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Journal of Nematology

Angelina M D Zehrbach, Alexandra R Rogers, D Ellen K Tarr
Caenorhabditis elegans responds to infections by upregulating specific antimicrobial peptides. The caenacin-2 ( cnc-2 ) gene is consistently upregulated in C. elegans by infection with the filamentous fungus Drechmeria coniospora , but there have been no direct studies of the CNC-2 peptide's in vivo or in vitro role in defending the nematode against this pathogen. We compared infection of wild-type and cnc-2 knockout nematode strains with four potential pathogens: D. coniospora , Candida albicans , Staphylococcus aureus , and Bacillus subtilis ...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Thomas R Fleming, Aaron G Maule, Colin C Fleming
Plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) are important crop pests within the global agri-sector. Critical to their success is a complex and highly sensitive chemosensory system used to locate plants by detecting host cues. In addition to this, the nematode neuronal system has evolved mechanisms to allow adaptation to a changing environment. Clearly, there is a need to better understand the host-parasite relationship and the mechanisms by which PPN successfully locate and infect host plants. Here, we demonstrate the chemotactic response of two economically important PPN species, Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida to selected phytochemicals...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Janete A Brito, Robert D Hartman
There is no known root-knot nematode ( Meloidogyne spp.) resistance in caladium ( Caladium × hortulanum ), an ornamental foliage crop grown from tubers, but cultivars have been reported to differ in their level of susceptibility. Research was conducted to assess the relative susceptibility of seven widely grown caladium cultivars to the species of Meloidogyne which occur in the southeastern United States, where caladium cultivars are commonly planted in commercial and residential landscapes. Root-knot nematode species tested were Meloidogyne arenaria , Meloidogyne enterolobii ( =M...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Rachel E Rudolph, Inga A Zasada, Lisa W DeVetter
Cover crops can provide many benefits to agroecosystems, such as lessening soil erosion and increasing water infiltration. However, cover crop use is not common in established red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) fields in the Pacific Northwest. Raspberry growers are concerned about resource competition between the cover crop and raspberry crop, as well as increasing population densities of the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans , which has a wide host range and has been shown to reduce raspberry plant vigor and yield...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Louise-Marie Dandurand, Matt J Morra, Inga A Zasada, Wendy S Phillips, Inna Popova, Cole Harder
The eradication program for the potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida , in the Northwest of the United States revolves around the use of soil fumigation. Alternative, integrated strategies are needed to continue to battle this invasive nematode. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments were conducted with G. pallida and another cyst nematode found in the United States, Globodera ellingtonae , to evaluate the efficacy of a new formulated Brassica juncea seed meal extract, as well as a traditional B...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Kareem Morsy, Abeer Mahmoud Badr, Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Somaya El Deeb, Samar Ebead
The third-stage (L3) larvae of Anisakis are the etiological agents of human anisakiasis caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with anisakid nematodes. Infection with these worms is associated with abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea and can lead to massive infiltration of eosinophils and the formation of granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract if the larvae are not removed. Food allergy affects populations worldwide, and despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in Egypt, there are few immunological and molecular studies investigating the epidemiology of these parasites...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Elena Fanelli, Alberto Troccoli, Nicola Vovlas, Gianluca Scarcia, Annamaria Mincuzzi, Simona M Sanzani, Antonio Ippolito, Francesca De Luca
Two different nematode species were recovered from pomegranate decaying fruit in two localities in Southern Italy: the mycetophagus nematode Sheraphelenchus sucus and a bacterial feeder nematode belonging to the Panagrolaimidae (Rhabditida) family. Morphometrics of the Italian population of S. sucus closely resemble that of the type population, whereas some differences were found when compared with another population from Iran. Molecular characterization of the Italian S. sucus using the 18S rRNA gene, D2-D3 expansion domains of the 28S rDNA, the ITS region, and the partial mitochondrial COI were carried out...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Lirong Zhao, Weimin Ye, Munawar Maria, Majid Pedram, Jianfeng Gu
Xiphinema japonicum n. sp., isolated in Ningbo, China, from the rhizosphere of Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) imported from Japan is described. The new species belongs to Xiphinema non- americanum group 7 and is characterized by medium body length (3.0-3.7 mm), total stylet length 190-201 μm, vulva located anteriorly (V = 30.5%-35.3%), two equally developed female genital branches without uterine differentiation (no Z or pseudo-Z organ and/or spines in the uteri), short tail, convex-conoid with subdigitate peg in terminus, and absence of males...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Qing Yu, Fengcheng Sun
A population of cyst nematode with terminal protuberance was found in soil samples associated with and on the roots of Polygonum aviculare L. at N45°23.480', W75°40.463' in South Ottawa, Ontario. Both J2 and cysts were found. It was subsequently confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as Cactodera estonica Krall and Krall, 1978 (Krall and Krall, 1978). The cysts are dark brown, elongated with length/breadth ratio more than 2, and vulval fenestra circumfenestrate 33 ± 4.1 (20-48) µm in diameter...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Solomia Susulovska, Pablo Castillo, Antonio Archidona-Yuste
Seven needle nematode species of the genus Longidorus have been reported in Ukraine. Nematological surveys for needle nematodes were carried out in Ukraine between 2016 and 2017 and two nematode species of Longidorus ( L. caespiticola and L. poessneckensis ) were collected from natural and anthropogenically altered habitats on the territory of Opillia and Zakarpattia in Ukraine. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm3 of soil by modified sieving and decanting method. Extracted specimens were processed to glycerol and mounted on permanent slides and subsequently identified morphologically and molecularly...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Adela Abelleira, Alicia Prado, Andrea Abelleira-Sanmartín, Pedro Mansilla
The reproductive strategy of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , is sexual amphimictic and oviparous. The incidence of intrauterine egg development and hatching in plant-parasitic nematodes is not a very common phenomenon. During the process of maintaining and breeding a B. xylophilus population isolated in Spain under laboratory conditions, evidence of matricidal hatching was observed. This is the first described case of this phenomenon in this species.
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Andressa Lima de Brida, Érika Cristina Souza da Silva Correia, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E Castro, José Cola Zanuncio, Sílvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken
Meloidogyne spp. are the most economically important species of plant-pathogenic nematodes. Plant resistance and crop rotation are the main nematode management methods. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the resistance of seven wheat genotypes, five oat genotypes, ten sorghum hybrids, and three sorghum-sudangrass genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica . The crops were sowed in pots with an autoclaved substrate. A single plant/pot was left after thinning. The soil was infested with 5,000 eggs of the studied nematodes...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
C Saranya, P Sundararaj, Priyank H Mhatre, E P Venkatasalam, S Nivitha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
S Patricia Stock, Ayako Kusakabe, Rousel A Orozco
Gram-negative Photorhabdus bacteria have a dual lifestyle: they are mutualists of Heterorhabditis nematodes and are pathogens of insects. Together, this nematode-bacterium partnership has been used to successfully control a wide range of agricultural insect pests. Photorhabdus produce a diverse array of small molecules that play key biological roles in regulating their dual roles. In particular, several secondary metabolites (SM) produced by this bacterium are known to play a critical role in the maintenance of a monoxenic infection in the insect host and are also known to prevent contamination of the cadaver from soil microbes and/or predation by arthropods...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Amanda K Gibson, Levi T Morran
Many of the outstanding questions in disease ecology and evolution call for combining observation of natural host-parasite populations with experimental dissection of interactions in the field and the laboratory. The "rewilding" of model systems holds great promise for this endeavor. Here, we highlight the potential for development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its close relatives as a model for the study of disease ecology and evolution. This powerful laboratory model was disassociated from its natural habitat in the 1960s...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Teklu K Gerbaba, Luke Green-Harrison, Andre G Buret
The microbiome influences host processes including nutritional availability, development, immunity, and behavioral responses. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model to study molecular mechanisms of host-microbial interactions. Recent efforts have been made to profile the natural microbiome of C. elegans , laying a foundation for mechanistic studies of host-microbiome interactions in this genetically tractable model system. Studies using single-species microbes, multi-microbial systems, and humanized worm-microbiome interaction studies reveal metabolic and microbial-microbial interactions relevant in higher organisms...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Bin Zhang, Wei Zhang, Min Lu, Faheem Ahmad, Haokai Tian, Jing Ning, Xiaolong Liu, Lilin Zhao, Jianghua Sun
In China, the invasive Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , the vector Monochamus alternatus beetle, and associated fungi exhibit a symbiotic relationship causing serious losses to pine forests. Although this complex system has been intensively investigated, the role of vector beetles on the development of associated fungi and their indirect contribution to the prevalence of pinewood nematode (PWN) is yet unknown. Here, three of the highly prevalent fungal species, viz., Sporothrix sp. 1, Ophiostoma ips , and Sporothrix sp...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Anastasia N Ezemaduka, Yunbiao Wang, Xiujun Li
Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) are ubiquitously found in all organisms, and with other heat shock proteins (HSP) such as HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, HSP100 made up the molecular chaperone family. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes which include among others cell resistance to biological and environmental stress conditions. In this study, we show by western blotting that CeHSP17, an sHSP of Caenorhabiditis elegans , is significantly induced by high temperatures. Furthermore, in response to metal stress, the CeHSP17 protein expression was significantly induced by cadmium and zinc at high concentration of clearly cytotoxic range in wild-type C...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
Graham R Stirling, A Marcelle Stirling, David E Walter
Protogamasellus mica was extracted from a sugarcane field in Australia and cultured on bacterial-feeding nematodes. Studies with various nematodes in laboratory arenas showed that one mite and its progeny reduced nematode numbers by between 26 and 50 nematodes/day. A bacterivore ( Mesorhabditis sp.), a fungivore ( Aphelenchus avenae ), and two plant parasites (root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae ) were all reduced at much the same rate despite the fact that the nematodes are quite different in size and motility and belong to different trophic groups...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
Yun Lian, Jianqiu Guo, Haichao Li, Yongkang Wu, He Wei, Jinshe Wang, Jinying Li, Weiguo Lu
The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines , is a serious economic threat to soybean-producing regions worldwide. A new SCN population (called race X12) was detected in Shanxi province, China. Race X12 could reproduce on all the indicator lines of both race and Heterodera glycines (HG) type tests. The average number of females on Lee68 (susceptible control) was 171.40 with the lowest Female Index (FI) 61.31 on PI88788 and the highest FI 117.32 on Pickett in the race test. The average number of females on Lee68 was 323...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
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