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Journal of Phycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328165/variation-in-growth-rate-carbon-assimilation-and-photosynthetic-efficiency-in-response-to-nitrogen-source-and-concentration-in-phytoplankton-isolated-from-upper-san-francisco-bay
#1
Gry Mine Berg, Sara Driscoll, Kendra Hayashi, Melissa Ross, Raphael Kudela
Six species of phytoplankton recently isolated from upper San Francisco Bay were tested for their sensitivity to growth inhibition by ammonium (NH4(+) ), and for differences in growth rates according to inorganic nitrogen (N) growth source. The quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) was a sensitive indicator of NH4(+) toxicity, manifested by a suppression of Fv /Fm in a dose-dependent manner. Two chlorophytes were the least sensitive to NH4(+) inhibition, at concentrations of >3000 μmoles NH4(+) · L(-1) , followed by two estuarine diatoms which were sensitive at concentrations >1000 μmoles NH4(+) · L(-1) , followed lastly by two freshwater diatoms that were sensitive at concentrations between 200-500 μmoles NH4(+) · L(-1) ...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328149/comparative-genomic-analyses-of-transport-proteins-encoded-within-the-red-algae-chondrus-crispus-galdieria-sulphuraria-and-cyanidioschyzon-merolae
#2
Justin Lee, Shounak Ghosh, Milton H Saier
Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidioschyzon merolae are thermo-acidophilic unicellular red algal cousins capable of living in volcanic environments, although the former can additionally thrive in the presence of toxic heavy metals. Bioinformatic analyses of transport systems were carried out on their genomes, as well as that of the mesophilic multicellular red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish moss). We identified transport proteins related to the metabolic capabilities, physiological properties, and environmental adaptations of these organisms...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321894/light-respiration-by-subtropical-seaweeds
#3
Matheus C Carvalho, Bradley D Eyre
Here we report the first-ever measurements of light CO2 respiration rate (CRR) by seaweeds. We measured the influence of temperature (15 to 25°C) and light (irradiance from 60 to 670 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) on the light CCR of two subtropical seaweed species, and measured the CRR of seven different seaweed species under the same light (150 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) and temperature (25°C). There was little effect of irradiance on light CRR, but there was an effect of temperature. Across the seven species light CRR was similar to OCR (oxygen consumption rate in the dark), with the exception of a single species...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295358/early-devonian-410-ma-microfossils-resembling-characiopsis-tribophyceae-and-characium-chlorophyceae
#4
Michael Krings, Carla J Harper, Edith L Taylor, Hans Kerp
Unusual microfossils that occur associated with fungal spores in the Lower Devonian (~410 Ma) Windyfield chert from Scotland are comprised of a narrow stipe (2.5-9 μm long) to which is attached an obovoid or elongate drop-shaped cell up to 14 μm long; a basal attachment pad is present in several specimens. The fossils are strikingly similar morphologically to certain present-day unicellular freshwater Tribophyceae and Chlorophyceae, but affinities to the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota also cannot be ruled out...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295311/molecular-phylogeny-and-taxonomic-revision-of-the-genus-wittrockiella-pithophoraceae-cladophorales-including-the-descriptions-of-w-australis-sp-nov-and-w-zosterae-sp-nov
#5
Christian Boedeker, Charles J O'Kelly, John A West, Takeaki Hanyuda, Adele Neale, Isamu Wakana, Mike D Wilcox, Ulf Karsten, Giuseppe C Zuccarello
Wittrockiella is a small genus of filamentous green algae that occurs in habitats with reduced or fluctuating salinities. Many aspects of the basic biology of these algae are still unknown and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus have not been fully explored. We provide a phylogeny based on three ribosomal markers (ITS, LSU and SSU rDNA) of the genus, including broad intraspecific sampling for W. lyallii and W. salina, recommendations for the use of existing names are made, and highlight aspects of their physiology and life cycle...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295310/a-rare-case-of-plastid-protein-coding-gene-duplication-in-the-chloroplast-genome-of-euglena-archaeoplastidiata-euglenophyta
#6
Matthew S Bennett, Shin-Han Shiu, Richard E Triemer
Gene duplication is an important evolutionary process that allows duplicate functions to diverge, or, in some cases, allows for new functional gains. However, in contrast to the nuclear genome, gene duplications within the chloroplast are extremely rare. Here, we present the chloroplast genome of the photosynthetic protist Euglena archaeoplastidiata. Upon annotation it was found that the chloroplast genome contained a novel tandem direct duplication which encoded a portion of RuBisCO large subunit (rbcL) followed by a complete copy of ribosomal protein L32 (rpl32) as well as the associated intergenic sequences...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273342/robust-dinoflagellata-phylogeny-inferred-from-public-transcriptome-databases
#7
Dana C Price, Debashish Bhattacharya
Dinoflagellates are dominant members of the plankton and play key roles in ocean ecosystems as primary producers, predators, parasites, coral photobionts, and causative agents of algal blooms that produce toxins harmful to humans and commercial fisheries. These unicellular protists exhibit remarkable trophic and morphological diversity and include species with some of the largest reported nuclear genomes. Despite their high ecological and economic importance, comprehensive genome (or transcriptome) based dinoflagellate trees of life are few in number...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267206/life-cycle-size-dynamics-in-didymosphenia-geminata-bacillariophyceae
#8
Ian W Bishop, Sarah A Spaulding
Didymosphenia geminata has received a great deal of attention in the last 25 years, and considerable effort has gone into determining the origin, ecologic impact, and economic consequences of its invasive behavior. While environmental conditions are a controlling influence in distribution, the extreme success of the species may be tied to its basic biology and life history. Little is known, however, about population dynamics, size restoration and reproduction of D. geminata. The objective of this study was to determine the temporal patterns in cell size frequency, size restoration strategy, and synchronization of life cycles between populations in close proximity...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258584/biomineralization-of-calcium-carbonate-in-the-cell-wall-of-lithothamnion-crispatum-hapalidiales-rhodophyta-correlation-between-the-organic-matrix-and-the-mineral-phase
#9
Rodrigo Tomazetto de Carvalho, Leonardo Tavares Salgado, Gilberto Menezes Amado Filho, Rachel Nunes Leal, Jacques Werckmann, André Linhares Rossi, Andrea Porto Carreiro Campos, Cláudia Santiago Karez, Marcos Farina
Over the past few decades, progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of coralline algae mineralization. However, the relationship between the mineral phase and the organic matrix in coralline algae has not yet been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to describe the cell wall ultrastructure of Lithothamnion crispatum, a cosmopolitan rhodolith-forming coralline alga species collected near Salvador (Brazil), and examine the relationship between the organic matrix and the nucleation and growth/shape modulation of CaCO3 crystals...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208212/the-function-of-the-ocelloid-and-piston-in-the-dinoflagellate-erythropsidinium-gymnodiniales-dinophyceae
#10
Fernando Gómez
The marine dinoflagellate Erythropsidinium possesses an ocelloid, the most elaborate photoreceptor organelle known in a unicellular organism, and a piston, a fast contractile appendage unknown in any other organism. The ocelloid is able to rotate, often before the cell swims. The ocelloid contains lenses that function to concentrate light. The flagellar propulsion is atrophied, and the piston is responsible for locomotion through successive extensions and contractions. During the 'locomotion mode', the contraction is ~4 times faster than the extension...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207158/integration-of-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-and-photorespirometry-techniques-to-understand-production-dynamics-in-macroaglal-communities
#11
REVIEW
Leigh W Tait, Ian Hawes, David R Schiel
Global declines of macroalgal beds in coastal waters have prompted a plethora of studies attempting to understand the drivers of change within dynamic nearshore ecosystems. Photosynthetic measurements are good tools for assessing the consequences of numerous stressors of macroalgae, but there is somewhat of a disconnection between studies that focus on organism-specific ecophysiological responses and those that address causes and consequences of shifts in macroalgal productivity. Our goal is to highlight the applications of two complementary tools for measuring photosynthesis-variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and photorespirometry-and provide guidance for the integration of physiology and ecology to understand the drivers of change in macroalgal communities...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196276/pcr-fishing-for-red-endophytes-in-british-columbia-kallymeniaceae-gigartinales-florideophyceae-uncovers-the-species-rich-kallymenicola-gen-nov-palmariales-nemaliophycidae
#12
Joshua R Evans, Gary W Saunders
Unexpected contaminants uncovered during routine COI-5P DNA barcoding of British Columbia Kallymeniaceae indicated the presence of a novel lineage allied to the family Meiodiscaceae, Palmariales. Available rbcL data for species of this family were used to design specific primers to screen for the presence of the meiodiscacean species in 534 kallymeniacean specimens primarily from British Columbia, Canada. Ultimately, 43 positive PCR products representing six diverse genetic groups from nine host species were uncovered; three are described here in the new genus Kallymenicola gen...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196275/symbiodinium-dinophyceae-community-patterns-in-invertebrate-hosts-from-inshore-marginal-reefs-of-the-southern-great-barrier-reef-australia
#13
Linda Tonk, Eugenia M Sampayo, Aaron Chai, Verena Schrameyer, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
The broad range in physiological variation displayed by Symbiodinium spp. has proven imperative during periods of environmental change and contribute to the survival of their coral host. Characterizing how host and Symbiodinium community assemblages differ across environmentally distinct habitats provides useful information to predict how corals will respond to major environmental change. Despite the extensive characterizations of Symbiodinium diversity found amongst reef cnidarians on the Great Barrier Reef substantial biogeographic gaps exist, especially across inshore habitats...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191642/complete-mitochondrial-genomes-of-prasinophyte-algae-pyramimonas-parkeae-and-cymbomonas-tetramitiformis
#14
Anchittha Satjarak, John A Burns, Eunsoo Kim, Linda E Graham
Mitochondria are archetypal eukaryotic organelles that were acquired by endosymbiosis of an ancient species of alpha-proteobacteria by the last eukaryotic common ancestor. The genetic information contained within the mitochondrial genome has been an important source of information for resolving relationships among eukaryotic taxa. In this study, we utilized mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes to explore relationships among prasinophytes. Prasinophytes are represented by diverse early-diverging green algae whose physical structures and genomes have the potential to elucidate the traits of the last common ancestor of the Viridiplantae (or Chloroplastida)...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191634/timing-of-the-evolutionary-history-of-corallinaceae-corallinales-rhodophyta
#15
Anja Rösler, Francisco Perfectti, Viviana Peña, Julio Aguirre, Juan Carlos Braga
The temporal dimension of the most recent Corallinaceae (order Corallinales) phylogeny was presented here, based on first occurrence time estimates from the fossil record. Calibration of the molecular clock of the genetic marker SSU entailed a separation of Corallinales from Hapalidiales in the Albian (Early Cretaceous ~ 105 mya). Neither the calibration nor the fossil record resolved the succession of appearance of the first three emerging subfamilies: Mastophoroideae, Corallinoideae, and Neogoniolithoideae...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171680/diatom-life-cycles-and-ecology-in-the-cretaceous
#16
David H Jewson, David M Harwood
The earliest known diatom fossils with well-preserved siliceous frustules are from Lower Cretaceous neritic marine deposits in Antarctica. In this study, we analyzed the cell wall structure to establish whether their cell and life cycles were similar to modern forms. At least two filamentous species (Basilicostephanus ornatus and Archepyrgus melosiroides) had girdle band structures that functioned during cell division in a similar way to present day Aulacoseira species. Also, size analyses of cell diameter indicated that the cyclic process of size decline and size restoration used to time modern diatom life cycles was present in five species from the Lower Cretaceous (B...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164308/ocean-acidification-and-kelp-development-reduced-ph-has-no-negative-effects-on-meiospore-germination-and-gametophyte-development-of-macrocystis-pyrifera-and-undaria-pinnatifida
#17
Pablo P Leal, Catriona L Hurd, Pamela A Fernández, Michael Y Roleda
The absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is causing a reduction in the pH of the surface waters termed ocean acidification (OA). This could have substantial effects on marine coastal environments where fleshy (non-calcareous) macroalgae are dominant primary producers and ecosystem engineers. Few OA studies have focused on the early life stages of large macroalgae such as kelps. This study evaluated the effects of seawater pH on the ontogenic development of meiospores of the native kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida, in south-eastern New Zealand...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164281/different-physiological-responses-of-cyanobacteria-to-ultraviolet-b-radiation-under-iron-replete-and-iron-deficient-conditions-implications-for-underestimating-the-negative-effects-of-uv-b-radiation
#18
Zheng-Ke Li, Guo-Zheng Dai, Philippe Juneau, Bao-Sheng Qiu
Iron deficiency has been considered one of the main limiting factors of phytoplankton productivity in some aquatic systems including oceans and lakes. Concomitantly, solar ultraviolet-B radiation has been shown to have both deleterious and positive impacts on phytoplankton productivity. However, how iron-deficient cyanobacteria respond to UV-B radiation has been largely overlooked in aquatic systems. In this study, physiological responses of four cyanobacterial strains (Microcystis and Synechococcus), which are widely distributed in freshwater or marine systems, were investigated under different UV-B irradiances and iron conditions...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130930/comparative-dna-sequence-analyses-of-pyramimonas-parkeae-prasinophyceae-chloroplast-genomes
#19
Anchittha Satjarak, Linda E Graham
Prasinophytes form a paraphyletic assemblage of early diverging green algae, which have the potential to reveal the traits of the last common ancestor of the main two green lineages: 1) chlorophyte algae and 2) streptophyte algae. Understanding the genetic composition of prasinophyte algae is fundamental to understanding the diversification and evolutionary process that may have occurred in both green lineages. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast genome of Pyramimonas parkeae NIES254 and compared it with that of P...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095611/hypothesis-gene-rich-plastid-genomes-in-red-algae-may-be-an-outcome-of-nuclear-genome-reduction
#20
Huan Qiu, Jun Mo Lee, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya
Red algae (Rhodophyta) putatively diverged from the eukaryote tree of life >1.2 billion years ago and are the source of plastids in the ecologically important diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates. In general, red algae contain the largest plastid gene inventory among all such organelles derived from primary, secondary, or additional rounds of endosymbiosis. In contrast, their nuclear gene inventory is reduced when compared to their putative sister lineage, the Viridiplantae, and other photosynthetic lineages...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Phycology
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