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Environmental Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346065/effect-of-ultrasonic-treatment-of-palygorskite-on-catalytic-performance-of-pd-cu-palygorskite-catalyst-for-room-temperature-co-oxidation-in-humid-circumstances
#1
Yongzhao Wang, Yongning Wang, Xiao Li, Zhaotie Liu, Yongxiang Zhao
Pd-Cu/palygorskite catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method using palygorskite (PC/N-Pal) and ultrasonic treated palygorskite (PC/U-Pal) as the support. Their catalytic activities toward CO oxidation at room temperature and in humid circumstances were investigated. PC/U-Pal exhibits much higher catalytic activity and stability than PC/N-Pal under the conditions of 1.0 vol.% CO and 3.3 vol.% H2O in the feed gas. The XRD results indicate that quartz impurities were eliminated from the palygorskite after the ultrasonic treatment, and more copper species exist in the form of Cu2Cl(OH)3 in PC/U-Pal...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345484/removal-of-fouling-species-from-brackish-water-reverse-osmosis-reject-stream
#2
G M Ayoub, L Korban, M Al-Hindi, R Zayyat
Brine disposal from reverse osmosis (RO) systems remains a major challenge for the desalination industry especially in inland areas where discharge options are very limited. Solutions will entail the introduction of economic treatment processes that will alleviate the brine's negative impact on the environment and reduce its discharge volume. Such processes could act as an intermediary treatment process for the recycling of the brine through an additional RO stage which, for brackish water (BW) desalination, could lead to saving valuable water while reducing the amount of brine discharge...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345390/nitrogen-removal-and-nitrous-oxide-emission-from-a-step-feeding-multiple-anoxic-and-aerobic-process
#3
Yuepeng Sun, Huoqing Wang, Guangxue Wu, Guan Yuntao
The multiple anoxic and aerobic (AO) process is an advanced biological nitrogen removal process, and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission might affect its sustainable application. Nitrogen removal and N2O emission in a step-feeding multiple AO sequencing batch reactor (SBRS) was examined, in comparison with in a one-step feeding sequencing batch reactor (SBRO). Nitrogen removal was enhanced by 12.6% in SBRS compared to the removal percentage of 75.8% in SBRO. Activated sludge in SBRs possessed a higher N2O emission factor during nitrification, denitrification and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) than in SBRO...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345381/comparison-of-fenton-s-reagent-and-adsorption-for-treatment-of-industrial-container-and-drum-cleaning-industry-wastewater
#4
Elçin Güneş, Deniz İzlen Çifçi, Suna Özden Çelik
The present study is aimed to explore the characterization of Industrial Container and Drum Cleaning (ICDC) industry wastewater and treatment alternatives of this wastewater using Fenton and adsorption processes. Wastewater derived from ICDC industry is usually treated by chemical coagulation and biological treatment in Turkey and then discharged in a centralized wastewater treatment facility. It is required that the wastewater COD is below 1500 mg/L to treat in a centralized wastewater treatment facility The wastewater samples characterized for parameters of pH, conductivity, COD, BOD5, TSS, NH3-N, TN, TOC, TP, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338418/hybrid-mf-and-membrane-bioreactor-process-applied-toward-water-and-indigo-reuse-from-denim-textile-wastewater
#5
Carolina Fonseca Couto, Larissa Silva Marques, Janine Balmant, Andreza Penido de Oliveira Maia, Wagner Guadagnin Moravia, Miriam Cristina Santos Amaral
This work investigates the application of a microfiltration (MF) - membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid process for textile dyeing process wastewater reclamation. The indigo blue dye was efficiently retained by the MF membrane (100%), which allows its recovery from the concentrate stream. The MF promotes 100% of colour removal, and reduce the COD and conductivity by about 65% and 25%, respectively and improves the wastewater biodegradability. MF flux decline was mostly attributed to concentration polarization and the chemical cleaning was efficient enough to recover initial hydraulic resistance...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337937/evaluation-of-methanogenic-microbial-electrolysis-cells-mecs-under-closed-open-circuit-operations
#6
Liwen Luo, Suyun Xu, Yueqing Jin, Runqi Han, Hongbo Liu, Fan Lü
This study investigated the independent roles of biofilm and external power supply for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) degradation and methane production in the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Reactors were operated in fed-batch mode in the presence of graphite felt(GF) or titanium-rod (Ti) as electrodes, in open circuit (OC, without applied voltage) or closed circuit (CC) conditions, i.e. R1 (Ti+CC), R2 (GF+CC) and R3 (GF+OC). The first-order kinetic analysis of acetate degradation indicated that the presence of GF biofilm and applied voltage in R2 improved the acetate degradation rate by 23% as compared to R1, while it was only 7% increment in R3 with GF biofilm...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332930/vertical-profiling-and-modelling-of-e-coli-decay-in-a-shallow-maturation-pond-operating-in-a-tropical-climate
#7
Daniel F C Dias, Marcos von Sperling
Maturation ponds are excellent natural treatment systems for disinfecting domestic wastewater from pathogenic bacteria because of great sunlight exposure through depth and high pH and DO values within its environment, all of which are important factors for disinfection. E. coli removal is higher closer to the surface of the pond and proceeds to decrease due to the limited amount of sunlight penetrating through deeper depths. In order to quantify the decay coefficients (Kb) of E. coli in a shallow maturation pond, quartz vessels were used to create isolated batch experiments and submerged at different depths inside the pond during different periods of the day (morning and afternoon)...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332926/efficient-degradation-of-organic-phosphorus-in-glyphosate-wastewater-by-catalytic-wet-oxidation-using-modified-activated-carbon-as-a-catalyst
#8
Bo Xing, Honglin Chen, Xiaoming Zhang
Glyphosate (PMG) wastewater, which is an organic phosphorus (OP) wastewater containing 200-3000 mg/L glyphosate, was treated via catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to degrade glyphosate to orthophosphate (PO4(3-)). The catalysts were activated carbons (ACs) modified by H2O2 oxidation and thermal treatment with ammonia or melamine. The catalysts were characterized using N2 adsorption/desorption, Boehm titration, and XPS. The CWO experiments were performed in a co-current upflow fixed bed reactor at 110-130 °C and under 1...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332409/laboratory-and-pilot-scale-field-experiments-for-application-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-loaded-chitosan-composites-to-phosphate-removal-from-natural-water
#9
Jae-Hyun Kim, Song-Bae Kim, Sang-Hyup Lee, Jae-Woo Choi
The aim of this study was to apply iron oxide nanoparticle-chitosan (ION-chitosan) composites to phosphate removal from natural water collected from the Seoho Stream in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Laboratory batch experiments showed that phosphate removal by the ION-chitosan composites was not sensitive to pH changes between pH values of 5.0 and 9.0. During six cycles of adsorption-desorption, the composites could be successfully regenerated with 5 mM NaOH solution and reused for phosphate removal. Laboratory fixed-bed column experiments (column height = 10 and 20 cm, inner diameter = 2...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328313/in-search-for-a-robust-design-of-environmental-sensor-networks
#10
Setia Budi, Ferry Susanto, Paulo de Souza, Greg Timms, Vishv Malhotra, Paul Turner
This paper presents an approach to the design of Environmental Sensor Networks (ESN) which aims at providing a robust, fit-for-purpose network with minimum redundancy. A set of near optimum ESN designs is sought using an Evolutionary Algorithm, which incorporates redundancy and robustness as fitness functions. This work can assist the decision making process when determining the number of sensor nodes and how the nodes are going to be deployed in the region of interest.
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327080/effect-of-inorganic-carbon-concentration-on-the-stability-and-nitrite-oxidizing-bacteria-community-structure-of-canon-process-in-an-membrane-bioreactor
#11
Xiaojing Zhang, Yue Zhou, Yongpeng Ma, Nan Zhang, Siyu Zhao, Rongrong Zhang, Jun Zhang, Hongzhong Zhang
In completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) should be effectively suppressed or thoroughly washed out. In this study, the nitrate production and the structure of NOB community under different inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations were investigated using DGGE in an membrane bioreactor (MBR). Results showed that IC decrease correspondingly lowered the nitrogen removal, and simultaneously induced the nitrate production by NOB. DGGE results indicated the IC deficit led to the biodiversity increasing of both Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327057/production-of-lipid-containing-microalgal-biomass-and-simultaneous-removal-of-nitrate-and-phosphate-from-synthetic-wastewater
#12
M S V Prasad, A K Varma, P Kumari, P Mondal
The major concerns of the modern society such as increasing population, climate change and economic development are imposing continuous stress on water and energy resources. The present work deals with the cultivation of green algae Desmodesmus abundans for optimum biomass productivity and lipid content as well as simultaneous removal of nitrate and phosphate from synthetic wastewater. The algal biomass is characterized by ultimate analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326997/removal-of-phenol-by-powdered-activated-carbon-prepared-by-residue-extracted-from-coal-gasification-tar-residue
#13
Jun Shen, Xiong-Lei Wang, Yan-Xia Niu, Yu-Gao Wang, Gang Liu, Qing-Tao Sheng
coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous by-product generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The extracted CGTR by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC) and applied for phenol adsorption. The results showed that the prepared PAC under the optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with specific surface area of 1981 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances the PAC had a strong magnetic, easy to be separated after adsorbing phenol...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326898/combination-of-electroflotation-process-and-down-flow-granular-filtration-to-treat-wastewater-contaminated-with-oil
#14
Thyara Campos Martins Nonato, Juliana Marques Schöntag, Tiago Burgardt, Alcione Aparecida de Almeida Alves, William Flores Broock, Ramon Lucas Dalsasso, Maurício Luiz Sens
One of the main problems faced by the oil industry is related to the amount of produced water generated during the oil extraction process. For proper disposal of this effluent, treatment processes should be applied to meet the requirements established by environmental agencies. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the combination of electroflotation process and down-flow granular filtration in the treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil. To this end, they were studied in a pilot system, to optimize the electroflotation process and combination of processes...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317443/deterioration-of-the-anammox-process-at-decreasing-temperatures-and-long-srts
#15
Maaike Hoekstra, Florence A de Weerd, Robbert Kleerebezem, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
The implementation of autotrophic nitrogen removal in the mainstream of a municipal wastewater treatment plant is currently pursued. Among the crucial unknown factors are the kinetic properties of anaerobic ammonium oxidising (anammox) bacteria at low temperatures, as typically encountered for sewage in winter. In this study we investigated the adaptation of a fast growing anammox culture to a lower temperature. In a membrane bioreactor a highly enriched anammox community was obtained at 30, 25 and 20°C. The culture grew as free cells and small flocs (50 -150µm)...
March 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317451/inclusion-of-saccharina-latissima-in-conventional-anaerobic-digestion-systems
#16
F Ometto, A Berg, A Björn, L Safaric, B H Svensson, A Karlsson, J Ejlertsson
Loading macroalgae into existing anaerobic digestion (AD) plants allows us to overcome challenges such as low digestion efficiencies, trace elements limitation, excessive salinity levels and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), observed while digesting algae as a single substrate. In this work, the co-digestion of the brown macroalgae Saccharina latissima with mixed municipal wastewater sludge (WWS) was investigated in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the organic loading rate (OLR) were fixed at 19 days and 2...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317444/development-of-a-high-rate-submerged-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-sanmbr
#17
I Mahmoud, W J Gao, B Q Liao, J Cumin, M Dagnew, Y Hong
Typically, anaerobic membrane bioreactors are operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) less than 10 kg COD/m(3)d. This paper discusses the development and performance of a high-rate submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) for a high strength synthetic industrial wastewater treatment. An organic loading rate (OLR) as high as 41 kg COD/m(3).d was achieved with excellent COD removal efficiency (>99%). The membrane was operated at constant fluxes (9.4-9.9 ± 0.5 L/m(2).h) and the change in trans-membrane pressure was monitored to characterize the membrane performance...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317442/application-of-response-surface-methodology-and-semi-mechanistic-model-to-optimize-fluoride-removal-using-crushed-concrete-in-a-fixed-bed-column
#18
Bon-Wun Gu, Chang-Gu Lee, Seong-Jik Park
The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions by using crushed concrete fines (CCF) as a filter medium. Column experiments were performed in step injection mode under varying conditions of influent solution including pH 3-7, flow rate of 0.3-0.7 mL/min, and filter depth of 10-20 cm. The performance of fixed-bed columns was evaluated on the basis of the removal ratio (Re), uptake capacity (qe), degree of sorbent used (DoSU), and sorbent usage rate (SUR) obtained from breakthrough curves (BTC)...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317441/oxidative-degradation-of-pentachlorophenol-by-permanganate-for-isco-application
#19
Roger Matta, Serge Chiron
Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) has been an effective technology for the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of many organic compounds including chlorinated alkanes and alkenes, but it has rarely been applied for oxidizing aromatic organochlorines. This study confirms the ability of permanganate to oxidize an aromatic chlorinated compound, pentachlorophenol (PCP), in an efficient manner at neutral pH. The rate of the reaction between KMnO4 and PCP was calculated and the results indicated that the reaction between PCP and permanganate is relatively fast with a second order rate k"∼ 30 M(-1)s(-1)...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316256/investigation-on-the-compatibility-of-xanthan-gum-and-calcium-polysulfide-and-the-rheological-properties-of-xg-solutions
#20
Dengfeng Liu, Liming Ren, Chunyu Wen, Jun Dong
The application of shear thinning xanthan gum (XG) solutions as the delivery media can solve the bypassing problem induced by heterogeneity, especially when low permeable zones in aquifer are present. A series of experiments were carried out to investigate the compatibility of XG and calcium polysulfide (CPS) aiming at chromium contamination in groundwater. In addition, rheological properties of XG solutions under subsurface conditions related to delivery were studied. Results indicated that: (1) the presence of XG could slow down reduction of hexavalent chromium by CPS, and the reaction fitted well with the second order kinetics...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
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