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Łukasz Wejnerowski, Piotr Rzymski, Mikołaj Kokociński, Jussi Meriluoto
Winter cyanobacterial blooms have become increasingly common in eutrophic lakes advocating a need for their monitoring and risk assessment. The present study evaluated the toxicity of a winter cyanobacterial bloom in a eutrophicated freshwater lake located in Western Poland. The bloom was dominated by potentially toxic species: Planktothrix agardhii, Limnothrix redekei, and Aphanizomenon gracile. The toxin analysis revealed the presence of demethylated forms of microcystin-RR and microcystin-LR in ranges of 24...
June 22, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Chedliya Ghemari, Anas Ayari, Nabil Hamdi, Christophe Waterlot, Francis Douay, Karima Nasri-Ammar
This study aimed to observe the type of asymmetry exhibited by Porcellio laevis sampled from 15 sites belonging to Tunisian industrialized areas. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, organic matter and CaCO3 contents were measured in soils. Moreover, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations were determined in both soils and woodlice. Additionally, 10 metrical traits were measured to evaluate the type of asymmetry on individuals: the basis, the second and the third articles of the antenna, the first article of the flagellum of the antenna and the merus, the carpus, and the propodus of the sixth and the seventh pereopods...
June 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Daniel Alberto Pérez-Aguilar, Marianne Araújo Soares, Luis Clepf Passos, Ana Mabel Martínez, Samuel Pineda, Geraldo Andrade Carvalho
The mirid Engytatus varians (Distant) is a promising biological control agent of the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), one of the most destructive pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The effects of five insecticides commonly used on tomato crops in Brazil were evaluated on E. varians in laboratory and semifield conditions. Glass Petri dish with residues of chlorfenapyr, thiamethoxam, and abamectin caused ˃90% mortality in both stages of the predator 72 h post-treatment, except imidacloprid that caused 78% of nymphs mortality...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
S M Esteves, S F P Almeida, S Gonçalves, F Rimet, A Bouchez, E Figueira
Organic contaminants, and herbicides in particular, represent a risk for aquatic ecosystems. The primary target of herbicides are producers, the base of food webs, but frequently they end up far from the application point affecting non-target species. Its presence can work as sub-lethal stimulus, which sort the genetic and phenotypic differences within a species. Intraspecific variation allows adaptation to changes in the environment but also to new niches due to variations in species' sensitivity and biochemical response to a certain chemical...
June 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ana Santos Pereira, Maria Luísa Dâmaso-Rodrigues, Ana Amorim, Michiel A Daam, Maria José Cerejeira
Studies addressing the predicted effects of pesticides in combination with abiotic and biotic factors on aquatic biota in ditches associated with typical Mediterranean agroecosystems are scarce. The current study aimed to evaluate the predicted effects of pesticides along with environmental factors and biota interactions on macroinvertebrate, zooplankton and phytoplankton community compositions in ditches adjacent to Portuguese maize and tomato crop areas. Data was analysed with the variance partitioning procedure based on redundancy analysis (RDA)...
June 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ricardo Costa, Joana Luísa Pereira, Maria Ana Santos, Mário Pacheco, Sofia Guilherme
The responses of non-target organisms to pesticide exposure are still poorly explored in what concerns the development of adjustments favouring population success. Owing to the vital role of DNA integrity, it is important to identify genome-maintenance skills and their determinant factors. Thus, the major aims of the present study were: (i) to assess the genotoxicity of the penoxsulam-based herbicide (Viper® ) to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii; (ii) to understand the influence of gender and contamination history in the genotoxic responses following exposure to this herbicide; (iii) to investigate the damage mechanisms involved in putative adjustments shown by P...
June 4, 2018: Ecotoxicology
H M Ashbaugh, W C Conway, D A Haukos, D P Collins, C E Comer, A D French
Interior snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus) population declines and deteriorating conditions throughout the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma may be linked to environmental contaminants. Concentrations of V, As, Cd, Pb, and Se were quantified in breeding snowy plover blood, feathers (5th primary; P5), and potential prey (tiger beetles [Cicindela circumpicta and C. togata]). Se was (a) most commonly detected relative to other quantified elements and (b) frequently quantified at levels exceeding background or toxicity thresholds...
May 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Lauren Sohn, Renae J Brodie, Genevieve Couldwell, Eleanor Demmons, Joachim Sturve
Imidacloprid is the most widely used of the nicotinoid insecticides, the fastest growing class of pesticides on the global market. Although less toxic to mammals and birds compared to organophosphates, nicotinoids have the potential to impact non-target invertebrates, especially through sublehal effects on behavior, physiology, reproduction, and development. We investigated the impact of sublethal doses of imidacloprid on the defensive responses of rusty crayfish Orconectes rusticus exposed to 0, 1, 10, and 100 µg•L-1 of imidacloprid for 10 days (n = 7 crayfish per treatment)...
May 25, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Gilvani Carla Mallmann, José Paulo Sousa, Ingvar Sundh, Silvia Pieper, Maria Arena, Sonia Purin da Cruz, Osmar Klauberg-Filho
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are mutualistic symbionts considered a key group in soil systems involved in the provision of several ecosystem services. Recently they have been listed by EFSA as organisms to be included in the test battery for the risk assessment of plant protection product (PPPs). This study aimed to contribute to improve the ISO Protocol (ISO 10832: 2009) by assessing the feasibility of using other AMF species under different test conditions. Overall, results showed that AMF species Gigaspora albida and Rhizophagus clarus (selected out of five AMF species) are suitable to be used in spore germination tests using the ISO protocol (14 days incubation with sand or artificial soil as substrate) to test PPPs...
May 25, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Sandra Kim Tiam, Isabelle Lavoie, Caroline Doose, Paul B Hamilton, Claude Fortin
The impact of cadmium on the diatom Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith 1856 was studied by examining the relation between valve deformities and response through biological processes and genetic expression. Cultures of N. palea were exposed to two Cd treatments (C1  = 2.4 ± 0.6 and C2  = 42.6 ± 4.2 µg Cd/L) along with a control (C0  = 0 µg Cd/L) for 28 days. Cadmium bioaccumulation, diatoms growth, photosynthetic efficiencies, valve deformities and genetic expression were investigated during the course of the experiment...
May 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Mohammad Muslim, M Shafiq Ansari, Fazil Hasan
Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important biological control agent of various species of order Lepidoptera and extensively used in biological control program worldwide. Present study evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on B. hebetor using demographic and population growth parameters. Doses of all the tested insecticides were within a maximum range of their recommended field dosages and adults were treated using residual glass vials method. For control experiments adults were treated with distilled water...
May 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
René Fernando Luna, Luziani Rezende Bestete, Jorge Braz Torres, Christian Sherley Araújo da Silva-Torres
Pyrethroid insecticides are widely recommended against various defoliating pest species, but usually lack efficacy against sucking pests such as aphids, which are preferred prey of lacewing larvae. Interaction of pyrethroids and lacewings are likely to occur in fields infested by both defoliating and sap-sucking pests and should provide a complementary control. Therefore, our study aimed to estimate dose-mortality curves and behavioral changes by Chrysoperla externa exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin. We tested the susceptibility of two populations from different locations and insecticide history exposure through topical application...
May 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Carlos Fernando Campos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
In International guidelines for standard ecotoxicological bioassays, Daphnia magna is the most applied microcrustacea for assessing toxicity of different pollutants. However, in research realized in tropical and subtropical areas, autochthonous species must be prioritized because they are adapted to the specificities of ecosystems. In this sense, the present study aimed to assess and compare (with D. magna) the sensitivity of the tropical species Dendrocephalus brasiliensis as alternative test species for monitoring of contaminants in tropical and subtropical freshwaters, by carrying out acute toxicity tests with different pollutants...
May 23, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Hongshan Chen, Lianxi Sheng, Zhiyuan Gong, Shaoguo Ru, Hongfeng Bian
Naphthalene has been used worldwide as a commercial insecticide for decades, which when detected in the environment can have various negative effects on non-target organism, such as hepatotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of how naphthalene acts to affect the liver in zebrafish (Danio rerio) remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the potential toxic effects of naphthalene on livers in female adult zebrafish over a 21-day subacute exposure. Global hepatic gene expression was examined by microarrays and the results indicated the regulated genes were associated significantly with vital hepatic injury pathways and GO categories upon naphthalene exposure, such as disruptions in lipid metabolism, inflammatory response, and the carcinogenic processes...
May 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nathan Mills, Darcy Cashatt, Michael J Weber, Clay L Pierce
Mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems is a concern due to health risks of consuming fish. Fish mercury concentrations are highly variable and influenced by a range of environmental factors. However, seasonal variation in mercury levels are typically overlooked when monitoring fish mercury concentrations, establishing consumption advisories, or creating accumulation models. Temporal variation in sampling could bias mercury concentration estimates of accumulation potential. Thus, the objectives of this study were to first evaluate seasonal variation of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) axial muscle mercury concentration from two Iowa, USA impoundments...
May 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Viviana López Aca, Patricia Verónica Gonzalez, Pedro Carriquiriborde
Need for ecotoxicological information on local species has been recently highlighted as a priority issue in Latin America. In addition, little information has been found on concentration distances between lethal and sublethal effects, and the effect of mixtures at these two levels of analysis. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide broadly used in soybean crops which has dramatically expanded in Latin America and other regions of the world. The aim of the present study was to evaluate lethal and sublethal effects of CPF, singly or in mixtures, on the inland "Pejerrey" (Odontesthes bonariensis) under laboratory conditions...
May 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Libânia Queirós, Tânia Vidal, António J A Nogueira, Fernando J M Gonçalves, Joana Luísa Pereira
Formulants used in Plant Protection Products (PPPs) to promote their efficiency are normally undisclosed in the PPP documentation, unless they bear a human health or environmental hazardous potential per se. PPP regulation also demands the assessment of putative interactions among formulants within each product recipe and consequent effects, but these results are often unavailable. Such a case is that of the herbicide Winner Top (Selectis®, Portugal), which we selected as a model commercial formulation in the present study specifically aiming at (i) characterising its aquatic toxicity towards sensitive eco-receptors (Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris, Lemna minor and Lemna gibba), as well as that of its active substances (a...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Reinhold Siede, Marina D Meixner, Maria T Almanza, Ralf Schöning, Christian Maus, Ralph Büchler
Clothianidin is a commonly used systemic insecticide in seed treatments. Residues of clothianidin can occur in nectar and pollen as a result of within-plant-translocation. Foraging bees can collect contaminated nectar or pollen. Concerns have been brought forward that exposure to pesticide residues might affect colonies especially if they are weakened by varroosis. However, there are few scientific studies investigating such multiple-stressor scenarios in the context of the entire colony. To close this gapa field trial with 24 colonies was set up...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Andreas Focks, Dick Belgers, Marie-Claire Boerwinkel, Laura Buijse, Ivo Roessink, Paul J Van den Brink
Exposure patterns in ecotoxicological experiments often do not match the exposure profiles for which a risk assessment needs to be performed. This limitation can be overcome by using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the prediction of effects under time-variable exposure. For the use of TKTD models in the environmental risk assessment of chemicals, it is required to calibrate and validate the model for specific compound-species combinations. In this study, the survival of macroinvertebrates after exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide was modelled using TKTD models from the General Unified Threshold models of Survival (GUTS) framework...
May 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Sabine Navis, Aline Waterkeyn, Luc De Meester, Luc Brendonck
Recent studies have demonstrated that insect growth regulating insecticides are able to affect reproductive endpoints in zooplankton species at very low levels. For the cyclic parthenogenetic water flea Daphnia, most of this research has focused on the asexual part of the life cycle and induction of male offspring. Even though Daphnia and many other aquatic invertebrates rely on sexual reproduction and subsequent production of dormant eggs to recover from environmentally harsh conditions, much less is known about the effects of toxicants on the sexual reproductive phase...
April 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology
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