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Environmental Technology

Seong-Jik Park, Ku Kang, Chang-Gu Lee, Jae-Woo Choi
The objectives of this study are to assess the effectiveness of limestone (LS), steel slag (SS), and activated carbon (AC) as capping materials to sequester trace metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in heavily contaminated marine sediments and to minimize the release of these metals into the water column. A flat flow tank was filled with 10 mm of capping material, contaminated sediments, and seawater, and the metal concentrations were monitored over 32 d. After completion of the flow tank experiments, the sediments below the capping material were sampled and were sequentially extracted...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Salatiel Wohlmuth da Silva, Alan Nelson Arenhart Heberle, Alexia Pereira Santos, Marco Antônio Siqueira Rodrigues, Valentín Pérez-Herranz, Andréa Moura Bernardes
Antibiotics are not efficiently removed in conventional wastewater treatments. In fact, different Advanced Oxidation Process (AOPs), including ozone, peroxide, UV radiation, among others, are being investigated in the elimination of microcontaminants. Most of AOPs proved to be efficient on the degradation of antibiotics, but the mineralization is on the one hand not evaluated or on the other hand not high. At this work, the UV-based hybrid process, namely Photo-assisted electrochemical Oxidation (PEO), was applied aiming the mineralization of microcontaminants such as the antibiotics Amoxicillin (AMX), Norfloxacin (NOR) and Azithromycin (AZI)...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Technology
Daniele Silvestri, Stanisław Wacławek, Zuzanna Gončuková, Vinod V T Padil, Klaudiusz Grübel, Miroslav Černík
A novel method for assessing the disintegration degree of waste activated sludge (WAS) with the use of differential centrifugal sedimentation method (DCS) was shown herein. The method was validated for a WAS sample at four levels of disintegration in the range of 14.4-82.6% corresponding to the median particle size range of 8.5-1.6 µm. From the several sludge disintegration methods used (i.e. microwave, alkalization, ultrasounds and peroxydisulfate activated by ultrasounds), the activated peroxydisulfate disintegration resulted in the greatest disintegration degree 83% and the smallest median particle size of WAS...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Technology
Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, V M Rajesh, Pravakar Mohanty
This work was focused on finding the groundnut shell (GNS) gasification performance in a fluidized bed gasifier with bubbling air as gasification medium. Groundnut shell in powder form (a mixture of different particle size as given in Table 8) was gasified using naturally available river sand as bed material, top of the bed feeding, conventional charcoal as bed heating medium, and two cyclones for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed using different operating conditions such as equivalence ratio (ER) between 0...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Weiwei Pu, Xuefeng Shi, Lili Wang, Jing Xu, Zhiqiang Ma
Understanding the potential source regions of air pollutants and their relative contribution from surrounding areas are of great importance for air pollution control strategies in Northern China. Six years of measurement of air pollutants was conducted from 2005 to 2010 in Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional background station. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide and ozone (Ox ), and fine particle matter less than or equal to 2.5μm (PM2...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Miguel Martínez-Jardines, Emmanuel Pérez-Alfaro, R O González-Robles, Anne-Claire Texier, Flor Cuervo-López
The metabolic and kinetic behaviour of a nitrification process in presence of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) was evaluated in two sequencing batch reactors (SBR1, SBR2) inoculated with nitrifying sludge previously exposed to phenolic compounds. The SBR1 was inoculated with sludge previously exposed to 2-CP, while the SBR2 was inoculated with sludge previously exposed to p-cresol. An inhibitory effect of 20 mg 2-CP-C/L on both nitrification processes was observed, as specific rates decreased according to a control assay in absence of 2-CP...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Ce Wang, Yongmei Li, Yanqiang Wang
Effects of operating conditions were investigated in terms of water flux, reverse salt flux (RSF) and pollutant rejection in a forward osmosis (FO) membrane system treating synthetic greywater. Changing cross-flow velocity had a slight impact on the performance of the FO membrane. Elevating operating temperature was more effective than increasing draw solution concentration to enhance the water flux. Further observation on the effect of heating mode showed that when the temperature was increased from 20 to 30 o C, heating the feed solution (FS) side was better than heating the draw solution (DS) side or heating both sides; further increasing the temperature to 40 and 50 o C, heating both the FS and DS achieved much higher water flux compared with only increasing the FS or DS temperature...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Przemysław Drzewicz, Agata Drobniewska, Katarzyna Sikorska, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki
A large amount of pharmaceuticals are flushed to environment via sewage system. The compounds are persistent in environment and are very difficult to remove in drinking water treatment processes. Degradation of fluoxetine (FLU) and fluvoxamine (FLX) by ferrate(VI) were investigated. For the 10 mg/L of FLU and FLX, 35% and 50% of the compounds were degraded in the presence of 50 mg/L FeO4 2- within 10 minutes, respectively. After 10 minutes of the reaction, degradation of FLU and FLX is affected by formation of by-products which were likely more reactive with ferrate and competed in the reaction with FeO4 2- ...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Bahareh Moshtagh, Kelly Hawboldt, Baiyu Zhang
Biosurfactants are biologically produced by microorganisms and therefore biodegradable, making ideal substitutes to chemical surfactants for various applications. Large scale production of biosurfactants is limited because of the high cost. The production cost could be reduced by optimizing cultural conditions and using wastes as substrates. In this work, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis N3-1P strain using brewery waste as the sole carbon source...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Technology
Huy Bui, Van Hoi Pham, Van Dai Pham, Thi Hong Cam Hoang, Thanh Binh Pham, Thuy Chi Do, Quang Minh Ngo, Thuy Van Nguyen
A vast majority of the organic solvents used in industry and laboratories are volatile, hazardous and toxic organic compounds, they are considered as a potent problem for human health and a cause of environmental pollution. Although analytical laboratory methods can determine extremely low solvent concentration, the sensing method with low cost and high sensitivity remains a conundrum. This paper presents and compares three methods (volatile organic compound (VOC), liquid drop and saturated vapour pressure) for determination of organic solvents in liquid environment by using photonic sensor based on nano-porous silicon (pSi) microcavity structures...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Liang Ma, Zhi-Huang Zhao, Lv Peng, Xue-Jing Yang, Peng-Bo Fu, Yi Liu, Yuan Huang
In this experiment, with stainless steel gas cyclone-liquid jet absorption separator as carrier, NH3 as experimental gas, and water and H3 PO4 solution as absorbents, corresponding NH3 absorption rate change is obtained through the adjustment of experimental parameters, such as NH3 inlet concentration, inlet velocity of mixed gas, injection flow rate of absorbent, temperature of absorbent, and H3 PO4 absorbent concentration. The NH3 absorption rate decreases with the increase in NH3 inlet concentration and inlet gas velocity...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yonghai Huang, Honghong Yi, Xiaolong Tang, Shunzheng Zhao, Fengyu Gao, Jiangen Wang, Zhongyu Yang
Cooking emission is an important reason for the air quality deterioration in metropolitan area in China. Transition metal oxide and different loading of manganese oxide supported on cordierite were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and were used for Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) oxidation in cooking oil fumes (COFs). The effects of different calcination temperature and different Mn content were also studied. The SEM photographs and CO2 -TPD revealed 5wt%Mn/cordierite had the best pore structure and largest number of the weak and moderate basic sites so it showed the best performance for NMHC oxidation...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yi Zhang, Jia-Cheng E Yang, Ming-Lai Fu, Baoling Yuan, Kiran Gupta
Fabrication of smart composites with expected removal property and excellent recycle performance for micro-pollutants including microbes and organic contaminants without formation of second-pollutants is highly desired. In this work, Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) homogenously loaded on graphene aerogel (GA) as Ag NPs/GA was facilely fabricated by a one-step process and the composite was characterized in detail. The bactericidal performance of the composite towards escherichia coli (E. coli) was evaluated and the catalytic activity was probed for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP)...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Technology
Bingzhi Dong, Bo Gui, Junxia Liu, Zhihong Wang, Kaiting Tan
This paper analyzed organic foulants in coagulation-microfiltration process for Taihu lake treatment. High performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrixes (EEM) were applied to elucidate the influence of characteristics of organics on microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling. Results showed that coagulation pretreatment could extend the operation duration of MF based on the fact that pretreatment could effectively remove macromolecular substances as well as a portion of small molecular weight(MW)organics...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Technology
R Thiyagu, P Sivarajan
Recalcitrant compounds degrading novel bacteria was isolated from lab scale hybrid UASB reactor treating distillery spent wash, enriched with biomass activity. The granules were subjected to SEM analysis to classify and isolate the bacterial strains. The strain was ubiquitous, mesophilic, gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming and cultivable optimally at 30°C at pH 7. Most potential isolates from the strains were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and branded as a member of diverse genera, gamma-proteobacteria, Stenotrophomonas sp...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Technology
Darwin, Wipa Charles, Ralf Cord-Ruwisch
Anaerobic acidification of sugars can produce some useful end-products such as alcohol, volatile fatty acids (e.g. acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and lactic acid. The production of end-products is highly dependent on factors including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time and the types of sugar being fermented. Results of this current study indicate that the pH and hydraulic retention time played significant roles in determining the end products from the anaerobic acidification of maltose and glucose...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Technology
Taleb H Ibrahim, Muhammad A Sabri, Mustafa I Khamis
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their magnetite derivatives were employed as adsorbents for emulsified oil removal from produced water. The experimental parameters for maximum emulsified oil removal efficiency and effective regeneration of these adsorbents were determined. The optimum parameters in terms of adsorbent dosage, contact time, salinity, pH and temperature were 3.0 g/L, 20.0 min, 0 ppm, 7.0 and 25°C for both adsorbents. Due to their low density, multiwalledcarbon nanotubes could not be successfully employed in packed bed columns...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Technology
Leandro Fleck, Maria Hermínia Ferreira Tavares, Eduardo Eyng, Fabio Orssatto
The present study has the objective of optimizing operational conditions of an aerated reactor applied to the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from wastewater resulting from the production of cassava starch. An aerated reactor with a usable volume of 4 L and aeration control by rotameter was used. The air flow and cycle time parameters were controlled and their effects on the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and the conversion to nitrate were evaluated. The highest ammoniacal nitrogen removal, of 96.62%, occurred under conditions of 24 hours and 0...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Technology
A Boukhelkhal, O Benkortbi, M Hamadache
Amoxicillin (AMX) and ampicillin (AMP) are two representative β-lactam antibiotics that has been used extensively in human and veterinary medicine and have gained increasing attention due to their continual introduction to environment which would pose serious ecological risk. The present work investigates the feasibility of the removal of AMX and AMP antibiotics produced by SAIDAL, antibiotical company from aqueous solutions. To this end, a novel separation technique based on an aqueous surfactant extraction has been developed for the treatment of a complex medium consisting of a mixture of antibiotics amoxicillin and ampicillin using an anionic surfactant namely Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Technology
Fábio de Farias Neves, Leonardo Hoinaski, Leonardo Rubi Rörig, Roberto Bianchini Derner, Henrique de Melo Lisboa
This study evaluated productivity, CO2 biofixation, and lipid content in biomass of the acidophilic microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila LAFIC-004 cultivated with five different carbon dioxide concentrations. The influence of carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient removal and pH was also investigated. Treated wastewater (secondary effluent) was used as culture medium. Five experimental setups were tested: T-0% - injection of atmospheric air (0.038% CO2 ), T-5% (5% CO2 ), T-10% (10% CO2 ), T-15% (15% CO2 ) and T-20% (20% CO2 )...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Technology
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