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Environmental Technology

Xingxing Wu, Binbin Yu, Wei Xu, Zheng Fan, Zucheng Wu, Huimin Zhang
As the main greenhouse gas, CO2 is considered as a threat in the context of global warming. Many available technologies to reduce CO2 emission was about CO2 separation from coal combustion and geological sequestration. However, how to deal with the cost-effective storage of CO2 has become a new challenge. Moreover, chromium pollution, the treatment of which requires huge energy consumption, has attracted people's widespread attention. This study is aimed to develop the sequestration of CO2 via chromium slag...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Technology
Quelen Letícia Shimabuku, Flávia Sayuri Arakawa, Marcela Fernandes Silva, Priscila Ferri Coldebella, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Márcia Regina Fagundes-Klen, Rosangela Bergamasco
Continuous flow experiments (450 mL min(-1)) were performed in household filter in order to investigate the removal and/or inactivation of T4 bacteriophage, using granular activated carbon (GAC) modified with silver and/or copper oxide nanoparticles at different concentrations. GAC and modified GAC were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, specific surface area, pore size and volume, pore average diameter, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential and atomic absorption spectroscopy...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jiancheng Shu, Renlong Liu, Zuohua Liu, Hongliang Chen, Changyuan Tao
In this study, an improved process for leaching manganese from electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) by electro-reduction was developed. The mechanisms of the electro-reduction leaching were investigated through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and Brunauer Emmett Teller. The results show that the electric field could change the surface charge distribution of EMR particles, and the high-valent manganese can be reduced by electric field. The leaching efficient of manganese reached 84...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Technology
Salar Haghighatafshar, Britt-Marie Wilén, Andreas Thunberg, Marinette Hagman, Annika Nyberg, Jonas Grundestam, Maria Mases, Jes la Cour Jansen
Vacuum degassing of activated sludge was tested at eight different Swedish wastewater treatment plants with laboratory-scale equipment in batch mode in order to evaluate its efficiency on improvement of sludge compaction and settling properties. The results show that the efficiency of the degassing technique is mainly dependent on the initial sludge volume index (SVI) of the target sludge which was found to be related to its process configuration. Facilities with full activated sludge based nitrogen removal processes, including both nitrification and denitrification, had high SVIs (>300 mL g(-1)) and were strongly affected by vacuum degassing with reduction of SVI up to 30%...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jie Wang, Junfeng Wan, Haisong Li, Hongli Li, Christophe Dagot, Yan Wang
The potential of anoxic biological arsenite oxidation with nitrate as the sole electron acceptor was tested by using the acclimatized activated sludge which was chronically exposed under arsenite and nitrate coexisted aquatic environment. The activated sludge cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor was fed with arsenite and nitrate as the main substrates over six months. A series of batch experiments were conducted with acclimated sludge. Results showed that no obvious inhibition was observed in the anoxic arsenite oxidation linked to nitrate and nitrite reduction at the concentration of arsenite up to 35 mg As(III) L(-1)...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Supamas Danwittayakul, Supachai Songngam, Tipawan Fhulua, Panida Muangkasem, Sittha Sukkasi
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Charlotte A Jørgensen, Henning S Jensen, Sara Egemose
Measures such as stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands and buffer strips along streams are used to reduce diffuse phosphorus (P) loading to surface waters. These systems often retain particulate P well, whereas retention of dissolved P is less efficient and might require addition of P adsorbents. In this study, we screened waterwork ochre sludge (WWS) originating from groundwater treatment and ochre sludge from ochre precipitation basins along streams for their applicability as P adsorbents at ambient P concentrations...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Raúl Rodríguez-Gómez, Gunno Renman
The phosphorus (P) and BOD7 removal performance of an upflow packed bed reactor (PBR) filled with two reactive filter media was studied over 50 weeks. The lower one-fifth of the reactor was filled with calcium-silicate-hydrate (Sorbulite®) and the upper four-fifth with calcium-silicate (Polonite®). A laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB) delivered wastewater to the PBR. A model was developed to describe the gradient in P concentration change in the reactor, based on reaction kinetics...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Technology
S Vichaphund, V Sricharoenchaikul, D Atong
Fly ash-derived HZSM-5 catalyst was first applied in the catalytic pyrolysis of Jatropha residues in a semi-continuous fixed-bed reactor. The catalytic performance of HZSM-5 catalysts prepared from chemicals including conventional hydrothermal HZSM-5, Ni/HZSM-5 by ion exchange, and commercial HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 30) was evaluated for comparison. Catalytic pyrolysis of Jatropha residues with HZSM-5 catalysts was investigated in terms of product yields and qualities of bio-oil and bio-char. The liquid yield produced from fly ash-derived HZSM-5 was 29...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Zhiyong Bai, Qi Yang, Jianlong Wang
In this paper, Fe3O4/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composites were prepared, characterized and used as a catalyst for enhancing the ozonation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in aqueous solution. The experimental results showed that DMP degradation and mineralization increased by 26% and 20%, respectively, in catalytic ozonation compared with single ozonation, and more H2O2 and organic acids were produced during catalytic ozonation process than single ozonation. The effect of pH, ozone concentration and catalyst dosage on DMP degradation was determined...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Siti Nurjaliah Muhammad, Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Mohd Syakirin Md Zahar, Ferdaus Mohamat Yusuff, Normala Halimoon
Passive bioremediation of metal- and sulfate-containing acid mine drainage (AMD) has been investigated in a batch study. Multiple substrates were used in the AMD remediation using spent mushroom compost (SMC), limestone, activated sludge (AS), and woodchips (WC) under anoxic conditions suitable for bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). Limestones used were of crushed limestone (CLS) and uncrushed limestone, provided at two different ratios in mixed substrates treatment and varied by the proportion of SMC and limestone...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Feng Xie, Wei Wang
The feasibility of using emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) with the guanidine extractant LIX 7950 as the mobile carrier for detoxifying copper-containing waste cyanide solutions has been determined. Relatively stable ELMs can be maintained under suitable stirring speed during mixing ELMs and the external solution. Effective extraction of copper cyanides by ELMs only occurs at pH below 11. High copper concentration in the external phase and high volume ratio of the external phase to ELMs result in high transport rates of copper and cyanide...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Pooja Ghosh, Indu Shekhar Thakur
The study investigates the ability of fungus Phanerochaete sp. ISTL01 for biosorption of color from landfill leachate. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, temperature, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial leachate concentration on biosorption. Maximum biosorption capacity was determined as 17.73 mg g(-1) of biomass. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were further studied. The biosorption data were found to fit well to the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jie Zhang, Shuzhong Wang, Yanhui Li, Jinling Lu, Senlin Chen, XingQi Luo
In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Juliana M Schöntag, Filipe M Moreira, Maurício L Sens
Polystyrene (PS) beads have been studied as a possible filter element, with the aim of increasing the effective production of water in treatment plants. Being a granular material of an effective size of 0.68 mm, sphericity of 0.96 and density of 1046 kg/m(3), the use of PS beads may provide washing water savings because they require low velocities for expansion during backwash. However, other aspects must be considered before the adoption of this material, such as the filtration mechanisms associated with it...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Mariana Mota Godke, Richard Stuetz, Xinguang Wang, Leonardo Hoinaski, Jean-Michel Guillot, Henrique de Melo Lisboa
To certificate an olfactometric jury, laboratories usually follow up the panelist screening methodology described in the European Standard EN 13725/2003. The procedure takes a lot of time, labour and money. In laboratory routine of LCQAr - Laboratory of Air Quality Control, of Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, it was found that the efficiency of jury approvals used to be as low as around 30%. In order to improve the efficiency, a quick preselection test was proposed and tried for late certification recommended by EN 13725...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Pavel Míchal, Pavel Švehla, Vladimír Plachý, Pavel Tlustoš
Within this research, biogas production, representation of methane in biogas and volatile solids (VSs) removal efficiency were compared using batch tests performed with the samples of intensively and extensively planted grasses originating from public areas. Before the batch tests, the samples were stored at different temperatures achievable on biogas plants applying trigeneration strategy (-18°C, +3°C, +18°C and +35°C). Specific methane production from intensively planted grasses was relatively high (0...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Taynan de Oliveira Costa, Maria Lúcia Calijuri, Nayara Vilela Avelar, Angélica de Cássia de Oliveira Carneiro, Letícia Rodrigues de Assis
In this investigation, chemical characteristics, higher, lower and net heating value, bulk and energy density, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to study the thermal characteristics of three algal biomasses. These biomasses, grown as by-products of wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), were: (i) biomass produced in domestic effluent and collected directly from an HRAP (PO); (ii) biomass produced in domestic effluent in a mixed pond-panel system and collected from the panels (PA); and (iii) biomass originating from the treatment effluent from the meat processing industry and collected directly from an HRAP (IN)...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Won-Mo Cho, B Ravindran, Jung Kon Kim, Kwang-Hwa Jeong, Dong Jun Lee, Dong-Yoon Choi
The present study evaluated the phytotoxicity effect of goat manure (GM) collected from six different regions in South Korea, namely, Chupungnyeong (T1), Hoengseong (T2), Goesan (T3), Sancheong (T4), Jangsu (T5) and Namwon (T6). Phytotoxicity was assessed by means of the analysis of germination index (GI), relative seed germination (RSG), relative root elongation (RRE) and vigor index (VI) using five commercial crop varieties, namely, sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum L.), carrot (Daucus carota), radish (Raphanus sativus) and cabbage (Brassica rapa)...
October 16, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jonas R M de Melo, Lidia Tiggeman, Katia Rezzadori, Juliana Steffens, Marshall Palliga, J Vladimir Oliveira, Marco Di Luccio, Marcus V Tres
This work investigates the use of ceramic membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs: 5, 10 and 20 kDa) to desolventize azeotropic solvent mixtures (ethanol/n-hexane and isopropyl alcohol/n-hexane) from soybean oil/azeotrope micelles. Results show that a decrease in the MWCO of a membrane and an increase in the solvent mass ratio in the mixture resulted in a significant reduction in the permeate flux. The 20 kDa membrane presented the highest permeate flux, 80 and 60 kg/m(2)h for the soybean oil/n-hexane/isopropyl alcohol and soybean oil/n-hexane/ethanol azeotropes, respectively, for an oil to solvent ratio of 1:3 (w/w)...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Technology
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