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Waste Management

Y Rama Murthy, Gajanan U Kapure, Sunil Kumar Tripathy, G P Sahu
Ferroalloy industries rely on minerals which are not available in pure form. The total value chain is very cost intensive and market driven. From mineral and environment conservation point of view every possible aspect must be explored for the economic utilisation of waste and low-grade ores. Unlike other metallurgical processes, Ferro alloys production generates a wide variety of waste rich in manganese/chrome which has a potential for recycling back. Fine size, high moisture content and presence of alkalis categorise this material into hazardous waste and economically non-viable...
June 25, 2018: Waste Management
M Bourn, R Robinson, F Innocenti, C Scheutz
Methane emissions from landfills are an important source of greenhouse gases in the UK and worldwide. This paper considers how measurements of methane emissions could be used to regulate landfills in England in order to reduce the contribution of landfilling to climate change. The paper presents the results of a number of UK studies undertaken to quantify methane emissions from landfills. The methods used have included the DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) technique and a tracer gas dispersion method. A method based on aerial measurements has been developed...
June 21, 2018: Waste Management
Panagiotis Evangelopoulos, Samantha Arato, Henry Persson, Efthymios Kantarelis, Weihong Yang
Consumption of electronics increases due to modern society's growing needs, which leads to increasing generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Recycling of WEEE has been a global concern during the last few decades because of the toxic compounds that are produced during recycling. Different recycling techniques have been adapted on a commercial scale in order to overcome this issue, but the recycling of WEEE still lacks the technology to treat different kinds of feedstocks and to maximise the recycling rates...
June 18, 2018: Waste Management
Zhangliang Han, Fei Qi, Hui Wang, Baoxian Liu, Xiue Shen, Cheng Song, Zhiyuan Bao, Xufeng Zhao, Yangjie Xu, Dezhi Sun
The emission of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) causing strong odors is a major problem in municipal sewage sludge composting plants (MSSACPs). Improving the knowledge on characteristics of VSCs emission in MSAACPs is of particular significance to elimate odors, but the studies conducted on-site to identify them are scarce. To this purpose, characteristics of VSCs emission were studied on-site from a MSSACP during different ambient temperatures corresponding with seasonal variations. Results reveal that (1) the total emission of VSCs which included methyl disulfide (DMDS), methyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) was 561...
June 12, 2018: Waste Management
M Haupt, T Kägi, S Hellweg
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is commonly applied to examine the environmental performance of waste management systems. The system boundaries are, however, often limited to either one tonne of material or to specific waste treatments and are, therefore, lacking a systems perspective. Here, a framework is proposed to assess complete waste management systems based on actual waste flows, assessed with a detailed material flow analysis (MFA) in a modular MFA/LCA approach. The transformation of the MFA into a product-process-matrix facilitates a direct link between MFA and LCA, therefore allowing for the assessment of variations in flows...
May 31, 2018: Waste Management
L Fjelsted, A G Christensen, J E Larsen, P Kjeldsen, C Scheutz
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-mounted thermal infrared (TIR) camera's ability to delineate landfill gas (LFG) emission hotspots was evaluated in a field test at two Danish landfills (Hedeland landfill and Audebo landfill). At both sites, a test area of 100 m2 was established and divided into about 100 measuring points. The relationship between LFG emissions and soil surface temperatures were investigated through four to five measuring campaigns, in order to cover different atmospheric conditions along with increasing, decreasing and stable barometric pressure...
May 28, 2018: Waste Management
Alberto Gallifuoco, Luca Taglieri, Francesca Scimia, Alessandro Antonio Papa, Gabriele Di Giacomo
This experimental study proposes the systematic monitoring of liquid phase electrical conductivity as a new technique for evaluating kinetic models for hydrothermal conversion of biomass. The application to the hydrothermal carbonization of three different wooden materials is validated by batch experiments at 200 °C, up to 120 min of reaction time, and at a 7:1 water to solid ratio. Whatever the biomass, the time course of electrical conductivity follows a unique law, unquestionably corresponding to the evolution of solid-phase carbon content...
May 22, 2018: Waste Management
Khushboo Kumari, S Suresh, S Arisutha, K Sudhakar
Anaerobic co-digestion has made a greater impact on the biogas production from mixing different type of waste. In this research, sewage sludge (SS) and cow manure (CM), was used as a primary waste along with kitchen waste (KW), yard waste (YW), floral waste (FW) and dairy wastewater (DWW) as co-substrate for anaerobic digestion. Mixtures with a ratio of 1:2 ratio is fed into a single stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Digestion was carried out in a mesophilic temperature range for 20 days...
May 16, 2018: Waste Management
R Saravanakumar, K Ramachandran, Lintu G Laly, P V Ananthapadmanabhan, S Yugeswaran
Aluminium dross, a waste generated from aluminium melting process, contains aluminium metal, aluminium oxide, aluminium oxy-nitride and impurities such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride. Since aluminium dross is land filled without treatment, it is hazardous to the environment. Conventional methods for the metal recovery from the recycling of aluminium dross involve chemicals and are time consuming. In this study, an attempt was made to treat aluminium dross using plasma arc melting process. The aluminium dross was melted and evaporated by the plasma arc established between a crucible anode and a rod type hollow cathode made of graphite...
May 16, 2018: Waste Management
Jesus D Fernandez-Bayo, Ramin Yazdani, Christopher W Simmons, Jean S VanderGheynst
The management of organic wastes is an environmental and social priority. Aerobic digestion (AED) or composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) are two organic waste management practices that produce a value-added final product. Few side-by-side comparisons of both technologies and their digestate products have been performed. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of initial feedstock properties (moisture content and/or C/N ratio) on stabilization rate by AED and AD and soil amendment characteristics of the final products...
May 14, 2018: Waste Management
Qingmei Liu, Qibin Li, Ning Wang, Dan Liu, Li Zan, Le Chang, Xuemei Gou, Peijin Wang
This study explored the effects and mechanisms of petroleum-contaminated soil bioremediation using aged refuse (AR) from landfills. Three treatments of petroleum-contaminated soil (47.28 mg·g-1 ) amended with AR, sterilized aged refuse (SAR) and petroleum-contaminated soil only (as a control) were tested. During 98 days of incubation, changes in soil physicochemical properties, residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), biodegradation kinetics, enzyme activities and the microbial community were investigated...
May 10, 2018: Waste Management
Yuyan Huang, Haoxin Li, Zhengwu Jiang, Xiaojie Yang, Qing Chen
The aim of this work was to investigate the migration and transformation of sulfur in the municipal sewage sludge during disposal in cement kiln, and better understand the emission of the sulfur related pollutants in this process. In consideration of the temperature conditions in the practical operation, municipal sewage sludge was pre-dried at 105 °C, and then dried at 210, 260 and 310 °C, co-combusted with cement raw mill at 800, 900 and 1000 °C, and 1350, 1400 and 1450 °C respectively in the laboratory...
May 7, 2018: Waste Management
Diogo Appel Colvero, Ana Paula Duarte Gomes, Luís António da Cruz Tarelho, Manuel Arlindo Amador de Matos, Kamila Almeida Dos Santos
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a pressing concern for Goiás State, Brazil. Of the state's 246 municipalities, only 16 send their waste to licensed landfills. This means that 93% of the cities in Goiás dispose of their MSW inappropriately, in dumps or unlicensed landfills. This practice poses a danger to both the environment and to public health. On this basis, the goal of this study was to survey potential landfill sites in Goiás. A geographic information system tool was used to first identify Goiás landfills and dumps and then examine them, to check whether they are located in legally restricted areas...
May 4, 2018: Waste Management
Lin Xu, Maoliang Ling, Yiling Wu
China has experienced a rapid growth of solid waste over the years, household waste source-separation is becoming a nationwide strategy for promoting recycling economy and improving urban environmental sustainability. Waste separation, however, may end in failure due to the free-rider problem similarly existing in other pro-environmental collective actions. Along with the economic and sociological/social psychological logic respectively, this study tested the effects of economic incentive and social influence, which are theoretically considered as two general solutions to domestic waste separation dilemma...
May 4, 2018: Waste Management
Sabrina Stöckli, Michael Dorn, Stefan Liechti
This field study demonstrates that prompts reduce food waste in a restaurant. Based on the behavioral change literature, it was hypothesized that (1) informational prompts encourage consumers to reduce food waste, and that (2) an informational prompt with a normative message is more effective than a prompt with only an informative message. The results were mixed. As expected, diners who were exposed to prompts asked to take away their leftovers more frequently than diners who were exposed to no prompts. However, prompts with an informative and normative message were no more powerful than prompts with only an informative message...
May 3, 2018: Waste Management
Nils Johansson, Hervé Corvellec
This paper presents an analysis of European and Swedish national and municipal waste prevention plans to determine their capability of preventing the generation of waste. An analysis of the stated objectives in these waste prevention plans and the measures they propose to realize them exposes six problematic features: (1) These plans ignore what drives waste generation, such as consumption, and (2) rely as much on conventional waste management goals as they do on goals with the aim of preventing the generation of waste at the source...
April 30, 2018: Waste Management
Harri Niska, Ari Serkkola
Extensive monitoring data on waste generation is increasingly collected in order to implement cost-efficient and sustainable waste management operations. In addition, geospatial data from different registries of the society are opening for free usage. Novel data analytics approaches can be built on the top of the data to produce more detailed, and in-time waste generation information for the basis of waste management and collection. In this paper, a data-based approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) and the k-means algorithm is developed for creating a set of waste generation type profiles...
April 30, 2018: Waste Management
Ahasa Yousuf, Juan-Rodrigo Bastidas-Oyanedel, Jens Ejbye Schmidt
Food waste landfilling causes environmental degradation, and this work assesses a sustainable food valorization technique. In this study, food waste is converted into lactic acid in a batch assembly by dark fermentation without pH control and without the addition of external inoculum at 37 °C. The effect of total solid (TS), enzymatic and aeration pretreatment was investigated on liquid products concentration and product yield. The maximum possible TS content was 34% of enzymatic pretreated waste, and showed the highest lactic acid concentration of 52 g/L, with a lactic acid selectivity of 0...
April 28, 2018: Waste Management
Rongxing Bian, Danhui Xin, Xiaoli Chai
Quantification of methane (CH4 ) oxidation and emission from landfill cover soils is important for evaluating measures to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a model that combines the multicomponent diffusive equation and Darcy's law, coupled with the dual Monod kinetic equation, was established to simulate CH4 transport, oxidation and emission in landfill cover soils. Sensitivity analysis was performed to illustrate the influence of model parameters on CH4 transport, oxidation and emission...
April 27, 2018: Waste Management
Du Changming, Shang Chao, Xiangjie Gong, Wang Ting, Wei Xiange
Metal-containing waste, a kind of new wastes, has a great potential for recycling and is also difficult to deal with. Many countries pay more and more attention to develop the metal recovery process and equipment of this kind of waste as raw material, so as to solve the environmental pollution and comprehensively utilize the discarded metal resources. Plasma processing is an efficient and environmentally friendly way for metal-containing waste. This review mainly discuss various metal-containing waste types, such as printed circuit boards (PCBs), red mud, galvanic sludge, Zircon, aluminium dross and incinerated ash, and the corresponding plasma methods, which include DC extended transferred arc plasma reactor, DC non-transferred arc plasma torch, RF thermal plasma reactor and argon and argon-hydrogen plasma jets...
April 27, 2018: Waste Management
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