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Advanced Materials

Jincheng Zhuang, Xun Xu, Germanas Peleckis, Weichang Hao, Shi Xue Dou, Yi Du
Silicene, a single-layer-thick silicon nanosheet with a honeycomb structure, is successfully fabricated by the molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) deposition method on metallic substrates and by the solid-state reaction method. Here, recent progress on the features of silicene that make it a prospective anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are discussed, including its charge-carrier mobility, chemical stability, and metal-silicene interactions. The electrochemical performance of silicene is reviewed in terms of both theoretical predictions and experimental measurements, and finally, its challenges and outlook are considered...
March 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
Li-Sen Lin, Xiangyu Yang, Zijian Zhou, Zhen Yang, Orit Jacobson, Yijing Liu, Angela Yang, Gang Niu, Jibin Song, Huang-Hao Yang, Xiaoyuan Chen
Magnetic-plasmonic hybrid nanoparticles (MPHNs) have attracted great interest in cancer theranostics. However, the relaxivity of the magnetic component is typically reduced by the plasmonic component in conventional core-shell structured MPHNs, due to the presence of a water-impenetrable coating which severely restricts the proximity of protons to the magnetic portion. To circumvent this issue, yolk-shell structured MPHNs comprising a Fe3 O4 core within a hollow cavity encircled by a porous Au outer shell are designed...
March 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ye Shi, Jun Zhang, Andrea M Bruck, Yiman Zhang, Jing Li, Eric A Stach, Kenneth J Takeuchi, Amy C Marschilok, Esther S Takeuchi, Guihua Yu
This study develops a tunable 3D nanostructured conductive gel framework as both binder and conductive framework for lithium ion batteries. A 3D nanostructured gel framework with continuous electron pathways can provide hierarchical pores for ion transport and form uniform coatings on each active particle against aggregation. The hybrid gel electrodes based on a polypyrrole gel framework and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles as a model system in this study demonstrate the best rate performance, the highest achieved mass ratio of active materials, and the highest achieved specific capacities when considering total electrode mass, compared to current literature...
March 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
Veronika Magdanz, Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Lukas Schwarz, Haifeng Xu, Jens Elgeti, Oliver G Schmidt
In recent years, the combination of synthetic micro- and nanomaterials with spermatozoa as functional components has led to the development of tubular and helical spermbots - microrobotic devices with potential applications in the biomedical and nanotechnological field. Here, the initial advances in this field are discussed and the use of spermatozoa as functional parts in microdevices elaborated. Besides the potential uses of these hybrid robotic microswimmers, the obstacles along the way are discussed, with suggestions for solutions of the encountered challenges also given...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Michael J Frazier, Dennis M Kochmann
A mechanical metamaterial, a simple, periodic mechanical structure, is reported, which reproduces the nonlinear dynamic behavior of materials undergoing phase transitions and domain switching at the structural level. Tunable multistability is exploited to produce switching and transition phenomena whose kinetics are governed by the same Allen-Cahn law commonly used to describe material-level, structural-transition processes. The reported purely elastic mechanical system displays several key features commonly found in atomic- or mesoscale physics of solids...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Georgiy Akopov, Michael T Yeung, Richard B Kaner
For decades, borides have been primarily studied as crystallographic oddities. With such a wide variety of structures (a quick survey of the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database counts 1253 entries for binary boron compounds!), it is surprising that the applications of borides have been quite limited despite a great deal of fundamental research. If anything, the rich crystal chemistry found in borides could well provide the right tool for almost any application. The interplay between metals and the boron results in even more varied material's properties, many of which can be tuned via chemistry...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ji-Hwan Kang, Sang Seok Lee, Josefa Guerrero, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Shin-Hyun Kim, Elsa Reichmanis
Triplet-fusion-based photon upconversion capsules with ultrathin double shells are developed through a single dripping instability in a microfluidic flow-focusing device. An inner separation layer allows use of a brominated hydrocarbon oil-based fluidic core, demonstrating significantly enhanced upconversion quantum yield. Furthermore, a perfluorinated photocurable monomer serves as a transparent shell phase with remote motion control through magnetic nanoparticle incorporation.
March 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Feng Liu, Zichun Zhou, Cheng Zhang, Jianyun Zhang, Qin Hu, Thomas Vergote, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Xiaozhang Zhu
Inspired by the remarkable promotion of power conversion efficiency (PCE), commercial applications of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) can be foreseen in near future. One of the most promising applications is semitransparent (ST) solar cells that can be utilized in value-added applications such as energy-harvesting windows. However, the single-junction STOPVs utilizing fullerene acceptors show relatively low PCEs of 4%-6% due to the limited sunlight absorption because it is a dilemma that more photons need to be harvested in UV-vis-near-infrared (NIR) region to generate high photocurrent, which leads to the significant reduction of device transparency...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Cheng Zhang, Nathaniel Kinsey, Long Chen, Chengang Ji, Mingjie Xu, Marcello Ferrera, Xiaoqing Pan, Vladimir M Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva, L Jay Guo
The field of nanophotonics has ushered in a new paradigm of light manipulation by enabling deep subdiffraction confinement assisted by metallic nanostructures. However, a key limitation which has stunted a full development of high-performance nanophotonic devices is the typical large losses associated with the constituent metals. Although silver has long been known as the highest quality plasmonic material for visible and near infrared applications, its usage has been limited due to practical issues of continuous thin film formation, stability, adhesion, and surface roughness...
March 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
G A Filonenko, J R Khusnutdinova
Dynamic phosphorescent copper complex incorporated into the main chain of polyurethanes produces a facile and reversible response to tensile stress. In contrast to common deformation sensors, the applied stress does not lead to bond scission, or alters the phosphor structure. The suppression of dynamics responsible for the nonradiative relaxation is found to be the major pathway governing stress response. As a result, the response of dynamic phosphor described in this work is stress specific. Compared to initial unloaded state, a nearly twofold increase of photoluminescence intensity occurs in response to a 5-35 MPa stress applied to pristine metalated polymers or their blends with various polyurethanes...
March 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
Zahid Ali Ghazi, Xiao He, Abdul Muqsit Khattak, Niaz Ali Khan, Bin Liang, Azhar Iqbal, Jinxin Wang, Haksong Sin, Lianshan Li, Zhiyong Tang
A high lithium conductive MoS2 /Celgard composite separator is reported as efficient polysulfides barrier in Li-S batteries. Significantly, thanks to the high density of lithium ions on MoS2 surface, this composite separator shows high lithium conductivity, fast lithium diffusion, and facile lithium transference. When used in Li-S batteries, the separator is proven to be highly efficient for depressing polysulfides shuttle, leading to high and long cycle stability. With 65% of sulfur loading, the device with MoS2 /Celgard separator delivers an initial capacity of 808 mAh g(-1) and a substantial capacity of 401 mAh g(-1) after 600 cycles, corresponding to only 0...
March 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
Naoto Nagaosa, Takahiro Morimoto
The concept of topology is becoming more and more relevant to the properties and functions of electronic materials including various transport phenomena and optical responses. A pedagogical introduction is given here to the basic ideas and their applications to optoelectronic processes in solids.
March 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jun You, Mingjie Li, Beibei Ding, Xiaochen Wu, Chaoxu Li
2D nanomaterials have various size/morphology-dependent properties applicable in electronics, optics, sensing, and actuating. However, intensively studied inorganic 2D nanomaterials are frequently hindered to apply in some particular and industrial fields, owing to harsh synthesis, high-cost, cytotoxicity, and nondegradability. Endeavor has been made to search for biobased 2D nanomaterials with biocompatibility, sustainability, and biodegradability. A method of hydrophobization-induced interfacial-assembly is reported to produce an unprecedented type of nanosheets from marine chitin...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Piran R Kidambi, Michael S H Boutilier, Luda Wang, Doojoon Jang, Jeehwan Kim, Rohit Karnik
Atomically thin single crystals, without grain boundaries and associated defect clusters, represent ideal systems to study and understand intrinsic defects in materials, but probing them collectively over large area remains nontrivial. In this study, the authors probe nanoscale mass transport across large-area (≈0.2 cm(2) ) single-crystalline graphene membranes. A novel, polymer-free picture frame assisted technique, coupled with a stress-inducing nickel layer is used to transfer single crystalline graphene grown on silicon carbide substrates to flexible polycarbonate track etched supports with well-defined cylindrical ≈200 nm pores...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yani Chen, Guy Royal, Emmanuel Flahaut, Saioa Cobo, Vincent Bouchiat, Laëtitia Marty, Nedjma Bendiab
Carbon nanotube-chromophore hybrids are promising building blocks in order to obtain a controlled electro-optical transduction effect at the single nano-object level. In this work, a strong spectral selectivity of the electronic and the phononic response of a chromophore-coated single nanotube transistor is observed for which standard photogating cannot account. This paper investigates how light irradiation strongly modifies the coupling between molecules and nanotube within the hybrid by means of combined Raman diffusion and electron transport measurements...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Tural Khudiyev, Chong Hou, Alexander M Stolyarov, Yoel Fink
The worldwide annual production volume of textiles is nearly one hundred million metric tons. Most of these undergo treatments to achieve specific properties, such as color, hydrophobicity, antimicrobial, or UV protection, using chemicals that lead to collateral environmental consequences. There is great interest in developing alternative and sustainable strategies to achieve textile functionality that do not involve chemical treatment. Here we present a thermal drawing approach to achieve fiber surface gratings on a rectangular cross-section...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Naoya Kanazawa, Shinichiro Seki, Yoshinori Tokura
The concept of a skyrmion, which was first introduced by Tony Skyrme in the field of particle physics, has become widespread in condensed matter physics to describe various topological orders. Skyrmions in magnetic materials have recently received particular attention; they represent vortex-like spin structures with the character of nanometric particles and produce fascinating physical properties rooted in their topological nature. Here, a series of noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets hosting skyrmions is reviewed: B20 metals, Cu2 OSeO3 , Co-Zn-Mn alloys, and GaV4 S8 , where Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction plays a key role in the stabilization of skyrmion spin texture...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Kyeong Tae Kang, Haeyong Kang, Jeongmin Park, Dongseok Suh, Woo Seok Choi
Quantum Hall conductance in monolayer graphene on an epitaxial SrTiO3 (STO) thin film is studied to understand the role of oxygen vacancies in determining the dielectric properties of STO. As the gate-voltage sweep range is gradually increased in the device, systematic generation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies, evidenced from the hysteretic conductance behavior in the graphene, are observed. Furthermore, based on the experimentally observed linear scaling relation between the effective capacitance and the voltage sweep range, a simple model is constructed to manifest the relationship among the dielectric properties of STO with oxygen vacancies...
March 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Erica Zeglio, Jens Eriksson, Roger Gabrielsson, Niclas Solin, Olle Inganäs
Hydrophobic, self-doped conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are introduced as highly stable active materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). The hydrophobicity of CPEs renders films very stable in aqueous solutions. The devices operate at gate voltages around zero and show no signs of degradation when operated for 10(4) cycles under ambient conditions. These properties make the produced OECTs ideal devices for applications in bioelectronics.
March 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jiaqiang Li, Ziqian Xie, Yan Xiong, Zhenzhu Li, Qunxing Huang, Shuqing Zhang, Jingyuan Zhou, Rong Liu, Xin Gao, Changguo Chen, Lianming Tong, Jin Zhang, Zhongfan Liu
β-Graphdiyne (β-GDY) is a member of 2D graphyne family with zero band gap, and is a promising material with potential applications in energy storage, organic electronics, etc. However, the synthesis of β-GDY has not been realized yet, and the measurement of its intrinsic properties remains elusive. In this work, β-GDY-containing thin film is successfully synthesized on copper foil using modified Glaser-Hay coupling reaction with tetraethynylethene as precursor. The as-grown carbon film has a smooth surface and is continuous and uniform...
March 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
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