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Waste Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633912/life-cycle-assessment-and-life-cycle-costs-for-pre-disaster-waste-management-systems
#1
Yohei Wakabayashi, Tsai Peii, Tomohiro Tabata, Takashi Saeki
This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633911/fate-of-metals-and-emissions-of-organic-pollutants-from-torrefaction-of-waste-wood-msw-and-rdf
#2
Mar Edo, Nils Skoglund, Qiuju Gao, Per-Erik Persson, Stina Jansson
Torrefaction of municipal solid waste (MSW), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and demolition and construction wood (DC) was performed at 220°C and a residence time of 90min in a bench-scale reactor. The levels of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) contained in emission from the torrefaction process were evaluated. In addition, main ash-forming elements and trace metals in the raw feedstock and char were determined. The use of MSW in fuel blends with DC resulted in lower PCDD and PCDF emissions after torrefaction, compared with the RDF blends...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629710/anaerobic-digestion-of-tuna-waste-for-the-production-of-volatile-fatty-acids
#3
Noela Bermúdez-Penabad, Christian Kennes, Maria C Veiga
Fish canning industries generate a significant amount of solid waste that can be digested anaerobically into volatile fatty acids (VFA). The aim of this research was to study the effect of various pHs, ranging from 5.0 to 10.0, and percentage of total solids on the anaerobic digestion of tuna waste into VFA, both in batch assays and continuous reactor. The production of VFA was affected by pH and was significantly higher under alkaline conditions. At pH 8.0, the VFA production reached 30,611mgCOD/L. The VFA mainly consisted of acetic, propionic, n-butyric and i-valeric acids...
June 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629709/energy-recovery-from-one-and-two-stage-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste
#4
Giorgia De Gioannis, Aldo Muntoni, Alessandra Polettini, Raffaella Pomi, Daniela Spiga
One- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste aimed at recovering methane (CH4) and hydrogen and methane (H2+CH4), respectively, were compared in order to assess the potential benefits from the two-stage process in terms of overall energy recovery. Results suggest that a two-stage process where the first reactor is properly operated in order to achieve a significant net hydrogen production, may display a 20% comparatively higher energy recovery yield as a result, mainly, of enhanced methane production as well as of the associated hydrogen production...
June 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629708/comparative-use-of-different-emission-measurement-approaches-to-determine-methane-emissions-from-a-biogas-plant
#5
Torsten Reinelt, Antonio Delre, Tanja Westerkamp, Magnus A Holmgren, Jan Liebetrau, Charlotte Scheutz
A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant...
June 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625861/the-policy-effects-of-feed-in-tariff-and-renewable-portfolio-standard-a-case-study-of-china-s-waste-incineration-power-industry
#6
Zhao Xin-Gang, Zhang Yu-Zhuo, Ren Ling-Zhi, Zuo Yi, Wu Zhi-Gong
Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry...
June 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624336/a-framework-for-evaluating-the-accessibility-of-raw-materials-from-end-of-life-products-and-the-earth-s-crust
#7
Sandra R Mueller, Patrick A Wäger, David A Turner, Peter J Shaw, Ian D Williams
An increasing number of geochemically scarce metallic raw materials are entering into our lives via new technologies. A reversal of this trend is not foreseeable, leading to concerns regarding the security of their supply. However, the evaluation of raw material supply is currently hampered by inconsistent use of fundamental terminologies and incomplete assessment criteria. In this paper, we aim to establish a consistent framework for evaluating raw material supply from both anthropogenic and geological sources...
June 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623023/pyrolysis-reaction-models-of-waste-tires-application-of-master-plots-method-for-energy-conversion-via-devolatilization
#8
Dilan Irmak Aslan, Prakash Parthasarathy, Jillian L Goldfarb, Selim Ceylan
Land applied disposal of waste tires has far-reaching environmental, economic, and human health consequences. Pyrolysis represents a potential waste management solution, whereby the solid carbonaceous residue is heated in the absence of oxygen to produce liquid and gaseous fuels, and a solid char. The design of an efficient conversion unit requires information on the reaction kinetics of pyrolysis. This work is the first to probe the appropriate reaction model of waste tire pyrolysis. The average activation energy of pyrolysis was determined via iso-conversional methods over a mass fraction conversion range between 0...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623022/heterogeneity-of-zeolite-combined-with-biochar-properties-as-a-function-of-sewage-sludge-composting-and-production-of-nutrient-rich-compost
#9
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Meijing Wang, Ashok Pandey, Hongyu Chen, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Xiuna Ren, Altaf Hussain Lahori, Dong-Sheng Li, Ronghua Li, Zengqiang Zhang
In the present study, biochar combined with a higher dosage of zeolite (Z) and biochar (B) alone were applied as additives for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) composting using 130-L working volume lab-scale reactors. We first observed that the addition of a mixture of B and Z to DFSS equivalent to 12%B+10% (Z-1), 15% (Z-2) and 30% (Z-3) zeolite (dry weight basis) worked synergistically as an amendment and increased the composting efficiency compared with a treatment of 12%B alone amended and a control without any amendment...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623021/improving-the-circular-economy-via-hydrothermal-processing-of-high-density-waste-plastics
#10
Thomas Helmer Pedersen, Federica Conti
Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies. This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical compounds...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623020/two-step-gasification-of-cattle-manure-for-hydrogen-rich-gas-production-effect-of-biochar-preparation-temperature-and-gasification-temperature
#11
Ya Xin, Hongliang Cao, Qiaoxia Yuan, Dianlong Wang
Two-step gasification process was proposed to dispose cattle manure for hydrogen rich gas production. The effect of temperature on product distribution and biochar properties were first studied in the pyrolysis-carbonization process. The steam gasification of biochar derived from different pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures was then performed at 750°C and 850°C. The biochar from the pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures of 500°C had high carbon content and low volatiles content. According to the results of gasification stage, the pyrolysis-carbonization temperature of 500°C and the gasification temperature of 850°C were identified as the suitable conditions for hydrogen production...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623019/exogenous-addition-of-h2-for-an-in-situ-biogas-upgrading-through-biological-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-into-methane
#12
Daniel Girma Mulat, Freya Mosbæk, Alastair James Ward, Daniela Polag, Markus Greule, Frank Keppler, Jeppe Lund Nielsen, Anders Feilberg
Biological reduction of CO2 into CH4 by exogenous addition of H2 is a promising technology for upgrading biogas into higher CH4 content. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of exogenous H2 addition for an in situ biogas upgrading through biological conversion of the biogas CO2 into CH4. Moreover, this study employed systematic study with isotope analysis for providing comprehensive evidence on the underlying pathways of CH4 production and upstream processes. Batch reactors were inoculated with digestate originating from a full-scale biogas plant and fed once with maize leaf substrate...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619237/influence-of-recycling-programmes-on-waste-separation-behaviour
#13
Katya Stoeva, Stina Alriksson
To achieve high rates of waste reuse and recycling, waste separation in households is essential. This study aimed to reveal how recycling programmes in Sweden and Bulgaria influenced inhabitants' participation in separation of household waste. The waste separation behaviour of 111 university students from Kalmar, Sweden and 112 students from Plovdiv, Bulgaria was studied using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. The results showed that a lack of proper conditions for waste separation can prevent individuals from participating in this process, regardless of their positive attitudes...
June 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606424/influence-of-composition-and-degradation-on-the-shear-strength-of-municipal-solid-waste
#14
A E S Abreu, O M Vilar
This study aimed to evaluate the shear strength of municipal solid waste (MSW) of different landfilling ages exhumed from disposal sites in a subtropical humid environment. Wastes which had been landfilled from ages of 2 up to 25years were characterized using physical, chemical and biochemical tests and were tested in a large scale direct shear device. The results indicate that the tested wastes older than five years had reached similar decomposition stages, but showed different compositions in terms of soft plastics, incompressible material and reinforcing elements...
June 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602427/mechanical-characterization-of-municipal-solid-waste-from-two-waste-dumps-at-delhi-india
#15
B J Ramaiah, G V Ramana, Manoj Datta
The article presents the physical and mechanical properties of the emplaced municipal solid waste (MSW) recovered from different locations of the Ghazipur and Okhla dumps both located at Delhi, India. Mechanical compressibility and shear strength of the collected MSW were evaluated using a 300×300mm direct shear (DS) shear box. Compression ratio (Cc') of MSW at these two dumps varied between 0.11 and 0.17 and is falling on the lower bound of the range (0.1-0.5) of the data reported in the literature for MSW...
June 8, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602426/estimation-on-separation-efficiency-of-aluminum-from-base-cap-of-spent-fluorescent-lamp-in-hammer-crusher-unit
#16
Seung-Whee Rhee
In order to separate aluminum from the base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp (SFL), the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit is estimated by introducing a binary separation theory. The base-cap of SFL is composed by glass fragment, binder, ferrous metal, copper and aluminum. The hammer crusher unit to recover aluminum from the base-cap consists of 3stages of hammer crusher, magnetic separator and vibrating screen. The optimal conditions of rotating speed and operating time in the hammer crusher unit are decided at each stage...
June 8, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602425/comparative-life-cycle-assessment-of-mswi-fly-ash-treatment-and-disposal
#17
Florian Huber, David Laner, Johann Fellner
Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash constitutes a hazardous waste. The possibilities for managing this waste comprise disposal at underground deposits or at above-ground landfills after cement stabilisation, application of the FLUREC process, thermal treatment in a dedicated furnace or thermal co-treatment together with combustible hazardous waste. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) study was conducted in order to assess the environmental impact of these five MSWI fly ash disposal options with regard to two different time horizons (100years, indefinite)...
June 8, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601581/characterization-of-organic-compounds-in-biochars-derived-from-municipal-solid-waste
#18
Sarasadat Taherymoosavi, Vince Verheyen, Paul Munroe, Stephen Joseph, Alicia Reynolds
Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been growing in many countries, which has led to numerous environmental problems. Converting MSW into a valuable biochar-based by-product can manage waste and, possibly, improve soil fertility, depending on the soil properties. In this study, MSW-based biochars, collected from domestic waste materials and kerbsides in two Sydney's regions, were composted and pyrolysed at 450°C, 550°C and 650°C. The characteristics of the organic components and their interactions with mineral phases were investigated using a range of analytical techniques, with special attention given to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metal concentrations...
June 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601580/protein-recovery-from-solubilized-sludge-by-hydrothermal-treatments
#19
Manuel García, José L Urrea, Sergio Collado, Paula Oulego, Mario Díaz
New alternatives for sludge management have been developed in recent years, with hydrothermal treatments being one of the most attractive ones. Even though many studies have been made on the application of hydrothermal treatments as pre-treatment or end-line technologies for sludge stabilisation and/or minimization, there is a lack of knowledge about the products generated during the process and its characteristics. This information is a crucial step for the assessment of the recovery of valuable products of the sludge, mainly proteins, humic acids and carbohydrates, which can considerably improve the economic balance of the hydrothermal treatment...
June 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601579/screw-pyrolysis-technology-for-sewage-sludge-treatment
#20
Marco Tomasi Morgano, Hans Leibold, Frank Richter, Dieter Stapf, Helmut Seifert
Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones...
June 7, 2017: Waste Management
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