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Waste Management

Fatemeh Pourhossein, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi
This paper is the first study on the extraction of Cu, Ni, and Ga from Light Emitting Diode (LED) waste by bio-hydrometallurgy technology. LEDs have a high concentration of metals and various types of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). This study demonstrates the need for strains with resistance to high concentrations of LED powder. The adaptation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans to LED powder was done through a serial acclimatisation procedure in five steps of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/l. The results indicated that the heavy metals tolerance of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans decreased as the pulp density increased from 5 to 20 g/l...
September 2018: Waste Management
O O Ayeleru, F N Okonta, F Ntuli
The huge increase generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) has recently become an issue of global concern. This is because waste generation increases as the population increases and the management of this waste has equally become a bit difficult. This study aims at determining the characterization and the pattern of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the City of Johannesburg (CoJ), South Africa. The results revealed that plastics and organic wastes constitute the highest waste content in both the daily refuse (DR) and round collected refuse (RCR)...
September 2018: Waste Management
Nynne Nørup, Kaj Pihl, Anders Damgaard, Charlotte Scheutz
Due to the high resource consumption and environmental impacts of textile production, better handling of discarded materials has a great environmental improvement potential. A uniform definition of textile waste and a stringent sorting procedure is a precondition for thorough investigations of discarded textiles. A review of waste sorting studies showed that only a few included textiles, and mainly considered content and not quality. A lack of definition and quality assessment causes a high risk of mistakes when assessing the potential of textile waste prevention...
September 2018: Waste Management
V E Messerle, A L Mosse, A B Ustimenko
The problem of treatment of household and biomedical waste containing toxic substances is becoming increasingly important. In contrast to the conventional incineration, plasma gasification of the waste provides reliable destruction of highly toxic dioxins, benzo(a)pyrene and furans. This article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis and experiments on gasification of the waste of various origins in the plasma reactor. The calculations have shown that the maximum yield of synthesis gas in the waste plasma gasification in the air and steam medium was achieved at a temperature not higher than 1600 K...
September 2018: Waste Management
Stephen Burnley, Terry Coleman
A life cycle assessment was carried out to investigate the environmental benefits of removing dense plastics from household waste before burning the waste in an energy from waste (EfW) facility. Such a process was found to improve the climate change impacts of the waste management system by 75% and the non-renewable resource depletion impacts by 18%. A preliminary financial assessment suggests that the value of the plastics recovered in this way would be less than the reduction in electricity income for the EfW leading to a loss of £2-5 million per year...
September 2018: Waste Management
Atul Kumar, S R Samadder, Nitin Kumar, Chandrakant Singh
Plastic waste generation is an inevitable product of human activities, however its management faces challenges in many cities. Understanding the existing patterns of plastic waste generation and recycling is essential for effective management planning. The present study established a relationship between plastic waste generation rate and the identified socioeconomic groups, higher socioeconomic group (HSEG), middle socioeconomic group (MSEG), and lower socioeconomic group (LSEG) of the study area (Dhanbad, India)...
September 2018: Waste Management
Rita Sousa, Elsa Agante, João Cerejeira, Miguel Portela
Countries have been adjusting their electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) fees since the European directive for the control of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) entered into force. Using a novel data set collected by the team, our results show that EEE fees are negatively adjusted to the country's income per capita, with a 0.7% decrease in the fee for 1% increase in GDP per capita (GDPpc) for Large Household Appliances, but a positive association of a 0.8% increase for the Cool and Freezing category...
September 2018: Waste Management
Abdelkader Mekhalef Benhafssa, Thami Zeghloul, Wessim Aksa, Karim Medles, Lucien Dascalescu
The objective of this work is to highlight the peculiarities of the continuous operating regime of a new tribo-aero-electrostatic separator for the recycling of plastics contained in micronized waste electrical and electronic equipment. The experiments were carried out with an ABS/PS mixture. The particles are charged by triboelectric effect in a fluidized bed in the presence of an electric field created between two disk electrodes connected to high voltage supplies of opposite polarities. The installation described in this paper has several control variables: the high voltage, the mass of the mixture initially introduced into the fluidized bed, the flow of fluidizing air and the rotation speed of the disk electrodes...
September 2018: Waste Management
M Materazzi, R Taylor, P Cozens, C Manson-Whitton
Bio-substitute natural gas (or BioSNG) produced from gasification of waste fuels and subsequent methanation of the product gas could play a crucial role in the decarbonisation of heating and transportation, and could be a vital part of the energy mix in the coming decades. The BioSNG demonstration plant described in this paper seeks to prove the technical feasibility of the thermal gasification of waste to renewable gas, through a preliminary experimental programme to take an existing stream of syngas, methanate it and show that it can be upgraded to gas grid quality requirements...
September 2018: Waste Management
Ying Li, Gaixiu Yang, Lianhua Li, Yongming Sun
This study aims to investigate the performance of bioaugmentation with an acid-tolerant methanogenic culture to recover deteriorated anaerobic digestion caused by organic overloading. The function of bioaugmentation was evaluated in terms of substance metabolism, microbial community structure, and gene function. Our findings demonstrate that routine bioaugmentation effectively recovered the failing digester by degrading accumulated volatile fatty acids and increasing pH. In contrast, a non-bioaugmentation reactor (control) did not recover by itself, while abiotic augmentation restored the digestion performance temporarily but the digester failed again at an organic loading rate of 1...
September 2018: Waste Management
Sergey Abramov, Jing He, Dominik Wimmer, Marie-Louise Lemloh, E Marie Muehe, Benjamin Gann, Ellen Roehm, Rainer Kirchhof, Michael G Babechuk, Ronny Schoenberg, Harald Thorwarth, Thomas Helle, Andreas Kappler
As conventional end-of-life disposal, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residues can be problematic due to potential release of toxic compounds into the environment. Using municipal solid waste incineration residues as urban-mine of valuable metals (e.g. precious metals) could provide a trash-to-treasure possibility. The objectives of the study are to (i) determine the contents of different contaminant metallic elements (Zn, Cu, Ba, Pb, Cr and Ni) in four size fractions of MSW incineration residues and discuss their mobility potential by using the modified BCR sequential extraction method; (ii) investigate the level of valuable critical contents (precious metals, rare earth elements, etc...
September 2018: Waste Management
Qianli Ma, Wei Song, Ruibin Wang, Jie Zou, Rendang Yang, Shuangbao Zhang
Biochar was produced from anaerobically digested dairy manure under different processing temperatures (300, 600 and 1000 °C). The process could transform the biomass waste to high-value-added biochar products in high efficiency as well as reduce the manure biological pollution to the environment. By the results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) two kinetic models (FWO and Starink) were used to evaluate the activation energy. The biochar was studied for its surface area and pore size, chemical functionality, and crystalline structure by BET analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
September 2018: Waste Management
Mantong Jin, Fan Lian, Ruiqi Xia, Zhuohui Wang
In this study, tannery sludge was used as a partial replacement material for a geopolymer. The best raw material composition of the geopolymer and durability of the solidified product were studied. Solidification effect was analyzed via compressive strength and total concentration of chromium leached. Its durability in terms of high-temperature resistance, acid/base resistance property, and resistance to acid rain erosion was studied. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the compressive strength and total concentration of chromium leached in different environments were analyzed...
September 2018: Waste Management
Daniela Z Cypriano, Lucimara Lopes da Silva, Ljubica Tasic
An underutilized residue called Citrus Pulp of Floater (CPF), which causes problems during the industrial process of manufacturing of orange juice, was explored for the production of high value-added products. Mixed, first (1G) and second generation (2G) ethanol, a clean and renewable biofuel, was obtained after an enzyme cocktail isolated from the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was applied in hydrolysis of this biomass. Then, mono- and co-culture fermentations were performed using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two Candida strains (Candida parapsilosis IFM 48375 and NRRL Y-12969), where the last two were isolated from the orange bagasse in natura...
September 2018: Waste Management
Wen Fan, Michelle Srisupan, Lucas Bryant, Jason P Trembly
Hydrothermal treatment has been proven an effective process for immobilization of phosphorus and other macronutrients from animal wastes. Recent research has shown biochars generated from hydrothermal treatment are relatively low in phosphorus availability to be used as a fast release fertilizer substitute. In this research, basic (>7 pH) environment was evaluated at 250-400 °C to determine its impacts on nutrient immobilization and mobility from solid products generated from swine manure. Both fly ash and 0...
September 2018: Waste Management
Chunhui Zhao, Yong Wang, Yue Wang, Feijie Wu, Jiageng Zhang, Ruiyi Cui, Liguo Wang, Hui Mu
In this study, the influences of earthworms on the structure of microbial community as well as the metabolic function in vermicomposting (VPs, with earthworms) for excess sludge stabilization were investigated. Comparison between the dynamic variation of PLFA profiles in VPs and common composting (CPs, with no earthworms) was conducted. The Shannon index was increased in VPs, while it was decreased in CPs with time, indicating earthworm activity enhanced microbial community diversity. The fungal and protozoal biomasses were significantly increased in VPs compared with CPs...
September 2018: Waste Management
Yuan Hu, Mark Poustie
This paper aims to examine a key Chinese circular economy program, the Urban Mining Demonstration Base Construction (UMDBC) Program, for its successes, experiences and existing problems. Using publicly available data and detailed investigation and analysis, we discuss the details of the UMDBC Program. Although the whole program has been implemented and has made significant progress, some problems exist. Our findings suggest that it is more important for the Chinese government to provide an effective legal framework than merely provide financial support...
September 2018: Waste Management
I Iraola-Arregui, P Van Der Gryp, J F Görgens
Pyrolysis is an attractive technology to convert low-cost carbonaceous waste materials into fuels, energy and other value added products goods. During pyrolysis, the inorganic minerals present in the feedstock can cause problems to the equipment and give side reactions. Besides, the minerals present in the chars can hinder their possible applications. Therefore, it seems necessary to eliminate said contaminants in order to valorise the aforementioned goods. Demineralisation is a process widely used for purifying materials that are contaminated with inorganic matter...
September 2018: Waste Management
Chooi Wei Cheong, Yen Sze Lee, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Peck Toung Ooi, Lai Yee Phang
A huge amount of feathers is generated as a waste every year. Feathers can be a protein source if it is treated with an appropriate method. The present study investigates feasibility of autoclave alkaline and microwave alkaline pretreatments to be combined with enzymatic treatment for feather solubilization and protein production. Hydrolysis of chicken feather by autoclave alkaline pretreatment followed by an enzymatic method (AAS) or microwave alkaline pretreatment followed by an enzymatic method (MAS) was optimized by response surface methodology...
September 2018: Waste Management
Kelechi J Nwaokorie, Christopher A Bareither, Steven C Mantell, Daniel J Leclaire
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different moisture enhancement strategies on landfill gas generation in a full-scale solid waste landfill. Moisture enhancement strategies included leachate recirculation and liquid waste addition that were implemented to promote in situ waste decomposition. Waste mass disposed at the landfill and measured gas flow rates in the gas collection system were partitioned among four phases of the landfill that were operated with different moisture enhancement strategies...
September 2018: Waste Management
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