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Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

P K Hershberger, B L Besijn, A H MacKenzie, M L Wilmot
The ability of formalin, PEROX-AID® (hydrogen peroxide), and seawater to kill waterborne Nanophyetus salmincola cercariae was evaluated in vitro. Newly emerged cercariae survived for extended periods in freshwater, with 53-73% survival occurring in negative control groups after 24 hr. Exposure to dilutions of formalin reduced this survival time, with 0% of cercariae surviving after 30 min. in 450 μL / L, 40 min. in 225 μL / L, and 300 min. in 113 μL / L. Exposure to PEROX-AID® (hydrogen peroxide) for one hour resulted in reduced cercarial survival (16...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Claire R Burbick, Seth D Nydam, G Kenitra Hendrix, Thomas E Besser, Dubraska Diaz, Kevin Snekvik
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid, cost-effective method for identification of a broad range of bacterial taxa, but its accuracy for Vibrio spp. from samples of aquatic animal origin is unknown. We used DNA sequence analysis targeting two conserved genes, rpoB and rpoD, as the identification standard for 5 reference strains and 35 Vibrio spp. field isolates obtained from diagnostic aquaculture samples. Overall, MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 100% of the five reference strains to the genus level and 80% (4 of 5) to the species level...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Molly Martony, Deborah Pouder, Roy Yanong, Yasunari Kiryu, Jan H Landsberg, Ramiro Isaza, Thomas Waltzek, Nicole I Stacy, Robson Giglio, Shirley Baker, Ruth Francis-Floyd
Coelomic fluid aspiration has been utilized in echinoderms in research and clinical settings. Detailed procedural descriptions for coelomic fluid sampling in sea urchins (class Echinoidea) are lacking, and samples are prone to contamination. The objectives of this study were to (1) standardize a technique for coelomic fluid collection in long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum that optimizes the diagnostic quality of the sample utilizing diagnostic imaging, (2) identify coelomic fluid bacterial isolates (using Biolog GEN III MicroLog and 16s rDNA sequencing), and (3) compare positive cultures to animal weight, holding time prior to sampling, water temperature, and gross fluid appearance...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Traimat Boonthai, Thomas P Loch, Qingli Zhang, Michelle Gunn Van Deuren, Mohamed Faisal, Gary E Whelan, Seth J Herbst
Indigenous small cyprinid fish species play an important role in Great Lakes ecosystems and also comprise the backbone of a multimillion-dollar baitfish industry. Due to their widespread use in sport fisheries of the Laurentian Great Lakes, there are increasing concerns that baitfish may introduce or disseminate fish pathogens. In this study, we evaluated whether baitfish purchased from 78 randomly selected retail bait dealers in Michigan harbored fish viruses. Between September 2015 and June 2016, 5,400 baitfish divided into 90 lots of 60 fish were purchased...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Elisa Mwega, Duncan J Colquhoun, Huruma Tuntufye, Robinson Mdegela, Stephen Mutoloki, Øystein Evensen, Yngvild Wasteson
The present study was conducted to explore the occurrence of Flavobacteriaceae in wild (n = 108) and farmed (n = 187) Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from Lake Victoria and twelve ponds in the Morogoro region, respectively. The size of the ponds surveyed ranged from 130 - 150 m2 . Ponds parameters and fish morphometric data were recorded during sampling. A total of 67 (farmed n = 44 and wild = 23) Flavobacterium-like isolates were identified on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical tests...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Jessa L Watters, Drew R Davis, Tamaki Yuri, Cameron D Siler
Global amphibian decline continues to be a great concern despite our increased understanding of the causes behind the observed patterns of the decline, such as habitat modification and infectious diseases. Although there is a large body of literature on the topic of amphibian infectious diseases, pathogen prevalence and distribution among entire communities of species in many regions remain poorly understood. In addition to these geographic gaps in our understanding, past work has focused largely on individual pathogens, either Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) or ranavirus (RV), rather than dual infection rates among host species...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Andrea M Tarnecki, Nicole R Rhody, Catherine J Walsh
The newly-emerging tissue microbiota hypothesis suggests that bacteria found in blood and tissues play a role in host health, as these bacterial communities have been associated with various non-communicable diseases such as obesity, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. Numerous reports identify bacteria in the blood of healthy finfish, indicating bacteremia may not always indicate disease. Current research priorities in aquaculture include the development of technologies and practices that will allow effective reduction in antibiotic use for prevention and treatment of disease...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Phong L Nguyen, Sudheesh S Ponnerassery, Austen C Thomas, Mieke Sinnesael, Katherine Haman, Kenneth D Cain
Advances in technology are making it easier for rapid, field detection of microbes in aquaculture. Specifically, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, which has traditionally been confined to laboratory-based protocols, is now available in a handheld field-portable system. The feasibility of using the Biomeme handheld qPCR system for rapid (<50 min) on-site detection and monitoring of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from filtered water samples was evaluated. Paired water samples were collected over a 23-d period from microcosm tanks that housed fish injected with known F...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
M Y Ina-Salwany, Nurhidayu Al-Saari, Aslah Mohamad, M Fathin-Amirah, Aslizah Mohd, M N A Amal, Hisae Kasai, Sayaka Mino, Tomoo Sawabe, M Zamri-Saad
Current growth in aquaculture production is parallel with the increasing number of disease outbreaks, which negatively affect the production, profitability, and sustainability of global aquaculture industry. Vibriosis is among the most common diseases that leads to massive mortality of cultured shrimp, fish, and shellfish in Asia. High incidence of vibriosis can occur in hatchery and growing-out facilities, but juveniles are more susceptible to the disease. Various factors, particularly the source of fish, the environmental factors including water quality and farm management and the virulence factors of Vibrio influence the occurrence...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Brian W Avila, Dana L Winkelman, Eric R Fetherman
Introduced pathogens can affect fish populations, and three main factors affect disease occurrence: the environment, host, and pathogen. Manipulating at least one of these factors is necessary for controlling disease. Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease, became established in Colorado during the 1990s and caused significant declines in wild Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss populations. Attempts to re-establish Rainbow Trout have focused on manipulating salmonid host resistance...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
R Barry Nehring, John Alves, Joshua B Nehring, Benjamin Felt
Placer Creek, a tributary of Sangre de Cristo Creek in Colorado's San Luis Valley, supported an allopatric core conservation population of native Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis during much of the 20th century. After the failure of gabion barriers in the late 1990s, Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis infected with Myxobolus cerebralis invaded from Sangre de Cristo Creek. By 2005, whirling disease (WD) and competition from Brook Trout reduced Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout numbers to less than 10% of the total trout population...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Eric Leis, Rebekah McCann, Isaac Standish, Anna Bestul, Torri Odom, Casey Finnerty, Barb Bennie
Traditional methodologies to identify fish pathogens require euthanasia before the collection of tissue samples. While these methods are standardized and proven, there are instances where nonlethal alternatives would be preferred. Despite the need to develop nonlethal sampling techniques, few publications have focused on them and even fewer have used these approaches to identify viruses from infections occurring in wild fish populations. In this study, we compared the ability of nonlethal sampling techniques with traditional methods for the detection of Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) from a wild population of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides from the upper Mississippi River...
September 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
N Ziklo, A Colorni, L-Y Gao, S J Du, M Ucko
No vaccine is yet commercially available against Mycobacterium marinum, the etiological agent of fish mycobacteriosis (also known as "fish tuberculosis"). The mycobacterial gene responsible for invasion and intracellular persistence, iipA, is known to moderate M. marinum pathology in Zebrafish Danio rerio. Two doses of heat-killed, wild-type, virulent M. marinum and two doses of a heat-killed, avirulent M. marinum iipA::kan mutant strain were used in parallel to vaccinate European Seabass Dicentrarchus labrax...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Hee-Ju Park, In-Ki Hwang, Kyeong-Wook Kim, Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang
Starry Flounder Platichthys stellatus were exposed to dietary lead (Pb) at concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Recover period was conducted for 2 weeks after the exposure. Exposure to Pb concentrations over 60 mg/kg induced significant changes in the antioxidant responses in the liver, kidney, and gill and continued even after the depuration period in the liver (over 120 mg/kg for superoxide dismutase [SOD] activity) and kidney (at 240 mg/kg for glutathione [GSH] levels). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in liver, kidney, and gill were increased by dietary Pb exposure, and recovery was observed in all groups during the recovery period...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Massimo Morpurgo, Gregory J Barord
The correct diagnosis and treatment of disease in chambered nautiluses Nautilus pompilius are difficult. The basic morphology and natural behaviors of the species tend to mask the initial onset of a disease or infection, and by the time it is observable, mortality usually occurs. A single specimen of chambered nautilus at the Museum of Nature South Tyrol, Italy, exhibited symptoms of an infection, including mucus production, abnormal buoyancy, irregular hood appearance, and inconsistent tentacle movement. Soon after, tetracycline hydrochloride was administered in bath form at 25 mg/L in seawater daily for 30 min over six consecutive days...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Christine A Richey, Kirsten V Kenelty, Kristina Van Stone Hopkins, Brittany N Stevens, Beatriz Martínez-López, Samantha M Barnum, Sascha L Hallett, Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Esteban Soto
Myxobolus cerebralis is a myxozoan parasite and the etiological agent of whirling disease in salmonids. The parasite's life cycle involves waterborne spores and requires both a salmonid fish and the benthic freshwater oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae). Wildfires can lead to the erosion of fine sediments into stream channels and have been implicated as promoting environmental conditions that are suitable for the survival and success of T. tubifex, whose presence in turn can affect the prevalence of M...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
M F Chen, S M O'Neill, A J Carey, R H Conrad, B A Stewart, K R Snekvik, G M Ylitalo, P K Hershberger
Out-migrating steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from four Puget Sound rivers and associated marine basins of Puget Sound in Washington State were examined for the parasite, Nanophyetus salmincola in 2014 to determine whether recent trends in reduced marine survival are associated with the presence of this pathogen. A subset of steelhead from three of these river-marine basin combinations was analyzed for the presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess whether exposure to these contaminants is a contributing factor to their reduced marine survival...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Josué Alonso Yee-Duarte, Bertha Patricia Ceballos-Vázquez, Marcial Arellano-Martínez, Marian Alejandra Camacho-Mondragón, Esther Uría-Galicia
The gonadal health status of the chocolate clam Megapitaria squalida collected from the Santa Rosalía mining port and San Lucas beach (reference site), Gulf of California, Mexico, was assessed through histological analysis of the reproductive tissue, from which the histopathological alteration index (HAI) was determined. In addition, copper and iron accumulation in tissue was revealed using histochemical techniques. Our results showed a large presence of copper (30%) and iron (45%) only in the gonad tissue of clams from Santa Rosalía, in which histopathological alterations observed were inflammatory responses, degenerative-progressive processes, cell death, and response to infectious agents...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
R M Kocan, S E LaPatra
Other than the initial infectious cell, schizonts are the only stage of the parasite Ichthyophonus sp. that has been identified in the tissues of a living host, and they are known to initiate new infections when ingested by a suitable host. However, after feeding Ichthyophonus-infected tissue to Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, we observed that once infection was initiated, some schizonts proceeded to develop into several other morphologic forms indistinguishable from those previously described from recently deceased hosts, decomposing infected corpses, and in vitro culture...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Patrick R Hutchins, Adam J Sepulveda, Renee M Martin, Lacey R Hopper
Conventional PCR is an established method to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonaeDNA in fish tissues and to confirm diagnosis of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by T. bryosalmonae. However, the commonly used PKX5f-6r primers were designed with the intention of obtaining sequence information and are suboptimal for determining parasite DNA presence. A new PCR assay to detect T. bryosalmonae 18s rDNA, PKX18s1266f-1426r, is presented that demonstrates specificity, repeatability, and enhanced sensitivity over the PKX5f-6r assay...
June 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
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