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Waste Management

V Arunbabu, K S Indu, E V Ramasamy
Phytoremediation is a promising option for the treatment of municipal solid waste leachate. Combining the leachate pollution index with the phytotoxicity data will be useful in predicting the suitable concentration of leachate for the phytoremediation applications. Understanding the tolerant mechanisms of plants to leachate stress will further help to select the appropriate dose. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of leachate on germination, growth, chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activities in the plant Vigna unguiculata...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
Siyuan Zhang, Yuyang Long, Yuan Fang, Yao Du, Weijia Liu, Dongsheng Shen
The issue of odorous volatile organic sulfur compound methyl mercaptan (MM) released from landfill sites cannot be ignored for its extremely low odor threshold and high toxicity. In this study, we focused on the formation and emission of MM in four lab-scaled simulated landfill reactors running in different operation modes, namely, R1 and R2, without leachate recirculation, running under anaerobic and semi-aerobic atmosphere, R3 and R4, with leachate recirculation, running under anaerobic and semi-aerobic atmosphere, respectively...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
Offer Rozenstein, Eldon Puckrin, Jan Adamowski
Waste sorting is key to the process of waste recycling. Exact identification of plastic resin and wood products using Near Infrared (NIR, 1-1.7µm) sensing is currently in use. Yet, dark targets characterized by low reflectance, such as black plastics, are hard to identify by this method. Following the recent success of Midwave Infrared (MWIR, 3-12µm) measurements to identify coloured plastic polymers, the aim of this study was to assess whether this technique is applicable to sorting black plastic polymers and wood products...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
Florian Kamleitner, Bernadette Duscher, Thomas Koch, Simone Knaus, Vasiliki-Maria Archodoulaki
Long chain branching (LCB) was used the first time as an innovative tool for value adding to PP from household post-consumer waste. Due to the highly improved melt properties, the possible application profile is extended and not only a "re-cycling" process, even a real "up-cycling" is presented. The used PP was collected from commingled household polyolefin waste, which contained different types of PP and macromolecular impurities such as 10% of polyethylene with high density (PE-HD). In addition, a single PP waste fraction from cleaned beverage and yoghurt cups was manually sorted...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
O Paladino, M Massabò
The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
Carolina Beres, Gislaine N S Costa, Ignacio Cabezudo, Nina K da Silva-James, Aline S C Teles, Ana P G Cruz, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Renata V Tonon, Lourdes M C Cabral, Suely P Freitas
Grape is the main fruit crop in several countries. Although many grape-based food products can be found in the market, studies have shown that around 75% of the world grape production is destined for the wine industry. Grape pomace is an abundant by-product from the wine industry, which consists of the remaining skin, seeds and stalks and represents around 25% of total grape weight used in the winemaking process. In countries such as Italy, France and Spain, where wine production is more relevant, the annual grape pomace generation can reach nearly 1200 tonnes per year...
July 19, 2017: Waste Management
Lisbet Mailin López González, Ileana Pereda Reyes, Osvaldo Romero Romero
The conversion efficiency of high solids waste digestion as sugarcane press mud (P) may be limited due to hydrolysis step. The option of co-digestion with vinasse, main liquid waste generated from ethanol production, was investigated under batch regime at mesophilic conditions (37.5±1°C) and the best mixture was evaluated under semicontinuous regime in stirred-tank reactors. The maximum values for methane yield in batch tests were for V75/P25 and V50/P50 mixtures (on basis of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) percentage added in the mixture), with an average value of 246NmL CH4g(-1) CODfed, which was 13% higher than that of press mud alone...
July 18, 2017: Waste Management
Lidia Lombardi, Ennio A Carnevale
Residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has an average lower heating value higher than 10GJ/Mg in the EU, and can be recovered in modern Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants, producing combined heat and power (CHP) and reaching high levels of energy recovery. CHP is pinpointed as the best technique for energy recovery from waste. However, in some cases, heat recovery is not technically feasible - due to the absence of a thermal user (industrial plant or district heating) in the vicinity of the WtE plant - and power production remains the sole possibility...
July 17, 2017: Waste Management
Haobo Tan, Yan Zhao, Yue Ling, Ying Wang, Xuemei Wang
The odour pollution occurring in the initial decomposition stage of municipal solid waste (MSW), including collection, transfer and transportation, has not been sufficiently emphasised. Thus the emission characteristics of and variation in odorant generation in this stage were investigated through simulation experiments at different temperatures, waste composition and processing durations. Out of 120 odorous compounds, 52 were detected in seven categories under all tested conditions, with significant variations...
July 17, 2017: Waste Management
Difang Zhang, Wenhai Luo, Jing Yuan, Guoxue Li, Yuan Luo
This study investigated the effect of calcium superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting with woody peat as the bulking agent. Two treatments were conducted with or without the addition of calcium superphosphate (10% dry weight of the composting mass), which were denoted as the control and superphosphate-amended treatment, respectively. Results show that the composting temperature of both treatments was higher than 50°C for more than 5days, which is typically required for pathogen destruction during manure composting...
July 13, 2017: Waste Management
Einara Blanco Machin, Daniel Travieso Pedroso, João Andrade de Carvalho
Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed...
July 13, 2017: Waste Management
A Bernstad Saraiva, R G Souza, R A B Valle
The environmental impacts from three management alternatives for organic fraction of municipal solid waste were compared using lifecycle assessment methodology. The alternatives (sanitary landfill, selective collection of organic waste for anaerobic digestion and anaerobic digestion after post-separation of organic waste) were modelled applying an attributional as well as consequential approach, in parallel with the aim of identifying if and how these approaches can affect results and conclusions. The marginal processes identified in the consequential modelling were in general associated with higher environmental impacts than average processes modelled with an attributional approach...
July 13, 2017: Waste Management
Ioannis Moukazis, Frantseska-Maria Pellera, Evangelos Gidarakos
The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of animal by-products (ABP) as substrates for anaerobic digestion, aiming at methane production. Specifically, four ABP of Category 2 and 3, namely (i) stomach and rumen, (ii) stomach contents, (iii) breasts and reproductive organs and (iv) bladders and intestines with their contents, were selected. The methane potential of each ABP was initially determined, while the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of ABP with two agroindustrial waste, i.e. orange peels and olive leaves was also studied...
July 12, 2017: Waste Management
G Prabaharan, S P Barik, N Kumar, L Kumar
Electrochemical method for recovering cobalt and manganese from electrode materials of spent lithium ion batteries was studied. Electrochemical leaching of cobalt and manganese from electrode material was optimized by varying different process parameters such as time, acid concentration and current density. Both cobalt and manganese could effectively be leached out at a current density of 400A/m(2) in 3h using 2M sulphuric acid. In the subsequent study, the metallic cobalt and electrolytic manganese dioxides was recovered from the leach liquor at 200A/m(2), pH 2-2...
July 12, 2017: Waste Management
Mary Jesuyemi Odedina, Boonya Charnnok, Kanyarat Saritpongteeraka, Sumate Chaiprapat
Methane production potential of tropical fruit wastes, namely lady-finger banana peel, rambutan waste and longan waste were compared using BMP assay and stoichiometric modified Buswell and Mueller equation. Methane yields based on volatile solid (VS) were in the order of ground banana peel, chopped banana peel, chopped longan waste, and chopped rambutan waste (330.6, 268.3, 234.6 and 193.2 mLCH4/gVS) that corresponded to their calculated biodegradability. In continuous operations of banana peel digestion at feed concentrations based on total solid (TS) 1-2%, mesophilic single stage digester run at 20-day hydraulic retention time (20-day HRT) failed at 2%TS, but successfully recovered at 1...
July 11, 2017: Waste Management
Eleni Iacovidou, John Hahladakis, Innes Deans, Costas Velis, Phil Purnell
The power plant sector is adopting the co-firing of biomass and solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal in an effort to reduce its environmental impact and costs. Whereas this intervention contributes to reducing carbon emissions and those of other pollutants related with the burning of fossil fuel, it may also result in hidden impacts that are often overlooked. When co-firing, the physical and chemical properties of the mixed fuels and the subsequent technical implications on the process performance and by-products are significant...
July 8, 2017: Waste Management
Pablo Gertner, César Huiliñir, Paula Pinto-Villegas, Alejandra Castillo, Silvio Montalvo, Lorna Guerrero
The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation...
July 8, 2017: Waste Management
Reto Strobel, Maurice H Waldner, Helen Gablinger
The effect of low excess air and high adiabatic combustion temperatures on CO and NOx formation has been investigated on a commercially operated energy-from-waste plant. With optimal combination of low O2 levels and stable combustion control, uncontrolled NOx levels could be lowered to 100-150mg/Nm(3) (dry, at 11% O2) while keeping CO emissions at low levels. Even at adiabatic temperatures above 1400°C thermal NOx hardly contributed to the total NOx emissions in a grate-fired EfW plant. An advanced combustion control system allowed continuous operation with very little excess air (λ<1...
July 7, 2017: Waste Management
Heinrich Amsterdam, George Alex Thopil
In South Africa the electricity generation mix is relatively un-diverse whereas globally the transformation of the sector is advancing rapidly. Coal remains the predominant fuel source and limited success has to date been achieved in the renewable energy sector. The electricity generation sector is therefore hindered from moving towards an electricity generation landscape where alternative fuel sources is utilised. This research is aimed at gaining insight into the enablers that led towards an increasing trend (observed globally) in exploiting waste as a fuel for electricity generation, and to outline the presence of obstacles that hinder separation of waste for electricity use in the South African context...
July 6, 2017: Waste Management
C Rodriguez, A Alaswad, Z El-Hassan, A G Olabi
In the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials such as waste paper, the accessibility of microorganisms to the fermentable sugars is restricted by their complex structure. A mechanical pretreatment with a Hollander beater was assessed in order to reduce the biomass particle size and to increase the feedstock' specific surface area available to the microorganisms, and therefore improve the biogas yield. Pretreatment of paper waste for 60min improves the methane yield by 21%, from a value of 210ml/gVS corresponding to untreated paper waste to 254ml/gVS...
July 5, 2017: Waste Management
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