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Bernard Clément, Dominique Lamonica
In the frame of a project which consists in modeling a laboratory microcosm under cadmium pressure, we initiated this study on the fate and effects of cadmium in the presence of either the microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata or the duckweed Lemna minor, two organisms of the microcosm. For each organism, growth inhibition tests on a duration of 2-3 weeks were carried out with the objective of linking effects with total dissolved, ionic and internalized forms of cadmium. Numbers of organisms (algal cells or duckweed fronds) in 2-L beakers filled with synthetic nutritive medium containing EDTA were counted during the course of assays, while cadmium concentrations in the water and in the organisms were measured...
November 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Unai Vicario-Parés, Jose M Lacave, Paul Reip, Miren P Cajaraville, Amaia Orbea
Due to their antimicrobial, electrical and magnetic properties, copper nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable for a vast array of applications. Copper can be toxic to biota, making it necessary to assess the potential hazard of copper nanomaterials. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 10 µg Cu/L of CuO NPs of ≈100 nm (CuO-poly) or ionic copper to compare the effects provoked after 3 and 21 days of exposure and at 6 months post-exposure (mpe). At 21 days, significant copper accumulation was only detected in fish exposed to ionic copper...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Fred Heimbach, Zhenglei Gao, Wolfgang Blenau, Hans-Toni Ratte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Garry Codling, Yahya Al Naggar, John P Giesy, Albert J Robertson
Honeybee losses have been attributed to multiple stressors and factors including the neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs). Much of the study of hive contamination has been focused upon temperate regions such as Europe, Canada and the United States. This study looks for the first time at honey, pollen and bees collected from across the Nile Delta in Egypt in both the spring and summer planting season of 2013. There is limited information upon the frequency of use of NIs in Egypt but the ratio of positive identification and concentrations of NIs are comparable to other regions...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Mariana Coletty Artal, Amanda Dos Santos, Theodore Burdick Henry, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro
There is a lack of suitable tropical marine species for ecotoxicity tests. An attractive model organism for ecotoxicology is the marine amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis, which is already a model for genetic and developmental studies. This species is widespread, can tolerate changes in salinity, is easy to handle and is representative of circumtropical regions. The aim of this work was to describe standardized procedures for laboratory husbandry, define conditions for acute toxicity tests, and to provide acute toxicity test results for some reference toxicants...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
R A Bailey, J J D Greenwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Gamal A M Abdu-Allah, Barry R Pittendrigh
Selective insecticide application is one important strategy for more precisely targeting harmful insects while avoiding or mitigating collateral damage to beneficial insects like honey bees. Recently, macrocyclic lactone-class insecticides have been introduced into the market place as selective bio-insecticides for controlling many arthropod pests, but how to target this selectivity only to harmful insects has yet to be achieved. In this study, the authors investigated the acute toxicity of fourmacrocyclic lactone insecticides (commercialized as abamectin, emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, and spinosad) both topically and through feeding studies with adult forager honey bees...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Richard J Maunder, Matthew G Baron, Stewart F Owen, Awadhesh N Jha
The primary culture of fish gill cells can provide functional, cell diverse, model in vitro platforms able to tolerate an aqueous exposure analogous to in vivo tissues. The utility of such models could be extended to a variety of longer term exposure scenarios if a method could be established to extend culture viability when exposed to water for longer periods. Here we report findings of a series of experiments to establish increased longevity, as monitored by culture transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and concurrent histological developments...
November 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Mónica Moreno-Brush, Alejandro Portillo, Stefan Dominik Brändel, Ilse Storch, Marco Tschapka, Harald Biester
In the southeastern Peruvian Amazon, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is estimated to have released up to 300 tonnes of mercury (Hg) to the environment between 1995 and 2007 alone, and is claimed to be responsible for Hg concentrations above international thresholds for aquatic wildlife species. Here, we examined whether Hg concentrations in bat populations are potentially related to regional ASGM-Hg releases. We determined Hg concentrations in the fur of bats collected at three different distances from the major ASGM areas in Peru...
November 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Amie L Robison, Trevor Chapman, Joseph R Bidwell
The response of aquatic species to contaminants is often context dependent as illustrated by the influence that predation cues can have on the toxicity of some chemicals. We sought to gain additional insight into this interaction by examining how predation cues (alarm cue and fish kairomone) influence metabolic rate and the acute toxicity of sodium chloride and cadmium to fathead minnow larvae (Pimephales promelas) and sodium chloride to Daphnia pulex neonates. Consistent with a "flight or fight" response, the metabolic rate of fish larvae was elevated in the presence of alarm cue and growth of the minnows was also significantly reduced when exposed to alarm cue...
November 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Tianxue Yang, Qiang He, Chunguang He, Aixia Wang, Lianxi Sheng
Dredging has been practiced to remove sediment impacted by persistent contaminants, such as heavy metals. Of these metals, lead (Pb) is of particular concern due to its toxicity. Therefore, dredged sediment containing Pb requires further mitigation. One method for Pb mitigation is phytoremediation of dredged sediment. In this study, the partitioning of Pb in sediment during phytoremediation by willow (Salix integra) was assessed. The results showed that, in general, the bioavailable forms of Pb declined with increased application of the standard Hoagland nutrient solution, which appeared to enhance the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and residual inert fraction...
November 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Igor Medici de Mattos, Ademilson E E Soares, David R Tarpy
Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations have been experiencing notable mortality in Europe and North America. No single cause has been identified for these dramatic losses, but rather multiple interacting factors are likely responsible (such as pesticides, malnutrition, habitat loss, and pathogens). Paraquat is one of the most widely used non-selective herbicides, especially in developing countries. This herbicide is considered slightly toxic to honey bees, despite being reported as a highly effective inducer of oxidative stress in a wide range of living systems...
October 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology
M Kellner, T Porseryd, I Porsch-Hällström, B Borg, C Roufidou, K H Olsén
Selective Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to long-lasting behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRIs which last into adulthood. In fish however, studies on effects of developmental exposure to SSRIs appears to be non-existent. In order to study effects of developmental SSRI exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1...
October 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Maria Augustyniak, Monika Tarnawska, Agnieszka Babczyńska, Alina Kafel, Agnieszka Zawisza-Raszka, Bogumiła Adamek, Anna Płachetka-Bożek
Long lasting exposure of animals to stressing factor may lead to the selection of population able to cope with the stressor at lower cost than unexposed individuals. The aim of this study was to assess whether 130-generational selection of a beet armyworm to cadmium in food might have induced tolerance also to other stressors. The potential tolerance was assessed by means of unspecific stress markers: HSP70 concentration, DNA damage level, and energy budget indices in L5 larval instars of beet armyworm. The animals originated from Cd-exposed and control strains exposed additionally in a short-term experiment to high/low temperature or pesticide-spinosad...
October 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Divya Singh, Arun Kumar
In the past decade, there has been an unprecedented growth in the application of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide. Even though the acute toxicity of CuO and ZnO NPs to plants has been investigated in past, the trans-generational effects of these NPs in the environment are still unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the treatment of radish plants with CuO and ZnO NPs as single compound and as a binary mixture (10, 100 and 1000 mg/Kg soil) through their lifecycle would affect the seed quality and the development of second-generation seedlings or not...
October 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Juan Wang, Yuande Peng, Huilin Yang, Zhenzhen Yan, Qinjin Li, Yixue Shi, Chunliang Xie, Yunshan Liang, Zhi Wang, Qisheng Song
In this research, we carried out a tritrophic bioassay to assess the potential effect of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on the foraging behavior of the common wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata and its underlying molecular mechanism. Results indicated the Bt-containing spiders expressed a higher foraging range when compared to controls. The high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing was further carried out for central nervous system (CNS) of P. pseudoannulata with and without Cry1Ab intake. We obtained 120, 985 unigenes with a mean length of 529...
October 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Thomas W Custer, Christine M Custer, Paul M Dummer, Emilie Bigorgne, Elias M Oziolor, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Sandra Schultz, Richard A Erickson, Kevin Aagaard, Cole W Matson
Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis...
October 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Shengyong Wu, Liangde Tang, Xingrui Zhang, Zhenlong Xing, Zhongren Lei, Yulin Gao
The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is an invasive polyphagous pest with an expanding global range that damages a wide variety of crops. F. occidentalis was first reported in China from Yunnan province during 2000, and has rapidly expanded its range since then. It is currently distributed across at least 10 provinces in China and has become a particularly devastating pest, causing substantial damage and economic losses. At present, the still heavy reliance on frequent use of insecticides for control of F...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Lilian Marchand, Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Isabelle Lamy, Michel Mench, Celine Pelosi
Biochars are used as amendments to improve soil quality, but their effects on edaphic organisms such as earthworms remain controversial. This study aimed to assess the effects of adding a poultry manure-derived biochar into a contaminated technosol on trace element (TE) (i.e. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) bioavailability for two earthworm species, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa. Three components of the bioavailability concept were determined using a pot experiment: (1) total soil TE (potentially reactive) and TE concentrations in the soil pore water (environmental availability), (2) TE concentrations in depurated whole earthworm bodies (environmental bioavailability) and (3) ecophysiological and biochemical effects on earthworms (toxicological bioavailability)...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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