as an extra source of carbon, delayed the biodegradation by Rhodotorula glutinis, while Rhodotorula rubra proved to be more active...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Kate L Buckman, Oksana Lane, Jože Kotnik, Arne Bratkic, Francesca Sprovieri, Milena Horvat, Nicola Pirrone, David C Evers, Celia Y Chen
Studies of mercury (Hg) in the Mediterranean Sea have focused on pollution sources, air-sea mercury exchange, abiotic mercury cycling, and seafood. Much less is known about methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the lower food web. Zooplankton and small fish were sampled from the neuston layer at both coastal and open sea stations in the Mediterranean Sea during three cruise campaigns undertaken in the fall of 2011 and the summers of 2012 and 2013. Zooplankton and small fish were sorted by morphospecies, and the most abundant taxa (e...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Takahiro Yamagishi, Shigeshi Fuchida, Masakazu Katsumata, Yoshifumi Horie, Fumi Mori, Akiko Kitayama, Masanobu Kawachi, Hiroshi Koshikawa, Tatsuo Nozaki, Hidenori Kumagai, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Norihisa Tatarazako
The commercial use of metals such as copper, lead, and zinc has markedly increased in recent years, resulting in increased interest in deep-sea mining of seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits. However, the full extent of the impact of deep-sea mining at hydrothermal field deposits on the environment remains unclear. In addition to impacting the deep sea, the leaching of heavy metals from extracted sulfide mineral may also affect the upper ocean zones as the sulfide rock is retrieved from the seafloor. Here, we used a delayed fluorescence-based bioassay using the marine cyanobacterium Cyanobium sp...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Milena Rusin, Janina Gospodarek, Gabriela Barczyk, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha
Winter common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were cultivated on petroleum products contaminated soils with and without using biopreparation ZB-01. We determined the impact of soil contamination with petrol, diesel fuel and engine oil on selected antioxidant enzymes and the levels of antioxidants in the leaves of winter wheat. The impact of petroleum products on selected morphological characteristics of the plants, levels of nutrients and heavy metals was also assessed. Winter wheat was relatively resistant to soil contamination with petroleum products, and did not show a significant impact on the morphological characteristics of the plants...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Marcia Eugenia Amaral Carvalho, Fernando Angelo Piotto, Mônica Regina Franco, Karina Lima Reis Borges, Salete Aparecida Gaziola, Paulo Roberto Camargo Castro, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is frequently coupled to its accumulation in plants, but not always the highest Cd concentration triggers the worst damages, indicating that additional events influence the magnitude of Cd side-effects. We investigated the early mechanisms behind the differential Cd-induced impacts on plant development of four tomato accessions with contrasting tolerance to Cd toxicity. At organ level, the highest Cd concentration was not associated with the largest biomass losses. In leaves, changes in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were not related to differences in Cd concentration, which was unable to provoke H2 O2 overproduction on the sixth day of plant exposure to this metal...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nicolás Vidal, Marcelo Loureiro, Andrea Cecilia Hued, Gabriela Eguren, Franco Teixeira de Mello
Aquatic organisms are exposed to a myriad of chemical compounds, with particular concerns focused on endocrine disruptors. Growing scientific evidence indicates that these compounds interfere with normal endocrine function and could affect the reproductive system of humans and wildlife. We analyzed the proportion of masculinized females, defined by elongation and fusion of the anal fin rays, and the extent of masculinization, masculinization index, defined by anal fin length divided by the standard length, of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus resident to areas of agricultural and urban-industrial activities in the Arroyo Colorado basin...
December 2018: Ecotoxicology
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