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Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

Christine A Richey, Kirsten V Kenelty, Kristina Van Stone Hopkins, Brittany N Stevens, Beatriz Martínez-López, Samantha M Barnum, Sascha L Hallett, Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Esteban Soto
Myxobolus cerebralis is a myxozoan parasite and the etiological agent of whirling disease in salmonids. The parasite's life cycle involves waterborne spores and requires both a salmonid fish and the benthic freshwater oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae). Wildfires can lead to the erosion of fine sediments into stream channels and have been implicated as promoting environmental conditions that are suitable for the survival and success of T. tubifex, whose presence in turn can affect the prevalence of M...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
M F Chen, S M O'Neill, A J Carey, R H Conrad, B A Stewart, K R Snekvik, G M Ylitalo, P K Hershberger
Out-migrating steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from four Puget Sound rivers and associated marine basins of Puget Sound in Washington State were examined for the parasite, Nanophyetus salmincola in 2014 to determine whether recent trends in reduced marine survival are associated with the presence of this pathogen. A subset of steelhead from three of these river-marine basin combinations was analyzed for the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess whether exposure to these contaminants is a contributing factor to their reduced marine survival...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Lik-Ming Lau, Kishio Hatai, Hanako Fukano, Osamu Kurata
In September 2014, a freshwater oomycete was first isolated from Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer fry that were reared in freshwater at a fish hatchery in Sabah, Malaysia. A fungal strain was isolated from infected fry by using glucose yeast extract (GY) agar. From morphological identification, the strain belonged to the genus Achlya based on the mode of zoospore release. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region sequences from the strain showed high similarity (99-100%) to Achlya oblongata...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Josué Alonso Yee-Duarte, Bertha Patricia Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez, Marian Alejandra Camacho-Mondragón, Esther Uría-Galicia
The gonadal health status of the chocolate clam Megapitaria squalida collected from the Santa Rosalía mining port and San Lucas beach (reference site), Gulf of California, Mexico, was assessed through histological analysis of the reproductive tissue, from which the histopathological alteration index (HAI) was determined. In addition, copper and iron accumulation in tissue was revealed using histochemical techniques. Our results showed a large presence of copper (30%) and iron (45%) only in the gonad tissue of clams from Santa Rosalía, in which histopathological alterations observed were inflammatory responses, degenerative-progressive processes, cell death, and response to infectious agents...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Nicholas Crossland, John Hawke, Yulia Sokolova, Pedro Viadanna, Thomas Waltzek, Fabio Del Piero
Fifteen adult koi (Cyprinus carpio) simultaneously developed white cutaneous proliferations affecting up to 30% of their bodies. Onset of lesions (September, 2014) was associated with return to a remodeled backyard water garden after temporarily being maintained in a plastic swimming pool. A single water temperature taken during the outbreak read 21°C on November 17, 2014. The water garden was under no extrinsic heat source, with average ambient temperatures ranging from 26.4-9.4 °C during the course of the outbreak (September 2014-January 2015, respectively)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Kumudini M Meepagala, Kevin K Schrader
Bacterial diseases cause major financial damage to the producers of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern US. The two most common bacterial diseases among pond raised channel catfish are enteric septicemia (ESC), caused by the gram negative bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, and columnaris disease, caused by the rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Streptococcosis is another less common bacterial disease in catfish and is caused by the gram-positive coccus Streptococcus iniae...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Patrick R Hutchins, Adam J Sepulveda, Renee M Martin, Lacey R Hopper
Conventional PCR is an established method to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonaeDNA in fish tissues and to confirm diagnosis of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by T. bryosalmonae. However, the commonly used PKX5f-6r primers were designed with the intention of obtaining sequence information and are suboptimal for determining parasite DNA presence. A new PCR assay to detect T. bryosalmonae 18s rDNA, PKX18s1266f-1426r, is presented that demonstrates specificity, repeatability, and enhanced sensitivity over the PKX5f-6r assay...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Heather L Walsh, Vicki S Blazer, Geoffrey D Smith, Michael Lookenbill, David A Alvarez, Kelly L Smalling
Evidence of disease and mortalities of young of the year (age-0) Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu has occurred during the late spring and summer in many parts of the Susquehanna River watershed since 2005. To better understand contributing factors, fish collected from multiple areas throughout the watershed as well as out-of-basin reference populations (Allegheny and Delaware River basins; experimental ponds, Kearneysville, West Virginia) were examined grossly and histologically for abnormalities. Tissue contaminant concentrations were determined from whole-body homogenates, and water contaminant concentrations were estimated using time-integrated passive samplers at selected sites...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
E C Amar, M J S Apines-Amar, J P Faisan
Onion Allium cepa and ginger Zingiber officinale have health-promoting properties that qualify them as functional foods. The effect of repeated acute stressors was examined in juvenile Brown-marbled Grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus that were fed four diets supplemented with onion at 1.8%, ginger at 1.8%, vitamin C at 0.86%, and β-glucan at 0.8% of the diet. The non-supplemented diet served as the control. After 12 weeks of feeding, fish were exposed to stressors and were experimentally infected with a fish pathogen, the bacterium Vibrio harveyi JML1...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Maria L Rodgers, Catherine A Toline, Charles D Rice
Serum from Kemp's ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii and loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta was collected during summer in 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacterial species and whole bacterium-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition for some species being more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against Vibrio vulnificus, V. anguillarum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Brevundimonas vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley sea turtles, while IgY titers against V...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Philippe Danigo, Carlos Reyes-Roel
A mortality episode (>90%) of triploid and diploid Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas cultured in Baja California Sur occurred during summer 2012, coinciding with a thermal anomaly, an algal bloom, and low oxygen values. To help explain the cause of the mortalities, histological analyses and molecular tests for specific pathogens (ostreid herpesvirus 1 [OsHV-1] and Perkinsus marinus) were performed on oysters surviving at the end of the episode. Triploid oysters showed a high percentage of males (43%) and hermaphrodites (30%); 93% of these oysters were in the gonadic reabsorption stage, and in some cases, hemocytes completely filled the lumen of the gonadic follicles...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Eric A Davis, Wai Hing Wong, Willard N Harman
The use of chemicals to decontaminate watercraft and/or equipment after exposure to zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha is one method of decontamination that has been recommended by multiple government agencies in the United States. The ideal chemical to be used for decontamination would be inexpensive and easily obtained, would have no or limited effect on nontarget species, and would be relatively environmentally friendly. Two chemicals that have been tested are potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl)...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Pradeep R Dumpala, Mark L Lawrence, Attila Karsi
Edwardsiella ictaluri is a facultative, intracellular, gram-negative bacterium that causes enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC). Edwardsiella ictaluri is known to be resistant to defense mechanisms present in catfish serum, which might aid in its use of a host's bloodstream to become septicemic. However, the precise mechanisms of the survival of E. ictaluri in host serum are not known. Analysis of the response of E. ictaluri to the host serum treatment at a proteomic level might aid in the elucidation of its adaptation mechanisms against defense mechanisms present in catfish serum...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Crystal L Herron, M L Kent, C B Schreck
Juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha moving downstream through tributaries of the upper Willamette River basin can spend months in reservoirs created by dams. While residing in the reservoirs, they often obtain heavy infections of the freshwater parasitic copepod Salmincola californiensis. The physiologic effect these parasites have on salmonids is poorly understood. We developed a method to infect juvenile Chinook Salmon in a laboratory with the copepodid stage of S. californiensis. Infected and uninfected fish were subjected to a swimming challenge to ascertain swimming endurance...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Luciano V Chiaramonte, David Burbank, Roberta Scott, Jesse T Trushenski
Myxobolus cerebralis (Mc) is a myxozoan parasite causing whirling disease in hatchery- and natural-origin salmonids. To minimize spread of this parasite and the incidence of its associated disease, fish health professionals routinely screen fish for Mc before stocking or moving the fish to Mc-free waters. Sample collection for Mc traditionally entails lethal sampling of cranial tissue followed by pepsin-trypsin digest (PTD) and screening of the sample for mature myxobolid myxospores (PTD method); however, nonlethal sampling methods would be advantageous in some circumstances, such as when dealing with rare or otherwise valuable fish...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Paul K Hershberger, Jacob L Gregg, Claude L Dykstra
Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis throughout the West Coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, Alaska (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross-Portlock, Alaska (71% versus 32% within 2012), and interannual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% in 2012 versus 12% in 2015)...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Soad Ramezani, Hamid Eshaghzadeh, Hooman Saeimee, Samad Darvishi
In this research, the effect of Immunogen® (IMNO) was investigated on growth indices, hematological parameters, and carcass composition of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). After acclimation, fish (274 ± 16.22 g) were allocated into twelve tanks (10 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed a control diet (0%) or diets containing 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% IMNO for 75 days. At the end of the experiment, final length, final weight, and weight gain were significantly higher in the fish fed with the diet containing 1% IMNO (P<0...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
A C Steinagel, M J Burkhard, K F Kuehnl, G Thomas Watters, P J Rajala-Schultz, K H Valentine, B A Wolfe
Non-destructive, sub-lethal, and sensitive health monitoring tools are needed for the family Unionidae (freshwater mussels). Recent developments to standardize hemocyte characterization have paved the way for hematologic assessment of wild and captive freshwater mussels. In this study, preliminary baseline hematological reference ranges were established for wild Mapleleaf Mussels, (Quadrula quadrula, n = 14) and Threeridge Mussels, (Amblema plicata, n = 20) collected from the Muskingum River in Devola, Ohio, USA...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
R M Kocan, S E LaPatra
Other than the initial infectious cell, schizonts are the only stage of the parasite Ichthyophonus sp. that has been identified in the tissues of a living host, and they are known to initiate new infections when ingested by a suitable host. However, after feeding Ichthyophonus-infected tissue to Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, we observed that once infection was initiated, some schizonts proceeded to develop into several other morphologic forms indistinguishable from those previously described from recently deceased hosts, decomposing infected corpses, and in vitro culture...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Traimat Boonthai, Thomas P Loch, Isaac Standish, Mohamed Faisal
Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a notifiable pathogen of the World Organization of Animal Health. Since SVCV was isolated in Lake Ontario in 2007, concern has grown about its spread in the Great Lakes basin and its potential negative impacts on fish species of importance in stock enhancement programs basinwide. The susceptibility of representative fish species from the families Cyprinidae (Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, Spotfin Shiner Cyprinella spiloptera, and Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus), Centrarchidae (Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides), Percidae (Walleye Sander vitreus), Salmonidae (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Esocidae (Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) to SVCV was evaluated by experimental infection under laboratory conditions...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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