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Waste Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158003/transportation-fuel-from-plastic-two-cases-of-study
#1
Gian Claudio Faussone
Synthesis of liquid fuels from waste is a promising pathway for reducing the carbon footprint of transportation industry and optimizing waste management towards zero landfilling. The study of commercial plants that conduct pyrolysis of plastics from post-consumer recycled materials and directly mine from old landfills without any pre-treatment has revealed two cases that show the feasibility of manufacturing transportation fuels via these methods. Pyrolysis oil, consisting of almost 26% hydrocarbons within the gasoline range and almost 70% within the diesel range, is upgraded to transportation fuel in the existing refinery...
November 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158002/sofc-single-cells-fed-by-biogas-experimental-tests-with-trace-contaminants
#2
Davide Papurello, Andrea Lanzini
Biogas from biological treatments and from the waste degradation in landfills generally contains a wide range of trace impurities (e.g., sulphur compounds, siloxanes, halogens, tar compounds, etc.). This paper describes an experimental analysis performed with SOFC single cells fed by a synthetic gas polluted by H2S, HCl, D4 and a mixture of H2S + C2Cl4. The aim is to detect the threshold tolerance limit on different cell performance parameters. Results show how: hydrogen sulphide has a strong impact on the polarization losses due to the nickel sulphide formation on the electrode that causes a mass transfer resistance...
November 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158001/characterisation-of-sludge-for-pyrolysis-conversion-process-based-on-biomass-composition-analysis-and-simulation-of-pyrolytic-properties
#3
Wei Ping Chan, Jing-Yuan Wang
Pyrolytic behaviour of sludge is highly complex and obscure because of its heterogeneous and diverse composition. Therefore, an analytical procedure is proposed to categorise and quantify the main constituents in sludge. In addition, a simulation study of sludge characteristics is carried out to complement the composition analysis and to improve our understanding on the relationship between composition of sludge and its corresponding properties. Different types of sludge samples were collected at different treatment stages from four Water Reclamation Plants in Singapore in two separate batches...
November 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153341/spatial-and-temporal-characteristics-of-elevated-temperatures-in-municipal-solid-waste-landfills
#4
Navid H Jafari, Timothy D Stark, Todd Thalhamer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153340/impacts-of-delayed-addition-of-n-rich-and-acidic-substrates-on-nitrogen-loss-and-compost-quality-during-pig-manure-composting
#5
Jishao Jiang, Kang Kang, Dan Chen, Ningning Liu
Delayed addition of Nitrogen (N)-rich and acidic substrates was investigated to evaluate its effects on N loss and compost quality during the composting process. Three different delayed adding methods of N-rich (pig manure) and acidic substrates (phosphate fertilizer and rotten apples) were tested during the pig manure and wheat straw is composting. The results showed that delayed addition of pig manure and acidic materials led two temperature peaks, and the durations of two separate thermophilic phase were closely related to the amount of pig manure...
November 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153339/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-formation-during-the-gasification-of-sewage-sludge-in-sub-and-supercritical-water-effect-of-reaction-parameters-and-reaction-pathways
#6
Miao Gong, Yulan Wang, Yujie Fan, Wei Zhu, Huiwen Zhang, Ying Su
The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is a widespread issue during the supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge, which directly reduces the gasification efficiency and restricts the technology practical application. The changes of the concentrations and forms as well as the synthesis rate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the residues from supercritical water gasification of dewatered sewage sludge were investigated to understand influence factors and the reaction pathways. Results showed that the increase of reaction temperature during the heating period favours directly concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (especially higher-molecular-weight), especially when it raise above 300 °C...
November 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153905/combustion-characteristics-of-biodried-sewage-sludge
#7
Zongdi Hao, Benqin Yang, Deokjin Jahng
In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion...
November 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153904/comparison-of-cellulose-vs-plastic-cigarette-filter-decomposition-under-distinct-disposal-environments
#8
François-Xavier Joly, Mathieu Coulis
It is estimated that 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are discarded annually, making them numerically the most common type of litter on Earth. To accelerate their disappearance after disposal, a new type of cigarette filters made of cellulose, a readily biodegradable compound, has been introduced in the market. Yet, the advantage of these cellulose filters over the conventional plastic ones (cellulose acetate) for decomposition, remains unknown. Here, we compared the decomposition of cellulose and plastic cigarettes filters, either intact or smoked, on the soil surface or within a composting bin over a six-month field decomposition experiment...
November 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153903/nitrification-within-composting-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Rafaela Cáceres, Krystyna Malińska, Oriol Marfà
Composting could be regarded as a process of processes because it entails a number of complex chemical and microbiological reactions and transformations. Nitrification is one of such processes that normally takes place during the curing phase. This process has been studied in detail for wastewater treatment, and it is becoming an extensively studied topic within composting. In the past, nitrate presence in compost has been clearly perceived as a maturation indicator; however, nowadays, nitrate formation is also conceived as a way of conserving nitrogen in compost...
November 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150259/reduction-of-co2-emission-by-incam-model-in-malaysia-biomass-power-plants-during-the-year-2016
#10
Nor Aishah Saidina Amin, Amin Talebian-Kiakalaieh
As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model...
November 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150260/prioritizing-and-optimizing-sustainable-measures-for-food-waste-prevention-and-management
#11
Jorge Cristóbal, Valentina Castellani, Simone Manfredi, Serenella Sala
Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150258/a-spent-coffee-grounds-based-biorefinery-for-the-production-of-biofuels-biopolymers-antioxidants-and-biocomposites
#12
REVIEW
Sanjib Kumar Karmee
Spent coffee grounds are composed of lipid, carbohydrates, carbonaceous, and nitrogen containing compounds among others. Using n-hexane and n-hexane/isopropanol mixture highest oil yield was achived during soxhlet extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Alternatively, supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as a green solvent for the extraction of oil. Using advanced chemical and biotechnological methods, spent coffee grounds are converted to various biofuels such as, biodiesel, renewable diesel, bioethanol, bioethers, bio-oil, biochar, and biogas...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150257/utilization-of-organic-residues-using-heterotrophic-microalgae-and-insects
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Pleissner, Birgit A Rumpold
Various organic residues occur globally in the form of straw, wood, green biomass, food waste, feces, manure etc. Other utilization strategies apart from anaerobic digestion, composting and incineration are needed to make use of the whole potential of organic residues as sources of various value added compounds. This review compares the cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae and insects using organic residues as nutrient sources and illuminates their potential with regard to biomass production, productivity and yield, and utilization strategies of produced biomasses...
November 14, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146398/improving-logistic-efficiency-of-weee-collection-through-dynamic-scheduling-using-simulation-modeling
#14
Valerio Elia, Maria Grazia Gnoni, Fabiana Tornese
The complexity of collection systems for Waste from Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in the EU is increasing, due to the latest directive that sets new collection targets and modes. The high variability and the uncertainty of reverse flows require innovative logistic approaches. One recent option for increasing efficiency and responsiveness in waste collection services, boosted by new technological solutions for waste level monitoring, is to adopt a dynamic collection scheme, where the collection frequency is not established a priori (based on a fixed plan), but it is based on the actual filling levels of waste bins...
November 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146397/temporal-evolution-of-the-environmental-performance-of-implementing-selective-collection-in-municipal-waste-management-systems-in-developing-countries-a-brazilian-case-study
#15
Valeria Ibáñez-Forés, María D Bovea, Claudia Coutinho-Nóbrega, Hozana R de Medeiros-García, Raissa Barreto-Lins
The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system of João Pessoa (Brazil), which was one of the Brazilian pioneers cities in implementing door-to-door selective collection programmes, in order to analyse the effect of policy decisions adopted in last decade with regard to selective collection. To do it, this study focuses on analysing the evolution, from 2005 to 2015, of the environmental performance of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system implemented in different sorting units with selective collection programmes by applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and using as a starting point data collected directly from the different stakeholders involved in the MSWM system...
November 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137831/monitour-tracking-global-routes-of-electronic-waste
#16
David Lee, Dietmar Offenhuber, Fábio Duarte, Assaf Biderman, Carlo Ratti
Many nations seek to control or prevent the inflow of waste electronic and electrical equipment, but such flows are difficult to track due to undocumented, often illegal global trade in e-waste. We apply wireless GPS location trackers to this problem, detecting potential cases of non-compliant recycling operations in the United States as well as the global trajectories of exported e-waste. By planting hidden trackers inside discarded computer monitors and printers, we tracked dozens of devices being sent overseas to various ports in Asia, flows likely unreported in official trade data...
November 11, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132781/optimisation-of-surfactant-decontamination-and-pre-treatment-of-waste-chicken-feathers-by-using-response-surface-methodology
#17
Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, Deresh Ramjugernath, Luyanda Ndlela
Commercially processed, untreated chicken feathers are biologically hazardous due to the presence of blood-borne pathogens. Prior to valorisation, it is crucial that they are decontaminated to remove the microbial contamination. The present study focuses on evaluating the best technologies to decontaminate and pre-treat chicken feathers in order to make them suitable for valorisation. Waste chicken feathers were washed with three surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulphate) dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride, and polyoxyethylene (40) stearate) using statistically designed experiments...
November 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132780/sustainable-wineries-through-waste-valorisation-a-review-of-grape-marc-utilisation-for-value-added-products
#18
REVIEW
Richard A Muhlack, Ravichandra Potumarthi, David W Jeffery
Grapes are one of the most cultivated fruits worldwide, with one third of total production used in winemaking. Both red and white winemaking processes result in substantial quantities of solid organic waste, such as grape marc (pomace) and stalks, which requires suitable disposal. Grape marc accounts for approximately 10-30% of the mass of grapes crushed and contains unfermented sugars, alcohol, polyphenols, tannins, pigments, and other valuable products. Being a natural plant product rich in lignocellulosic compounds, grape marc is also a promising feedstock for renewable energy production...
November 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132779/reliability-assessment-of-bioreactor-landfills-using-monte-carlo-simulation-and-coupled-hydro-bio-mechanical-model
#19
Krishna R Reddy, Girish Kumar, Rajiv K Giri, B Munwar Basha
The performance of a bioreactor landfill is highly influenced by the simultaneous interactions of several coupled processes that occur within the landfill. In addition, the high uncertainty and spatial variability in the geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) poses significant challenge in accurately predicting the performance of bioreactor landfills. In this study, a 2D coupled hydro-bio-mechanical (CHBM) model was employed to predict the behavior of MSW in bioreactor landfills. The numerical model integrated a two-phase flow hydraulic model, a plane-strain formulation of Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model, and a first order decay biodegradation model...
November 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132778/discourse-coalitions-in-swiss-waste-management-gridlock-or-winds-of-change
#20
Mert Duygan, Michael Stauffacher, Grégoire Meylan
As a complex socio-technical system, waste management is crucially important for the sustainable management of material and energy flows. Transition to better performing waste management systems requires not only determining what needs to be changed but also finding out how this change can be realized. Without understanding the political context, insights from decision support tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are likely to be lost in translation to decision and policy making. This study strives to provide a first insight into the political context and address the opportunities and barriers pertinent to initiating a change in Swiss waste management...
November 10, 2017: Waste Management
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