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Waste Management

Fevzi Şevik, İsmail Tosun, Kamil Ekinci
This study was conducted to determine the effects of C/N ratio and free air space in co-composting of sewage sludge with tomato stalk and dairy manure. Experiments were carried out in 100 L of stainless steel aerobic compost reactors with full automation system and monitored for 32 days. The temperature was controlled according to the Rutgers strategy. During the composting process, moisture content, organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, total phosphorus, potassium, NH4 + -N, NO3 - -N and heavy metals contents were determined...
August 3, 2018: Waste Management
Ying-Chu Chen
The generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is related to various features of urbanization. In this study, a linear regression model was used to evaluate the effects of several urbanization indicators on the composition of MSW. Household population (P), area of urban planning (L), tap water penetration (W), electricity sold (El), number of operating factories (I), car density (T), education level (Ed), and annual revenue (R) were chosen as important indicators of urbanization. The five major categories of MSW-paper, food waste, plastic, metal, and glass-were also chosen for specific analysis, and MSW composition was found to be closely related to household population (P) (r2  > 0...
July 25, 2018: Waste Management
Amalia Pizarro-Alonso, Ciprian Cimpan, Marie Münster
This work addressed the role of waste-to-energy (WtE) within the growing paradigm of the circular economy (CE), by combining long-term co-optimization of waste management and energy systems, to determine possible economic and climate impact consequences of future WtE capacity utilization. Co-optimization was realized by integration of a network optimization model for the waste sector, OptiFlow, with the partial equilibrium energy systems model Balmorel. The modelling framework allows to determine the effects of waste-derived energy production within energy systems, including induced and avoided energy (production and long-term investments)...
July 17, 2018: Waste Management
Y Rama Murthy, Gajanan U Kapure, Sunil Kumar Tripathy, G P Sahu
Ferroalloy industries rely on minerals which are not available in pure form. The total value chain is very cost intensive and market driven. From mineral and environment conservation point of view every possible aspect must be explored for the economic utilisation of waste and low-grade ores. Unlike other metallurgical processes, Ferro alloys production generates a wide variety of waste rich in manganese/chrome which has a potential for recycling back. Fine size, high moisture content and presence of alkalis categorise this material into hazardous waste and economically non-viable...
June 25, 2018: Waste Management
M Bourn, R Robinson, F Innocenti, C Scheutz
Methane emissions from landfills are an important source of greenhouse gases in the UK and worldwide. This paper considers how measurements of methane emissions could be used to regulate landfills in England in order to reduce the contribution of landfilling to climate change. The paper presents the results of a number of UK studies undertaken to quantify methane emissions from landfills. The methods used have included the DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) technique and a tracer gas dispersion method. A method based on aerial measurements has been developed...
June 21, 2018: Waste Management
Silvia Scherhaufer, Graham Moates, Hanna Hartikainen, Keith Waldron, Gudrun Obersteiner
Approximately 88 Million tonnes (Mt) of food is wasted in the European Union each year and the environmental impacts of these losses throughout the food supply chain are widely recognised. This study illustrates the impacts of food waste in relation to the total food utilised, including the impact from food waste management based on available data at the European level. The impacts are calculated for the Global Warming Potential, the Acidification Potential and the Eutrophication Potential using a bottom-up approach using more than 134 existing LCA studies on nine representative products (apple, tomato, potato, bread, milk, beef, pork, chicken, white fish)...
July 2018: Waste Management
Bhawana Bhatta Kaudal, Anthony J Weatherley
Terra preta soils have been shown to develop after considerable modification of soil through char addition and over time natural ageing has led to increase in fertility of those soils. A co-composting experiment was conducted to accelerate the artificial ageing of urban biochar (UB) with the aim of achieving similar terra preta effect. UB was produced through the pyrolysis of 2:1 ratio of biosolids and green waste and then composted with food waste (10% v/v) until compost maturity at around 75 days. A portion of the UB was placed in litterbags within the composting biomass in order to examine the effects of co-composting more closely...
July 2018: Waste Management
Pardeep Singh, Rishikesh Singh, Anwesha Borthakur, Sughosh Madhav, Vipin Kumar Singh, Dhanesh Tiwary, Vimal Chandra Srivastava, P K Mishra
Religious faith and ritual activities lead to significant floral offerings production and its disposal as waste to the nearby open lands and water bodies. These activities result into various social and environmental nuisances because of their high organic content. Alternatively, it can be used as valuable resources for various biochemical and thermo-chemical processes. Floral refuse has been utilized in natural dye extraction, however, the residual solid refuse is of significant environmental concern due to its nutrient rich nature...
July 2018: Waste Management
Galia Pasternak, Dov Zviely, Asaf Ariel, Ehud Spanier, Christine A Ribic
The Mediterranean Sea is a closed basin with limited water exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar, and sites along its shores show the greatest densities of marine debris in the world. Plastic bottles, which are a growing concern due to high consumption of soft drinks and bottled water, constitute most of the floating marine debris. In this paper we present the transport mechanisms of floating marine debris to and from the Israeli coast using an experimental offshore release and recovery of plastic bottles, with the participation of citizens...
July 2018: Waste Management
Lewis Dunnigan, Benjamin J Morton, Peter J Ashman, Xiangping Zhang, Chi Wai Kwong
The co-production of biochar and bioenergy using pyrolysis-combustion processes can potentially minimize the emission problems associated with conventional methods of agricultural by-product disposal. This approach also provides significant added-value potential through biochar application to soil. Despite these advantages, variations in biomass composition, including sulfur, nitrogen, ash, and volatile matter (VM) content, may significantly influence both the biochar quality and the emissions of harmful particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants (SO2 , H2 S, NO2 , NO)...
July 2018: Waste Management
Renato Meira de Sousa Dutra, Luciana Harue Yamane, Renato Ribeiro Siman
Although recycling is a viable alternative to minimizing the impacts of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), identification of the local recycling market is a requirement for its empowerment. This paper aims to assess the recyclable solid waste market in 16 cities of Brazil. Through the application of interviews, field research and secondary data collection this research observed that while relying on poor infrastructure and on Government subsidies, the 12 pickers organizations surveyed can deliver 18.53% of recyclable waste to recycling with an average sorting productivity of 109 kg/picker/day and average earnings of US$ 293...
July 2018: Waste Management
Nafia Dahmane, Abdelghani Ayad, Samir Bensaid
The main goal of this paper is to present a new approach to evaluate the recovered conductive granular waste purity. For this purpose, the eddy current approach which is commonly applied in nondestructive evaluation has been used. The experimental tests consist of several samples composed of copper particles mixed with sand inserted in a cylindrical container with solenoidal coil. The impedance of the coil is measured, using precision LRC-meter, for several frequencies per sample and used according to the Experiment Design Methodology (EDM) to determinate the relationship between input and output of experiments, to have a quadratic model that will be used for inversion...
July 2018: Waste Management
Bo-Min Ki, Yu Mi Kim, Jun Min Jeon, Hee Wook Ryu, Kyung-Suk Cho
A soil burial-composting method was proposed as a hybrid disposal method for infected carcasses. This is a modified soil burial technique that involves covering carcasses with compost to achieve a final compost bed of 1.0-1.2 m during the soil burial process. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of the soil burial-composting method, a pilot-scale system was constructed to dispose of pig carcasses and monitored its performance for 346 days. Temperature around the pig carcasses in the compost bed increased gradually, and was in the range of 35-45 °C after 200 days...
July 2018: Waste Management
Yongjiang Wang, Cuina Qin, Freddy Witarsa
The mechanisms of first-order and Monod-type kinetics describes degradation in distinct manner and yet too little attention is paid on the fact that first-order kinetic was derived from pure elementary reaction while Monod-type degradation was based on microbial uptake. Both mechanisms are basic theories in developing sophisticated degradation models and there are needs to give more guidance on selection of kinetics. The objective of this study was to compare the two kinetics when used for modeling degradation and biodegradability during composting...
July 2018: Waste Management
M Esteban-Gutiérrez, J Garcia-Aguirre, I Irizar, E Aymerich
Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production through anaerobic fermentation may constitute an innovative solution for organic waste management within the context of circular economy. In the present study, the evolution of individual VFA during laboratory-scale fermentation of sewage sludge (SS), winery wastewater (Www ) and meat and bone meal (MBM) was assessed, focusing on the effect of pH (5.5 and 10) and temperature (35 and 55 °C). Up-scaling of the fermentation process was evaluated in batch operation. The latter showed that specific VFA could be produced, giving similar individual evolution to lab-scale testing...
July 2018: Waste Management
Sanghee Jeon, Mayumi Ito, Carlito Baltazar Tabelin, Rongrit Pongsumrankul, Naho Kitajima, Ilhwan Park, Naoki Hiroyoshi
This paper describes the recovery of gold (Au) from shredder light fraction (SLF) of a recycling plant by flotation and leaching. SLF is typically sent to landfills as waste, but it still contains substantial amounts of Au, and other metals like Cu and Fe. The SLF sample used in this study contains 0.003% of Au, 12% of Cu, and 10% of Fe. Flotation results showed that over 99% of Au and 50% of combustibles were recovered in froth while most of the base metals were recovered in tailing. SEM-EDX of froth products indicates that Au floated via two mechanisms: (1) flotation of Au-plated plastic particles, and (2) agglomeration of fine Au particles together with plastic particles due to kerosene-induced hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions followed by the flotation of these agglomerated particles...
July 2018: Waste Management
Yunbo Zhai, Tengfei Wang, Yun Zhu, Chuan Peng, Bei Wang, Xue Li, Caiting Li, Guangming Zeng
Hydrochar was produced from food waste under varying hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) conditions, and was pelletized using molasses and molasses/lime binders for fuel pellet production. The physico-chemical properties, density, mechanical properties, and water resistance, and combustion characteristics of the hydrochar pellets were investigated. The results indicated that molasses pellets and molasses/lime pellets exhibited increased compressive strength, density, and impact resistance due tothe "solid bridge" that formed from molasses recrystallization and agglomeration by lime...
July 2018: Waste Management
Hjördis Steen, Christopher Malefors, Elin Röös, Mattias Eriksson
Public sector food service is a major contributor to food waste generation in Sweden, with schools, pre-schools, elderly care homes, hospitals etc., producing approximately 70,000 tons of food waste each year. Sweden has appropriate infrastructure for handling food waste in place, recycling nutrients and energy, but there is still great potential to move upwards in the waste hierarchy and prevent waste. An important step in designing waste reduction measures is to identify and quantify the importance of different risk factors, in order to start by solving the problems with the greatest potential benefit and the lowest cost...
July 2018: Waste Management
Tian Yuan, Yanfei Cheng, Weiwei Huang, Zhenya Zhang, Zhongfang Lei, Kazuya Shimizu, Motoo Utsumi
Compared with composting, hydrothermal treatment (HTT) technology can dramatically shorten the duration for manure waste treatment. This study firstly investigated the effect of HTT on solubilization of N, P and organics from swine manure, and then evaluated the phytotoxicity of liquid product from hydrothermally treated manure by seed germination test. Results show that 98% of N in manure could be converted into soluble form after HTT at 200 °C for 60 min. Soluble P in hydrothermally treated manure (at 150 °C for 60 min) was 2...
July 2018: Waste Management
Raffaello Cossu, Livia Emanuela Zuffianò, Pier Paolo Limoni, Giorgio De Giorgio, Paola Pizzardini, Teodoro Miano, Donato Mondelli, Roberto Garavaglia, Carmine Carella, Maurizio Polemio
Where the unique natural water resource is groundwater, the attention and the susceptibility of local communities and authorities to groundwater quality degradation risks can be so high to determine relevant problems to waste management, especially for landfills in operation or to be realised. A multi-methodological approach was suggested with the purpose to clarify the role of landfill leakage on groundwater quality degradation. The selected study area (SSA) hosts some landfills in a narrow portion of a wide and deep coastal karstic aquifer, for these characteristics to be considered a case of high hydrogeological complexity and vulnerability...
July 2018: Waste Management
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