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Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028409/high-prevalence-and-low-intensity-ichthyophonus-infections-in-pacific-halibut-hippoglossus-stenolepis
#1
Paul K Hershberger, Jacob L Gregg, Claude L Dykstra
Ichthyophonus occurred at high prevalence but low intensity in Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) throughout the west coast of North America, ranging from coastal Oregon to the Bering Sea. Infection prevalence in adults was variable on spatial and temporal scales, with the lowest prevalence typically occurring on the edges of the geographic range and highest prevalence consistently occurring inside Prince William Sound, AK (58-77%). Additionally, intra-annual differences occurred at Albatross - Portlock, AK (71% versus 32% within 2012) and inter-annual differences occurred along coastal Oregon (50% versus 12% from 2012 to 2015)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023227/humoral-immune-responses-to-select-marine-bacteria-in-loggerhead-caretta-caretta-and-kemp-s-ridley-lepidochelys-kempii-sea-turtles-from-the-south-eastern-united-states
#2
Maria L Rodgers, Catherine A Toline, Charles D Rice
Serum from Kemp's ridley and loggerhead sea turtles was collected in summers of 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum IgY recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacteria species and whole bacteria-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition in some species more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, E. rhusiopathiae, and B. vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley turtles, while titers IgY against V...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981401/toxicity-of-potassium-chloride-compared-to-sodium-chloride-for-zebra-mussel-decontamination
#3
Eric A Davis, Wai Hing Wong, Willard N Harman
Decontamination of watercraft and/or equipment following exposure to zebra mussels with the use of chemicals is one method of decontamination that has been recommended in the United States by multiple government agencies. The ideal chemical to be used for decontamination would be inexpensive, easily obtained, have no or limited effect on nontarget species, and relatively environmentally friendly. Two chemicals that have been tested are potassium chloride and sodium chloride. The toxicity of each chemical to both adult mussels and veliger larvae was examined...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072534/susceptibility-of-representative-great-lakes-fish-species-to-the-north-carolina-strain-of-spring-viremia-of-carp-virus-svcv
#4
Traimat Boonthai, Thomas P Loch, Isaac Standish, Mohamed Faisal
Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a notifiable pathogen of the World Organization of Animal Health. Since SVCV was isolated in Lake Ontario in 2007, concern has grown about its spread in the Great Lakes basin and its potential negative impacts on fish species of importance in stock enhancement programs basinwide. The susceptibility of representative fish species from the families Cyprinidae (Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, Spotfin Shiner Cyprinella spiloptera, and Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus), Centrarchidae (Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides), Percidae (Walleye Sander vitreus), Salmonidae (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Esocidae (Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) to SVCV was evaluated by experimental infection under laboratory conditions...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992444/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-cathepsin-a-in-the-chinese-giant-salamander-andrias-davidianus
#5
Qihuan Zhang, Panpan Han, Bei Huang, Zisheng Wang, Guo Qiao, Puze Wang, Zhitao Qi
Cathepsin A (CTSA) is serine carboxypeptidase, an important protease in the lysosome. In this study, the full complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of CTSA in Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus was cloned, and its sequence features were analyzed. Tissue expression patterns of CTSA in healthy and Aeromonas hydrophila-infected salamanders were also investigated. The full cDNA sequence of salamander CTSA was 1,620 base pairs in length, encoding 472 amino acids. Salamander CTSA shared high sequence identities with other vertebrates' CTSAs, ranging from 62...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937913/dietary-euphorbia-hirta-extract-improved-the-resistance-of-sharptooth-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-to-aeromonas-hydrophila
#6
Atefeh Sheikhlar, Goh Yong Meng, Razak Alimon, Nicholas Romano, Mahdi Ebrahimi
Aqueous and methanol extracts of lemon Citrus limon peel, Euphorbia hirta (aerial parts), and fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. A swab paper disk method showed that the methanol extract of E. hirta (EHE) had the largest inhibition zone and the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration compared to all other herbal extracts. Based on these results, EHE was included in the diets of Sharptooth Catfish Clarias gariepinus at 0 (control), 2, 5, or 7 g/kg of diet (experiment 1)...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806149/detection-of-nanophyetus-salmincola-in-water-snails-and-fish-tissues-by-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#7
Maureen K Purcell, Rachel L Powers, Bonnie L Besijn, Paul K Hershberger
We report the development and validation of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to detect Nanophyetus salmincola DNA in water samples and in fish and snail tissues. Analytical and diagnostic validation demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability of both qPCR assays. The N. salmincola DNA copy number in kidney tissue was significantly correlated with metacercaria counts based on microscopy. Extraction methods were optimized for the sensitive qPCR detection of N. salmincola DNA in settled water samples...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787246/isolation-and-pathogenicity-of-streptococcus-iniae-in-cultured-red-hybrid-tilapia-in-malaysia
#8
M Rahmatullah, M Ariff, M Kahieshesfandiari, H M Daud, M Zamri-Saad, M Y Sabri, M N A Amal, M Y Ina-Salwany
This study describes the isolation and pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in cultured red hybrid tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus) in Malaysia. The isolated gram-positive S. iniae appeared punctiform, transparently white, catalase and oxidase negative and produced complete β-hemolysis on blood agar, while a PCR assay resulted in the amplification of the 16 S rRNA gene and lactate oxidase encoded genes. The isolate was sensitive to tetracycline, vancomycin, and bacitracin but was resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin, penicillin, and erythromycin...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787240/safety-of-strontium-chloride-as-a-skeletal-marking-agent-for-pacific-salmon
#9
Rodman G Getchell, Paul R Bowser, Emily R Cornwell, Todd Pavek, Philippe Baneux, Drew Kirby, Kelly L Sams, Hélène Marquis
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects associated with administering strontium chloride as a marking agent to age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha fry. Fish were held in a 0× (0 mg/L), 1× (3,000 mg/L; current standard dosage), 3× (9,000 mg/L), or 5× (15,000 mg/L) solution of strontium chloride for 72 h (three times the standard duration of 24 h). The mortality among fish in the 5× strontium chloride exposure group was significantly higher than that observed in the other groups...
December 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792275/subacute-toxicity-effects-of-deltamethrin-on-oxidative-stress-markers-in-rainbow-trout
#10
Antonia Concetta Elia, Federica Giorda, Nicole Pacini, Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr, Tommaso Scanzio, Marino Prearo
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is considered extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. We evaluated the effect of subacute doses (0.033, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg) of deltamethrin on micronucleus frequency and oxidative stress markers in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 d after intracoelomic injection. No genotoxic damage was recorded, as no specimen showed a micronucleus number above the physiological range. Deltamethrin exposure elicited a transient reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase and a persistent decrease in glutathione reductase activity...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696830/influence-of-temperature-on-the-efficacy-of-homologous-and-heterologous-dna-vaccines-against-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-in-pacific-herring
#11
Lucas M Hart, Niels Lorenzen, Katja Einer-Jensen, Maureen K Purcell, Paul K Hershberger
Homologous and heterologous (genogroup Ia) DNA vaccines against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (genogroup IVa) conferred partial protection in Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. Early protection at 2 weeks postvaccination (PV) was low and occurred only at an elevated temperature (12.6°C, 189 degree days), where the relative percent survival following viral exposure was similar for the two vaccines (IVa and Ia) and higher than that of negative controls at the same temperature. Late protection at 10 weeks PV was induced by both vaccines but was higher with the homologous vaccine at both 9...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686515/tracing-dietary-mercury-histochemically-with-autometallography-through-the-liver-to-the-ovaries-and-spawned-eggs-of-the-spot-a-temperate-coastal-marine-fish
#12
John J Govoni, James A Morris, David W Evans
Exposure to mercury (Hg) results in reproductive abnormalities and deficiencies in female fish. We traced the maternal assimilation and redistribution of dietary inorganic (HgII) and organic (MeHg) forms of Hg in a coastal marine fish, the Spot Leiostomus xanthurus. We conducted a 90-d laboratory experiment in which treatment Spot were fed muscle of Blue Marlin Makaira nigricans with elevated concentrations of Hg mixed with a commercial fish food, while control Spot were fed only commercial food pellets. Gonadal maturation was induced by shortening the photoperiod and increasing the temperature...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679080/renal-cystic-adenocarcinoma-in-a-flowerhorn-cichlid-with-metastatic-involvement-of-the-spleen
#13
Hooman Rahmati-Holasoo, Sara Shokrpoor, Majid Masoudifard, HosseinAli Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Ali Haddadi, Amir Tavakkoli
A 480-g flowerhorn cichlid (an ornamental hybrid) with severe bilateral abdominal swelling, bulla-like structures on the skin, bilateral exophthalmia, and a prolapsed intestine was presented. Radiographs showed compression of the posterior part of the swim bladder and abdominal distention. Ultrasonography of visceral organs revealed a heterogeneous mass with hypoechoic to anechoic polycystic parenchyma and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. At necropsy, free fluid in the abdominal cavity and a large polycystic mass originating from the posterior kidney were observed...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613984/primary-isolation-and-characterization-of-tenacibaculum-maritimum-from-chilean-atlantic-salmon-mortalities-associated-with-a-pseudochatonella-spp-algal-bloom
#14
Patricia Apablaza, Kathleen Frisch, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, Sverre Bang Småge, Camilla Vallestad, Henrik Duesund, Julio Mendoza, Are Nylund
This study presents the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile. The isolate, designated T. maritimum Ch-2402, was isolated from gills of Atlantic salmon in a farm located in region X, Los Lagos Chile, during the harmful algal bloom caused by Pseudochattonella spp. in February 2016. The algal bloom is reported to have caused 40,000 tons of mortality in this salmon farming area. The bacterium, T. maritimum is recognized as an important pathogen of marine fish worldwide causing tenacibaculosis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467192/antioxidant-responses-neurotoxicity-and-metallothionein-gene-expression-in-juvenile-korean-rockfish-sebastes-schlegelii-under-dietary-lead-exposure
#15
Jun-Hwan Kim, Chul Woong Oh, Ju-Chan Kang
This study was conducted to assess toxic effects of dietary lead (Pb) exposure on Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Juvenile rockfish were used to evaluate the oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and metallothionein (MT) gene expression after dietary exposure to lead (as Pb(2+); 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, a measure of oxidative stress, was substantially elevated in the livers and gills of fish given dietary Pb greater than 60 mg/kg. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and gill was significantly increased by dietary Pb > 60 mg/kg...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467176/a-recombinant-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-genotype-ivb-glycoprotein-produced-in-cabbage-looper-larvae-trichoplusia-ni-elicits-antibody-response-and-protection-in-muskellunge
#16
Isaac Standish, Mohamed Faisal
The Novirhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has caused serious fish kills and become endemic throughout the Great Lakes basin of North America. This is troublesome since there are no protective vaccines currently approved against this deadly disease even though recombinant technology has become increasingly common. Herein, we explored the production of a recombinant VHSV-IVb glycoprotein, believed to be important for virus infectivity, and determined its ability to elicit protection against challenge with the wild virus strain...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406736/biofilm-formation-on-aquaculture-substrates-by-selected-bacterial-fish-pathogens
#17
Wenlong Cai, Covadonga R Arias
The objective of this study was to determine whether common bacterial catfish pathogens could attach and colonize surfaces commonly found in aquaculture facilities. In addition, we evaluated the role of calcium in biofilm formation. Attachment to polystyrene plates was used to quantify biofilm formation by five bacterial pathogens (i.e., Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella ictaluri, E. tarda, and E. piscicida). Flavobacterium columnare and A. hydrophila formed thick biofilms that were enhanced by calcium supplementation...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379065/inhibition-of-grass-carp-reovirus-infection-by-dna-aptamers-against-s10-protein
#18
Hongru Liang, Xiaozhe Fu, Lihui Liu, Qiang Lin, Huizhi Guo, Yonggang Li, JiaXu Liu, Zhibin Huang, Ningqiu Li
Grass Carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most pathogenic agents among aquareovirus isolates and has the ability to cause a severe epidemic outbreak of hemorrhagic disease, thus resulting in both a high mortality rate during the culture of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and an enormous economic loss. Aptamers have been demonstrated to have strong promising applications in antiviral drug development. In the present study, a complementary DNA fragment encoding the S10 gene of GCRV was cloned. The S10 protein was expressed and purified...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376313/validation-of-fermentation-and-processing-procedures-for-the-commercial-scale-production-of-a-live-attenuated-edwardsiella-ictaluri-vaccine-for-use-in-channel-catfish-aquaculture
#19
Terrence E Greenway, Todd S Byars, Robert B Elliot, Xixuan Jin, Matt J Griffin, David J Wise
Mortality associated with Edwardsiella ictaluri infection is a serious impediment to the commercial production of fingerling Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. A patented, live, attenuated, orally delivered vaccine has been developed that offers exceptional protection against E. ictaluri infection in both laboratory and small-scale pond trials. Further vaccine development is contingent on the successful completion of large-scale field trials that accurately reflect industry conditions. This current work focuses on the validation of fermentation protocols and the optimization of downstream processing procedures to produce sufficient quantities of vaccine to conduct commercial-scale field trials...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375717/optimization-of-a-plaque-neutralization-test-pnt-to-identify-the-exposure-history-of-pacific-herring-to-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-vhsv
#20
Lucas M Hart, Ashley MacKenzie, Maureen K Purcell, Rachel L Powers, Paul K Hershberger
Methods for a plaque neutralization test (PNT) were optimized for the detection and quantification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) neutralizing activity in the plasma of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. The PNT was complement dependent, as neutralizing activity was attenuated by heat inactivation; further, neutralizing activity was mostly restored by the addition of exogenous complement from specific-pathogen-free Pacific Herring. Optimal methods included the overnight incubation of VHSV aliquots in serial dilutions (starting at 1:16) of whole test plasma containing endogenous complement...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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