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Journal of Phycology

Ga Hun Boo, Line Le Gall, Il Ki Hwang, Kathy Ann Miller, Sung Min Boo
The genus Ptilophora currently includes 16 species occurring mostly in subtidal habitats of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but its global diversity and biogeography are poorly understood. We analyzed mitochondrial cox1, plastid rbcL and plastid psbA sequences from specimens collected in southern Madagascar during the 2010 Atimo Vatae expedition and studied their morphologies. Both morphological and molecular datasets demonstrated the presence of five species in southern Madagascar: Ptilophora hildebrandtii, P. pterocladioides, and three new species described here, P...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Rebecca Guenther, Kevin Miklasz, Emily Carrington, Patrick T Martone
Early life stages of marine organisms are predicted to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. For macroalgae, reproduction and population persistence rely on spores to settle, adhere and continue the algal life cycle, yet the effect of ocean acidification on this critical life stage has been largely overlooked. We explicitly tested the biomechanical impact of reduced pH on early spore adhesion. We developed a shear flume to examine the effect of reduced pH on spore attachment time and strength in two intertidal rhodophyte macroalgae, one calcified (Corallina vancouveriensis) and one non-calcified (Polyostea robusta)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Masahiko Idei, Shinya Sato, Tamotsu Nagumo, David G Mann
Diploneis species have perhaps the most complex valve structure among pennate diatoms. The development of this structure was studied in D. smithii and begins with the formation of a primary band, which then develops secondary arms at both poles and the center, as in the classic Chiappino-Volcani model of raphid diatom ontogeny. Spine-like projections grow out from the primary band and secondary arms to establish the transapical ribs (virgae) of the mature valve and themselves develop spines, which are spaced first oppositely and then alternately and fuse with each other to delimit the stria pores...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Nicole Sausen, Veronica Malavasi, Michael Melkonian
In the present study, three new strains of the rare volvocalean green alga Lobomonas were isolated from field-collected samples, one from Sardinia (Italy) and two from Argentina and comparatively studied. The Sardinian and one of the Argentinian strains were identified as Lobomonas francei, the type species of the genus, while the second Argentinian strain corresponded to L. panduriformis. Two additional nominal species of Lobomonas from culture collections (L. rostrata and L. sphaerica) were included in the analysis and shown to be morphologically and molecularly identical to the L...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Lacey M Field, Wayne R Fagerberg, S Anne Böttger
Vitronectin is a glycoprotein which serves a wide variety of roles in multicellular organisms. It was first identified in multicellular animals but has also been isolated from land plants and some algae where it appears to serve as an extracellular adhesive molecule. In order to further elucidate presence and localization of a vitronectin-like protein and its potential role in algae we surveyed different morphological regions of 24 species of macro- and microalgae and three species of cyanobacteria for the presence of a vitronectin-like protein...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Alexander Lubsch, Klaas Timmermans
Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is an essential macronutrient for maintaining metabolism and growth in autotrophs. Little is known about DIP-uptake kinetics and internal P-storage capacity in seaweeds, such as Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). Ulva lactuca is a promising candidate for biofiltration purposes and mass commercial cultivation. We exposed U. lactuca to a wide range of DIP concentrations (1 - 50 μmol · L-1 ) and a non-limiting concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; 5000 μmol · L-1 ) under fully controlled laboratory conditions in a 'pulse-and-chase' assay over 10 days...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Fabrizio Di Caprio, Francesca Pagnanelli, Rene H Wijffels, Douwe Van der Veen
Much of our current knowledge of microbial growth is obtained from studies at a population level. Driven by the realization that processes which operate within a population might influence a population's behavior, we sought to better understand Acutodesmus obliquus (formerly Scenedesmus obliquus) physiology at the cellular level. In this work, an accurate pre-treatment method to quantitatively obtain single cells of A. obliquus, a coenobia-forming alga, is described. These single cells were examined by flow cytometry for TAG, chlorophyll, and protein content, and their cell sizes were recorded by coulter counter...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Pablo Salgado, Santiago Fraga, Francisco Rodríguez, Isabel Bravo
A planktonic-benthic relationship has been described for many dinoflagellate species as part of their ecological strategy to overcome highly variable aquatic environments. Here, the phylogenetically and morphologically related marine dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum and Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum were studied in relation to an unknown benthic life form. In vivo and fixed samples from cultures were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy. In both species, a cell type with a morphology different from that of vegetative cells was observed in cultures grown until stationary phase...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Pablo Salgado, Santiago Fraga, Francisco Rodríguez, Pilar Riobó, Isabel Bravo
The family Ceratocoryaceae includes the genera Ceratocorys, Protoceratium and Schuettiella, whose phylogenetic relationships are poorly known. Here, the new non-yessotoxin-producing species of the genus Ceratocorys, Ceratocorys mariaovidiorum sp. nov., previously reported as the toxic Protoceratium reticulatum, is described from examinations by light and scanning electron microscopy, molecular phylogeny, and toxin analyses. The species description is made from culture samples of strains CCMP1740 and CCMP404 from USA waters...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Peipei Zhao, Wenhui Gu, Aiyou Huang, Songcui Wu, Changheng Liu, Li Huan, Shan Gao, Xiujun Xie, Guangce Wang
Iron is a limiting factor in the modern ocean, which is a major factor that controls the phytoplankton biomass of the ocean, and iron fertilization of the ocean could lead to blooms dominated by diatoms. Thus, iron plays an important role in controlling the distribution of diatoms. In this study, we measured the growth rate and photosynthetic activity of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured under different iron concentrations and found that it grew more rapidly and had a much higher photosynthetic efficiency under higher iron concentrations...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Udo Nitschke, Philip Walsh, Jade McDaid, Dagmar B Stengel
The biogeochemistry of iodine in temperate coastal ecosystems is largely mediated by macroalgae, which act as a major biological sink and source of iodine. Their capacity to accumulate, retain and release iodine has been associated with abiotic and biotic stressors, but quantitative information is limited. We evaluated the seasonal iodine retention capacity of eleven macroalgal species belonging to different systematic groups, collected from two sites in Ireland. Iodine accumulation and retention were then further quantified in Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata in relation to I(-) concentrations in seawater and temperature...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Jichang Han, Lin Zhang, Pu Wang, Guanpin Yang, Song Wang, Yuhang Li, Kehou Pan
Although hypotheses have been proposed and developed to interpret the origins and functions of introns, substantial controversies remain about the mechanism of intron evolution. The availability of introns in the intermediate state is quite helpful for resolving this debate. In this study, a new strain of diatom (denominated as DB21-1) was isolated and identified as Luticola sp., in which multiple types of 18S rDNAs (obtained from genomic DNA; lengths ranged from 2,056 bp to 2,988 bp) were obtained. Based on the alignment between 18S rDNAs and 18S rRNA (obtained from cDNA; 1,783 bp), 7 intron insertion sites (IISs) located in the 18S rDNA were identified, each of which displaying the polymorphism of intron presence/absence...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Xiaofei Yin, Andreas Ziegler, Klemens Kelm, Ramona Hoffmann, Philipp Watermeyer, Patrick Alexa, Clarissa Villinger, Ulrich Rupp, Lothar Schlüter, Thorsten B H Reusch, Erika Griesshaber, Paul Walther, Wolfgang W Schmahl
Coccolithophores belong to the most abundant calcium carbonate mineralizing organisms. Coccolithophore biomineralization is a complex and highly regulated process, resulting in a product that strongly differs in its intricate morphology from the abiogenically produced mineral equivalent. Moreover, unlike extracellularly formed biological carbonate hard tissues, coccolith calcite is neither a hybrid composite, nor is it distinguished by a hierarchical microstructure. This is remarkable as the key to optimizing crystalline biomaterials for mechanical strength and toughness lies in the composite nature of the biological hard tissue and the utilization of specific microstructures...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Timothy J Entwisle, Joshua R Evans, Morgan L Vis, Gary W Saunders
A new genus, Ottia, and family, Ottiaceae, are proposed within the Acrochaetiales to accommodate the uniseriate red algal endophyte of batrachspermalean taxa previously named Balbiania meiospora. Prior to this study Balbiania investiens was transferred to its own family and order (Balbianiales) based on comparative DNA sequence data and a distinctive reproductive morphology. However, the second species described in this genus, Balbiania meiospora, continued to be treated as a species of Audouinella (A. meiospora) pending further investigation...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Monica Orlandi Paiano, Andrea Del Cortona, Joana F Costa, Shao-Lun Liu, Heroen Verbruggen, Olivier De Clerck, Orlando Necchi
Little is known about genome organization in members of the order Batrachospermales, and the infra-ordinal relationship remains unresolved. Plastid (cp) genomes of seven members of the freshwater red algal order Batrachospermales were sequenced, with the following aims: (i) to describe the characteristics of cp genomes and compare these with other red algal groups; (ii) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among these members to better understand the infra-ordinal classification. Cp genomes of Batrachospermales are large, with several cases of gene loss, they are gene-dense (high gene content for the genome size and short intergenic regions) and have highly conserved gene order...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Catherine A Pfister, Samuel P Betcher
Primary producers respond to climate directly and indirectly due to effects on their consumers. In the temperate coastal ocean, the highly productive brown algae known as kelp have both strong climate and grazer linkages. We analyzed the demographic response of the kelp Pleurophycus gardneri over a 25-year span to determine the interaction between ocean climate indicators and invertebrate infestation rates. Pleurophycus hosts amphipod species that burrow in the stipe, increasing mortality. Although kelp performance is generally greater with more negative values of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and colder seawater temperatures, Pleurophycus showed the opposite pattern...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Alicia Del Hoyo, Raquel Álvarez, Francisco Gasulla, Leonardo Mario Casano, Eva María Del Campo
The history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, even among phylogenetically distant species. The symbiogenetic thalli of lichens are good candidates for the horizontal transfer of genetic material among distantly related organisms, such as fungi and green algae. The main goal of this study was to determine whether there were different trends in intron distribution and properties among Chlorophyte algae based on their phylogenetic relationships and living conditions. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence, distribution and properties of group I introns within the chloroplast LSU rDNA in 87 Chlorophyte algae including lichen and free-living Trebouxiophyceae compared to free-living non-Trebouxiophyceae species...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Linda E Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Phycology
Rebecca Mueller, Jeffrey T Wright, Christopher J S Bolch
The palaeoceanography of southern Australia has been characterized by fluctuating sea levels during glacial periods, changing temperature regimes and modified boundary currents. Previous studies on genetic structuring of species in southeastern Australia have focused mainly on the differentiation of eastern and western populations while the potential role of Bass Strait as a region of overlap for three biogeographic provinces (Peronia, Maugea, and Flindersia) has been largely ignored. This study aimed to explore the likely roles of historic and contemporary factors in determining divergence patterns in the habitat-forming intertidal seaweed Hormosira banksii in southeastern Australia with a special focus on postglacial dispersal into Bass Strait...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Marianela Zanolla, María Altamirano, Raquel Carmona, Julio De la Rosa, Virginia Souza-Egipsy, Alison Sherwood, Konstantinos Tsiamis, Ana Márcia Barbosa, Antonio Román Muñoz, Nikos Andreakis
The mitochondrial genetic diversity, distribution and invasive potential of multiple cryptic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the red invasive seaweed Asparagopsis were assessed by studying introduced Mediterranean and Hawaiian populations. Invasive behavior of each Asparagopsis OTU was inferred from phylogeographic reconstructions, past historical demographic dynamics, recent range expansion assessments and future distributional predictions obtained from demographic models. Genealogical networks resolved Asparagopsis gametophytes and tetrasporophytes into four A...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
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