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Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

Barrett L Christie, Janis A Raines
The copepod Tegastes acroporanus is a notorious pest of captive corals in the genus Acropora. In recent years, infestations of T. acroporanus have become widespread among public aquaria and coral propagation facilities and have been largely controlled with the extra-label use of milbemycin oxime formulations (Carl 2008). Many of these drug formulations (which were intended for dogs) have been discontinued by their manufacturers in favor of multidrug products, many of which are unsuitable for corals, forcing experimentation with alternatives...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Ian G Brosnan, David W Welch, Melinda Jacobs Scott
In 2011, unusually high flows caused total dissolved gas (TDG) levels in the Columbia River, USA, to escalate well above the 120% regulatory limit that was imposed to prevent harmful impacts to aquatic organisms. After observing gas bubble trauma (GBT) in dead yearling Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (smolts) held in tanks, we compared estimated survival rates of acoustic-tagged in-river-migrating (IR) and transported (TR) smolts that were released below Bonneville Dam prior to and during the period of elevated TDG (>120%)...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Antonia Concetta Elia, Nicole Pacini, Maria Letizia Fioravanti, Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr, Annalisa Zaccaroni, Alba Maria Parmeggiani, Andrea Gustinelli, Oliviero Mordenti, Maria Cesarina Abete, Marino Prearo
Florfenicol (FF) is employed in fish farms to contest or prevent bacterial infections. However, this pharmaceutical may produce reactive oxygen species that may cause biochemical changes in antibiotic-treated fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of FF on Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss treated for 10 d with 7.5 and 15 mg/kg FF followed by a withdrawal period of 5 d. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II, total glutathione, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were investigated in the livers of treated and untreated fish...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Eduardo Reséndiz, Sergio Flores-Ramírez, Volker Koch, Amaury Cordero-Tapia
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is characterized by multiple fibroepithelial tumors in all parts of the skin and has been reported in sea turtles worldwide. Clinically infected individuals are often emaciated and anemic. In Mexico, however, there are few records of this disease. In this study of green turtles Chelonia mydas in Laguna San Ignacio in Baja California Sur (BCS), we noted one juvenile with multifocal fibropapilloma lesions on the external upper surface of its eyes and hind flippers. Light microscopy revealed hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, dermal papillary projections, and fibroblast proliferation...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Christopher Didigwu Nwani, Peace Onas Somdare, Juliana Adimonye Ukonze, Vincent Chikwendu Ejere, Alfreda O Nwadinigwe, Jacinta Chinedu Nwani, Gregory Ejike Odo, Ogechi Nnabuchi Ugbor
In this study, African Catfish (also known as Sharptooth Catfish) Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of fenthion of 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/L for 21 d and allowed to recover for 7 d to investigate the potential for hematological changes. Whole blood was sampled on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 postexposure and after a 7-d recovery period. During exposure, fenthion caused a reduction in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume. There was an increase in white blood cell counts but no significant difference in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Christopher Didigwu Nwani, Gregory Ejike Odo, Alfreda O Nwadinigwe, Christopher C Onyeke, Chinedu Ifeanyi Atama, Godwin Ngwu, Stanley N Oluah, Juliana Adimonye Ukonze, Bridget Chidi A Ezeibe
Albendazole (ABZ) is a typical broad-spectrum benzimidazole drug used for the treatment of parasitic worm infestations in humans and animals. The present study investigated the oxidative stress biomarkers and hematological parameters in juvenile African Catfish (also known as Sharptooth Catfish) Clarias gariepinus exposed to ABZ for 96 h. Fish were exposed to 0 (control) 20, 40, and 60 mg/L ABZ. The liver and gill tissues were sampled at regular intervals of 24 h, and the results showed significant concentration- and time-dependent increases in the values of lipid peroxidation but reductions in glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase in both tissues...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
So-Young Oh, Toyohiko Nishizawa
Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV), a member within genus Megalocytivirus (Iridoviridae), causes serious economic losses to marine fish aquaculture industry in East Asia. In this study, we established a Blue Striped Grunt Haemulon sciurus fin (grunt fin; GF) cell line persistently infected with RSIV (PI-GF(RSIV)) by subculturing GF cells that survived RSIV inoculation. PI-GF(RSIV) cells were morphologically indistinguishable from naive GF cells. They could stably produce RSIV at approximately 10(4.9 ± 0.5) genomes per microliter after 24 passages over 18 months...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Behnam Salimi, Kazem Abdi
Leeches have been reported to harbor several important fish pathogens, including spring viremia of carp virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and also may contain blood protozoa. In the present study, leeches were collected from water bodies located in Kurdistan province, Iran. The specimens were tested for IHNV, VHSV, and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using the PCR method. The results showed that two different species of leeches, Hemiclepsis marginata and Hirudo medicinalis, were infected by IPNV among the seven species studied...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Meagan A Prescott, Aimee N Reed, Ling Jin, Manoj K Pastey
Since the emergence of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), outbreaks have been devastating to Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and koi (a variant of Common Carp), leading to high economic losses. Current diagnostics for detecting CyHV-3 are limited in sensitivity and are further complicated by latency. Here we describe the detection of CyHV-3 by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA assay can detect as low as 10 copies of the CyHV-3 genome by an isothermal reaction and yields results in approximately 20 min...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, Cleonice Cristina Hilbig, Arlene Sobrinho Ventura, Ana Carolina Barni de Azevedo, Andressa Fierli Dean, Robie Allan Bombardelli
In this study, sex and age influenced the hematological profiles of Jundiá (Silver Catfish) Rhamdia quelen. Females showed lower levels of hemoglobin, young fish increased lymphocyte counts, and older fish increased hematocrit values. These results indicate that, depending on age and sex, the fish have disparate hematological profiles. For this reason, it is important to consider the sex and age of an R. quelen when examining the impact of environmental and management factors on this species in terms of their hematological profiles...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Fulvio Salati, Alessandra Roncarati, Giulia Angelucci, Alessandra Fenza, Adele Meluzzi
Innate and acquired immune responses of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata was studied under normal culture and short-term stressful conditions for 18 months in offshore sea cages in Alghero Bay, Italy. Every 45 d, 50 fish were sampled and divided into two groups: fish in the first group (normal culture conditions) were bled after harvesting; fish in the second group were put into a tank under stressful conditions (crowding and confinement) and bled after 2 h. Innate humoral immunity, such as complement-like, hemagglutination, and lysozyme activities, was determined in the sera of both groups...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Wei-Na Mu, Zhi-Hua Li, Li-Qiao Zhong, Yan-Hua Wu
Tributyltin (TBT) and cadmium (Cd) are two common pollutants in aquatic environments. This study was designed to examine the physiological responses of juvenile Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to TBT, Cd, and their combination. Fish were apportioned into a control group, a TBT group (7.5 μg/L), a Cd group (2.97 mg/L), and a TBT-Cd group (7.5 μg/L TBT, 2.97 mg/L Cd(2+)) for 7 d. The following activities were measured: Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gill tissues; nitric oxide synthase (NOS), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in brain tissues; and lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Nermeen M Abu-Elala, Reham M Abd-Elsalam, Sherif Marouf, Mohamed Abdelaziz, Mohamed Moustafa
The present study was designed to assess the possible causes of the mass mortalities of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at El-Behera Governorate, Egypt, in relationship to environmental and microbiotic factors. Water samples were collected from fish farms at different locations and from Lake Edku to analyze water temperature, water pH, salinity, biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia nitrogen, and un-ionized ammonia. A number of moribund and freshly dead fish were sampled and submitted to our laboratory for microbiological, molecular, and histopathological examination...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Jun Lu, Hongda Lu, Genping Cao
Outbreaks of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) disease, also known as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis, among cultured Prussian Carp Carassius gibelio has occurred each year in Jiangsu province, China, since 2009. In autumn 2014, hematological, blood biochemical, and histological changes in naturally infected moribund Prussian Carp were investigated after CyHV-2 was confirmed as the sole etiologic agent by etiological analyses. Total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and thrombocyte count were significantly reduced (P < 0...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Esteban Soto, Iona Halliday-Simmonds, Stewart Francis, Trellor Fraites, Beatriz Martínez-López, Judy Wiles, John P Hawke, Richard D Endris
In this project we optimized a minimal inhibitory concentration testing protocol for Francisella noatunensis orientalis. Thirty-three F. noatunensis orientalis isolates recovered from different fish species and locations were tested, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as a quality control reference strain. A modified cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth supplemented with 2% IsoVitalex and 0.1% glucose (MMH) was tested at a pH of 6.4 ± 0.1, 7.1 ± 0.1, and 7.3 ± 0.1. Growth curves generated for F. noatunensis orientalis indicated that MMH at a pH of 6...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Vicki S Blazer, Nathaniel P Hitt, Craig D Snyder, Erin L Snook, Cynthia R Adams
Raised pale cysts were observed on Blue Ridge Sculpin Cottus caeruleomentum during stream fish community surveys in Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland. When examined histologically, preserved sculpin exhibited multiple cysts containing spherical endospores with a refractile central body characteristic of Dermocystidium spp. Cysts were not observed on the gills or internally. The portion of the watershed in which affected sculpin were observed contained lower than expected numbers of sculpin, raising concerns about the population effects of this infection...
September 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Mohamed Faisal, Ashley Baird, Andrew D Winters, Elena V Millard, Sue Marcquenski, Hui-Min Hsu, Ann Hennings, Phil Bochsler, Isaac Standish, Thomas P Loch, Michelle R Gunn, Janet Warg
In 2011, the Fathead Minnow nidovirus (FHMNV; Genus Bafinivirus, Family Coronaviridae, Order Nidovirales) was isolated from pond-raised juvenile Muskellunge Esox masquinongy suffering from lingering mortality at the Wild Rose Hatchery in Wild Rose, Wisconsin. Moribund Muskellunge exhibited tubular necrosis in the kidneys as well as multifocal coalescing necrotizing hepatitis. The FHMNV was also isolated from apparently healthy juvenile Muskellunge at the Wolf Lake State Fish Hatchery in Mattawan, Michigan. The identity of the two syncytia-forming viruses (designated MUS-WR and MUS-WL from Wild Rose Hatchery and Wolf Lake State Fish Hatchery, respectively) as strains of FHMNV was determined based on multiple-gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses...
June 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Annahita Rezaie, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi, Mahshid Bagherzadeh Ansari
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a primitive neoplasm that originates from skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In a routine inspection of a cyprinid farm in southwestern Iran, an approximately 2-year-old female Silver Carp was observed to have a raised mass located on the dorsolateral surface just caudal to the head. Macroscopic examination revealed a firm irregular fleshy pink mass (5 × 4 cm, depth = 3 cm) that appeared to arise from the subcutaneous musculature. Histologic sections were prepared using routine methods and separate sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Massons' trichrome...
June 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Joy A Becker, Alison Tweedie, Dean Gilligan, Martin Asmus, Richard J Whittington
The ranavirus epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) is endemic to Australia and is listed by the Office International des Epizooties. Clinical outbreaks have only been observed in wild populations of Redfin Perch Perca fluviatilis (also known as Eurasian Perch) and farmed populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The initial outbreaks of EHNV describe all age-classes of Redfin Perch as being susceptible and can lead to epidemic fish kills. Subsequently, experimental challenge studies using either cohabitation with the virus or injection exposures resulted in mixed susceptibilities across various age-groupings of Redfin Perch...
June 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Yuri Bovi Morais Carvalho, Juan Jethro da Silva Santos, Fernando C Raibenberg, Luis Henrique Poersch, Luis Alberto Romano
The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides is a valuable shellfish occurring from the southeastern coast of Brazil to the northern coast of Argentina. Populations of yellow clams are disappearing from their entire range, and the cause is still unknown. The objective of this paper was to search for World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-listed pathogens and their relatives in the genera Marteilia, Bonamia, and Perkinsus as well as Mikrocytos mackini and the virus OsHV-1 μ var the yellow clam population in southern Brazil using molecular techniques and classic histology protocols...
June 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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