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Waste Management

M Sagar, K Nibedita, N Manohar, K Raj Kumar, S Suchismita, A Pradnyesh, A Babul Reddy, E Rotimi Sadiku, U N Gupta, P Lachit, J Jayaramudu
End-of-life (EOL) tyres and their decomposition present severe environmental concern due to their resistance to moisture, oxygen, natural degradation, etc. Pyrolysis is considered to be the most effective and sustainable process for recycling, due to its eco-friendly process. The current work studied the effect of recycled carbon black (rCB), obtained from the pyrolysis of EOL tyres, on the properties of ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM). The rCB was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and chemical methods...
January 10, 2018: Waste Management
Grant Allen, Peter Hollingsworth, Khristopher Kabbabe, Joseph R Pitt, Mohammed I Mead, Samuel Illingworth, Gareth Roberts, Mark Bourn, Dudley E Shallcross, Carl J Percival
This paper describes the development of a new sampling and measurement method to infer methane flux using proxy measurements of CO2 concentration and wind data recorded by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The flux method described and trialed here is appropriate to the spatial scale of landfill sites and analogous greenhouse gas emission hotspots, making it an important new method for low-cost and rapid case study quantification of fluxes from currently uncertain (but highly important) greenhouse gas sources...
January 9, 2018: Waste Management
G Bertanza, E Ziliani, L Menoni
Several indicators for the evaluation of the MSW collection systems have been proposed in the literature. These evaluation tools consider only some of the aspects that influence the operational efficiency of the collection service. The aim of this paper is to suggest a set of (easy to calculate) indicators that overcomes this limitation, taking into account both the characteristics of collected waste and the operational - economic performance. The main components of the collection system (labour, vehicles and containers) are separately considered so that it is possible to quantify and compare their role within the whole process...
January 9, 2018: Waste Management
Homan Nourbaghaee, Ahmad Ghaderi Hamidi, Mahdi Pourabdoli
Boiler residue (BR) of thermal power plants is one of the important secondary sources for vanadium production. In this research, the aluminothermic self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) was used for recovering the transition metals of BR for the first time. The effects of extra aluminum as reducing agent and flux to aluminum ratio (CaO/Al) were studied and the efficiency of recovery and presence of impurities were measured. Aluminothermic reduction of vanadium and other metals was carried out successfully by SHS without any foreign heat source...
January 8, 2018: Waste Management
Wei Peng, Alberto Pivato, Maria Cristina Lavagnolo, Roberto Raga
Anaerobic digestion of organics is one of the most used solution to gain renewable energy from waste and the final product, the digestate, still rich in putrescible components and nutrients, is mainly considered for reutilization (in land use) as a bio-fertilizer or a compost after its treatment. Alternative approaches are recommended in situations where conventional digestate management practices are not suitable. Aim of this study was to develop an alternative option to use digestate to enhance nitrified leachate treatment through a digestate layer in a landfill bioreactor...
January 8, 2018: Waste Management
S Akizuki, T Toda
Although combination of denitritation and methanogenesis for wastewater treatment has been widely investigated, an application of this technology to solid waste treatment has been rarely studied. This study investigated an anaerobic-aerobic batch system with simultaneous denitritation-methanogenesis as an effective treatment for marine biofoulings, which is a major source of intermittently discharged organic solid wastes. Preliminary NO2--exposed sludge was inoculated to achieve stable methanogenesis process without NO2- inhibition...
January 8, 2018: Waste Management
Zhiqiang Wang, Chen Hong, Yi Xing, Yifei Li, Lihui Feng, Mengmeng Jia
The combustion behaviors of sewage sludge (SS), pulverized coal (PC), and their blends were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The effect of the mass ratio of SS to PC on the co-combustion characteristics was analyzed. The experiments showed that the ignition performance of the blends improved significantly as the mass percentage of SS increased, but its combustion intensity decreased. The burnout temperature (Tb) and comprehensive combustibility index (S) of the blends were almost unchanged when the mass percentage of SS was less than 10%...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
Xingxing Cheng, Ming Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang, Guiying Xu, Chunyuan Ma
Thermal degradation of sewage sludge disposal is attracting more attention due to the increase in municipal wastewater treatment. In this work the performance of the thermochemical processes of sewage sludge at different oxygen concentrations was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) study. The oxygen concentrations were varied systematically from 0 to 20%, representing heating process from pyrolysis to full combustion. The evolutions of surface functional groups in these processes were also investigated by in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectra (DRIFT), which helped to understand the reaction mechanism during the thermal degradation, especially when the reaction conditions were different...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
Xuehua Gao, Qisheng Li, Jun Qiu
Nonmetallic particles recycled from waste print circuit boards (NPRPs) were modified by a hydrothermal treatment method and the catalysts, solvents, temperature and time were investigated, which affected the modification effect of NPRPs. The mild hydrothermal treatment method does not need high temperature, and would not cause secondary pollution. Further, the modified NPRPs were used as the raw materials for the epoxy resin and glass fibers/epoxy resin composites, which were prepared by pouring and hot-pressing method...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
N J Boxall, N Adamek, K Y Cheng, N Haque, W Bruckard, A H Kaksonen
Lithium ion battery (LIB) waste contains significant valuable resources that could be recovered and reused to manufacture new products. This study aimed to develop an alternative process for extracting metals from LIB waste using acidic solutions generated by electrolysis for leaching. Results showed that solutions generated by electrolysis of 0.5 M NaCl at 8 V with graphite or mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes were weakly acidic and leach yields obtained under single stage (batch) leaching were poor (<10%)...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
Aruna Ukwatta, Abbas Mohajerani, Sujeeva Setunge, Nicky Eshtiaghi
This paper investigates the five different gas emissions during the firing process of clay bricks and bricks incorporating biosolids. In this study, three different biosolids produced at the Western Treatment Plant and Eastern Treatment Plant, Melbourne, were used as an alternative raw material to the conventional brick soil to produce bricks. Three sets of bricks were manufactured incorporating 25% of biosolids by weight. Initially, three biosolids samples and brick soil were characterised by their chemical and mineral compositions, organic content and particle size distribution...
January 6, 2018: Waste Management
Jiang-Shan Li, Zhen Chen, Qi-Ming Wang, Le Fang, Qiang Xue, C R Cheeseman, Shane Donatello, Lei Liu, Chi Sun Poon
The potential of six different extractants to recover phosphorus (P) from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) was evaluated. Secondary effects such as the co-dissolution of Zn and Cu were also considered. The residual ISSA from each study was assessed in particular detail, focusing on the leachability of remaining Zn and Cu, major element composition, crystalline phases and overall degree of crystallinity and particle size distribution. The residual ISSA was also evaluated as a pozzolanic material using a Strength Activity Index (SAI) test with mortars containing Portland cement with a 20% substitution by ISSA...
January 5, 2018: Waste Management
Yangyang Li, Yiying Jin, Aiduan Borrion, Jinhui Li
Information on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) with different waste cooking oil contents is limited in terms of the effect of the initial substrate concentrations. In this work, batch tests were performed to evaluate the combined effects of waste cooking oil content (33-53%) and feed/inoculum (F/I) ratios (0.5-1.2) on biogas/methane yield, process stability parameters and organics reduction during the FW AD. Both waste cooking oil and the inoculation ratios were found to affect digestion parameters during the AD process start-up and the F/I ratio was the predominant factor affecting AD after the start-up phase...
January 4, 2018: Waste Management
Fabio De Menna, Jana Dietershagen, Marion Loubiere, Matteo Vittuari
Food waste (FW) is a global problem that is receiving increasing attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. Appropriate FW prevention, valorization, and management routes could mitigate or avoid these effects. Life cycle thinking and approaches, such as life cycle costing (LCC), may represent suitable tools to assess the sustainability of these routes. This study analyzes different LCC methodological aspects and approaches to evaluate FW management and valorization routes. A systematic literature review was carried out with a focus on different LCC approaches, their application to food, FW, and waste systems, as well as on specific methodological aspects...
January 2, 2018: Waste Management
Eleni Koutra, George Grammatikopoulos, Michael Kornaros
Digestates have been recently recognized as valuable substrates for microalgal cultivation, effectively combining wastewater remediation and biofuels production. In this regard, selection of the appropriate species for such a process is of utmost importance. In this study, the performance of seven different microalgal strains in 10% (v/v) digestate which derived from the co-digestion of several agro-waste streams was investigated. Parachlorella kessleri, Acutodesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and Tetraselmis tetrathele were able to acclimate to this new medium, resulting in biomass yields and fatty acids (FAs) content which varied between 570-1117 mg L-1 and 3...
December 30, 2017: Waste Management
María Natividad Pérez-Camacho, Robin Curry, Thomas Cromie
In this study, life cycle assessment has been used to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts of substituting traditional anaerobic digestion (AD) feedstocks with food wastes. The results have demonstrated the avoided GHG emissions from substituting traditional AD feedstocks with food waste (avoided GHG-eq emissions of 163.33 CO2-eq). Additionally, the analysis has included environmental benefits of avoided landfilling of food wastes and digestate use as a substitute for synthetic fertilisers. The analysis of the GHG mitigation benefits of resource management/circular economy policies, namely, the mandating of a ban on the landfilling of food wastes, has demonstrated the very substantial GHG emission reduction that can be achieved by these policy options - 2151...
December 29, 2017: Waste Management
Pinjing He, Shunyan Wei, Liming Shao, Fan Lü
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and ammonia from biowaste-derived residues is influenced by both the degree of bio-stability and atmosphere of oxygen level (i.e., either anaerobic, aerobic or anoxic conditions). By means of odor emission potential (OEP) test, present study directly examined how these two factors jointly affected the emissions of different odorous compounds from sludge compost. Results reveal that (1) the cumulative amount of ammonia and VSCs ranged from 0.08 to 0.38 mg/g-DM and 1.92 to 6...
December 27, 2017: Waste Management
Ling Liu, Shuqi Wang, Xiaoping Guo, Tingning Zhao, Bolin Zhang
A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform...
December 23, 2017: Waste Management
Dumitrita Ibanescu, Daniela Cailean Gavrilescu, Carmen Teodosiu, Silvia Fiore
The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options...
December 20, 2017: Waste Management
Florian Huber, Hannes Herzel, Christian Adam, Ole Mallow, Dominik Blasenbauer, Johann Fellner
An environmentally friendly and cost efficient way for the management of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash represents its thermal co-treatment together with combustible waste. However, the safe introduction and storage of MSWI fly ash in the waste bunker is challenging and associated with severe problems (e.g. dust emissions, generation of undefined lumps and heat in case of moistened MSWI fly ash). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of pelletisation as a pretreatment of MSWI fly ash...
December 20, 2017: Waste Management
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