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Kate L Buckman, Oksana Lane, Jože Kotnik, Arne Bratkic, Francesca Sprovieri, Milena Horvat, Nicola Pirrone, David C Evers, Celia Y Chen
Studies of mercury (Hg) in the Mediterranean Sea have focused on pollution sources, air-sea mercury exchange, abiotic mercury cycling, and seafood. Much less is known about methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the lower food web. Zooplankton and small fish were sampled from the neuston layer at both coastal and open sea stations in the Mediterranean Sea during three cruise campaigns undertaken in the fall of 2011 and the summers of 2012 and 2013. Zooplankton and small fish were sorted by morphospecies, and the most abundant taxa (e...
October 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Takahiro Yamagishi, Shigeshi Fuchida, Masakazu Katsumata, Yoshifumi Horie, Fumi Mori, Akiko Kitayama, Masanobu Kawachi, Hiroshi Koshikawa, Tatsuo Nozaki, Hidenori Kumagai, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Norihisa Tatarazako
The commercial use of metals such as copper, lead, and zinc has markedly increased in recent years, resulting in increased interest in deep-sea mining of seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits. However, the full extent of the impact of deep-sea mining at hydrothermal field deposits on the environment remains unclear. In addition to impacting the deep sea, the leaching of heavy metals from extracted sulfide mineral may also affect the upper ocean zones as the sulfide rock is retrieved from the seafloor. Here, we used a delayed fluorescence-based bioassay using the marine cyanobacterium Cyanobium sp...
October 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Milena Rusin, Janina Gospodarek, Gabriela Barczyk, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha
Winter common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were cultivated on petroleum products contaminated soils with and without using biopreparation ZB-01. We determined the impact of soil contamination with petrol, diesel fuel and engine oil on selected antioxidant enzymes and the levels of antioxidants in the leaves of winter wheat. The impact of petroleum products on selected morphological characteristics of the plants, levels of nutrients and heavy metals was also assessed. Winter wheat was relatively resistant to soil contamination with petroleum products, and did not show a significant impact on the morphological characteristics of the plants...
October 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Marcia Eugenia Amaral Carvalho, Fernando Angelo Piotto, Mônica Regina Franco, Karina Lima Reis Borges, Salete Aparecida Gaziola, Paulo Roberto Camargo Castro, Ricardo Antunes Azevedo
Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is frequently coupled to its accumulation in plants, but not always the highest Cd concentration triggers the worst damages, indicating that additional events influence the magnitude of Cd side-effects. We investigated the early mechanisms behind the differential Cd-induced impacts on plant development of four tomato accessions with contrasting tolerance to Cd toxicity. At organ level, the highest Cd concentration was not associated with the largest biomass losses. In leaves, changes in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were not related to differences in Cd concentration, which was unable to provoke H2 O2 overproduction on the sixth day of plant exposure to this metal...
September 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nicolás Vidal, Marcelo Loureiro, Andrea Cecilia Hued, Gabriela Eguren, Franco Teixeira de Mello
Aquatic organisms are exposed to a myriad of chemical compounds, with particular concerns focused on endocrine disruptors. Growing scientific evidence indicates that these compounds interfere with normal endocrine function and could affect the reproductive system of humans and wildlife. We analyzed the proportion of masculinized females, defined by elongation and fusion of the anal fin rays, and the extent of masculinization, masculinization index, defined by anal fin length divided by the standard length, of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus resident to areas of agricultural and urban-industrial activities in the Arroyo Colorado basin...
September 22, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Yanhong Lou, Rui Guan, Mingjie Sun, Fei Han, Wei He, Hui Wang, Fupeng Song, Xiumin Cui, Yuping Zhuge
We investigated whether spermidine (Spd) application alleviates salinity-induced damage in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L), and explored defence mechanisms associated with stress-related ion balance, antioxidant metabolism, and gene expression. We examined the response of 30-day-old alfalfa maintained in hydroponic culture tests for 7 days and subjected to one of six treatments: half-strength Hoagland solution (control); 1% NaCl; 10 μM Spd + 1% NaCl; 20 μM Spd + 1% NaCl; 40 μM Spd + 1% NaCl; and 60 μM Spd + 1% NaCl...
September 22, 2018: Ecotoxicology
M H Hemmat-Jou, A A Safari-Sinegani, A Mirzaie-Asl, A Tahmourespour
Soil pollution occurring at mining sites has adverse impacts on soil microbial diversity. New approaches, such as metagenomics approach, have become a powerful tool to investigate biodiversity of soil microbial communities. In the current study, metagenomics approach was used to investigate the microbial diversity of soils contaminated with different concentrations of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The contaminated soils were collected from a Pb and Zn mine. The soil total DNA was extracted and 16S rDNA genes were amplified using universal primers...
September 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Abdul Ghaffar, Riaz Hussain, Ghulam Abbas, Mujahid Kalim, Ahrar Khan, Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Zulfiqar Ahmed
This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of fipronil on common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The trial was performed in laboratory of Department of Life Sciences at the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Total of 72 fishes, with apparently no clinical signs were purchased from local fish hatchery near Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. After 2 weeks of acclimatization fish were divided into six groups in glass aquaria (each having 100 liters of water capacity) and treated with different concentrations of fipronil for 12 days: 0 mg/L-control group (A),0...
September 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Paulo Antas, Mariana Carneiro, Bruno Reis, Raquel Castelo-Branco, Joana Azevedo, Ralph Urbatzka, Alexandre Campos, Vítor Vasconcelos, José Carlos Martins
Previous studies have demonstrated the modulation of glutathione transferases (GSTs) induced by microcystin (MC) alone or in combination with other cyanobacterial secondary metabolites in bivalves. However, interspecies information about which and how GST isoforms are affected by these secondary metabolites is still scarce, especially considering the dynamic process involving their uptake and elimination routes. In this context, the role of GSTs gene expression changes in response to a toxic Microcystis aeruginosa extract were examined for Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum during exposure and recovery phases...
September 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Marco Picone, Martina Bergamin, Eugenia Delaney, Annamaria Volpi Ghirardini
A whole-sediment test with the infaunal amphipod Monocorophium insidiosum has been developed to assess the long-term effects exerted by sediment contamination on survival, growth rates and attainment of sexual maturity. Juvenile amphipods were exposed for 28 days to a control sediment (native sediment) and three sediment samples collected in sites of the Venice Lagoon, characterized by contamination levels ranging from low to moderate, and absence of acute toxicity toward amphipods. Growth rate was estimated as daily length (μm d-1 ) and weight increments (μg d-1 )...
September 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Stefanie von Fumetti, Katharina Blaurock
Pesticides can easily reach surface waters via runoff and their potential to have detrimental impacts on freshwater organisms is high. Not much is known about how macroinvertebrates react to glyphosate contamination. In this study we investigated lethal and sublethal effects of the exposure of Gammarus fossarum to Roundup®, a glyphosate-based herbicide. The LC10 and LC50 values after 96 h were determined to be 0.65 ml/L Roundup® (230 mg/L glyphosate) and 0.96 ml/L Roundup® (340 mg/L glyphosate), respectively...
September 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
James D Sappington
Much research has focused on the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bees, however, relatively few studies have investigated their effects on ants, a taxonomically-related eusocial insect of high ecological importance. This study quantified how dietary exposures to environmentally-relevant levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (imidacloprid) affected foraging and nest building of the western harvester ant over 14 days. Using a replicated design, statistically-significant reductions in ant foraging success (50% or greater) occurred at concentrations as low as 50 ppb compared to controls...
September 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Cyntia Ayumi Yokota Harayashiki, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Paul Butcher, Kirsten Benkendorff
There is a lack of information regarding the effects on biochemical markers in invertebrates diet-exposed to inorganic mercury. In the present study, juvenile black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) were fed with food dosed with mercuric chloride (low: 0.2 mg kg-1 ; medium: 0.77 mg kg-1 ; high: 1.41 mg kg-1 ; higher: 2.52 mg kg-1 ) and control (0.03 mg kg-1 ) over 12 days. At the end of exposure periods, ventral nerve cord, compound eyes and muscle were dissected for biochemical marker analyses (acetylcholinesterase - AChE; lipoperoxidation - LPO; glutathione S-transferase - GST; catalase - CAT)...
September 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ben Pham, Ana Miranda, Graeme Allinson, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Carbamate (CB) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems and predominantly occur as mixtures of varying complexity. These pesticides inhibit the activity of total cholinesterase (ChE) and thus have the potential to interfere with behaviours that may be essential for the survival of aquatic species. Although the effects of individual ChE insecticides on aquatic species have been reported for decades, the neurotoxicity of mixtures is still poorly understood. This study examined the chronic toxicities of two OP insecticides (chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MAL)) and one carbamate insecticide (methomyl (METH)) in binary and ternary mixtures on the ChE activity of the yabby (C...
September 4, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Małgorzata Baćmaga, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Jan Kucharski
As one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, chlorothalonil can pose threat to soil ecosystems. Therefore, the impact of this substance on the development of microbiological and biochemical properties of the soil as well as on the growth of spring wheat was evaluated. The study was conducted with two soils (loamy sand with pHKCl 5.6 and sandy loam with pHKCl 7.00), to which fungicide was used in the following doses: 0.00, 0.166 (recommended dose), 1.660, and 16.60 mg kg-1 dry matter of soil (DM of soil)...
September 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Nico J Wolmarans, Louis H Du Preez, Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Mayumi Ishizuka, Nico J Smit, Victor Wepener
Organochlorine pesticides are highly persistent in aquatic ecosystems. Amphibians, specifically anurans, play an intricate part in the aquatic food web, and have very permeable skin which makes them prone to bioaccumulation of persistent pollutants. In this study the bioaccumulation of various legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), currently used for malaria vector control (MVC)-was assessed along with a set of biomarker responses in Müller's clawed frog Xenopus muelleri collected from the lower Phongolo River floodplain in South Africa...
September 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Chad L Seewagen
Mercury is a global pollutant that has been widely shown to adversely affect reproduction and other endpoints related to fitness and health in birds, but almost nothing is known about its effects on migration relative to other life cycle processes. Here I consider the physiological and histological effects that mercury is known to have on non-migrating birds and non-avian vertebrates to identify potential mechanisms by which mercury might hinder migration performance. I posit that the broad ability of mercury to inactivate enzymes and compromise the function of other proteins is a single mechanism by which mercury has strong potential to disrupt many of the physiological processes that make long-distance migration possible...
August 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Gabriel Carvalho Coppo, Larissa Souza Passos, Taciana Onesorge Miranda Lopes, Tatiana Miura Pereira, Julia Merçon, Dandara Silva Cabral, Bianca Vieira Barbosa, Lívia Sperandio Caetano, Edgar Hell Kampke, Adriana Regina Chippari-Gomes
Manganese and iron were found at high concentrations (3.61 mg/L and 19.8 mg/L, respectively) in the water of the Rio Doce after the dams of Fundão and Santarém broke in Mariana/MG (Brazil). These same metals were found in fish and crustacean muscle (15 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) in the specimens collected near the Rio Doce's outfall. Due to the variation in Mn concentration found in the lower Rio Doce, this study aimed to determine the effects of Mn in Oreochromis niloticus, at the concentrations allowed by CONAMA, and in concentrations found in the Rio Doce after the dams broke...
October 2018: Ecotoxicology
Efraín Tovar-Sánchez, Tatiana Cervantes-Ramírez, Javier Castañeda-Bautista, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Laura Ortiz-Hernández, Enrique Sánchez-Salinas, Patricia Mussali-Galante
Heavy metals present in mine tailings pollute agroecosystems, put the integrity of the environment at risk and become a major route of exposure to humans. The present study was carried out in Taxco, Guerrero, Mexico, where millions of tons of mine tailings have been deposited. Soils from this region are used for agricultural activities. Maize (Zea mays) was selected as a test plant, because it is one of the most common and important cereal crops in Mexico and worldwide. Thirteen metals were selected and their bioaccumulation in roots, leaves and fruits were measured in plants cultivated in soils contaminated with mine tailings and those cultivated in non-contaminated soils...
October 2018: Ecotoxicology
Wanxia Shi, Weiwei Wu, Xian-Chun Zeng, Xiaoming Chen, Xianbin Zhu, Shenggao Cheng
The paddy soils in some areas in Jianghan Plain were severely contaminated by arsenic. However, little is known about the activity and diversity of the dissimilatory arsenate-respiring prokaryotes (DARPs) in the paddy soils, and the effects of sulfate on the microbial mobilization and release of arsenic from soils into solution. To address this issue, we collected arsenic-rich soils from the depths of 1.6 and 4.6 m in a paddy region in the Xiantao city, Hubei Province, China. Microcosm assays indicated that all of the soils have significant arsenate-respiring activities using lactate, pyruvate or acetate as the sole electron donor...
October 2018: Ecotoxicology
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