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Environmental Technology

Munir Ahmad, Mahtab Ahmad, Adel R A Usman, Abdullah S Al-Faraj, Yong Sik Ok, Qaiser Hussain, Adel Abduljabbar, Mohammad I Al-Wabel
The excessive discharge of phosphorus (P) from sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural fields is causing a rapid contamination of water resources worldwide. Several materials have been evaluated for the removal of excess P from waste supplies, but designing a cost-effective and environmental friendly substrate is essential for the efficient P removal. In this study, bio-calcite (BC) derived from waste hen eggshell was subjected to thermal treatments (CBC). The BC and CBC further modified via magnesiothermal treatments to produced MBC and MCBC, respectively, and evaluated as a novel green sorbent for P removal from aqueous solutions...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
Daniela S Gomes, Licínio M Gando-Ferreira, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira, Rui C Martins
Diclofenac (DCF) and Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) are two of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical compounds in water and are hardly removed by biological treatment systems. The presence of H2O2 was investigated in the ozonation of these two compounds. Experiments were carried out with both using distillated water and secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) spiked with pharmaceuticals. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement rate improved when H2O2 was added at the beginning of the ozonation process and when the ozone inlet concentration increased, attaining a maximum value of 91% and simultaneously a lower ozone waste for a H2O2 initial concentration of 5 mM and an ozone inlet concentration of 20 g Nm(-3)...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
Allison Talley, Robert Heimann, Stergios Vakalis
Confined animal feeding operations are producing large amounts of organic waste with large fractions being mixtures of manure and sawdust. On one hand, the inhomogeneity of the material and the high water content restrict the optimal application of thermal treatment methods. On the other hand, the high concentration of bacteria in these mixed waste streams is issue of concern. This study introduces a novel process for treating manure & woody biomass mixtures and upgrading them into valuable products. It is defined as Compression Frictional Treatment and takes place continuously in a Rotary Compression Unit...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Technology
Claudia Cossio, Jennifer McConville, Sebastien Rauch, Britt-Marie Wilén, Sahar Dalahmeh, Alvaro Mercado, Ana M Romero
Wastewater management in developing countries is a challenge, especially in small towns with rapid population growth. This study aims at assessing the performance and management of five treatment plants in rural areas of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Pollutants concentrations, wastewater flows, hydraulic and organic loads, and hydraulic retention times were determined in three small treatment plants (2000-10000 p.e.; flow >5L/s) and two very small treatment plants (<2000 p.e.; flow <5L/s). The performance assessment was based on operational parameters, treatment efficiency and effluent quality...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
I Pala-Ozkok, G Kor-Bicakci, E U Çokgör, D Jonas, D Orhon
Enhanced endogenous respiration was observed as the significant/main response of the aerobic microbial culture under pulse exposure to antibiotics: sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin. Peptone mixture and acetate were selected as organic substrates to compare the effect of complex and simple substrates. Experiments were conducted with microbial cultures acclimated to different sludge ages of ten and two days, to visualize the effect of culture history. Evaluation relied on modeling of oxygen uptake rate profiles, reflecting the effect of all biochemical reactions associated with substrate utilization...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
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May 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
V Nogueira, I Lopes, T A P Rocha-Santos, F Gonçalves, R Pereira
Over the last few decades, high quantities of industrial wastewaters containing a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants are being directly discharged into the environment, sometimes without proper treatment. Many of these contaminants have been described as causing significant effects on the environment, especially after cumulative discharges. In this scenario, nanotechnology has a tremendous potential, due to the unique properties of the new produced nanomaterials (NMs), such as surface area, adsorptivity and photocatalytic potential, which can improve the existing treatments or even develop new treatment solutions...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
Ariyanti Sarwono, Zakaria Man, M Azmi Bustam, Duvvuri Subbarao, Alamin Idris, Nawshad Muhammad, Amir Sada Khan, Zahoor Ullah
Coating fertilizer particles with thin films is a possibility to control the fertilizer release rates. It is observed that novel urea crosslinked starch-lignin composite thin films, prepared by solution casting, swell on coming into contact with water due to increase in volume by water uptake diffusion. The effect of lignin content, varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% and three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C and 45°C) on swelling of the film was investigated. By gravimetric analysis, the equilibrium water uptake and diffusion coefficient decrease with lignin content indicating that the addition of lignin increases the hydrophobicity of the films...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
B Akbari-Adergani, M H Saghi, A Eslami, A Mohseni-Bandpei, M Rabbani
An (Fe, Ag) co-doped ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by a simple chemical co-precipitation method and used for the degradation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in aqueous solution under visible LED irradiation. (Fe, Ag) co-doped ZnO nanorods were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis DRS, elemental mapping, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), TEM and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. A Central Composite Design was used to optimize the reaction parameters for the removal of DBP by the (Fe, Ag) co-doped ZnO nanorods...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
Haider M Zwain, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Irvan Dahlan
The performance of modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) treating recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) was investigated by varying the influent chemical oxygen demand concentration (CODin) from 1,000 to 4,000 mg/L, and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 3 to 1 days, corresponding to organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.33 to 4 g COD/L day. Throughout 126 days of operation, a maximum removal efficiencies up to 96% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 99% of biological oxygen demand (BOD), methane (CH4) yield of 0...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
Patrícia da Luz Mesquita, Cássia Ribeiro Souza, Nilza Tatiane G Santos, Sônia Denise Ferreira Rocha
Water reuse in industrial processes has been an increasing need encouraged in recent years. However, as the streams are recycled, solutes accumulate, thus requiring purification techniques. Membrane processes (reverse osmosis and electrodialysis) have been implemented and in order to increase the reuse of water at its highest level, crystallization has been evaluated to remove salts from the concentrate produced and get a feasible disposal. Nevertheless, contaminants affect the crystallization performance, thus making the removal of residual organics important for both, the efficiency of crystallization as well as the increase of water reuse...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Pooja Yadav, S R Samadder
Selection of suitable Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) options is one of the major challenges in urban areas of the developing countries. Success of MSWM, requires accurate data of generation rate, composition, and physico-chemical characteristics of solid wastes. Improper handling of solid waste can have significant environmental and aesthetical impacts. The present study proposes a new method (applicability index- Pik values) for identifying the most appropriate disposal option with the help of applicability values of Composting-CP, Incineration-IP, and Landfill-LP for individual components of MSW based on the results of the physico-chemical analysis of the collected representative solid waste samples from the study area, Dhanbad, India...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah, Hongbo Hu, Xuehong Zhang, Yongfeng Zhou
The present study was designed to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh-B) in a self-assembled TiO2 assisted system under UV light irradiation. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses confirmed the elevated Rh-B degradation level. A stepwise meticulous breakdown pathway based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) is proposed. Results demonstrated that the degradation of Rh-B mainly occurred via N-de-ethylation process, and N-de-ethylated intermediate products were further oxidized into acids and alcohols...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Peter Mellor, Nicola Willson, Nadene Claydon, Erik I Paling, Belinda Parker, Nicole Wylie, Paul Mackey, Harry Houridis
A sedimentation scanner was used to measure daily sediment height at 10 sites associated with a 14 million cubic metre dredging project in Port Hedland harbour, Western Australia between July 2011 and May 2012. Data were collected from seven potential impact sites, where up to 35 mm of additional sedimentation was predicted via modelling to result from dredging and at three reference sites, where background variation was monitored. A variety of mangrove habitat health indices from each site (including leaf area and health, pneumatophore and faunal burrow density) were collected before, during and after dredging...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Peng Xing, Baozhong Ma, Chengyan Wang, Yongqiang Chen
The expansion of non-ferrous metal smelting industry in the recent two decades has resulted in the generation of massive quantities of flue gas scrubber sludge containing hazardous heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, arsenic, selenium and mercury (Hg), posing a potential environmental threat. In this work, lead smelting flue gas scrubber sludge was treated by a hydrometallurgical process to achieve sludge cleaning and economic recovery of metal values lead, selenium and mercury. The sludge was preliminarily leached by sodium chloride solution to extract lead...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Hailin Yang, Xiaofei Lu, Mengchang He
Antimony (Sb) is of increasing environmental concern worldwide. The sorption behavior of Sb was investigated. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) were likely to be sorbed onto nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2). Sorption studies showed that the Sb(V) sorption capacity and rate for TiO2 were greater than those of Sb(III). The highest Sb(III) and Sb(V) sorption on TiO2, on the basis of the Langmuir equation, were 333 and 588 mmol kg(-1), respectively. The study suggested that TiO2 is an effective adsorbent for Sb removal...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Nattawin Chawaloesphonsiya, Pascal Guiraud, Pisut Painmanakul
The destabilization mechanism of the high stable cutting-oil emulsion by aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) was investigated since it can affect properties of aggregates and following separation units. Al2(SO4)3 dosage and pH were key factors in the destabilization. The effective separation occurred when precipitated Al(OH)3 is dominated at the neutral pH of 6.5-7.0. The best separation can be achieved when solid flocs were formed at 1.0 mM, which exceeded the dosage from the CCC of 0.75 mM. Two different mechanisms were proved for the emulsion destabilization depending upon the Al(3+) concentration under this pH range...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
Grant R McKercher, Jennifer K Vanos
The complex nature of air pollution in urban areas due to meteorological influences and mobile emissions prevents traditional monitoring techniques from obtaining measurements representative of true human exposure. Small, mobile air pollution monitors, however, are useful tools to address this complexity. The current study assessed the capability of low-cost mobile monitors to acquire useful data in a city without a monitoring network in place (Lubbock, Texas) using a bicycle platform. The monitoring campaign resulted in 30 days of data along a 13...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
S Poorna Chandrika, D Sabarinathan, P Anburajan, K Preethi
The potential use of parboiled rice mill effluent as a cheap substrate for the production of homopolymer and copolymer of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Acinetobacter junii BP 25 was investigated for the first time. Process optimization by one factor at a time led to homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production of 2.64 ± 0.18 g/l with 94.28% PHB content using a two stage batch cultivation mode. BP 25 furthermore produced polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P3 (HB-co-HV)), with the addition of valeric acid as an additive to the substrate, yielding (2...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
Tabassum Rasool, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Rahat Ullah, Safia Ahmed
In the present study, a cost effective and simple stone media pilot scale trickling biofilter (TBF) was designed, constructed and operated in continuous recirculation mode for wastewater treatment with a hydraulic flow rate of 1.2 L/min (Q = 0.072 m(3)/hr) and hydraulic loading (Q/A) of 0.147 m(3)/day for 15 weeks at temperature range of 14.5-36°C. A substantial reduction in the average concentration of different pollution indicators, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85.6%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (85...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
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