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Environmental Technology

Mostafa Zahmatkesh, Henri Spanjers, Jules B van Lier
In this study we tested a new approach to facilitate the application of white rot fungi (WRF) under non-sterile conditions, by introducing grain sorghum as carrier and sole carbon and nutrient source for WRF. To this end, Trametes versicolor was immobilized on sorghum, and its ability to remove humic acid (HA) from synthetic and real industrial wastewater was studied. HA removal was measured as colour reduction and also analysed via size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Under sterile conditions, 80% colour removal was achieved for both synthetic and real wastewater using immobilized WRF on sorghum, without adding any additional carbon or nutrient sources...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
Marina Duplančić, Vesna Tomašić, Zoran Gomzi
This paper is focused on development of the metal monolithic structure for total oxidation of toluene at low temperature. The well adhered catalyst, based on the mixed oxides of manganese and nickel, is washcoated on the Al/Al2O3 plates as metallic support. The influence of different reaction variables on the catalytic performance in the toluene oxidation is investigated. For the comparison purposes results observed for the manganese-nickel mixed oxide supported on the metallic monolith are compared with those obtained using powder type of the same catalyst...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
Rebecca Manesco Paixão, Isabela Maria Reck, Rosângela Bergamasco, Marcelo Fernandes Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo Vieira
The present study was conducted to impregnate the surface of a carbon of vegetable origin with copper nanoparticles using the green synthesis method with the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers, rich in phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the reduction and impregnation of metal nanoparticles. Batch adsorption assays were conducted aimed at nitrate removal with pure (GAC) and impregnated (IGAC) carbon, for comparative purposes. It was found that impregnation increases the efficiency of the carbon by 4 times in terms of the maximum adsorption capacity, which was 10...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
Dong-Jin Son, Woo-Yeol Kim, Chan-Young Yun, Dae-Gun Kim, Duk Chang, Young Sunwoo, Ki-Ho Hong
The electrolysis process using copper electrodes combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.1 to 0.2μm as a system for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities. The system was operated under an HRT of 0.1 hour, voltage of 24V, and TMP of 0.05MPa. The system showed average removals of organics, nitrogen, phosphorus, and solids of up to 80%, 52%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Removal of organics and nitrogen dramatically increased in proportion to increment of influent loading. Phosphorus and solids were remarkably eliminated by both electro-coagulation and membrane filtration...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
Shizong Wang, Jianlong Wang
The emerging micro-organic pollutants (EMOPs) cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most commonly detected EMOPs in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants, including trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac, triclosan and methyl 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate, were selected and used to acclimate activated sludge respectively, to improve the performance of biological treatment for the removal of EMOPs from wastewater. The results showed that the acclimation of activated sludge can significantly enhance the removal of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, triclosan and methyl 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate, but slightly improve the degradation of carbamazepine, which is more difficult to biodegrade...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
Gabriel A Bedogni, Mauro D Acevedo, Federico Aguzín, Nora B Okulik, Cristina L Padró
In this paper, glycerol esterification with acetic acid was studied on several solid acid catalysts: Al2O3, Al-MCM-41, HPA/SiO2, HBEA, Amberlyst-15 and Amberlyst-36 with the aim of determining the reaction conditions and the nature of the surface acid sites required to produce selectively triacetylglycerol (triacetin). The acidity of the catalysts (nature, density and strength of acid sites) was characterized by temperature programmed desorption of NH3 and FTIR of adsorbed pyridine. Al2O3 (Lewis acidity) did not show any activity in the reaction...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
Yunfeng Xu, Yu Fu, Wei Xia, Dan Zhang, Da An, Guangren Qian
Sulfate-rich biochemical effluent of landfill leachate (BEL) resulting from aged refuse bioreactor was employed to wash municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. The dechlorination ability of BEL was found to be nearly equivalent to redistilled water (RW), and concentrations of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washing solution resulting from BEL washing process were lower than that of RW washing process, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that the formation of calcium sulfate and hydroxides in fly ash after BEL washing, and their entrapping function could significantly inhibit the leaching of Pb and Zn...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
Hongyun Xia, Xuyun Zhao, Xiang Zhao, Ping Yao, Haoyu Zhang
Vat dark blue BO-simulated wastewater was treated by dissolved air flotation(DAF). In this process, the interactions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and resulting DAF process precipitates were investigated by infrared spectroscopy and kinetic methods. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that γ values (cm(-1)) for asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of CH2 groups for SDS-treated precipitation shifted toward higher in comparison to pure SDS, showing strong SDS and precipitate interactions...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Javad Saien, Marzieh Fallah Vahed Bazkiaei
Aqueous solutions of p-nitrophenol (PNP) were treated with UV-activated potassium periodate (UV/KPI) in an efficient photo-reactor. Either periodate or UV alone had little effect; however, their combination led to a significant degradation and mineralization. The response surface methodology was employed for design of experiments and optimization. The optimum conditions for treatment of 30 mg/L of the substrate were determined as [KPI] = 386.3 mg/L, pH = 6.2 and T = 34.6°C, under which 79.5% degradation was achieved after 60 min...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Guilherme Dilarri, Carlos Renato Corso
Waste from textile industries can severely harm the environment. Dyes are the main residues of these effluents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is already known to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes. However, the lack of applicability and limitation of the use of cell biomass in an industrial treatment makes it impossible to apply them. Thus the aim of this work was to immobilize S. cerevisiae in cross-linked chitosan beads by two different techniques (contact immobilization and encapsulation in the polymer matrix), proposing two new materials for adsorption...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Zhuxiang Liu, Lihua Li, Zhaoyang Li, Xiangrong Tian
The objective of this study is to utilize an expanded granular sludge bed reactor for removing heavy metals and sulfate from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) using sewage sludge fermentation centrate as the substrate. The reactor was bioaugmented with an enriched consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The bioreactor performance was studied with different chemical oxygen demand [Formula: see text] ratios, liquid upflow velocity (Vup), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent pH. The highest COD, sulfate and heavy metal removal efficiencies were achieved at a [Formula: see text] ratio of 1...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Wentao Shang, Feiyun Sun, Lichun Chen
Rejection of dissolved organic matters (DOM) from wastewater treatment plant effluent (EfOM) and surface reservoir water (RW-DOM) by nanofiltration (NF) was comparatively studied to evaluate their influence on membrane fouling, and to unveil the major causations. EfOM and RW-DOM were fractionated to determine the major components that preferentially form fouling layer and initiate biofouling. The results indicated that EfOM induced a rapid membrane permeability loss and a more complicated biofilm diversity than RW-DOM did...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Wenyong Hu, Yu Zhou, Xiaobo Min, Jingyi Liu, Xinyu Li, Lin Luo, Jiachao Zhang, Qiming Mao, Liyuan Chai, YaoYu Zhou
In this study, a combined Aerobic-Fenton-Anoxic/Aerobic system was designed for the remediation of raw landfill leachate in a pilot-scale experiment. This system included: i) a granular sludge biological oxidation procedure that achieves the accumulation of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N) under aerobic conditions; ii) a Fenton process that improves the biodegradability of the bio-treated leachate; and iii) an activated sludge biological oxidation component under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Additionally, a shortcut nitrification and denitrification pathway was achieved...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Shibiao Wu, Yejun Ge, Yaqin Wang, Xia Chen, Feifei Li, Han Xuan, Xi Li
An efficient adsorbent, nano Uio-66-NH2 MOFs, for the high efficiency removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was successfully synthesized. The adsorbent was characterized and its performance in Cr(VI) removal was evaluated for the first time. Kinetic data reveal that the Cr(VI) adsorption is rapid in the beginning followed by a slower adsorption process; The Cr(VI) adsorption kinetics were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetics model. The calculated adsorption capacity of this adsorbent for Cr(VI) by Langmuir model was 32...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Dingqi Li
As a result of the limitations of current purification technologies, purification efficiency is relatively low, particularly during startup or in the case of other abnormal automobile exhaust. Therefore, a new method of auxiliary purification is proposed in this paper. The acidic solution of potassium permanganate can oxidize carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide at relatively high temperatures and the alkaline solution of potassium permanganate can selectively absorb nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Areeb Shehzad, Mohammed J K Bashir, Mika Horttanainen, Mika Manttari, Jouni Havukainen, Ghulam Abbas
The present study explores the potential of MSW gasification for exergy analysis and has been recently given a premier attention in a region like Pakistan where the urbanization is rapidly growing and resources are few. The plant capacity was set at 50 MW based on reference data available and the total exergetic efficiency was recorded to be 31.5 MW. The largest irreversibility distribution appears in the gasifier followed by methanation unit and CO2 capture. The effect of process temperature, equivalence ratio and MSW moisture content was explored for inspecting the variations in syngas composition, lower heating value, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Kaige Chen, Ruoyu Chen, Hui Cang, Airong Mao, Zhe Tang, Qi Xu
Ce/TiO2-SiO2 catalysts with different Ti/Si molar ratios are prepared by the incipient impregnation method and their NH3-SCR activities are evaluated at 100-500°C on a fixed reactor. The Ce/TiO2-SiO2 (3/1) catalyst, modified by non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment and then activated by thermal treatment at 500°C for 4 h, exhibits best performance. Comprehensive deNOx performance of the catalyst is evidently improved and its efficiency reaches up to 99.21% at 350°C. NO conversion efficiency of the treated catalyst doped with K remains about 90...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Diego Macedo Veneu, Claudio Luiz Schneider, Marisa Bezerra de Mello Monte, Osvaldo Galvão Caldas Cunha, Lídia Yokoyama
The potential of Bioclastic Granules - BG (calcium-carbonate-based material) using the algae Lithothamnium calcareum as sorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by sorption was evaluated through batch and continuous systems tests using a fixed-bed column. Sorption process variables, in particular pH (2-7), particle size (<38-300 μm), initial BG concentration (0.1-1.0 g L(-1)), initial Cd(II) concentrations (5-400 mg L(-1)) and contact time (5-240 min), were evaluated. Adsorption isotherm profiles of Cd(II) per BG were similar to an L-type, or Langmuir type, with the adsorption forming a monolayer of approximately 0...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Jiang Yuan, Jinming Duan, Christopher P Saint, Dennis Mulcahy
The removal of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) with synthetic water was carried out on a lab-scale nanofiltration unit using two membranes, NFX and NFW. The presence of humic acid and some inorganic matters (CaCl2 and NaCl) was tested in the experiment. The results demonstrate that NFX exhibits better separation performance than NFW. The herbicide filtration is found to have little effect on the permeate flux as compared to transmembrane pressure. Intermediate concentrations of NaCl act positively on foulant separation, and an increment of 3...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Biju Prava Sahariah, J Anandkumar, Saswati Chakraborty
In this study, stability of two sequential moving bed bioreactor systems for phenol shock load (PSL) applications was assessed in presence of thiocyanate and ammonia. The systems were operated in anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic continuous (CMBR: R1-R2-R3) and semi-continuous (FMBR: B1-B2-B3) mode. Both systems were exposed to 3000 mg phenol/L (PSL-I) and 3500 mg phenol/L (PSL-II) for 3 days each from initial 2500 mg phenol/L without any intermediate concentration at 6 days HRT. The effect of PSL-I on R1 was reversible within 10-12 days...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Technology
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