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Environmental Technology

Alba Serna-Maza, Sonia Heaven, Charles J Banks
Previous studies have suggested the use of digester biogas mixing systems for in situ ammonia removal from anaerobic digestates. The feasibility of this was tested at moderate and complete gas mixing rates at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures in a 75-L digester. Experimental results showed that at gas mixing rates typical of full-scale commercial digesters the reduction in TAN concentrations would be insufficient to allow stable acetoclastic methanogenesis in mesophilic conditions, or to prevent total inhibition of methanogenic activity in thermophilic food waste digestion...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
S Mohapatra, B Sarkar, D P Samantaray, A Daware, S Maity, S Pattnaik, S Bhattacharjee
Currently, one of the major problem affecting the world is solid waste management predominantly petroleum based plastic and fish solid waste (FSW). However, it is very difficult to reduce the consumption of plastic as well as fish products, but it is promising to convert FSW to biopolymer to reduce eco-pollution. On account of that, the bioconversion of FSW extract to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was under taken by using B. subtilis (KP172548). Under optimized condition 1.62 g/L of PHB have been produced by the bacterium...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Jamshid Behin, Negin Farhadian
An externally illuminated slurry airlift reactor (ALR) was used to decompose 2,4-D IPA during catalytic ozonation with activated carbon. The effect of superficial gas velocity (0.05-0.15 cm/s), UVAB irradiation (0-60 W), treatment period (10-30 min) and amount of activated carbon (0-0.8 g/l) on removal efficiency was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken surface statistical design. Well-defined circulation pattern in the ALR allowed all the fluid elements to be exposed to high light intensity zone and achieve sufficient contact between the solid catalyst and the pollutant...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Kulchaya Tanong, Lucie Coudert, Myriam Chartier, Guy Mercier, Jean-François Blais
This paper presents an innovative process for the recovery of the valuable metals from a mixture of spent batteries. Different types of batteries, including alkaline, zinc-carbon (Zn-C), nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium ion (Li-ion) and lithium metallic (Li-M) batteries, were mixed according to the proportion of the Canadian sales of batteries. A Box-Behnken design was applied to find the optimum leaching conditions allowing a maximum of valuable metal removals from a mixture of spent batteries in the presence of an inorganic acid and a reducing agent...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Elisa Koivuranta, Terhi Suopajärvi, Joni Hattuniemi, Tuomas Stoor, Mirja Illikainen
The effect of seasonal variations on floc morphology in activated sludge process. The effect of seasonal variations on floc formation in activated sludge process was studied in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Finland nearly 16 months. Floc formation was measured with an online optical monitoring device, and results were correlated with the temperature of the upcoming wastewater and the treatment efficiency of the activated sludge process. Results showed that floc formation has a clear, seasonal pattern, with flocs in summer being larger and rounder and having fewer filaments and small particles...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Heng Dong, Dong Wei, Siyu Wang, Xiaodong Wang, Tao Yan, Liangguo Yan, Bin Du, Qin Wei
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of toxic 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) on the production of soluble microbial products (SMP) in aerobic granular sludge system. Compared with control experiment, NH4(+)-N removal efficiency generally reduced by 37.90% after the exposure of 4-CP of 10 mg L(-1), indicating that 4-CP had a toxic effect on the performance of biological nitrification. Meanwhile, the contents of polysaccharides (PS) and proteins (PN) of SMP increased from 31.0±0.32 and 0.8±0.12 mg L(-1) to 39...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Yangcheng Ding, Huajun Feng, Dongsheng Shen, Na Li, Meizhen Wang, Yuyang Zhou
This study investigated the effect of organic shock loads on the stability of anaerobic granular sludge (AnGS). At double and triple shock intensity (8 and 12 kg COD/m(3)d organic loading rate [OLR], respectively), the accumulation of VFAs resulted in the decreasing pH of the reactors. The unstable performances of AnGS also appeared in the macroscopic properties, including the decreasing contents of relative hydrophobicity (RH), granular strength and diameter, and the fluctuation of EPS production. Noteworthy, the contents of loosely bound and tightly bound polysaccharide increased obviously and were higher than that in the control under double and triple OLR shock load...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Technology
A Serrano, F Pinto-Ibieta, A F M Braga, D Jeison, R Borja, F G Fermoso
Low concentrations of trace elements in many organic wastes recommend their supplementation in order to avoid potential limitations. Different chelating agents have been used to ensure an adequate trace metal pool in the soluble fraction, by forming dissolved complexes. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is probably the most common, although several negative effects could be associated with its usage. Biomethane potential tests were performed using Olive Mill Solid Waste as the substrate, supplementing different combinations of Fe, Co, Ni, Ba, always under the presence of EDTA...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Technology
Fernanda Oliveira Tavares, Laura Adriane de Moraes Pinto, Fátima de Jesus Bassetti, Marcelo Fernandes Vieira, Rosângela Beragamasco, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo Vieira
Lead is a heavy metal considered highly toxic, responsible for causing several health problems as well as being extremely harmful to fauna and flora. Given this fact, several techniques have been studied for the removal of this metal from contaminated water, in which stands out adsorption. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of lead (II) biosorption from contaminated water by seed husks, seeds and pods of Moringa oleifera Lam (moringa). Biomass was characterized by EDX, SEM and FTIR analyses...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
E Igberase, P Osifo, A Ofomaja
Chitosan outstanding qualities and efficient way of binding metal ions even to near zero concentration is the major reason for special attention. Modification of chitosan allows the polymer to be applied in numerous field of research. Depending on the modification technique, chitosan possesses increased adsorption capacity. In this study chitosan beads was formulated from chitosan flakes, the beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and thereafter grafted with ethyl diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The stability and amine concentration of the beads were determined...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
Xiaofei Zhao, Xiaoyang Zhang, Lixin Liu, Lei Fan, Dan Ge
In this paper, oily sludge cleaning by ultrasonic was further studied to ensure how the ultrasonic reactor, such as material, bottom thickness, diameter, and auxiliary mixing effect the oil removal from oily sludge. Oily sludge, with an initial oil content of 19.29%, was mixed with distilled water and treated in an ultrasonic cleaning tank (f = 40,000 Hz at 30℃). The experiment was conducted to determine if features of the ultrasonic reactor, such as the reactor material, diameter, and bottom thickness, affected the cleaning efficiency...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
Yizhou Tu, Xing-Peng Liu, Hui-Qiang Li, Ping Yang
Fracturing waste liquid (FWL) generates during shale gas extraction and contains high concentrations of suspended solid, salinity and organic compounds, which needs well management to prevent excessive environmental disruption. Biological treatment of the FWL was attempted in this study using membrane coupled internal circulation aerobic biological fluidized bed (MC-ICABFB) after being treated by coagulation. The results showed that poly aluminium chloride (PAC) of 30 g/L, polyacrylamide (PAM) of 20 mg/L and pH of 7...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
Yanjun Xin, Gang Wang, Xiangwei Zhu, Mengchun Gao, Yongping Liu, Qinghua Chen
TiO2 Nanotube arrays (TNA) and WO3 coated TNA photoelectrodes were fabricated using an in-situ anodization and pulse electrochemical deposition technology. The performance of the TNA photoelectrodes in the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) were investigated. The effects of the initial pH and the anions on the degradation rates and reaction mechanism of 4-NP were studied by the photoluminescence (PL) spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The degradation of 4-NP was fitted to a first-order reaction, and the apparent kinetic constants were 1...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
Joo-Young Jung, Kyochan Kim, Sun-A Choi, Heewon Shin, Donghyun Kim, Sungchul C Bai, Yong Keun Chang, Jong-In Han
Dynamic filtration equipped with a perforated disk was adopted for the first time to dewater and concentrate Tetraselmis suecica, from a typical solution of 2 to 100 g/L of dense biomass suited for the downstream process. An ultrafiltration membrane, polyethersulfone 150 kDa, was found to best perform in terms of high biomass retention and filtration rate. At 1600 rpm, the highest rotation speed of the disk we tested, plateau permeate flux increased up to 20.2 times higher than those with no rotation; this improvement was attributed to fouling reduction (up to 98%) via distinctively high shear stress on the membrane surface...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Technology
Patricia Pérez-Palacios, Elizabeth Agostini, Sabrina G Ibáñez, Melina A Talano, Ignacio D Rodríguez-Llorente, Miguel A Caviedes, Eloísa Pajuelo
: The aim of this work was to develop a biotechnological tool to hyperaccumulate high copper (Cu) concentrations from wastewaters. Transgenic tobacco hairy roots were obtained by expressing, either the wild-type version of the gene copC from Pseudomonas fluorescens in the cytoplasm of plant cells (CuHR), or a modified version targeted to the vacuole (CuHR-V). Control hairy roots transformed with the empty vector (HR) were also generated. The roots were incubated in the presence of solutions containing Cu (from 1 to 50 mM)...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Technology
Nitin Kumar Singh, Akansha Bhatia, Absar Ahmad Kazmi
This study investigated the effect of various intermittent aeration (IA) cycles on organics and nutrient removal, and microbial communities in an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal waste water. Average effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values were noted as 20, 50, 30, 12 and 1.5 mgL(-1), respectively, in continuous aeration mode. A total of four operational conditions (run 1, continuous aeration; run 2, 150/30 min aeration on/off time; run 3, 120/60 min aeration on/off time and run 4, 90/60 min aeration on/off time) were investigated in IFAS reactor assessment...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Technology
Walid Saad, Wael Slika, Zara Mawla, George Saad
Recently, there has been a growing interest in identifying suitable routes for the disposal of pharmaceutical wastes. This study investigates the potential of matrix materials composed of recycled polyethylene/polypropylene reclaimed from municipal solid wastes at immobilizing pharmaceutical solid wastes. Diclofenac (DF) drug product was embedded in boards of recycled plastic material, and leaching in water was assessed at various temperatures. DF concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and revealed a maximum leachable fraction of 4% under accelerated conditions of 70°C, and less than 0...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
Lele Wang, Miao Li, Xiang Liu, Chuanping Feng, Nan Chen, Weiwu Hu
In the present study, a Ti nano-electrode was fabricated for electrochemical denitrification. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for the optimization of the factors that influence the production of Ti nano electrodes. Box-Behnken design was applied to develop mathematical models for predicting the best electrochemical nitrate removal geometry. Parameters interacting together can be identified in this typical electrochemical removal process. A correlation coefficient R(2) > 0.90 for the mathematical model was predicted to be a high correlation between observed and predicted values...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
L Saussaye, E van Veen, G Rollinson, M Boutouil, J Andersen, J Coggan
Dredging activities to extend, deepen and maintain access to harbours generate significant volumes of waste dredged material. Some ways are investigated to add value to these sediments. One solution described here is their use in road construction following treatment with hydraulic binders. This paper presents the characterisation of four sediments, in their raw state and after 90 days of curing following stabilisation treatment with lime and cement, using a combination of novel and established analytical techniques to investigate subsequent changes in mineralogy...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
Jianfei Zhou, Yangxian Liu, Jianfeng Pan
In this article, wheat straw char, a common agricultural waste and renewable biomass, was pyrolyzed and then modified by K2FeO4 reagent to develop an efficient sorbent for removal of Hg(0) from flue gas. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning electron microscopy with Energy Spectrum (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffractogram (XRD) were employed to characterize the sorbents. The effects of K2FeO4 loading, reaction temperature, Hg(0) inlet concentration and concentrations of gas mixtures O2, NO and SO2 in flue gas on Hg(0) removal were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
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