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Advanced Materials

Jianwei Nai, Yan Lu, Le Yu, Xin Wang, Xiong Wen David Lou
Exploring effective electrocatalysts is a crucial requirement for boosting the efficiency of water splitting to obtain clean fuels. Here, a self-templating strategy is reported to synthesize Ni-Fe mixed diselenide cubic nanocages for the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The diselenide nanocages are derived from corresponding Prussian-blue analog nanocages, which are first obtained by treating the nanocube precursor with a site-selective ammonia etchant. The resulting Ni-Fe mixed diselenide nanocages perform as a superior OER electrocatalyst, which affords a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a small overpotential of 240 mV; a high current density, mass activity, and turnover frequency of 100 mA cm(-2) , 1000 A g(-1) , and 0...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ying Fu, Naixiang Wang, Anneng Yang, Helen Ka-Wai Law, Li Li, Feng Yan
The analysis of protein biomarkers is of great importance in the diagnosis of diseases. Although many convenient and low-cost electrochemical approaches have been extensively investigated, they are not sensitive enough in the detection of protein biomarkers with low concentrations in physiological environments. Here, this study reports a novel organic-electrochemical-transistor-based biosensor that can successfully detect cancer protein biomarkers with ultrahigh sensitivity. The devices are operated by detecting electrochemical activity on gate electrodes, which is dependent on the concentrations of proteins labeled with catalytic nanoprobes...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Man-Chung Wong, Li Chen, Gongxun Bai, Long-Biao Huang, Jianhua Hao
Light-emitting materials have been extensively investigated because of their widespread applications in solid-state lighting, displays, sensors, and bioimaging. In these applications, it is highly desirable to achieve tunable luminescence in terms of luminescent intensity and wavelength. Here, a convenient physical approach of temporal and remote tuning of light-emitting wavelength and color is demonstrated, which is greatly different from conventional methods. It is shown that by modulating the frequency of magnetic-field excitation at room temperature, luminescence from the flexible composites of ZnS:Al, Cu phosphors induced by the piezophotonic effect can be tuned in real time and in situ...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jianfeng Wang, Jinrong Wang, Zhuang Kong, Kuilin Lv, Chao Teng, Ying Zhu
To alleviate the current energy crisis and environmental pollution, sustainable and ecofriendly energy conversion and storage systems are urgently needed. Due to their high conductivity, promising catalytic activity, and excellent electrochemical properties, conducting polymers have been attracting intense attention for use in electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Here, the latest advances regarding the utilization of conducting polymers for fuel cells and supercapacitors are introduced. The strategies employed to improve the electrocatalytic and electrochemical performances of conducting-polymer-based materials are presented...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hyeokshin Kwon, Kiyoung Lee, Jinseong Heo, Youngtek Oh, Hyangsook Lee, Samudrala Appalakondaiah, Wonhee Ko, Hyo Won Kim, Jin-Wook Jung, Hwansoo Suh, Hongki Min, Insu Jeon, Euyheon Hwang, Sungwoo Hwang
Despite recent efforts for the development of transition-metal-dichalcogenide-based high-performance thin-film transistors, device performance has not improved much, mainly because of the high contact resistance at the interface between the 2D semiconductor and the metal electrode. Edge contact has been proposed for the fabrication of a high-quality electrical contact; however, the complete electronic properties for the contact resistance have not been elucidated in detail. Using the scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques, the edge contact, as well as the lateral boundary between the 2D semiconducting layer and the metalized interfacial layer, are investigated, and their electronic properties and the energy band profile across the boundary are shown...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ksenia S Makarenko, Zhihua Liu, Michel P de Jong, Floris A Zwanenburg, Jurriaan Huskens, Wilfred G van der Wiel
As the downscaling of conventional semiconductor electronics becomes more and more challenging, the interest in alternative material systems and fabrication methods is growing. A novel bottom-up approach for the fabrication of high-quality single-electron transistors (SETs) that can easily be contacted electrically in a controllable manner is developed. This approach employs the self-assembly of Au nanoparticles forming the SETs, and Au nanorods forming the leads to macroscopic electrodes, thus bridging the gap between the nano- and microscale...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jiayu Wan, Jianwei Song, Zhi Yang, Dylan Kirsch, Chao Jia, Rui Xu, Jiaqi Dai, Mingwei Zhu, Lisha Xu, Chaoji Chen, Yanbin Wang, Yilin Wang, Emily Hitz, Steven D Lacey, Yongfeng Li, Bao Yang, Liangbing Hu
Composite materials with ordered microstructures often lead to enhanced functionalities that a single material can hardly achieve. Many biomaterials with unusual microstructures can be found in nature; among them, many possess anisotropic and even directional physical and chemical properties. With inspiration from nature, artificial composite materials can be rationally designed to achieve this anisotropic behavior with desired properties. Here, a metallic wood with metal continuously filling the wood vessels is developed, which demonstrates excellent anisotropic electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hiroki Kinoshita, Il Jeon, Mina Maruyama, Kenji Kawahara, Yuri Terao, Dong Ding, Rika Matsumoto, Yutaka Matsuo, Susumu Okada, Hiroki Ago
Bilayer graphene (BLG) comprises a 2D nanospace sandwiched by two parallel graphene sheets that can be used to intercalate molecules or ions for attaining novel functionalities. However, intercalation is mostly demonstrated with small, exfoliated graphene flakes. This study demonstrates intercalation of molybdenum chloride (MoCl5 ) into a large-area, uniform BLG sheet, which is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This study reveals that the degree of MoCl5 intercalation strongly depends on the stacking order of the graphene; twist-stacked graphene shows a much higher degree of intercalation than AB-stacked...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jiayingzi Wu, Liyan You, Lu Lan, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Saadia T Chaudhry, Rui Li, Ji-Xin Cheng, Jianguo Mei
Thienoisoindigo-based semiconducting polymer with a strong near-infrared absorbance is synthesized and its water-dispersed nanoparticles (TSPNs) are investigated as a contrast agent for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window (1000-1350 nm). The TSPNs generate a strong PA signal in the NIR-II optical window, where background signals from endogenous contrast agents, including blood and lipid, are at the local minima. By embedding a TSPN-containing tube in chicken-breast tissue, an imaging depth of more than 5 cm at 1064 nm excitation is achieved with a contrast-agent concentration as low as 40 µg mL(-1) ...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Zhilong Zhang, Zihan Chen, Lin Yuan, Weijian Chen, Jianfeng Yang, Bo Wang, Xiaoming Wen, Jianbing Zhang, Long Hu, John A Stride, Gavin J Conibeer, Robert J Patterson, Shujuan Huang
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidate materials for photovoltaics (PV) owing to the tunable bandgap and low-cost solution processability. Lead selenide (PbSe) QDs are particularly attractive to PV applications due to the efficient multiple-exciton generation and carrier transportation. However, surface defects arising from the oxidation of the PbSe QDs have been the major limitation for their development in PV. Here, a new passivation method for chlorinated PbSe QDs via ion exchange with cesium lead halide (Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals is reported...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Kandula Hima Nagamanasa, Huan Wang, Steve Granick
Individual macromolecules of polystyrene sulfonate and poly(ethylene oxide) are visualized with nanometer resolution using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of aqueous solutions with and without added salt, trapped in liquid pockets between creased graphene sheets. Successful imaging with 0.3 s per frame is enabled by the sluggish mobility of the adsorbed molecules. This study finds, validating others, that an advantage of this graphene liquid-cell approach is apparently to retard sample degradation from incident electrons, in addition to minimizing background scattering because graphene windows are atomically thin...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ian E Jacobs, Adam J Moulé
The field of organic electronics thrives on the hope of enabling low-cost, solution-processed electronic devices with mechanical, optoelectronic, and chemical properties not available from inorganic semiconductors. A key to the success of these aspirations is the ability to controllably dope organic semiconductors with high spatial resolution. Here, recent progress in molecular doping of organic semiconductors is summarized, with an emphasis on solution-processed p-type doped polymeric semiconductors. Highlighted topics include how solution-processing techniques can control the distribution, diffusion, and density of dopants within the organic semiconductor, and, in turn, affect the electronic properties of the material...
September 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
Mahshid Ahmadi, Ting Wu, Bin Hu
The last eight years (2009-2017) have seen an explosive growth of interest in organic-inorganic halide perovskites in the research communities of photovoltaics and light-emitting diodes. In addition, recent advancements have demonstrated that this type of perovskite has a great potential in the technology of light-signal detection with a comparable performance to commercially available crystalline Si and III-V photodetectors. The contemporary growth of state-of-the-art multifunctional perovskites in the field of light-signal detection has benefited from its outstanding intrinsic optoelectronic properties, including photoinduced polarization, high drift mobilities, and effective charge collection, which are excellent for this application...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Andrew B Pun, Samuel N Sanders, Elango Kumarasamy, Matthew Y Sfeir, Daniel N Congreve, Luis M Campos
Singlet fission (SF), a promising mechanism of multiple exciton generation, has only recently been engineered as a fast, efficient, intramolecular process (iSF). The challenge now lies in designing and optimizing iSF materials that can be practically applied in high-performance optoelectronic devices. However, most of the reported iSF systems, such as those based on donor-acceptor polymers or pentacene, have low triplet energies, which limits their applications. Tetracene-based materials can overcome significant challenges, as the tetracene triplet state is practically useful, ≈1...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Zhili Wang, Shoucong Ning, Pan Liu, Yi Ding, Akihiko Hirata, Takeshi Fujita, Mingwei Chen
3D dealloyed nanoporous metals have emerged as a new class of catalysts for various chemical and electrochemical reactions. Similar to other heterogeneous catalysts, the surface atomic structure of the nanoporous metal catalysts plays a crucial role in catalytic activity and selectivity. Through surfactant-assisted bottom-up synthesis, the surface-structure modification has been successfully realized in low-dimensional particulate catalysts. However, the surface modification by top-down dealloying has not been well explored for nanoporous metal catalysts...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
C Shashank Kaira, V De Andrade, Sudhanshu S Singh, C Kantzos, Antony Kirubanandham, F De Carlo, Nikhilesh Chawla
Dispersions of nanoscale precipitates in metallic alloys have been known to play a key role in strengthening, by increasing their strain hardenability and providing resistance to deformation. Although these phenomena have been extensively investigated in the last century, the traditional approaches employed in the past have not rendered an authoritative microstructural understanding in such materials. The effect of the precipitates' inherent complex morphology and their 3D spatial distribution on evolution and deformation behavior have often been precluded...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Cunming Yu, Peipei Zhang, Jingming Wang, Lei Jiang
Gas bubbles in aqueous media are common and inevitable in, for example, agriculture and industrial processes. The behaviors of gas bubbles on solid interfaces, including generation, growth, coalescence, release, transport, and collection, are crucial to gas-bubble-related applications, which are always determined by gas-bubble wettability on solid interfaces. Here, the recent progress regarding the study of interfaces with gas-bubble superwettability in aqueous media, i.e., superaerophilicity and superaerophobicity, is summarized...
September 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
Kostas Kostarelos, Melissa Vincent, Clement Hebert, Jose A Garrido
Neural interfaces are becoming a powerful toolkit for clinical interventions requiring stimulation and/or recording of the electrical activity of the nervous system. Active implantable devices offer a promising approach for the treatment of various diseases affecting the central or peripheral nervous systems by electrically stimulating different neuronal structures. All currently used neural interface devices are designed to perform a single function: either record activity or electrically stimulate tissue...
September 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
Alessandro Aliprandi, Tiago Moreira, Cosimo Anichini, Marc-Antoine Stoeckel, Matilde Eredia, Ugo Sassi, Matteo Bruna, Carlos Pinheiro, César A T Laia, Sara Bonacchi, Paolo Samorì
This study reports a novel green chemistry approach to assemble copper-nanowires/reduced-graphene-oxide hybrid coatings onto inorganic and organic supports. Such films are robust and combine sheet resistances (<30 Ω sq(-1) ) and transparencies in the visible region (transmittance > 70%) that are rivalling those of indium-tin oxide. These electrodes are suitable for flexible electronic applications as they show a sheet resistance change of <4% after 10 000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 1.0 cm, when supported on polyethylene terephthalate foils...
September 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
Roberto Vadrucci, Angelo Monguzzi, Felipe Saenz, Bodo D Wilts, Yoan C Simon, Christoph Weder
Sensitized triplet-triplet-annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC) permits the conversion of light into radiation of higher energy and involves a sequence of photophysical processes between two dyes. In contrast to other upconversion schemes, TTA-UC allows the frequency shifting of low-intensity light, which makes it particularly suitable for solar-energy harvesting technologies. High upconversion yields can be observed for low viscosity solutions of dyes; but, in solid materials, which are better suited for integration in devices, the process is usually less efficient...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
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