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Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

Hee-Ju Park, In-Ki Hwang, Kyeong-Wook Kim, Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang
Platichthys stellatus individuals were exposed to dietary lead (Pb) at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg kg-1 for 4 weeks. Recover period was conducted for 2 weeks after the exposure. Pb exposure over 60 mg kg-1 induced significant changes in the antioxidant responses in the liver, kidney, and gill and continued even after the depuration period in the liver (over 120 mg kg-1 for superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) and kidney (at 240 mg kg-1 for glutathione (GSH) levels). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in liver, kidney, and gill were increased by dietary Pb exposure, and recovery was observed in all groups during the recovery period...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Massimo Morpurgo, Gregory J Barord
The correct diagnosis and treatment of disease in chambered nautiluses Nautilus pompilius are difficult. The basic morphology and natural behaviors of the species tend to mask the initial onset of a disease or infection, and by the time it is observable, mortality usually occurs. A single specimen of chambered nautilus at the Museum of Nature South Tyrol, Italy, exhibited symptoms of an infection, including mucus production, abnormal buoyancy, irregular hood appearance, and inconsistent tentacle movement. Soon after, tetracycline hydrochloride was administered in bath form at 25 mg/L in seawater daily for 30 min over six consecutive days...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Ian G Brosnan, Wendy O Williams, George E Sanders, Louise P McGarry, Charles H Greene
Researchers engaged in surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters into fish must receive adequate and appropriate training to ensure the welfare of their subjects and the quality of the data collected. Increasingly, they are being encouraged to partner with veterinarians to improve training, and to consider the principles of animal welfare in training. Here, we describe a 5-stage training pathway, including implementation of new training tools, the Translational Training Tools™ and field certification, that was developed collaboratively by researchers and veterinarians and address the 3 R's of animal welfare in the context of surgical training...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Rafael de Souza Romaneli, André Zuffo Boaratti, Andressa Tellechea Rodrigues, Daniel Monge de Almeida Ueiroz, Kifayat Ullah Khan, Thiago Matias Torres Nascimento, João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes
For the production and commercialization of ornamental fish species, it is indispensable to collect biometric data for the selection of animals for trade and genetic improvement of the stock. However, during handling processes, fishes receive more stress if proper anesthetics are not used. Thus, using appropriate anesthetics is an important tool for minimizing stress in animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effective concentrations of benzocaine, eugenol and menthol for angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) anesthesia and to develop induction and recovery response curves for different concentrations of these anesthetics...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Marc M Terrazas, Cort L Anderson, Sarah J Jacobs, Kenneth D Cain
In response to population declines of Burbot Lota lota maculosa, conservation aquaculture methods have been developed for this species. In general, Burbot are relatively resistant to many salmonid pathogens; however, cultured juvenile Burbot have experienced periodic epizootic disease outbreaks during production. A series of trials were conducted to determine the virulence of select bacteria isolated from juvenile Burbot following outbreaks that occurred in 2012 and 2013 at the University of Idaho's Aquaculture Research Institute...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
David W Welch, Matthew H Futia, Jacques Rinchard, Amy K Teffer, Kristi M Miller, Scott G Hinch, Dale C Honeyfield
Pacific salmon from multiple species and stocks have experienced large declines in the number of returning adult over a wide region of the Pacific Northwest due to poor marine survival (low smolt-to-adult survival rates). One possible explanation for reduced survival is thiamine deficiency. Thiamine (Vitamin B1 ) is an essential vitamin with an integral role in many metabolic processes and thiamine deficiency is an important cause of salmonid mortality in the Baltic Sea and North American Great Lakes. To assess this possibility, we (1) compared muscle thiamine content over time in a holding experiment using Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to establish whether adult Sockeye Salmon dying during the holding period had lower thiamine levels than that of survivors, (2) measured infectious loads of multiple pathogens in held fish, and (3) measured egg thiamine content from four species of Pacific salmon collected on Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada) spawning grounds...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Christine A Richey, Kirsten V Kenelty, Kristina Van Stone Hopkins, Brittany N Stevens, Beatriz Martínez-López, Samantha M Barnum, Sascha L Hallett, Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Esteban Soto
Myxobolus cerebralis is a myxozoan parasite and the etiological agent of whirling disease in salmonids. The parasite's life cycle involves waterborne spores and requires both a salmonid fish and the benthic freshwater oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae). Wildfires can lead to the erosion of fine sediments into stream channels and have been implicated as promoting environmental conditions that are suitable for the survival and success of T. tubifex, whose presence in turn can affect the prevalence of M...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
M F Chen, S M O'Neill, A J Carey, R H Conrad, B A Stewart, K R Snekvik, G M Ylitalo, P K Hershberger
Out-migrating steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from four Puget Sound rivers and associated marine basins of Puget Sound in Washington State were examined for the parasite, Nanophyetus salmincola in 2014 to determine whether recent trends in reduced marine survival are associated with the presence of this pathogen. A subset of steelhead from three of these river-marine basin combinations was analyzed for the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess whether exposure to these contaminants is a contributing factor to their reduced marine survival...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Lik-Ming Lau, Kishio Hatai, Hanako Fukano, Osamu Kurata
In September 2014, a freshwater oomycete was first isolated from Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer fry that were reared in freshwater at a fish hatchery in Sabah, Malaysia. A fungal strain was isolated from infected fry by using glucose yeast extract (GY) agar. From morphological identification, the strain belonged to the genus Achlya based on the mode of zoospore release. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region sequences from the strain showed high similarity (99-100%) to Achlya oblongata...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Josué Alonso Yee-Duarte, Bertha Patricia Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez, Marian Alejandra Camacho-Mondragón, Esther Uría-Galicia
The gonadal health status of the chocolate clam Megapitaria squalida collected from the Santa Rosalía mining port and San Lucas beach (reference site), Gulf of California, Mexico, was assessed through histological analysis of the reproductive tissue, from which the histopathological alteration index (HAI) was determined. In addition, copper and iron accumulation in tissue was revealed using histochemical techniques. Our results showed a large presence of copper (30%) and iron (45%) only in the gonad tissue of clams from Santa Rosalía, in which histopathological alterations observed were inflammatory responses, degenerative-progressive processes, cell death, and response to infectious agents...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Nicholas Crossland, John Hawke, Fabio Del Piero, Yulia Sokolova, Thomas Waltzek, Pedro Viadanna
Fifteen adult koi (a variant of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio) simultaneously developed white cutaneous proliferations affecting up to 30% of their bodies. The onset of these lesions (in September 2014) was associated with their return to a remodeled backyard water garden after temporarily being maintained in a plastic swimming pool. A single water temperature taken during the outbreak read 21°C on November 17, 2014. The water garden had no extrinsic heat source, with average ambient temperatures ranging from 9...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Kumudini M Meepagala, Kevin K Schrader
Bacterial diseases cause major financial damage to the producers of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern US. The two most common bacterial diseases among pond raised channel catfish are enteric septicemia (ESC), caused by the gram negative bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, and columnaris disease, caused by the rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Streptococcosis is another less common bacterial disease in catfish and is caused by the gram-positive coccus Streptococcus iniae...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Patrick R Hutchins, Adam J Sepulveda, Renee M Martin, Lacey R Hopper
Conventional PCR is an established method to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonaeDNA in fish tissues and to confirm diagnosis of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by T. bryosalmonae. However, the commonly used PKX5f-6r primers were designed with the intention of obtaining sequence information and are suboptimal for determining parasite DNA presence. A new PCR assay to detect T. bryosalmonae 18s rDNA, PKX18s1266f-1426r, is presented that demonstrates specificity, repeatability, and enhanced sensitivity over the PKX5f-6r assay...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Heather L Walsh, Vicki S Blazer, Geoffrey D Smith, Michael Lookenbill, David A Alvarez, Kelly L Smalling
Evidence of disease and mortalities of young of the year (age-0) Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu has occurred during the late spring and summer in many parts of the Susquehanna River watershed since 2005. To better understand contributing factors, fish collected from multiple areas throughout the watershed as well as out-of-basin reference populations (Allegheny and Delaware River basins; experimental ponds, Kearneysville, West Virginia) were examined grossly and histologically for abnormalities. Tissue contaminant concentrations were determined from whole-body homogenates, and water contaminant concentrations were estimated using time-integrated passive samplers at selected sites...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
E C Amar, M J S Apines-Amar, J P Faisan
Onion Allium cepa and ginger Zingiber officinale have health-promoting properties that qualify them as functional foods. The effect of repeated acute stressors was examined in juvenile Brown-marbled Grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus that were fed four diets supplemented with onion at 1.8%, ginger at 1.8%, vitamin C at 0.86%, and β-glucan at 0.8% of the diet. The non-supplemented diet served as the control. After 12 weeks of feeding, fish were exposed to stressors and were experimentally infected with a fish pathogen, the bacterium Vibrio harveyi JML1...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Maria L Rodgers, Catherine A Toline, Charles D Rice
Serum from Kemp's ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii and loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta was collected during summer in 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacterial species and whole bacterium-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition for some species being more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against Vibrio vulnificus, V. anguillarum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Brevundimonas vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley sea turtles, while IgY titers against V...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Philippe Danigo, Carlos Reyes-Roel
A mortality episode (>90%) of triploid and diploid Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas cultured in Baja California Sur occurred during summer 2012, coinciding with a thermal anomaly, an algal bloom, and low oxygen values. To help explain the cause of the mortalities, histological analyses and molecular tests for specific pathogens (ostreid herpesvirus 1 [OsHV-1] and Perkinsus marinus) were performed on oysters surviving at the end of the episode. Triploid oysters showed a high percentage of males (43%) and hermaphrodites (30%); 93% of these oysters were in the gonadic reabsorption stage, and in some cases, hemocytes completely filled the lumen of the gonadic follicles...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Eric A Davis, Wai Hing Wong, Willard N Harman
The use of chemicals to decontaminate watercraft and/or equipment after exposure to zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha is one method of decontamination that has been recommended by multiple government agencies in the United States. The ideal chemical to be used for decontamination would be inexpensive and easily obtained, would have no or limited effect on nontarget species, and would be relatively environmentally friendly. Two chemicals that have been tested are potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl)...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Pradeep R Dumpala, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
Edwardsiella ictaluri is a facultative, intracellular, gram-negative bacterium that causes enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). Edwardsiella ictaluri is known to be resistant to defense mechanisms present in catfish serum, which might aid in its use of a host's bloodstream to become septicemic. However, the precise mechanisms of the survival of E. ictaluri in host serum are not known. Analysis of the response of E. ictaluri to the host serum treatment at a proteomic level might aid in the elucidation of its adaptation mechanisms against defense mechanisms present in catfish serum...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Crystal L Herron, M L Kent, C B Schreck
Juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha moving downstream through tributaries of the upper Willamette River basin can spend months in reservoirs created by dams. While residing in the reservoirs, they often obtain heavy infections of the freshwater parasitic copepod Salmincola californiensis. The physiologic effect these parasites have on salmonids is poorly understood. We developed a method to infect juvenile Chinook Salmon in a laboratory with the copepodid stage of S. californiensis. Infected and uninfected fish were subjected to a swimming challenge to ascertain swimming endurance...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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