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Waste Management

Xiaojie Sun, Hongxia Zhang, Zhaowen Cheng
High concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) derived from ex situ nitrification phase can inhibit methane production during ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification bioreactor landfill. A combined process comprised of ex situ simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) in an aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) and in situ denitrification in a fresh refuse bioreactor (FRB) was conducted to reduce the negative effect of high concentrationsof NO3(-)-N. Ex situ SND can be achieved because NO3(-)-N concentration can be reduced and the removal rate of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) remains largely unchanged when the ventilation rate of ARB-A2 is controlled...
April 19, 2017: Waste Management
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
A E Maragkaki, M Fountoulakis, A Kyriakou, K Lasaridi, T Manios
In Greece, in many cities, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operate their own anaerobic digestion (AD) facility in order to treat sewage sludge rather than achieve optimum biogas production. Nowadays, there is a growing interest regarding the addition of other co-substrates in these existing facilities in order to increase gas yield from the biomass. This practice may be possible by adding small amount of co-substrates which will not affect significantly in the designed hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the lack of experimental data regarding this option is a serious obstacle...
April 17, 2017: Waste Management
Morten Bang Jensen, Jacob Møller, Charlotte Scheutz
The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO3, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air...
April 17, 2017: Waste Management
Himanshu Ranjan Verma, Kamalesh K Singh, Tilak Raj Mankhand
Present work investigates the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) by cracking of its multi-layered structure by using dimethylacetamide (DMA). The study shows that cracking and separation of layers of PCBs increases as the temperature increases; and decreases as the surface area of PCBs increases. After separation of layers, the used solvent was analyzed by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to understand the dissolution phenomenon of resin. Further, NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of DMA sample after 1h, 2h, 3h, 4h and 8h of reaction with PCBs at 433K and PCB:DMA ratio (wt/vol) of 3:10 has been carried out to investigate the mechanism of dissolution of resin...
April 13, 2017: Waste Management
Kenisha Garnett, Tim Cooper, Philip Longhurst, Simon Jude, Sean Tyrrel
The technical expertise that politicians relied on in the past to produce cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions no longer provides sufficient justification to approve waste facilities. Local authorities need to find more effective ways to involve stakeholders and communities in decision-making since public acceptance of municipal waste facilities is integral to delivering effective waste strategies. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored attitudes towards greater levels of public involvement in UK waste management decision-making...
April 13, 2017: Waste Management
Shengen Zhang, Yunji Ding, Bo Liu, Chein-Chi Chang
New development and technological innovations make electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) more functional by using an increasing number of metals, particularly the critical metals (e.g. rare and precious metals) with specialized properties. As millions of people in emerging economies adopt a modern lifestyle, the demand for critical metals is soaring. However, the increasing demand causes the crisis of their supply because of their simple deficiency in the Earth's crust or geopolitical constraints which might create political issues for their supply...
April 12, 2017: Waste Management
Shrikalaa Kannan, Yvan Gariepy, G S Vijaya Raghavan
Fish processing results in large amounts of solid and liquid wastes that are unsustainably dumped into oceans and landfills. Alternative sustainable technologies that completely utilize seafood wastes are needed. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) that converts moisture-rich biomass into hydrochar is mostly employed for pure lignocellulosic biowaste. However, the suitability of HTC for pure non-lignocellulosic waste is unknown. Here, for the first time, a response surface design guided optimization of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) process parameters, holding temperature (150-210°C) and time (90-120min), showed that a temperature of approximately 200°C and a time of approximately 119min yielded maximal hydrochar (∼34%)...
April 12, 2017: Waste Management
Han Ke, Jie Hu, Xiao Bing Xu, Wen Fang Wang, Yun Min Chen, Liang Tong Zhan
Municipal solid waste (MSW) specimens were created from synthetic fresh MSW degraded in a laboratory scale enhanced degradation reactor. The degree of degradation and saturated hydraulic conductivity ks were measured to study the effects of compression and degradation on ks of MSW. The degree of degradation was characterized through the ratio of cellulose content to lignin content (i.e., C/L) and the loss ratio of volatile solid (i.e., DOD). ks of MSW specimens with different degrees of degradation was measured through triaxial permeameter tests under different confining pressures...
April 12, 2017: Waste Management
Michele Notarnicola, Giacinto Cornacchia, Sabino De Gisi, Francesco Di Canio, Cesare Freda, Pietro Garzone, Maria Martino, Vito Valerio, Antonio Villone
Automotive shredder residue (ASR) can create difficulties when managing, with its production increasing. It is made of different type of plastics, foams, elastomers, wood, glasses and textiles. For this reason, it is complicated to dispose of in a cost effective way, while also respecting the stringent environmental restrictions. Among thermal treatments, pyrolysis seems to offer an environmentally attractive method for the treatment of ASR; it also allows for the recovery of valuable secondary materials/fuels such as pyrolysis oils, chars, and gas...
April 11, 2017: Waste Management
Tiago Rodrigo Silva, Regina Mambeli Barros, Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Ivan Felipe Silva Dos Santos
This study aimed to determine theoretically, the electrical optimum power of LFG using the maximum net benefit (MNB) methodology, and taking into consideration the economic, demographic, and regional aspects of the Inter municipal Consortium of the Micro-region of the High Sapucaí for Sanitary Landfill (CIMASAS, as acronym in Portuguese), that is located in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To this end, the prognosis for a 20-year period of household solid waste generation in this region was estimated and quantified based on population data, in order to estimate the LFG production and the energy that can be generated...
April 11, 2017: Waste Management
Kiyohiko Nakasaki, Hidehira Hirai
The effects of inoculating the mesophilic yeast Pichia kudriavzevii RB1, which is able to degrade organic acids, on organic matter degradation in composting were elucidated. When model food waste with high carbohydrate content (C/N=22.3) was used, fluctuation in the inoculated yeast cell density was observed, as well as fluctuation in the composting temperature until day 5 when the temperature rose to 60°C, which is lethal for the yeast. After the decrease in yeast, acetic acid accumulated to levels as high as 20mg/g-ds in the composting material and vigorous organic matter degradation was inhibited...
April 11, 2017: Waste Management
Haihui You, Zengyi Ma, Yijun Tang, Yuelan Wang, Jianhua Yan, Mingjiang Ni, Kefa Cen, Qunxing Huang
The heating values, particularly lower heating values of burning municipal solid waste are critically important parameters in operating circulating fluidized bed incineration systems. However, the heating values change widely and frequently, while there is no reliable real-time instrument to measure heating values in the process of incinerating municipal solid waste. A rapid, cost-effective, and comparative methodology was proposed to evaluate the heating values of burning MSW online based on prior knowledge, expert experience, and data-mining techniques...
April 10, 2017: Waste Management
Jia-Wei Lu, Sukun Zhang, Jing Hai, Ming Lei
With the rapid expansion of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, the applicability, technical status, and future improvement of MSW incineration attract much attention in China. This paper aims to be a sensible response, with the aid of a comparison between China and some representative developed regions including the EU, the U.S., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan area. A large number of up-to-date data and information are collected to quantitatively and impartially support the comparison, which covers a wider range of key points including spatial distribution, temporal evolution, technologies, emissions, and perspectives...
April 10, 2017: Waste Management
Stephanie C Bolyard, Debra R Reinhart
Nitrogen is limited more and more frequently in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents because of the concern of causing eutrophication in discharge waters. Twelve leachates from eight landfills in Florida and California were characterized for total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average concentration of TN and DON in leachate was approximately 1146mg/L and 40mg/L, respectively. Solid-phase extraction was used to fractionate the DON based on hydrophobic (recalcitrant fraction) and hydrophilic (bioavailable fraction) chemical properties...
April 10, 2017: Waste Management
O Ashayerizadeh, B Dastar, F Samadi, M Khomeiri, A Yamchi, S Zerehdaran
This study aimed to evaluate the quality of fermented poultry slaughterhouse waste and isolate and identify the probiotic bacteria present in it. Poultry slaughterhouse waste samples supplemented with 5% starter culture and 0.2% propionic acid received one of four experimental treatments, which consisted of further supplementation with: (1) 10% molasses (M10); (2) 15% molasses (M15); (3) 10% molasses with 200ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (MB10); and (4) 15% molasses with 200ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (MB15)...
April 10, 2017: Waste Management
Dinh Duc Nguyen, Jeong Seong Yeop, Jaehoon Choi, Sungsu Kim, Soon Woong Chang, Byong-Hun Jeon, Wenshan Guo, Huu Hao Ngo
Dry semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of South Korean food waste (FW) under four solid loading rates (SLRs) (2.30-9.21kg total solids (TS)/m(3)day) and at a fixed TS content was compared between two digesters, one each under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Biogas production and organic matter reduction in both digesters followed similar trends, increasing with rising SLR. Inhibitor (intermediate products of the anaerobic fermentation process) effects on the digesters' performance were not observed under the studied conditions...
April 9, 2017: Waste Management
C Buratti, M Barbanera, E Lascaro, F Cotana
The aim of the present study is to analyze the influence of independent process variables such as temperature, residence time, and heating rate on the torrefaction process of coffee chaff (CC) and spent coffee grounds (SCGs). Response surface methodology and a three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design were used in order to evaluate the effects of the process variables on the weight loss (WL) and the Higher Heating Value (HHV) of the torrefied materials. Results showed that the effects of the three factors on both responses were sequenced as follows: temperature>residence time>heating rate...
April 9, 2017: Waste Management
Jia Liu, Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan
In this study, metallic nanoparticles (Fe, Ni, and Fe/Ni) were used as cathode catalysts to enhance power production and to improve the anode performance of a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC). The metallic nanoparticles were rod-shaped and produced by the precipitation/co-precipitation method. A biosurfactant was produced in the anode chamber of the MFC from used vegetable oil by the bacteria Serratia sp. Overall cell voltage, power density, bacterial growth, and biosurfactant production were studied by applying different types of metallic nanoparticles to the cathode electrode...
April 9, 2017: Waste Management
Hongying Hou, Yuan Yao, Song Liu, Jixiang Duan, Qishu Liao, Chengyi Yu, Dongdong Li, Zhipeng Dai
The wide applications of metal Cu inevitably resulted in a large quantity of waste Cu materials. In order to recover the useful Cu under the mild conditions and reduce the environmental emission, waste Cu scraps were recycled in the form of CuCl powders with high economic value added (EVA) via the facile hydrothermal route. The recycled CuCl powders were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the recycled CuCl powders consisted of many regular tetrahedron-like micro-particles...
April 9, 2017: Waste Management
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