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Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

Brian W Avila, Dana L Winkelman, Eric R Fetherman
Introduced pathogens can affect fish populations, and three main factors affect disease occurrence: the environment, host, and pathogen. Manipulating at least one of these factors is necessary for controlling disease. Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease, became established in Colorado during the 1990s and caused significant declines in wild Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss populations. Attempts to re-establish Rainbow Trout have focused on manipulating salmonid host resistance...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
R Barry Nehring, John Alves, Joshua B Nehring, Benjamin Felt
Placer Creek, a tributary of Sangre de Cristo Creek in Colorado's San Luis Valley, supported an allopatric core conservation population of native Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis during much of the 20th century. After the failure of gabion barriers in the late 1990s, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis infected with Myxobolus cerebralis invaded from Sangre de Cristo Creek. By 2005, whirling disease (WD) and competition from Brook Trout reduced Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout numbers to less than 10% of the total trout population...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
N Ziklo, A Colorni, L-Y Gao, S J Du, M Ucko
No vaccine is yet commercially available against Mycobacterium marinum, the etiological agent of "fish tuberculosis". The mycobacterial gene responsible for invasion and intracellular persistence, iipA, is known to moderate M. marinum pathology in zebrafish. Two doses of heat-killed, wild type virulent M. marinum and two doses of a heat-killed avirulent M. marinum iipA::kan mutant strain were used in parallel to vaccinate sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The fish were then challenged with live virulent M...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Eric Leis, Rebekah McCann, Isaac Standish, Anna Bestul, Torri Odom, Casey Finnerty, Barb Bennie
Traditional methodologies to identify fish pathogens require euthanasia before the collection of tissue samples. While these methods are standardized and proven, there are instances where nonlethal alternatives would be preferred. Despite the need to develop nonlethal sampling techniques, few publications have focused on them and even fewer have used these approaches to identify viruses from infections occurring in wild fish populations. In this study, we compared the ability of nonlethal sampling techniques with traditional methods for the detection of Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) from a wild population of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides from the upper Mississippi River...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Hee-Ju Park, In-Ki Hwang, Kyeong-Wook Kim, Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang
Starry Flounder Platichthys stellatus were exposed to dietary lead (Pb) at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Recover period was conducted for 2 weeks after the exposure. Exposure to Pb concentrations over 60 mg/kg induced significant changes in the antioxidant responses in the liver, kidney, and gill and continued even after the depuration period in the liver (over 120 mg/kg for superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity) and kidney (at 240 mg/kg for glutathione [GSH] levels). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in liver, kidney, and gill were increased by dietary Pb exposure, and recovery was observed in all groups during the recovery period...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Massimo Morpurgo, Gregory J Barord
The correct diagnosis and treatment of disease in chambered nautiluses Nautilus pompilius are difficult. The basic morphology and natural behaviors of the species tend to mask the initial onset of a disease or infection, and by the time it is observable, mortality usually occurs. A single specimen of chambered nautilus at the Museum of Nature South Tyrol, Italy, exhibited symptoms of an infection, including mucus production, abnormal buoyancy, irregular hood appearance, and inconsistent tentacle movement. Soon after, tetracycline hydrochloride was administered in bath form at 25 mg/L in seawater daily for 30 min over six consecutive days...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Christine A Richey, Kirsten V Kenelty, Kristina Van Stone Hopkins, Brittany N Stevens, Beatriz Martínez-López, Samantha M Barnum, Sascha L Hallett, Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Esteban Soto
Myxobolus cerebralis is a myxozoan parasite and the etiological agent of whirling disease in salmonids. The parasite's life cycle involves waterborne spores and requires both a salmonid fish and the benthic freshwater oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae). Wildfires can lead to the erosion of fine sediments into stream channels and have been implicated as promoting environmental conditions that are suitable for the survival and success of T. tubifex, whose presence in turn can affect the prevalence of M...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
M F Chen, S M O'Neill, A J Carey, R H Conrad, B A Stewart, K R Snekvik, G M Ylitalo, P K Hershberger
Out-migrating steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from four Puget Sound rivers and associated marine basins of Puget Sound in Washington State were examined for the parasite, Nanophyetus salmincola in 2014 to determine whether recent trends in reduced marine survival are associated with the presence of this pathogen. A subset of steelhead from three of these river-marine basin combinations was analyzed for the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess whether exposure to these contaminants is a contributing factor to their reduced marine survival...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Josué Alonso Yee-Duarte, Bertha Patricia Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez, Marian Alejandra Camacho-Mondragón, Esther Uría-Galicia
The gonadal health status of the chocolate clam Megapitaria squalida collected from the Santa Rosalía mining port and San Lucas beach (reference site), Gulf of California, Mexico, was assessed through histological analysis of the reproductive tissue, from which the histopathological alteration index (HAI) was determined. In addition, copper and iron accumulation in tissue was revealed using histochemical techniques. Our results showed a large presence of copper (30%) and iron (45%) only in the gonad tissue of clams from Santa Rosalía, in which histopathological alterations observed were inflammatory responses, degenerative-progressive processes, cell death, and response to infectious agents...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
R M Kocan, S E LaPatra
Other than the initial infectious cell, schizonts are the only stage of the parasite Ichthyophonus sp. that has been identified in the tissues of a living host, and they are known to initiate new infections when ingested by a suitable host. However, after feeding Ichthyophonus-infected tissue to Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, we observed that once infection was initiated, some schizonts proceeded to develop into several other morphologic forms indistinguishable from those previously described from recently deceased hosts, decomposing infected corpses, and in vitro culture...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Patrick R Hutchins, Adam J Sepulveda, Renee M Martin, Lacey R Hopper
Conventional PCR is an established method to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonaeDNA in fish tissues and to confirm diagnosis of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by T. bryosalmonae. However, the commonly used PKX5f-6r primers were designed with the intention of obtaining sequence information and are suboptimal for determining parasite DNA presence. A new PCR assay to detect T. bryosalmonae 18s rDNA, PKX18s1266f-1426r, is presented that demonstrates specificity, repeatability, and enhanced sensitivity over the PKX5f-6r assay...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Soad Ramezani, Hamid Eshaghzadeh, Hooman Saeimee, Samad Darvishi
In this research, the effect of ImmunoGen (IMNO) on the growth indices, hematological parameters, and carcass composition of Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeri was investigated. After acclimation, fish (274.8 ± 16.2 g) were allocated into 12 tanks (10 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed a control diet (0%) or diets containing 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% IMNO for 75 d. At the end of the experiment, final length, final weight, and weight gain were significantly higher in the fish fed the diet containing 1...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
A C Steinagel, M J Burkhard, K F Kuehnl, G Thomas Watters, P J Rajala-Schultz, K H Valentine, B A Wolfe
Nondestructive, sublethal, and sensitive health monitoring tools are needed to assess the health of freshwater mussels (family Unionidae). Recent developments to standardize hemocyte characterization have assisted in the hematologic assessment of wild and captive freshwater mussels. In this study, preliminary baseline hematological reference ranges were established for wild mapleleaf mussels Quadrula quadrula (n = 14) and threeridge mussels Amblema plicata (n = 20) collected from the Muskingum River in Devola, Ohio...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Ian G Brosnan, Wendy O Williams, George E Sanders, Louise P McGarry, Charles H Greene
Researchers engaged in surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters into fish must receive adequate and appropriate training to ensure the welfare of their subjects and the quality of the data collected. Increasingly, researchers are being encouraged to partner with veterinarians to improve training and to consider the principles of animal welfare in training. Here, we describe a five-stage training pathway, including implementation of new training tools (the Translational Training Tools and field certification), that was developed collaboratively by researchers and veterinarians and addresses the "three Rs" of animal welfare in the context of surgical training...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Rafael de Souza Romaneli, André Zuffo Boaratti, Andressa Tellechea Rodrigues, Daniel Monge de Almeida Queiroz, Kifayat Ullah Khan, Thiago Matias Torres Nascimento, João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes, Cleber Fernando Menegasso Mansano
For the production and commercialization of ornamental fish species, it is indispensable to collect biometric data that facilitate the selection of animals for trade and genetic improvement of the stock. However, during the handling process, fish receive more stress if proper anesthetics are not used. Thus, application of appropriate anesthetics is an important tool for minimizing stress in animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effective concentrations of benzocaine, eugenol, and menthol for achieving anesthesia in Freshwater Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and to develop induction and recovery response curves for different concentrations of these anesthetics...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Marc M Terrazas, Cort L Anderson, Sarah J Jacobs, Kenneth D Cain
In response to population declines of North American Burbot Lota lota maculosa (hereafter, Burbot), conservation aquaculture methods have been developed for this species. In general, Burbot are relatively resistant to many salmonid pathogens; however, cultured juvenile Burbot have experienced periodic epizootic disease outbreaks during production. A series of trials was conducted to determine the virulence of select bacteria isolated from juvenile Burbot after outbreaks that occurred in 2012 and 2013 at the University of Idaho's Aquaculture Research Institute...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
David W Welch, Matthew H Futia, Jacques Rinchard, Amy K Teffer, Kristi M Miller, Scott G Hinch, Dale C Honeyfield
Multiple species and stocks of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have experienced large declines in the number of returning adults over a wide region of the Pacific Northwest due to poor marine survival (low smolt-to-adult survival rates). One possible explanation for reduced survival is thiamine deficiency. Thiamine (vitamin B1 ) is an essential vitamin with an integral role in many metabolic processes, and thiamine deficiency is an important cause of salmonid mortality in the Baltic Sea and in the Laurentian Great Lakes...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Lik-Ming Lau, Kishio Hatai, Hanako Fukano, Osamu Kurata
In September 2014, a freshwater oomycete was first isolated from Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer fry that were reared in freshwater at a fish hatchery in Sabah, Malaysia. A fungal strain was isolated from infected fry by using glucose yeast extract (GY) agar. From morphological identification, the strain belonged to the genus Achlya based on the mode of zoospore release. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region sequences from the strain showed high similarity (99-100%) to Achlya oblongata...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Nicholas Crossland, John Hawke, Fabio Del Piero, Yulia Sokolova, Thomas Waltzek, Pedro Viadanna
Fifteen adult koi (a variant of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio) simultaneously developed white cutaneous proliferations affecting up to 30% of their bodies. The onset of these lesions (in September 2014) was associated with their return to a remodeled backyard water garden after temporarily being maintained in a plastic swimming pool. A single water temperature taken during the outbreak read 21°C on November 17, 2014. The water garden had no extrinsic heat source, with average ambient temperatures ranging from 9...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Kumudini M Meepagala, Kevin K Schrader
Bacterial diseases cause major financial damage to the producers of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the southeastern USA. The two most common bacterial diseases among pond-raised Channel Catfish are enteric septicemia of catfish, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, and columnaris disease, caused by the rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare. Streptococcosis is another, less-common bacterial disease in catfish and is caused by the gram-positive coccus Streptococcus iniae...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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