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Advanced Materials

Alar Ainla, Mahiar M Hamedi, Firat Güder, George M Whitesides
This paper describes electrically-activated fluidic valves that operate based on electrowetting through textiles. The valves are fabricated from electrically conductive, insulated, hydrophobic textiles, but the concept can be extended to other porous materials. When the valve is closed, the liquid cannot pass through the hydrophobic textile. Upon application of a potential (in the range of 100-1000 V) between the textile and the liquid, the valve opens and the liquid penetrates the textile. These valves actuate in less than 1 s, require low energy (≈27 µJ per actuation), and work with a variety of aqueous solutions, including those with low surface tension and those containing bioanalytes...
August 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
Kaveh Delfanazari, Reuben K Puddy, Pengcheng Ma, Teng Yi, Moda Cao, Yilmaz Gul, Ian Farrer, David A Ritchie, Hannah J Joyce, Michael J Kelly, Charles G Smith
A superconducting hard gap in hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices has been found to be necessary to access topological superconductivity that hosts Majorana modes (non-Abelian excitation). This requires the formation of homogeneous and barrier-free interfaces between the superconductor and semiconductor. Here, a new platform is reported for topological superconductivity based on hybrid Nb-In0.75 Ga0.25 As-quantum-well-Nb that results in hard superconducting gap detection in symmetric, planar, and ballistic Josephson junctions...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Dae-Hyun Nam, Sungwoo Lee, Young-Joo Lee, Jun-Hyun Jo, Euijoon Yoon, Kyung-Woo Yi, Gun-Do Lee, Young-Chang Joo
Vapor phase carbon (C)-reduction-based syntheses of C nanotubes and graphene, which are highly functional solid C nanomaterials, have received extensive attention in the field of materials science. This study suggests a revolutionary method for precisely controlling the C structures by oxidizing solid C nanomaterials into gaseous products in the opposite manner of the conventional approach. This gaseous nanocarving enables the modulation of inherent metal assembly in metal/C hybrid nanomaterials because of the promoted C oxidation at the metal/C interface, which produces inner pores inside C nanomaterials...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Li Wei, H Enis Karahan, Shengli Zhai, Hongwei Liu, Xuncai Chen, Zheng Zhou, Yaojie Lei, Zongwen Liu, Yuan Chen
Metal oxides of earth-abundant elements are promising electrocatalysts to overcome the sluggish oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reaction (OER/ORR) in many electrochemical energy-conversion devices. However, it is difficult to control their catalytic activity precisely. Here, a general three-stage synthesis strategy is described to produce a family of hybrid materials comprising amorphous bimetallic oxide nanoparticles anchored on N-doped reduced graphene oxide with simultaneous control of nanoparticle elemental composition, size, and crystallinity...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Xiaowang Liu, Xiyan Li, Xian Qin, Xiaoji Xie, Ling Huang, Xiaogang Liu
Topological control of nanostructures plays a crucial role in understanding the crystal growth process at the nanometer length scale. Here, the scalable synthesis of upconversion materials with distinct hedgehog-like morphologies by a seed-mediated synthetic procedure is reported. It is demonstrated that a close match in the crystal lattice between the core and shell components is essential for synthesizing such hierarchical nanostructures. These optical nanomaterials also enable the development of a single-particle-based platform for high-sensitivity molecular sensing...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Zhepeng Zhang, Jingjing Niu, Pengfei Yang, Yue Gong, Qingqing Ji, Jianping Shi, Qiyi Fang, Shaolong Jiang, He Li, Xiebo Zhou, Lin Gu, Xiaosong Wu, Yanfeng Zhang
2D metallic transition-metal dichalcogenides (MTMDs) have recently emerged as a new class of materials for the engineering of novel electronic phases, 2D superconductors, magnets, as well as novel electronic applications. However, the mechanical exfoliation route is predominantly used to obtain such metallic 2D flakes, but the batch production remains challenging. Herein, the van der Waals epitaxial growth of monocrystalline, 1T-phase, few-layer metallic VSe2 nanosheets on an atomically flat mica substrate via a "one-step" chemical vapor deposition method is reported...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Chaochao Dun, Corey A Hewitt, Qi Li, Yang Guo, Qike Jiang, Junwei Xu, Gabriel Marcus, Drew C Schall, David L Carroll
Precise control of the selective growth of heterostructures with specific composition and functionalities is an emerging and extremely challenging topic. Here, the first investigation of the difference in binding energy between a series of metal-semiconductor heterostructures based on layered V2 -VI3 nanostructures is investigated by means of density functional theory. All lateral configurations show lower formation energy compared with that of the vertical ones, implying the selective growth of metal nanoparticles...
August 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ji Liu, Hao-Bin Zhang, Renhui Sun, Yafeng Liu, Zhangshuo Liu, Aiguo Zhou, Zhong-Zhen Yu
Ultrathin, lightweight, and flexible electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding materials are urgently required to manage increasingly serious radiation pollution. 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) are considered promising alternatives to graphene for providing excellent EMI-shielding performance due to their outstanding metallic electrical conductivity. However, the hydrophilicity of MXene films may affect their stability and reliability when applied in moist or wet environments. Herein, for the first time, an efficient and facile approach is reported to fabricate freestanding, flexible, and hydrophobic MXene foam with reasonable strength by assembling MXene sheets into films followed by a hydrazine-induced foaming process...
August 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hong Zhang, Ami Masuda, Ryosuke Kawakami, Kenji Yarinome, Riku Saito, Yu Nagase, Tomomi Nemoto, Yosuke Okamura
In the field of biological microscopy technology, it is still a practical challenge to obtain high-quality tissue images, due to the tissue desiccation that occurs during observations without an effective sample mounting. Inspired by the use of plastic food wrap, this study proposes the use of polymer thin films (also known as nanosheets) to fix the tissue samples. Water-repellent nanosheets composed of the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP are prepared with adjustable thicknesses and their hydrophobicity, transparency, and adhesion strength are evaluated...
August 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jinrong Wu, Li-Heng Cai, David A Weitz
Self-healing polymers crosslinked by solely reversible bonds are intrinsically weaker than common covalently crosslinked networks. Introducing covalent crosslinks into a reversible network would improve mechanical strength. It is challenging, however, to apply this concept to "dry" elastomers, largely because reversible crosslinks such as hydrogen bonds are often polar motifs, whereas covalent crosslinks are nonpolar motifs. These two types of bonds are intrinsically immiscible without cosolvents. Here, we design and fabricate a hybrid polymer network by crosslinking randomly branched polymers carrying motifs that can form both reversible hydrogen bonds and permanent covalent crosslinks...
August 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
Bin Liu, Xiaoran Deng, Zhongxi Xie, Ziyong Cheng, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Oleic acid (OA) and/or oleylamine (OAm) are generally used as the surface ligands for stabilization of inorganic nanocrystals (NCs). The hydrophobic and inert surface of the NCs limits their applications such as in biomedical areas. Hence, surface modifications are essential in many physical and chemical processes. Here, a facile and versatile strategy is reported for the modification of NCs by ultraviolet-induced thiol-ene chemistry, in which thiol-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (HSPEG) and its derivatives can react directly with double bonds in OA/OAm ligands to form covalent linking within one step...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yaping Feng, Weiwei Zhu, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
Well-developed structure-function relationships in living systems have become inspirations for the design and application of innovative materials. Building artificial nanofluidic systems for energy conversion undergoes three essential steps of structural and functional development with the uptake of separate biological inspirations. This research field started from the mimicking of the bioelectric function of electric eels, wherein a transmembrane ion concentration gradient is converted into ultrastrong electrical impulses via membrane-protein-regulated ion transport...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Kai Dong, Jianan Deng, Yunlong Zi, Yi-Cheng Wang, Cheng Xu, Haiyang Zou, Wenbo Ding, Yejing Dai, Bohong Gu, Baozhong Sun, Zhong Lin Wang
The development of wearable and large-area energy-harvesting textiles has received intensive attention due to their promising applications in next-generation wearable functional electronics. However, the limited power outputs of conventional textiles have largely hindered their development. Here, in combination with the stainless steel/polyester fiber blended yarn, the polydimethylsiloxane-coated energy-harvesting yarn, and nonconductive binding yarn, a high-power-output textile triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with 3D orthogonal woven structure is developed for effective biomechanical energy harvesting and active motion signal tracking...
August 8, 2017: Advanced Materials
Wenhua Zuo, Chaoyue Xie, Pan Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Jinping Liu
One of the key challenges of aqueous supercapacitors is the relatively low voltage (0.8-2.0 V), which significantly limits the energy density and feasibility of practical applications of the device. Herein, this study reports a novel Ni-Mn-O solid-solution cathode to widen the supercapacitor device voltage, which can potentially suppress the oxygen evolution reaction and thus be operated stably within a quite wide potential window of 0-1.4 V (vs saturated calomel electrode) after a simple but unique phase-transformation electrochemical activation...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jae-Ho Kim, Jeong-Eun Park, Mouhong Lin, Sungi Kim, Gyeong-Hwan Kim, SungJun Park, GwangPyo Ko, Jwa-Min Nam
One of the most heavily used methods in chemical and biological labeling, detection, and imaging is based on silver shell-based enhancement on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) that is useful for amplifying Rayleigh scattering, colorimetric signal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and electrical signal, but poor structural controllability and nonspecific growth of silver shells have limited its applications, especially with respect to signal reproducibility and quantification. Here, a highly specific, well-defined Cu nanopolyhedral shell overgrowth chemistry is developed with the aid of polyethyleneimine (PEI) on AuNPs, and the use of this PEI-mediated Cu polyhedral nanoshell (CuP) chemistry is shown as a means of light-scattering signal enhancement for the development of naked-eye-based highly sensitive and quantitative detections of DNA and viruses...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yuehong Wen, Tianlu Sheng, Xiaoquan Zhu, Chao Zhuo, Shaodong Su, Haoran Li, Shengmin Hu, Qi-Long Zhu, Xintao Wu
The unique features of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including ultrahigh porosities and surface areas, tunable pores, endow the MOFs with special utilizations as host matrices. In this work, various neutral and ionic guest dye molecules, such as fluorescent brighteners, coumarin derivatives, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), and 4-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium (DSM), are encapsulated in a neutral MOF, yielding novel blue-, green-, and red-phosphors, respectively...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Xuexi Sheng, Ying Liu, Yu Wang, Yafei Li, Xun Wang, Xinping Wang, Zhihui Dai, Jianchun Bao, Xiangxing Xu
Perovskite structured CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br or I) quantum dots (QDs) have attracted great attention in the past few years for appealing application potentials in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. In this report, the CsPbX3 QDs are shown to perform as a new probe for metal ions with high sensitivity, high selectivity and instant response by the quenching or enhancing of the photoluminescence (PL). Through experimental and calculation efforts, the probing mechanisms are investigated. A wide probing window for Cu(2+) and Yb(3+) ions ranging from 2 × 10(-9) to 2 × 10(-6) m is exhibited for CsPbBr3 QDs...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Pengfei Zhang, Liwen Zhang, Huawei Chen, Zhichao Dong, Deyuan Zhang
The slippery peristome of the pitcher plant Nepenthes has attracted much attention due to its unique function for preying on insects. Recent findings on the peristome surface of Nepenthes alata demonstrate a fast and continuous unidirectional liquid transport, which is enabled by the combination of a pinning effect at the sharp edges and a capillary rise in the wedge, deriving from the multiscale structure, which provides inspiration for designing and fabricating functional surfaces for unidirectional liquid transport...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Guo-Bin Qi, Di Zhang, Fu-Hua Liu, Zeng-Ying Qiao, Hao Wang
To date, numerous nanosystems have been developed as antibiotic replacements for bacterial infection treatment. However, these advanced systems are limited owing to their nontargeting accumulation and the consequent side effects. Herein, transformable polymer-peptide biomaterials have been developed that enable specific accumulation in the infectious site and long-term retention, resulting in enhanced binding capability and killing efficacy toward bacteria. The polymer-peptide conjugates are composed of a chitosan backbone and two functional peptides, i...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Zi Wang, Lizhen Huang, Xiaofei Zhu, Xu Zhou, Lifeng Chi
Organic semiconductor gas sensor is one of the promising candidates of room temperature operated gas sensors with high selectivity. However, for a long time the performance of organic semiconductor sensors, especially for the detection of oxidizing gases, is far behind that of the traditional metal oxide gas sensors. Although intensive attempts have been made to address the problem, the performance and the understanding of the sensing mechanism are still far from sufficient. Herein, an ultrasensitive organic semiconductor NO2 sensor based on 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS-petacene) is reported...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
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