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Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806149/detection-of-nanophyetus-salmincola-in-water-snails-and-fish-tissues-by-quantitative-pcr
#1
Maureen K Purcell, Rachel L Powers, Bonnie L Besijn, Paul K Hershberger
We report the development and validation of two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to detect N. salmincola DNA in water samples and fish and snail tissues. Analytical and diagnostic validation demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of both qPCR assays. N. salmincola DNA copy number in kidney tissue was significantly correlated with metacercariae counts based on microscopy. Extraction methods were optimized for the sensitive qPCR detection of N. salmincola DNA in settled water samples...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787246/isolation-and-pathogenicity-of-streptococcus-iniae-in-cultured-red-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-sp-in-malaysia
#2
M Rahmatullah, M Ariff, M Kahieshesfandiari, H M Daud, M Zamri-Saad, M Y Sabri, M N A Amal, M Y Ina-Salwany
This study describes the isolation and pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in cultured red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus) in Malaysia. The isolated Gram-positive S. iniae appeared punctiform, transparently white, catalase and oxidase negative and produced complete β-hemolysis on blood agar, while a PCR assay resulted in the amplification of the 16 S rRNA gene and lactate oxidase encoded genes. The isolate was sensitive to tetracycline, vancomycin and bacitracin, but were resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin, penicillin and erythromycin...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787240/safety-of-strontium-chloride-as-a-skeletal-marking-agent-for-pacific-salmon
#3
Rodman G Getchell, Paul R Bowser, Emily R Cornwell, Todd Pavek, Philippe Baneux, Drew Kirby, Kelly L Sams, Hélène Marquis
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological-effects associated with administering strontium chloride as a marking agent to age-0 Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) fry. Fish were held in 0x (0 ppm), 1x (3,000 ppm; current standard dosage), 3x (9,000 ppm), or 5x (15,000 ppm) solutions of strontium chloride for 72 h; three times the standard duration of 24 h. The mortality for fish immersed in the 5x strontium chloride exposure group was significantly higher than that observed in the other groups...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792275/subacute-toxicity-effects-of-deltamethrin-on-oxidative-stress-markers-in-rainbow-trout
#4
Antonia Concetta Elia, Federica Giorda, Nicole Pacini, Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr, Tommaso Scanzio, Marino Prearo
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is considered extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. We evaluated the effect of subacute doses (0.033, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg) of deltamethrin on micronucleus frequency and oxidative stress markers in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 d after intracoelomic injection. No genotoxic damage was recorded, as no specimen showed a micronucleus number above the physiological range. Deltamethrin exposure elicited a transient reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase and a persistent decrease in glutathione reductase activity...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696830/influence-of-temperature-on-the-efficacy-of-homologous-and-heterologous-dna-vaccines-against-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-in-pacific-herring
#5
Lucas M Hart, Niels Lorenzen, Katja Einer-Jensen, Maureen K Purcell, Paul K Hershberger
Homologous and heterologous (genogroup Ia) DNA vaccines against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (genogroup IVa) conferred partial protection in Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. Early protection at 2 weeks postvaccination (PV) was low and occurred only at an elevated temperature (12.6°C, 189 degree days), where the relative percent survival following viral exposure was similar for the two vaccines (IVa and Ia) and higher than that of negative controls at the same temperature. Late protection at 10 weeks PV was induced by both vaccines but was higher with the homologous vaccine at both 9...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686515/tracing-dietary-mercury-histochemically-with-autometallography-through-the-liver-to-the-ovaries-and-spawned-eggs-of-the-spot-a-temperate-coastal-marine-fish
#6
John J Govoni, James A Morris, David W Evans
Exposure to mercury (Hg) results in reproductive abnormalities and deficiencies in female fish. We traced the maternal assimilation and redistribution of dietary inorganic (HgII) and organic (MeHg) forms of Hg in a coastal marine fish, the Spot Leiostomus xanthurus. We conducted a 90-d laboratory experiment in which treatment Spot were fed muscle of Blue Marlin Makaira nigricans with elevated concentrations of Hg mixed with a commercial fish food, while control Spot were fed only commercial food pellets. Gonadal maturation was induced by shortening the photoperiod and increasing the temperature...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679080/renal-cystic-adenocarcinoma-in-a-flowerhorn-cichlid-with-metastatic-involvement-of-the-spleen
#7
Hooman Rahmati-Holasoo, Sara Shokrpoor, Majid Masoudifard, HosseinAli Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Ali Haddadi, Amir Tavakkoli
A 480-g flowerhorn cichlid (an ornamental hybrid) with severe bilateral abdominal swelling, bulla-like structures on the skin, bilateral exophthalmia, and a prolapsed intestine was presented. Radiographs showed compression of the posterior part of the swim bladder and abdominal distention. Ultrasonography of visceral organs revealed a heterogeneous mass with hypoechoic to anechoic polycystic parenchyma and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. At necropsy, free fluid in the abdominal cavity and a large polycystic mass originating from the posterior kidney were observed...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613984/primary-isolation-and-characterization-of-tenacibaculum-maritimum-from-chilean-atlantic-salmon-mortalities-associated-with-a-pseudochatonella-spp-algal-bloom
#8
Patricia Apablaza, Kathleen Frisch, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, Sverre Bang Småge, Camilla Vallestad, Henrik Duesund, Julio Mendoza, Are Nylund
This study presents the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile. The isolate, designated T. maritimum Ch-2402, was isolated from gills of Atlantic salmon in a farm located in region X, Los Lagos Chile, during the harmful algal bloom caused by Pseudochattonella spp. in February 2016. The algal bloom is reported to have caused 40,000 tons of mortality in this salmon farming area. The bacterium, T. maritimum is recognized as an important pathogen of marine fish worldwide causing tenacibaculosis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467192/antioxidant-responses-neurotoxicity-and-metallothionein-gene-expression-in-juvenile-korean-rockfish-sebastes-schlegelii-under-dietary-lead-exposure
#9
Jun-Hwan Kim, Chul Woong Oh, Ju-Chan Kang
This study was conducted to assess toxic effects of dietary lead (Pb) exposure on Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Juvenile rockfish were used to evaluate the oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and metallothionein (MT) gene expression after dietary exposure to lead (as Pb(2+); 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, a measure of oxidative stress, was substantially elevated in the livers and gills of fish given dietary Pb greater than 60 mg/kg. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and gill was significantly increased by dietary Pb > 60 mg/kg...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467176/a-recombinant-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-genotype-ivb-glycoprotein-produced-in-cabbage-looper-larvae-trichoplusia-ni-elicits-antibody-response-and-protection-in-muskellunge
#10
Isaac Standish, Mohamed Faisal
The Novirhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has caused serious fish kills and become endemic throughout the Great Lakes basin of North America. This is troublesome since there are no protective vaccines currently approved against this deadly disease even though recombinant technology has become increasingly common. Herein, we explored the production of a recombinant VHSV-IVb glycoprotein, believed to be important for virus infectivity, and determined its ability to elicit protection against challenge with the wild virus strain...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406736/biofilm-formation-on-aquaculture-substrates-by-selected-bacterial-fish-pathogens
#11
Wenlong Cai, Covadonga R Arias
The objective of this study was to determine whether common bacterial catfish pathogens could attach and colonize surfaces commonly found in aquaculture facilities. In addition, we evaluated the role of calcium in biofilm formation. Attachment to polystyrene plates was used to quantify biofilm formation by five bacterial pathogens (i.e., Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella ictaluri, E. tarda, and E. piscicida). Flavobacterium columnare and A. hydrophila formed thick biofilms that were enhanced by calcium supplementation...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379065/inhibition-of-grass-carp-reovirus-infection-by-dna-aptamers-against-s10-protein
#12
Hongru Liang, Xiaozhe Fu, Lihui Liu, Qiang Lin, Huizhi Guo, Yonggang Li, JiaXu Liu, Zhibin Huang, Ningqiu Li
Grass Carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most pathogenic agents among aquareovirus isolates and has the ability to cause a severe epidemic outbreak of hemorrhagic disease, thus resulting in both a high mortality rate during the culture of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and an enormous economic loss. Aptamers have been demonstrated to have strong promising applications in antiviral drug development. In the present study, a complementary DNA fragment encoding the S10 gene of GCRV was cloned. The S10 protein was expressed and purified...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376313/validation-of-fermentation-and-processing-procedures-for-the-commercial-scale-production-of-a-live-attenuated-edwardsiella-ictaluri-vaccine-for-use-in-channel-catfish-aquaculture
#13
Terrence E Greenway, Todd S Byars, Robert B Elliot, Xixuan Jin, Matt J Griffin, David J Wise
Mortality associated with Edwardsiella ictaluri infection is a serious impediment to the commercial production of fingerling Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. A patented, live, attenuated, orally delivered vaccine has been developed that offers exceptional protection against E. ictaluri infection in both laboratory and small-scale pond trials. Further vaccine development is contingent on the successful completion of large-scale field trials that accurately reflect industry conditions. This current work focuses on the validation of fermentation protocols and the optimization of downstream processing procedures to produce sufficient quantities of vaccine to conduct commercial-scale field trials...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375717/optimization-of-a-plaque-neutralization-test-pnt-to-identify-the-exposure-history-of-pacific-herring-to-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-vhsv
#14
Lucas M Hart, Ashley MacKenzie, Maureen K Purcell, Rachel L Powers, Paul K Hershberger
Methods for a plaque neutralization test (PNT) were optimized for the detection and quantification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) neutralizing activity in the plasma of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. The PNT was complement dependent, as neutralizing activity was attenuated by heat inactivation; further, neutralizing activity was mostly restored by the addition of exogenous complement from specific-pathogen-free Pacific Herring. Optimal methods included the overnight incubation of VHSV aliquots in serial dilutions (starting at 1:16) of whole test plasma containing endogenous complement...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324676/comparison-of-selected-nonlethal-samples-from-adult-steelhead-for-detection-of-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-using-cell-culture
#15
David R Burbank, Tyson R Fehringer, Luciano V Chiaramonte
Nonlethal sampling techniques have previously been evaluated for detection of a variety of viral salmonid pathogens. However, many of these studies have used molecular assays in lieu of widely accepted cell culture techniques to evaluate the sampled tissues. Samples were collected from female steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss broodstock using three potential nonlethal sampling methods (mucus/skin scrape, pectoral fin clip, and gill tissue biopsy) and evaluated for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) via cell culture techniques...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558257/selection-and-evaluation-of-the-typical-indexes-of-litopenaeus-vannamei-contaminated-t-2-toxin-by-gray-relational-method
#16
Pengli Lu, Yaling Wang, Zhe Dai, Lijun Sun, Defeng Xu, Ying Liu, Riying Ye, Ravi Gooneratne, Siyuan Bi
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of T-2 toxin in feed on performance of muscle, and find the typical indexes (TIs) of Litopenaeus vannamei contaminated by T-2 toxin using gray relational method (GRM) and evaluate the dose-response relationship between T-2 toxin and TIs. As a result, among six physical, seven biochemical and seventeen nutritional indexes, the values of gray relation coefficient (GRC) of hepatopancreas-body weight ratio (HBR), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, and serine (SER) content were the highest (0...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524816/phylogenetic-variation-of-chelonid-alphaherpesvirus-5-in-green-turtle-chelonia-mydas-populations-along-the-queensland-coast-australia
#17
E Ariel, F Nainu, K Jones, K Juntunen, I Bell, J Gaston, J Scott, S Trocini, G W Burgess
Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a disease marked by proliferation of benign but debilitating cutaneous and occasional visceral tumours, likely to be caused by chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5). This study presents a phylogeny of ChHV5 strains on the east coast of Queensland, Australia and a validation for previously unused primers. Two different primer sets (gB-1534 and gB-813) were designed to target a region including part of the UL27 glycoprotein B (gB) gene and part of UL28 of ChHV5. Sequences obtained from FP tumours on juvenile green turtles (<65 cm CCL) had substantial homology with published ChHV5 sequences while a skin biopsy from a turtle without FP failed to react in the PCRs used in this study...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438079/potential-non-cutaneous-sites-of-chelonid-herpesvirus-5-persistence-and-shedding-in-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas
#18
Annie Page-Karjian, Nicole L Gottdenker, Jordyn Whitfield, Lawrence Herbst, Terry M Norton, Branson Ritchie
Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), the likely etiologic agent of sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), is predicted to be unevenly distributed within an infected turtle, with productive virus replication and virion shedding occurring in cutaneous tumor keratinocytes. In this study, we measured and compared ChHV5 DNA quantities in tumors, skin, urine, major organs, and nervous tissue samples. These samples were taken from the carcasses of 10 juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without clinical signs of FP that stranded in Florida, USA during 2014...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248610/journal-of-aquatic-animal-health
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225652/dna-vaccination-partially-protects-muskellunge-against-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-vhsv-ivb
#20
Elena V Millard, Ashley M Bourke, Scott E LaPatra, Travis O Brenden, Scott D Fitzgerald, Mohamed Faisal
A DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein (G) gene of the North American viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was developed to evaluate the immune response of fish following vaccination and evaluate its efficacy in protecting a susceptible species, the Muskellunge Esox masquinongy, against VHSV-IVb challenge. Seven weeks (539 degree-days) following vaccination with 10 μg of either pVHSivb-G or a control plasmid, Muskellunge were challenged by immersion with 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL of VHSV-IVb...
March 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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