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Waste Management

A D Bees, I D Williams
Separate household food waste collection for anaerobic digestion is one method used in the sustainable management of biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW). Recycling of food waste contributes to the UK's reuse, recycling and composting targets and can help local authorities boost plateauing rates whilst encouraging landfill diversion. This study explored the reasons for differences in the provision of food waste collections, using two comparable local authorities, one with a collection in Wales (Cardiff), and the other absent of such service in England (Southampton)...
September 14, 2017: Waste Management
Camila Gomes Flores, Helena Schneider, Nilson Romeu Marcilio, Lizete Ferret, João Carlos Pinto Oliveira
Brazilian coal has an ash content ranging from 30 to 50% by weight. Consequently, its use in coal-fired thermoelectric for power production generates a lot of waste. The construction sector is the largest consumer of coal ash, but it cannot absorb the entire amount generated. Thus, other applications for coal ash should be studied in aim to optimize the use of this industrial waste. This research had as focus to synthesize potassic zeolite from of the coal ash into on potassium fertilizer for the grown wheat plant...
September 13, 2017: Waste Management
Yanjun Liu, Wenjing Lu, Wafa Dastyar, Yanting Liu, Hanwen Guo, Xindi Fu, Hao Li, Ruihong Meng, Ming Zhao, Hongtao Wang
Halocarbons are important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to their long lifetime and large characteristic factors. The present study for the first time assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of fugitive halocarbon emissions from the working face of landfills in China. The national emissions of five major halocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-113, CH2Cl2, CHCl3 and CCl4) from the working face of municipal solid waste landfills in China were provided through observation-based estimations. The fluxes of halocarbons from working face of landfills were observed much higher than covered cells in landfills hence representing the hot spots of landfill emissions...
September 13, 2017: Waste Management
Mokhles Kouas, Michel Torrijos, Philippe Sousbie, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Sami Sayadi, Jérôme Harmand
The well-known batch assay test is used worldwide to determine the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid substrates in a single batch but its use to estimate the degradation kinetics may lead to underestimations. To overcome this problem, a different approach was carried out to characterize simultaneously both BMP of solid substrates and their degradation kinetics in successive batches, i.e. after an acclimation period. In a second step, a simple model was developed based on the methane production curve in batch mode for dividing the organic matter of the substrate into three sub-fractions according to their degradation rates (rapid, moderate and slow)...
September 9, 2017: Waste Management
Rajesh Kumar, Ravi Inder Singh
The behavior of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) with biomass (Guar stalks (GS), Mustard Husk (MH), Prosopis Juliflora Wood (PJW)) has been investigated in a 20kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor under both air-fired (A-F) and oxygen-enriched (O-E) conditions. The work presented is divided into three parts, first part cover the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), second part cover the experimental investigation of BFB combustor, and third part covers the ash analysis. TGA was performed with a ratio of 50%MSS/50%biomass (GS, MH, PJW) and results show that 50%MSS/50%GS has highest combustion characteristic factor (CCF)...
September 9, 2017: Waste Management
Xu Zhang, Yue Zhao, Longji Zhu, Hongyang Cui, Liming Jia, Xinyu Xie, Jiming Li, Zimin Wei
In order to improve soil quality, reduce wastes and mitigate climate change, it is necessary to understand the balance between soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and depletion under different organic waste compost amended soils. The effects of proportion (5%, 15%, 30%), compost type (sewage sludge (SS), tomato stem waste (TSW), municipal solid waste (MSW), kitchen waste (KW), cabbage waste (CW), peat (P), chicken manure (CM), dairy cattle manure (DCM)) and the black soil (CK). Their initial biochemical composition (carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratio) on carbon (C) mineralization in soil amended compost have been investigated...
September 8, 2017: Waste Management
P Douglas, E T Hayes, W B Williams, S F Tyrrel, R P Kinnersley, K Walsh, M O'Driscoll, P J Longhurst, S J T Pollard, G H Drew
With the increase in composting asa sustainable waste management option, biological air pollution (bioaerosols) from composting facilities have become a cause of increasing concern due to their potential health impacts. Estimating community exposure to bioaerosols is problematic due to limitations in current monitoring methods. Atmospheric dispersion modelling can be used to estimate exposure concentrations, however several issues arise from the lack of appropriate bioaerosol data to use as inputs into models, and the complexity of the emission sources at composting facilities...
September 7, 2017: Waste Management
João Aleluia, Paulo Ferrão
The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the main costs incurred by local authorities in developing countries. According to some estimates, these costs can account for up to 50% of city government budgets. It is therefore of importance that policymakers, urban planners and practitioners have an adequate understanding of what these costs consist of, from collection to final waste disposal. This article focuses on a specific stage of the MSW value chain, the treatment of waste, and it aims to identify cost patterns associated with the implementation and operation of waste treatment approaches in developing Asian countries...
September 6, 2017: Waste Management
Gabriel Capson-Tojo, Maxime Rouez, Marion Crest, Eric Trably, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Nicolas Bernet, Jean-Philippe Delgenès, Renaud Escudié
Dry anaerobic digestion is a promising option for food waste treatment and valorization. However, accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids often occurs, leading to inefficient processes and digestion failure. Co-digestion with cardboard may be a solution to overcome this problem. The effect of the initial substrate to inoculum ratio (0.25 to 1gVS·gVS(-1)) and the initial total solids contents (20-30%) on the kinetics and performance of dry food waste mono-digestion and co-digestion with cardboard was investigated in batch tests...
September 6, 2017: Waste Management
Ifeolu Idowu, Liang Li, Joseph R V Flora, Perry J Pellechia, Samuel A Darko, Kyoung S Ro, Nicole D Berge
Food waste represents a rather large and currently underutilized source of potentially available and reusable nutrients. Laboratory-scale experiments evaluating the hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes collected from restaurants were conducted to understand how changes in feedstock composition and carbonization process conditions influence primary and secondary nutrient fate. Results from this work indicate that at all evaluated reaction times and temperatures, the majority of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium remain integrated within the solid-phase, while the majority of potassium and sodium reside in the liquid-phase...
September 6, 2017: Waste Management
R Flores-Campos, R H Estrada-Ruiz, E J Velarde-Sánchez
Recycling printed circuit boards using green technology is increasingly important due to the metals these contain and the environmental care that must be taken when separating the different materials. Inverse flotation is a process that can be considered a Green Technology, which separates metallic from non-metallic fractions. The degree of separation depends on how much material is adhered to air bubbles. The contact angle measurement allows to determine, in an easy way, whether the flotation process will occur or not and thus establish a material as hydrophobic or not...
September 6, 2017: Waste Management
Gerasimos Mantzaras, Evangelos A Voudrias
The objective of this work was to develop an optimization model to minimize the cost of a collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal system for infectious medical waste (IMW). The model calculates the optimum locations of the treatment facilities and transfer stations, their design capacities (t/d), the number and capacities of all waste collection, transport and transfer vehicles and their optimum transport path and the minimum IMW management system cost. Waste production nodes (hospitals, healthcare centers, peripheral health offices, private clinics and physicians in private practice) and their IMW production rates were specified and used as model inputs...
September 5, 2017: Waste Management
Hui Wang, Yunhai Wang, Ziyang Lou, Nanwen Zhu, Haiping Yuan
Concentrated leachate (CL) is the byproduct of leachate treated by the membrane separation unit after bio-treatment processes, and contains many humic-like substances. Ozonation processes were applied and optimized for the further removal of those refractory matters in this work. Micro-bubble ozonation (MB-O3) possessed the best performance, and 76.0% and 69.9% of COD and TOC were found to be removed under the optimum conditions with ozone dosage of 2.4g/L, initial pH of 9 and reaction time of 120min. The reaction rate k in MB-O3 was 0...
September 5, 2017: Waste Management
Atul Kumar, S R Samadder
Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable...
September 5, 2017: Waste Management
R Miandad, M A Barakat, M Rehan, A S Aburiazaiza, I M I Ismail, A S Nizami
This study aims to examine the catalytic pyrolysis of various plastic wastes in the presence of natural and synthetic zeolite catalysts. A small pilot scale reactor was commissioned to carry out the catalytic pyrolysis of polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and their mixtures in different ratios at 450°C and 75min. PS plastic waste resulted in the highest liquid oil yield of 54% using natural zeolite and 50% using synthetic zeolite catalysts. Mixing of PS with other plastic wastes lowered the liquid oil yield whereas all mixtures of PP and PE resulted in higher liquid oil yield than the individual plastic feedstocks using both catalysts...
September 4, 2017: Waste Management
Maklawe Essonanawe Edjabou, Josep Antoni Martín-Fernández, Charlotte Scheutz, Thomas Fruergaard Astrup
Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed...
September 4, 2017: Waste Management
Julika Knapp, Astrid Allesch, Wolfgang Müller, Anke Bockreis
Recycling of waste materials is desirable to reduce the consumption of limited primary resources, but also includes the risk of recycling unwanted, hazardous substances. In Austria, the legal framework demands secondary products must not present a higher risk than comparable products derived from primary resources. However, the act provides no definition on how to assess this risk potential. This paper describes the development of different quantitative and qualitative methods to estimate the transfer of contaminants in recycling processes...
August 30, 2017: Waste Management
Li Erping, Chen Haoyun, Shang Yanyang, Pan Jun, Hu Qing
In this paper, the pyrolysis characteristics of six typical components in municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated through a TG-FTIR combined technique and it was concluded that the main pyrolysis process of the biomass components (including food residues, sawdust and paper) occurred at 150-600°C. The main volatiles were multi-component gas including H2O, CO2, and CO. The main pyrolysis temperatures of three artificial products (PP, PVC and leather) was ranged from 200to 500°C. The wavelength of small molecule gases (CH4, CO2 and CO) and the the chemical bonds (CO and CC) were observed in the infrared spectrum Based on the pyrolysis temperature interval and volatile constituent, a new "double-solution" process of pyrolysis and oxygen-enrichment decomposition MSW was designed...
August 30, 2017: Waste Management
Pubali Mandal, Brajesh K Dubey, Ashok K Gupta
Various studies on landfill leachate treatment by electrochemical oxidation have indicated that this process can effectively reduce two major pollutants present in landfill leachate; organic matter and ammonium nitrogen. In addition, the process is able to enhance the biodegradability index (BOD/COD) of landfill leachate, which make mature or stabilized landfill leachate suitable for biological treatment. The elevated concentration of ammonium nitrogen especially observed in bioreactor landfill leachate can also be reduced by electrochemical oxidation...
August 30, 2017: Waste Management
Lidia Lombardi, Cristina Nocita, Elena Bettazzi, Donatella Fibbi, Ennio Carnevale
A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to compare different alternatives for sewage sludge treatment: such as land spreading, composting, incineration, landfill and wet oxidation. The LCA system boundaries include mechanical dewatering, the alternative treatment, transport, and final disposal/recovery of residues. Cases of recovered materials produced as outputs from the systems, were resolved by expanding the system boundaries to include avoided primary productions. The impact assessment was calculated using the CML-IA baseline method...
August 30, 2017: Waste Management
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