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Waste Management

Jiadong Yu, Yubin Zhao, Huan Zhang, Binbin Hua, Xufeng Yuan, Wanbin Zhu, Xiaofen Wang, Zongjun Cui
A two-phase digestion system for treating agricultural waste is beneficial for methane production. This study explored the effect of solid content, temperature, and mixing mode on the process of hydrolysis and acidification using rice straw and cow dung launched in non-airtight acidogenic system. The results showed that the substrate could be hydrolyzed efficiently in the initial stage, the hydrolysis coefficient (k) of maximum cellulose and hemicellulose can be increased by 217.9% and 290.5%, respectively, compared with those of middle and last stages...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
F Lucernoni, L Capelli, S Sironi
The aim of this study is related to the assessment of odour emissions from landfill surfaces. Up to now, there is not a widely accepted method to quantify odour emissions from this particular kind of source. Five different methods were developed and investigated. These methods can be considered as based on three distinct approaches, both experimental and computational. The first approach provides to use models for the estimation the landfill gas production, whereby the second and the third approach are based on direct measurement campaigns on the landfill surface: for the determination of the methane concentration or for the direct measurement of the odour concentration, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Piotr Nowakowski
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), also known as e-waste, is one of the most important waste streams with high recycling potential. Materials used in these products are valuable, but some of them are hazardous. The urban mining approach attempts to recycle as many materials as possible, so efficiency in collection is vital. There are two main methods used to collect WEEE: stationary and mobile, each with different variants. The responsibility of WEEE organizations and waste collection companies is to assure all resources required for these activities - bins, containers, collection vehicles and staff - are available, taking into account cost minimization...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Kiran Sandhu, Paul Burton, Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes
The informal waste recycling sector has been an indispensable but ironically invisible part of the waste management systems in developing countries as India, often completely disregarded and overlooked by decision makers and policy frameworks. The turn towards liberalization of economy since 1991 in India opened the doors for privatization of urban services and the waste sector found favor with private companies facilitated by the local governments. In joining the privatization bandwagon, the local governments aim to create an image of a progressive city demonstrated most visibly through apt management of municipal solid waste...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Yamila V Vazquez, Silvia E Barbosa
The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Jongkeun Lee, Joonrae Roger Kim, Seulki Jeong, Jinwoo Cho, Jae Young Kim
In order to investigate the long-term stability on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process, a laboratory-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was operated for 1100 days with sunflower harvested in a heavy metal contaminated site. Changes of microbial communities during digestion were identified using pyrosequencing. According to the results, soluble heavy metal concentrations were lower than the reported inhibitory level and the reactor performance remained stable up to OLR of 2.0g-VS/L/day at HRT of 20days...
October 17, 2016: Waste Management
S Varitis, P Kavouras, E Pavlidou, E Pantazopoulou, G Vourlias, K Chrissafis, A I Zouboulis, Th Karakostas, Ph Komninou
The vitrification process was applied for the stabilization and solidification of a rich in chromium ash that was the by-product of incineration of tannery sludge. Six different batch compositions were produced, based on silica as the glass former and sodium and calcium oxides as flux agents. As-vitrified products (monoliths) were either composed of silicate matrices with separated from the melt Eskolaite (Cr2O3) crystallites or were homogeneous glasses (in one case). All as-vitrified products were thermally treated in order to transform them to partially crystallized, i...
October 17, 2016: Waste Management
Giuseppe Bonifazi, Roberta Palmieri, Silvia Serranti
An innovative strategy, based on micro X-ray fluorescence and HyperSpectralImaging in the short wave infrared range (1000-2500nm), was developed in order to characterize drill core samples collected from End-of-Life concrete. Micro X-ray fluorescence maps were realized to check the drill cores chemical composition, to develop the best approach for HSI analyses and to verify the correctness of the obtained HSI results. HSI analysis was carried out in order to recognize and classify aggregates and mortar paste in concrete...
October 17, 2016: Waste Management
Ajay Menon, Jing-Yuan Wang, Apostolos Giannis
The aim of this study was to enhance the biogas productivity of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) using food waste (FW) as the primary substrate. The influence of adding four trace metals (Ca, Mg, Co, and Ni) as micronutrient supplement in the methanogenic phase of the thermophilic system was investigated. Initially, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimal concentration of micronutrients in batch experiments. The results showed that optimal concentrations of 303, 777, 7 and 3mg/L of Ca, Mg, Co and Ni, respectively, increased the biogas productivity as much as 50% and significantly reduced the processing time...
October 17, 2016: Waste Management
Isabel Quispe, Rodrigo Navia, Ramzy Kahhat
Rapid population growth and consumption of goods and services imply that demand for energy and resources increases continuously. Energy consumption linked to non-renewable resources contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and enhances resource depletion. In this context, the use of agricultural solid residues such as rice husk, coffee husk, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse, among others, has been widely studied as an alternative energy source in order to decrease the use of fossil fuels. However, rice husk is among those agricultural residues that are least used to obtain energy in developing countries...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Xia Zhu-Barker, Shannon K Bailey, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Martin Burger, William R Horwath
The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH4 emission of 254±76gCday(-1) dry weight (DW) Mg(-1) and lowest average N2O emission of 152±21mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N2O emissions (342±41mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Jaai Kim, Hakchan Kim, Gahyun Baek, Changsoo Lee
Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Christian Willersinn, Patrik Mouron, Gabriele Mack, Michael Siegrist
Potatoes are one of the commodities with the highest loss shares along the entire supply chain. In the present study, we analyzed six potential loss reduction scenarios concerning their environmental-socio-economic sustainability compared with the current situation by using the "SustainOS" methodology. For this purpose, life cycle assessments, full-cost calculations and an online consumer survey were conducted. Environmental improvements through loss reduction were rather small and did not cross limits of significance, but the socio-economic performance of the entire supply chain can be improved considerably...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Chris M Moody, Timothy G Townsend
Samples of leachate were collected from fourteen landfills in the state of Florida, United States that contained primarily putrescible waste (municipal solid waste, MSW, and yard waste), MSW incinerator (MSWI) ash, or a combination of both. Assessment of leachates included trace metals, anions, and nutrients in order to create a mass balance of total dissolved solids (TDS). As expected from previously literature, MSW leached a complex matrix of contaminants while MSWI ash leachate TDS was more than 98% metallic salts...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Yue Mu, Amirhomayoun Saffarzadeh, Takayuki Shimaoka
This research focused on the mineral phase transformation under varied ignition conditions with the objective of estimating loss-on-ignition (LOI) parameter in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash residues. LOI is commonly used to measure the volatile species, unburned carbon and moisture in the solid materials. There are criteria for LOI measurement in some research fields, while there is no standard protocol for LOI measurement in MSWI fly ash. Using thermogravimetry technique, the ignition condition candidates were proposed at 440/700/900°C for 1 and 2h...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
S Mehdi Emadian, Turgut T Onay, Burak Demirel
The extensive production of conventional plastics and their use in different commercial applications poses a significant threat to both the fossil fuels sources and the environment. Alternatives called bioplastics evolved during development of renewable resources. Utilizing renewable resources like agricultural wastes (instead of petroleum sources) and their biodegradability in different environments enabled these polymers to be more easily acceptable than the conventional plastics. The biodegradability of bioplastics is highly affected by their physical and chemical structure...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Pierluca Vitale, Noemi Arena, Fabrizio Di Gregorio, Umberto Arena
The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Vasiliki Savvilotidou, Alexandra Antoniou, Evangelos Gidarakos
End-of-Life (EoL) photovoltaic (P/V) modules, which are recently included in the 2012/19/EU recast, require sound and sustainable treatment. Under this perspective, this paper deals with 2nd generation P/V waste modules, known as thin-film, via applying chemical treatment techniques. Two different types of modules are examined: (i) tandem a-Si:H/μc-Si:H panel and, (ii) Copper-Indium-Selenide (CIS) panel. Panels' pretreatment includes collection, manual dismantling and shredding; pulverization and digestion are further conducted to identify their chemical composition...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Nunzia Linzalone, Alessio Coi, Paolo Lauriola, Daniela Luise, Alessandra Pedone, Roberto Romizi, Domenico Sallese, Fabrizio Bianchi
The lack of participatory tools in Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to support decision-makers is a critical factor that negatively affects the impacts of waste policies. This study describes the participatory HIA used in deciding on the possible doubling of the municipal solid waste incinerating plant located near the city of Arezzo, Italy. Within the framework of the new waste management plan, a methodology for the democratic participation of stakeholders was designed adopting the Local Agenda 21 methodology...
October 8, 2016: Waste Management
Micaela A R Soares, Margarida J Quina, Marco S Reis, Rosa Quinta-Ferreira
This study aims to investigate the co-composting of an inorganic industrial waste (eggshell - ES) in very high levels (up to 60% w/w). Since composting is a process in which solid, liquid and gaseous phases interact in a very complex way, there is a need to shed light on statistical tools that can unravel the main relationships structuring the variability associated to this process. In this study, PCA and data visualisation were used with that purpose. The co-composting tests were designed with increasing quantities of ES (0, 10, 20, 30 and 60%ES w/w) mixed with industrial potato peel and rice husks...
October 7, 2016: Waste Management
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