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Environmental Technology

P Arunkumar, V Sadish Kumar, S Saran, Harsha Bindun, Suja P Devipriya
The application of natural coagulants for decentralized water treatment is gaining importance as a part of global sustainable initiative. This study focuses on the isolation of active coagulation components responsible for water clarification with respect to Strychnos potatorum seeds. The active coagulant components, protein and polysaccharide were successfully isolated, dialysed and subjected to gel permeation chromatography. The polysaccharide was isolated with the saline extraction method and characterized using FTIR and NMR spectroscopy...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Giorgio Mannina, Marco Capodici, Alida Cosenza, Daniele Di Trapani, Gaspare Viviani
A University of Cape Town Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge Membrane Bioreactor (UCT-IFAS-MBR) pilot plant was operated at different values of the sludge retention time (SRT). Three SRTs were investigated at different durations: indefinitely, 30 and 15 days. The organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, kinetic/stoichiometric parameters, membrane fouling tendency and sludge filtration properties were assessed. The findings showed that by decreasing the SRT, the pilot plant could maintain excellent carbon removal efficiencies throughout the experiments...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Abdul-Hossein Almirtaha, Mohammad Eftekhari, Mahmoud Chamsaz, Mohammad Gheibi
In this paper, menthe pulegium leaves extract was used as a green reducing agent for synthesis of silver-nanoparticles from silver ion solution. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray spectroscopy and used as adsorbent in solid phase extraction for preconcentration of trace levels of cadmium (ІІ). After desorption of cadmium (ІІ) in 5 mol L-1 formic acid, the desorbent solution was aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of cadmium...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
H Puttaiah Shivaraju, Henok Egumbo, P Madhusudan, K M Anil Kumar, G Midhun
In the present study, affordable clay-based ceramic filters with multi-functional properties were prepared using low-cost and active ingredients. The characterization results of as-prepared materials clearly revealed well crystallinity, structural elucidation, extensive porosity, higher surface area, higher stability, and durability which apparently enhance the treatment efficiency. The filtration rates of ceramic filter were evaluated under gravity and the results obtained were compared with typical gravity slow sand filter...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Ashfaq Ahmad, A H Bhat, Azizul Buang
In this study freely suspended and Ca-alginate immobilized C. vulgaris cells were used for the biosorption of Fe(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) ions, from the aqueous solution. Experimental data showed that biosorption capacity of algal cells was strongly dependent on the operational condition such as pH, initial metal ions concentration, dosages, contact time and temperature. The maximum biosorption of Fe(II) 43.43, Mn(II) 40.98 and Zn(II) 37.43 mg/g was achieved with Ca-alginate immobilized algal cells at optimum pH of 6...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Andrew B Holmes, Frank X Gu
The study of the environmental fate of nanoscale TiO2 (n-TiO2) is a major recent research focus which requires a rapid and accurate on-site concentration determination method. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) has been the most widely used method for determining the concentration of n-TiO2 in environmental samples; however, poses many challenges, such as hazardous hydrofluoric acid pre-treatment and clear limitations in mobile on-site measurement and monitoring. This study demonstrates that industrial wastewater containing natural organic matter (NOM) can present a major challenge to the analysis of n-TiO2 by ICP-MS, and introduces a spectrophotometry technique that can be used as an alternative...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Ángel L Santiago-Díaz, Julisa García-Albortante, Mónica L Salazar-Peláez
The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a UASB-septic tank as a decentralized treatment of high strength municipal wastewater, under two different HRTs (48 and 72h). Thus, a lab scale (44.85L) UASB-septic tank constituted by three compartments was operated under HRT 72h and 48h. Removal efficiencies of total COD, BOD5 and suspended solids ranged from 60% to 80% for the first two parameters and from 70% to 90% for the last one. According to the statistical analysis, it was established that decreasing HRT from 72h to 48h did not affect the performance of the UASB-septic tank; therefore, the latter HRT is recommended to be used for operation...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Shenmaishang Li, Zuoxiang Zeng, Weilan Xue
The novel modified walnut shell (WNS-MAH) with higher adsorption capacity for lead ion (carboxyl value, 2.77 mmol/g) was prepared by reacting walnut shell (WNS) with maleic anhydride. Both WNS and WNS-MAH were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The adsorption capacity of WNS-MAH for lead ion was evaluated at different adsorbent doses, pHs, time and temperatures. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms were investigated in the temperature range of 298-318K...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Meng Yang, Yuezhi Zhong, Baogang Zhang, Jiaxin Shi, Xueyang Huang, Yi Xing, Lin Su, Huipeng Liu, Alistair G L Borthwick
Anode materials and structures are of critical importance for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) recovering energy from toxic substrates. Carbon-fiber-felt anodes modified by layers of vertically oriented TiO2 and Fe2O3 nanosheets respectively were applied in present study. Enhanced sulfide removal efficiencies (both over 90%) were obtained after 48 h operation, with maximum power densities improved by 1.53 and 1.36 folds compared with MFCs with raw carbon-fiber-felt anode, respectively. The modified anodes provided more active sites for microbial adhesion with increasing biomass densities...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yongliang Wang, CuiCui Lv, Li Xiao, Guoyan Fu, Ya Liu, Shufeng Ye, Yunfa Chen
The alkaline leaching solution from arsenic-containing gold concentrate contains a large amount of arsenate ions, which should be removed due to its harm to the production and environmental protection. In this study, conventional Fe (III) precipitation was used to remove arsenic from leaching solution. The precipitation reaction was carried out at normal temperature, and the effects of pH value and Fe/As ratio on the arsenic removal were investigated. The results show that the removal rate of arsenic is distinctive at different pH values, and the effect is best within the pH range of 5...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Technology
Tássia C Confortin, Izelmar Todero, Juliana F Soares, Luciana Luft, Thiarles Brun, Jéssica E Rabuske, Cicero U Nogueira, Marcio A Mazutti, Giovani L Zabot, Marcus V Tres
Fungi are considered the most damaging microorganisms in agriculture. The indiscriminate use of chemical treatments in agricultural products causes the development of pest resistance and affects human health. An alternative to synthetic fungicides is the use of natural products such as plant extracts for the management of fungal diseases in plants. Extracts from different parts of Lupinus albescens (roots, stalks, leaves, and flowers) were obtained by extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) or compressed liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Technology
Raju C Asha, M S Priyanka Yadav, Mathava Kumar
In this study, the efficacy of membrane-photocatalytic reactor (MPR) in sulfamethoxazole (SMX) removal was explored at a fixed initial SMX concentration, i.e. 100 mg/L. A supported catalyst, i.e. TiO2 on granular activated carbon (GAC-TiO2), was used for MPR experiments. The SMX removal efficiency of the MPR was investigated under a range of hydraulic retention time (i.e. HRT from 51 ∼ 152.5 min) and TiO2 catalyst dosage (55 ∼ 550 mg/L). A maximum SMX removal efficiency of 83.6% was observed under 220 mg/L catalyst dosage and 80 min HRT...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Technology
Mansooreh Dehghani, Majid Nozari, Atefeh Fakhraei Fard, Marziyeh Ansari Shiri, Narges Shamsedini
Direct Red 81 (DR-81) dye with a very high water solubility is widely used in many industries particularly textile industries. This study aimed to evaluate the practicability of using iron filings for the adsorption of DR-81 dye from the aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, adsorbent dose, initial DR-81 dye concentration, and adsorption time on adsorption process were also evaluated. The maximum of adsorption efficiency of DR-81 dye achieved in the optimum pH: 3, adsorbent dose: 2.5 g/L, contact time: 30 min, and initial dye concentration: 50 mg/L...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Technology
Huoqing Wang, Yuepeng Sun, Guangxue Wu, Yuntao Guan
Characteristics of nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in the multiple anoxic/aerobic (AO) process were examined in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with different anoxic durations (50 min, SBRH; 40 min, SBRM; 30 min, SBRL) and a fixed aerobic duration of 30 min. The highest total inorganic nitrogen removal percentage of 85.8% was obtained in SBRH, while a minimum N2O emission factor of 1.9% was obtained in SBRL. During nitrification batch experiments, the N2O emission factor and emission rate were both lower in SBRH than SBRL...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Wei Zhang, Yangyang Feng, Yingwen Chen, Peiwen Li, Shemin Zhu, Shubao Shen
In this paper, a new type of biogas jet assisted anaerobic fluidized bed reactor loaded with a polypropylene (PP) carrier, has been proposed. There was a clear improvement in the fluidized state due to the biogas assisted input when the gas/water ratio was set at 1:3 with a suitable carrier loading of 60%. When the circulating water flow is 30 L/min assisted with biogas 10 L/min, the mixing time shortens from 26 s to 18 s. The performance of anaerobic biodegradation on wastewater treatment was improved largely...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Hyewon Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, In Gyu Choi, Joon Weon Choi
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of lignocellulosic biomass has been widely investigated for the production of renewable and alternative bio-crude oil. In this study, catalytic hydrothermal processing of two biomasses (larch and Mongolian oak) was performed using different K2CO3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0wt% of solvent) to improve fuel yield and properties. HTL oil, hydrochar, water soluble fraction (WSF) and gas were characterized and carbon balance was investigated. As a result, the maximum yield of HTL oil, 27...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Technology
Maressa Maria de Melo Santos, Marta Maria Menezes Bezerra Duarte, Graziele Elisandra do Nascimento, Natalya Barbosa Guedes de Souza, Otidene Rossiter Sá da Rocha
This work proposes the use of plastic residues, more specifically polystyrene packaging, to support TiO2, used as a photocatalyst in the degradation of erythrosine and Brilliant Blue food dyes. The scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses exhibited the surface coating and the presence of TiO2 in the material, respectively. The UV/H2O2/TiO2((SP)supported) process was used in the preliminary study, given the high percentage of degradation, operational advantages and greater reductions in peaks related to the aromatic rings when compared to the other processes studied...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yao-Jen Tu, Chen-Feng You, Sheng-Chung Lo, Ting-Shan Chan, Chuan-Hsiung Chung
This study systematically evaluates Neodymium (Nd) recovery from actual seawaters and wastewater using functionalized magnetic ferrite (3-mercaptopropionic acid-tetraethyl orthosilicate ferrite, MPA-TEOS-ferrite). The recovery of Nd by MPA-TEOS-ferrite displayed an L-shaped nonlinear isotherm, suggesting limiting binding sites on the adsorbent surface. At room temperature, a significantly recovery of Nd by MPA-TEOS-ferrite increased from 8.99 to 99.99% with increasing pH (2.89 to 8.16) and an enhanced maxima Nd recovery capacity was observed on MPA-TEOS-ferrite (25...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Technology
Shu-Mei Xia, Yan-Qing Zhang, Ya-Fang Zheng, Chang-Song Xu, Guang-Min Liu
Doping non-metals into TiO2 has been regarded as a promising way to gain more effective photocatalyst. In this paper, N, F-codoped TiO2 was synthesized by sol-gel method, demonstrating both high adsorption capacity and high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS ). The results show that N, F-codoping can reduce the impact of calcination temperature on the structure and morphology of the sample, and then the sample exhibits good thermal stability, even when the calcination temperature changes in a large range ,instead of rutile, the anatase around 20 nm is the only phase in N, F-codoped samples...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Technology
Yueqin Dou, Mitch Klein, Tian C Zhang, John Stansbury, Massoum Moussavi, Dana L Richter-Egger, Jing Zeng
Structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been used for stormwater treatment and management for several decades. How to monitor these BMPs performance reliably and economically is a challenge. This paper reports feasibility of developing a flow through passive sampler (PS) based on Amberlite IRC748 ion exchange resin operated in kinetic regime for sampling heavy metals in BMPs (infiltration systems) for stormwater treatment and management. Tests were conducted using batch reactors and laboratory-scale BMPs (bioretention cells)...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Technology
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