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Journal of Phycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543018/multiple-ice-binding-proteins-of-probable-prokaryotic-origin-in-an-antarctic-lake-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-ice-mdv-chlorophyceae
#1
James A Raymond
Ice-associated algae produce ice-binding proteins (IBPs) to prevent freezing damage. The IBPs of the three chlorophytes that have been examined so far share little similarity across species, making it likely that they were acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). To clarify the importance and source of IBPs in chlorophytes, we sequenced the IBP genes of another Antarctic chlorophyte, Chlamydomonas sp. ICE-MDV (Chlamy-ICE). Genomic DNA and total RNA were sequenced and screened for known ice-associated genes...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542872/classification-of-planctonema-like-algae-including-a-new-genus-planctonemopsis-gen-nov-a-new-species-planctonema-gelatinosum-sp-nov-and-a-reinstated-genus-psephonema-trebouxiophyceae-chlorophyta
#2
Xudong Liu, Huan Zhu, Benwen Liu, Guoxiang Liu, Zhengyu Hu
Planctonema-like species consist of planktonic green algae and are found throughout the world. Their characteristic morphology, which includes short and slender filaments consisting of side-by-side or distant cylindrical cells enclosed in a fine and hyaline sheath, makes them easily distinguishable. To date, Planctonema lauterbornii was the only taxon accepted for this group. However, descriptions from different materials have revealed notable morphological differences, including the presence/absence of a pyrenoid, a mucilage sheath and an apical thickening of the cell wall...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523651/microstructure-and-nanomechanical-properties-of-single-stalks-from-diatom-didymosphenia-geminata-and-their-change-due-to-adsorption-of-selected-metal-ions
#3
Izabela Zgłobicka, Adrian Chlanda, Michał Woźniak, Maciej Łojkowski, Robert Szoszkiewicz, Marta Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Wojciech Święszkowski, Elżbieta Wyroba, Krzysztof J Kurzydłowski
We present topographical and nanomechanical characterization of single Didymosphenia geminata stalks. We compared the samples before and after adsorption of metal ions from fresh water samples. Transmission electron microscopy studies of single stalks cross-sections have shown three distinct layers and an additional thin extra coat on the external layer (called here "EL"). Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) we found that topography of single stalks after ionic adsorption differs significantly from topography of pristine stalks...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523645/enhancement-of-total-lipid-yield-by-nitrogen-carbon-and-iron-supplementation-in-isolated-microalgae
#4
Ramachandran Sivaramakrishnan, Aran Incharoensakdi
The biochemical contents and biodiesel production ability of three microalgal strains grown under different sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate, and ferric ammonium citrate (iron) levels were investigated. The highest biomass and lipid contents were found in Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., and Chlamydomonas sp. when grown in normal BG-11 containing sodium carbonate concentration at 0.03 g · L(-1) , and in normal BG-11 containing iron concentration at 0.009 or 0.012 g · L(-1) . Increasing the sodium nitrate level increased the biomass content, but decreased the lipid content in all three microalgae...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509401/transitions-between-marine-and-freshwater-environments-provide-new-clues-about-the-origins-of-multicellular-plants-and-algae
#5
REVIEW
Simon M Dittami, Svenja Heesch, Jeanine L Olsen, Jonas Collén
Marine-freshwater and freshwater-marine transitions have been key events in the evolution of life, and most major groups of organisms have independently undergone such events at least once in their history. Here we first compile an inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. While green and red algae have mastered multiple transitions in both directions, brown algae have colonized fresh water on a maximum of six known occasions, and angiosperms have made the transition to marine environments only two or three times...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509342/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-bysmatrum-subsalsum-dinophyceae-from-the-western-mediterranean-sea-reveals-the-existence-of-cryptic-species
#6
Sílvia Anglès, Albert Reñé, Esther Garcés, Antonella Lugliè, Nicola Sechi, Jordi Camp, Cecilia Teodora Satta
Bysmatrum subsalsum is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate species that inhabits marine and transitional habitats. Despite its wide distribution, information on the morphological variability, phylogeny and ecology of B. subsalsum is scarce. In this study, we provide morphological and molecular data on B. subsalsum strains and wild cells from different locations in the Mediterranean Basin. The dynamics of cell abundances and the associated environmental conditions during a field bloom are also described. Genetic sequences of B...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457002/patterns-and-regulation-of-silicon-accumulation-in-synechococcus-spp
#7
Mark A Brzezinski, Jeffrey W Krause, Stephen B Baines, Jackie L Collier, Daniel C Ohnemus, Benjamin S Twining
Six clones of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus, representing four major clades, were all found to contain significant amounts of silicon in culture. Growth rate was unaffected by silicic acid, Si(OH)4 , concentration between 1 and 120 μM suggesting that Synechococcus lacks an obligate need for silicon (Si). Strains contained two major pools of Si: an aqueous soluble and an aqueous insoluble pool. Soluble pool sizes correspond to estimated intracellular dissolved Si concentrations of 2-24 mM, which would be thermodynamically unstable implying the binding of intracellular soluble Si to organic ligands...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434206/a-phylogeographic-investigation-of-the-kelp-genus-laminaria-laminariales-phaeophyceae-with-emphasis-on-the-south-atlantic-ocean
#8
Mark D Rothman, Lydiane Mattio, Robert J Anderson, John J Bolton
The genus Laminaria has a wide distribution range compared with other kelp genera because it is found in both the North and the South Atlantic, on both sides of the North Pacific, as well as in the Mediterranean. Hypotheses behind this biogeographical pattern have been discussed by several authors but have not yet been fully evaluated with time-calibrated phylogenies. Based on the analysis of four molecular markers (ITS2, rbcL, atp8 and trnWI), our goal was to reassess the Laminaria species diversity in South Africa, assess its relationship to the other species distributed in the South Atlantic and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434205/molecular-systematics-reveals-increased-diversity-within-the-south-african-laurencia-complex-rhodomelaceae-rhodophyta
#9
Caitlynne Francis, John J Bolton, Lydiane Mattio, Tshifhiwa G Mandiwana-Neudani, Robert J Anderson
Previous publications list ten species in the Laurencia complex from South Africa with all ascribed to the genus Laurencia sensu stricto. However, the diversity of the complex in South Africa has not yet been re-assessed following the numerous recent taxonomic changes. This study investigated the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of this group in South Africa using recent collections. Methods included molecular phylogenetic analyses of plastid rbcL gene sequences (a total of 146; including eleven outgroup taxa) using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, and the examination of morphological and anatomical characters, including the number of corps en cerise when present...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403525/cyanomargarita-gen-nov-nostocales-cyanobacteria-convergent-evolution-resulting-in-a-cryptic-genus
#10
Sergei Shalygin, Regina Shalygina, Jeffrey R Johansen, Nicole Pietrasiak, Esther Berrendero Gómez, Markéta Bohunická, Jan Mareš, Christopher A Sheil
Two populations of Rivularia-like cyanobacteria were isolated from ecologically distinct and biogeographically distant sites. One population was from an unpolluted stream in the Kola Peninsula of Russia, whereas the other was from a wet wall in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, a desert park-land in Utah. Though both were virtually indistinguishable from Rivularia in field and cultured material, they were both phylogenetically distant from Rivularia and the Rivulariaceae based on both 16S rRNA and rbcLX phylogenies...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394444/development-of-a-molecular-based-index-for-assessing-iron-status-in-bloom-forming-pennate-diatoms
#11
Adrian Marchetti, Carly M Moreno, Natalie R Cohen, Irina Oleinikov, Kimberly deLong, Benjamin S Twining, E Virginia Armbrust, Robert H Lampe
Iron availability limits primary productivity in large areas of the world's oceans. Ascertaining the iron status of phytoplankton is essential for understanding the factors regulating their growth and ecology. We developed an incubation-independent, molecular-based approach to assess the iron nutritional status of specific members of the diatom community, initially focusing on the ecologically important pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Through a comparative transcriptomic approach, we identified two genes that track the iron status of Pseudo-nitzschia with high fidelity...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394430/phylogenetic-positioning-of-the-antarctic-alga-prasiola-crispa-trebouxiophyceae-using-organellar-genomes-and-their-structural-analysis
#12
Evelise Leis Carvalho, Gabriel Luz Wallau, Darlene Lopes Rangel, Laís Ceschini Machado, Antonio Batista Pereira, Filipe de Carvalho Victoria, Juliano Tomazzoni Boldo, Paulo Marcos Pinto
Antarctica is one of the most difficult habitats for sustaining life on earth; organisms that live there have developed different strategies for survival. Among these organisms is the green alga Prasiola crispa, belonging to the class Trebouxiophyceae. The literature on P. crispa taxonomy is scarce, and many gaps in the evolutionary relationship with its closest relatives remain. The goal of this study was to analyze the evolutionary relationships of P. crispa and other green algae using plastid and mitochondrial genomes...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394415/phylogenetic-position-of-the-coral-symbiont-ostreobium-ulvophyceae-inferred-from-chloroplast-genome-data
#13
Heroen Verbruggen, Vanessa R Marcelino, Michael D Guiry, M Chiela M Cremen, Christopher J Jackson
The green algal genus Ostreobium is an important symbiont of corals, playing roles in reef decalcification and providing photosynthates to the coral during bleaching events. A chloroplast genome of a cultured strain of Ostreobium was available, but low taxon sampling and Ostreobium's early-branching nature left doubt about its phylogenetic position. Here we generate and describe chloroplast genomes from four Ostreobium strains as well as Avrainvillea mazei and Neomeris sp., strategically sampled early-branching lineages in the Bryopsidales and Dasycladales, respectively...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378335/light-influences-cytokinin-biosynthesis-and-sensing-in-nostoc-cyanobacteria
#14
Jitka Frébortová, Ondřej Plíhal, Vendula Florová, Filip Kokáš, Karolina Kubiasová, Marta Greplová, Jan Šimura, Ondřej Novák, Ivo Frébort
Cytokinins are an important group of plant hormones that are also found in other organisms, including cyanobacteria. While various aspects of cytokinin function and metabolism are well understood in plants, the information is limited for cyanobacteria. In this study, we first experimentally confirmed a prenylation of tRNA by recombinant isopentenyl transferase NoIPT2 from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, whose encoding gene we previously identified in Nostoc genome along with the gene for adenylate isopentenyl transferase NoIPT1...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369873/a-comparison-of-molecular-markers-and-morphology-for-neidium-taxa-bacillariophyta-from-eastern-north-america
#15
Keely E Lefebvre, Paul B Hamilton, Frances R Pick
Historically, a morphological species concept has applied shape subjectively in the delimitation of diatom species. This has led to confusion between taxa within the benthic diatom genus Neidium. Samples from Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland (Canada) and New York (USA) were examined for Neidium taxa under LM and SEM. Fourier shape analysis showed that shape as a taxonomic character was not able to discern all species. Isolated individuals from the samples were amplified and sequenced for three chloroplast molecular markers (rbcL, psbC, and psbA) and one nuclear ribosomal molecular marker (18S)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328165/variation-in-growth-rate-carbon-assimilation-and-photosynthetic-efficiency-in-response-to-nitrogen-source-and-concentration-in-phytoplankton-isolated-from-upper-san-francisco-bay
#16
Gry Mine Berg, Sara Driscoll, Kendra Hayashi, Melissa Ross, Raphael Kudela
Six species of phytoplankton recently isolated from upper San Francisco Bay were tested for their sensitivity to growth inhibition by ammonium (NH4(+) ), and for differences in growth rates according to inorganic nitrogen (N) growth source. The quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) was a sensitive indicator of NH4(+) toxicity, manifested by a suppression of Fv /Fm in a dose-dependent manner. Two chlorophytes were the least sensitive to NH4(+) inhibition, at concentrations of >3,000 μmoles NH4(+)  · L(-1) , followed by two estuarine diatoms that were sensitive at concentrations >1,000 μmoles NH4(+)  · L(-1) , followed lastly by two freshwater diatoms that were sensitive at concentrations between 200 and 500 μmoles NH4(+)  · L(-1) ...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328149/comparative-genomic-analyses-of-transport-proteins-encoded-within-the-red-algae-chondrus-crispus-galdieria-sulphuraria-and-cyanidioschyzon-merolae-11
#17
Justin Lee, Shounak Ghosh, Milton H Saier
Galdieria sulphuraria and Cyanidioschyzon merolae are thermo-acidophilic unicellular red algal cousins capable of living in volcanic environments, although the former can additionally thrive in the presence of toxic heavy metals. Bioinformatic analyses of transport systems were carried out on their genomes, as well as that of the mesophilic multicellular red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish moss). We identified transport proteins related to the metabolic capabilities, physiological properties, and environmental adaptations of these organisms...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321894/light-respiration-by-subtropical-seaweeds
#18
Matheus C Carvalho, Bradley D Eyre
Here, we report the first-ever measurements of light CO2 respiration rate (CRR) by seaweeds. We measured the influence of temperature (15-25°C) and light (irradiance from 60 to 670 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) ) on the light CCR of two subtropical seaweed species, and measured the CRR of seven different seaweed species under the same light (150 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) ) and temperature (25°C). There was little effect of irradiance on light CRR, but there was an effect of temperature. Across the seven species light CRR was similar to OCR (oxygen consumption rate in the dark), with the exception of a single species...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295358/early-devonian-410-mya-microfossils-resembling-characiopsis-tribophyceae-and-characium-chlorophyceae
#19
Michael Krings, Carla J Harper, Edith L Taylor, Hans Kerp
Unusual microfossils that occurred associated with fungal spores in the Lower Devonian (~410 mya) Windyfield chert from Scotland were composed of a narrow stipe (2.5-9 μm long) to which was attached an obovoid or elongate drop-shaped cell up to 14 μm long; a basal attachment pad was present in several specimens. The fossils were strikingly similar morphologically to certain present-day unicellular freshwater Tribophyceae and Chlorophyceae, but affinities to the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota also cannot be ruled out...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295311/molecular-phylogeny-and-taxonomic-revision-of-the-genus-wittrockiella-pithophoraceae-cladophorales-including-the-descriptions-of-w-australis-sp-nov-and-w-zosterae-sp-nov
#20
Christian Boedeker, Charles J O'Kelly, John A West, Takeaki Hanyuda, Adele Neale, Isamu Wakana, Mike D Wilcox, Ulf Karsten, Giuseppe C Zuccarello
Wittrockiella is a small genus of filamentous green algae that occurs in habitats with reduced or fluctuating salinities. Many aspects of the basic biology of these algae are still unknown and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus have not been fully explored. We provide a phylogeny based on three ribosomal markers (ITS, LSU and SSU rDNA) of the genus, including broad intraspecific sampling for W. lyallii and W. salina, recommendations for the use of existing names are made, and highlight aspects of their physiology and life cycle...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
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