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Journal of Phycology

Bánk Beszteri, Claire Allen, Gastón O Almandoz, Leanne Armand, María Ángeles Barcena, Hannelore Cantzler, Xavier Crosta, Oliver Esper, Richard W Jordan, Gerhard Kauer, Christine Klaas, Michael Kloster, Amy Leventer, Jennifer Pike, Andrés S Rigual Hernández
Semi-automated methods for microscopic image acquisition, image analysis and taxonomic identification have repeatedly received attention in diatom analysis. Less well studied is the question whether and how such methods might prove useful for clarifying the delimitation of species that are difficult to separate for human taxonomists. To try to answer this question, three very similar Fragilariopsis species endemic to the Southern Ocean were targeted in this study: F. obliquecostata, F. ritscheri, and F. sublinearis...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Cintia Iha, Christopher J Grassa, Goia de M Lyra, Charles C Davis, Heroen Verbruggen, Mariana C Oliveira
Gracilariaceae has a worldwide distribution including numerous economically important species. We applied high-throughput sequencing to obtain organellar genomes (mitochondria and chloroplast) from ten species of Gracilariaceae and, combined with published genomes, to infer phylogenies and compare genome architecture among species representing main lineages. We obtained similar topologies between chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes phylogenies. However, the chloroplast phylogeny was better resolved with full support...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Charlotte T C Quigley, Hilary G Morrison, Inara Regina Mendonça, Susan H Brawley
Macroalgal microbiomes are receiving deserved study, but there is little information about microbial spatial diversity across the thallus. Reliance on field material makes it difficult to discern whether recovered microbiomes belong to the host or its epiphytes, and technical comparisons of macroalgal samples for microbial studies are needed. Here, we use a common garden approach that avoids the problem of epiphytes, particularly at holdfasts, to examine the microbiome of Porphyra umbilicalis (strain Pum1)...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Benjamin C C Hume, Cecilia D'Angelo, Edward G Smith, Jamie R Stevens, John A Burt, Jörg Wiedenmann
The binary designation 'Symbiodinium thermophilum' was invalid due to the absence of an illustration as required by Article 44.2 of the ICN. Herein, it is validated. This species is the most common symbiont in reef corals in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), the world's hottest body of water sustaining reef coral growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 7, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Pilar Garcia-Jimenez, Montserrat Montero-Fernández, Rafael R Robaina
Ethylene favors carposporogenesis in the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricata. Analyses of cystocarp development in vitro in thalli treated with ethylene suggest the interconnection between polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis pathways. Yet little is known about molecular mechanisms underlying carposporogenesis. Here we used droplet digital PCR to analyze genes encoding enzymes related to polyamine (Spermidine [Spd] synthase) and ethylene (ACC synthase) synthesis; a pivotal compound of both pathways (S-adenosyl methionine synthase, SAMS); the gene that encodes amine oxidase, which is involved in polyamine degradation, and a candidate gene involved in seaweed reproduction (ornithine decarboxylase [ODC])...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Paul W Gabrielson, Jeffery R Hughey, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido
An essential suite of coral reef ecosystem engineers is coralline red algae. Among these, the smooth, encrusting Porolithon onkodes has historically been considered the most important and common reef building species worldwide. We assess P. onkodes biodiversity by performing a genomic analysis of the lectotype specimen collected in 1892 from the Tami Islands, Gulf of Huon, east of New Guinea. Comparisons of DNA sequences from the lectotype specimen to those deposited in GenBank and to newly generated sequences from both field-collected and historical specimens demonstrate that at least 20 distinct species are passing under P...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Fernando Gómez, Lu Wang, Senjie Lin
Some diatoms are able to colonize as epibionts on their potential zooplankton predators. Here we report Pseudohimantidium pacificum living on the copepod Corycaeus giesbrechti and as a new finding on Oithona nana, Protoraphis atlantica living on the copepod Pontellopsis brevis, Protoraphis hustedtiana on the cypris larvae of barnacles, and Falcula hyalina on the copepod Acartia lilljeborgii. The epizoic diatoms were able to grow as free-living forms under culture conditions. Pseudohimantidium pacificum and Protoraphis atlantica appeared as the most derived species from their benthic diatom ancestors...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Kirralee G Baker, Dale T Radford, Christian Evenhuis, Unnikrishnan Kuzhiumparam, Peter J Ralph, Martina A Doblin
Land-based plants and ocean-dwelling microbial phototrophs known as phytoplankton, are together responsible for almost all global primary production. Habitat warming associated with anthropogenic climate change has detrimentally impacted marine primary production, with the effects observed on regional and global scales. In contrast to slower-growing higher plants, there is considerable potential for phytoplankton to evolve rapidly with changing environmental conditions. The energetic constraints associated with adaptation in phytoplankton are not yet understood, but are central to forecasting how global biogeochemical cycles respond to contemporary ocean change...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Sylvie Vm Tesson, Astrid Weißbach, Anke Kremp, Åke Lindström, Karin Rengefors
Most microalgal species are geographically widespread, but little is known about how they are dispersed. One potential mechanism for long-distance dispersal is through birds, which may transport cells internally (endozoochory) and deposit them during, or in-between, their migratory stopovers. We hypothesize that dinoflagellates, in particular resting stages, can tolerate bird digestion; that bird temperature, acidity, and retention time negatively affect dinoflagellate viability; and that recovered cysts can germinate after passage through the birds' gut, contributing to species-specific dispersal of the dinoflagellates across scales...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Lan Anh Thi Hoang, Ha Cam Nguyen, Thom Thi Le, Thi Huong Quynh Hoang, Van Nhat Pham, Minh Hien Thi Hoang, Hoai Thu Thi Ngo, Dang Diem Hong
Schizochytrium mangrovei strain PQ6 was investigated for coproduction of docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6ω-3, DHA) and squalene using a 30-L bioreactor with a working volume of 15 L under various batch and fed-batch fermentation process regimes. The fed-batch process was a more efficient cultivation strategy for achieving higher biomass production rich in DHA and squalene. The final biomass, total lipid, unsaponifiable lipid content, and DHA productivity were 105.25 g · L-1 , 43.40% of dry cell weight, 8...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Angela Sun, Mafruha Tasnin Hasan, Graham Hobba, Helena Nevalainen, Junior Te'o
Euglena gracilis Z and a 'sugar loving' variant strain Euglena gracilis var. saccharophila, were investigated as producers of paramylon, a β-1,3-glucan polysaccharide with potential medicinal and industrial applications. The strains were grown under diurnal or dark growth conditions on a glucose-yeast extract medium supporting high-level paramylon production. Both strains produced the highest paramylon yields (7.4 to 8 g · L-1 , respectively) while grown in the dark, but the maximum yield was achieved faster by E...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Alvin P Monotilla, Tomohiro Nishimura, Masao Adachi, Yuta Tanii, Danilo B Largo, Masanori Hiraoka
Phylogenetic clades based on DNA sequences such as the chloroplast rbcL gene and the nuclear ITS region are frequently used to delimit algal species. However, these molecular markers cannot accurately delimit boundaries among some Ulva species. Although Ulva reticulata and Ulva ohnoi occasionally bloom in tropical to warm-temperate regions and are clearly distinguishable by their reticulate or plain blade morphology, they have few or no sequence divergences in these molecular markers and form a monophyletic clade...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Maria Fernanda S Mota, Marcella F Souza, Elba P S Bon, Marcoaurelio A Rodrigues, Suely Pereira Freitas
The use of colorimetric methods for protein quantification in microalgae is hindered by their elevated amounts of membrane-embedded intracellular proteins. In this work, the protein content of three species of microalgae was determined by the Lowry method after the cells were dried, ball-milled, and treated with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Results demonstrated that the association of milling and SDS treatment resulted in a 3- to 7-fold increase in protein quantification. Milling promoted microalgal disaggregation and cell wall disruption enabling access of the SDS detergent to the microalgal intracellular membrane proteins and their efficient solubilization and quantification...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Arántzazu Molins, Patricia Moya, Francisco J García-Breijo, José Reig-Armiñana, Eva Barreno
Three vagrant (Circinaria hispida, Circinaria gyrosa, and Circinaria sp. 'paramerae') and one crustose (semi-vagrant, Circinaria sp. 'oromediterranea') lichens growing in very continental areas in the Iberian Peninsula were selected to study the phycobiont diversity. Mycobiont identification was checked using nrITS DNA barcoding: Circinaria sp. 'oromediterranea' and Circinaria sp. 'paramerae' formed a new clade. Phycobiont diversity was analyzed in 50 thalli of Circinaria spp. using nrITS DNA and LSU rDNA, with microalgae coexistence being found in all the species analyzed by Sanger sequencing...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Niclas Engene, Ana Tronholm, Valerie J Paul
Cyanobacteria comprise an extraordinarily diverse group of microorganisms and, as revealed by increasing molecular information, this biodiversity is even more extensive than previously estimated. In this sense, the cyanobacterial genus Lyngbya is a highly polyphyletic group composed of many unrelated taxa with morphological similarities. In this study, the new genus Dapis was erected from the genus Lyngbya, based on a combined molecular, chemical, and morphological approach. Herein, two new species of cyanobacteria are described: D...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Jasmin P Heiden, Silke Thoms, Kai Bischof, Scarlett Trimborn
Impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and increased daily irradiances from enhanced surface water stratification on phytoplankton physiology in the coastal Southern Ocean remain still unclear. Therefore, in the two Antarctic diatoms Fragilariopsis curta and Odontella weissflogii, the effects of moderate and high natural solar radiation combined with either ambient or future pCO2 on cellular particulate organic carbon (POC) contents and photophysiology were investigated. Results showed that increasing CO2 concentrations had greater impacts on diatom physiology than exposure to increasing solar radiation...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Ane Cecilie Kvernvik, Clara Jule Marie Hoppe, Evelyn Lawrenz, Ondřej Prášil, Michael Greenacre, Józef Maria Wiktor, Eva Leu
Arctic microalgae experience long periods of continuous darkness during the polar night, when they are unable to photosynthesize. Despite numerous studies on overwintering strategies, such as utilization of stored energy products, formation of resting stages, reduction of metabolic rates and heterotrophic lifestyles, there have been few attempts to assess the in situ physiological state and restoration of the photosynthetic apparatus upon re-illumination. In this study, we found diverse and active marine phytoplankton communities during the polar night at 78°N...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Maren Ziegler, Elizabeth Stone, Daniel Colman, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Ursula Shepherd
Large-scale environmental disturbances may impact both partners in coral host-Symbiodinium systems. Elucidation of the assembly patterns in such complex and interdependent communities may enable better prediction of environmental impacts across coral reef ecosystems. In this study, we investigated how the community composition and diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium were distributed among 12 host species from six taxonomic orders (Actinaria, Alcyonacea, Miliolida, Porifera, Rhizostoma, Scleractinia) and in the reef water and sediments at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef before the 3rd Global Coral Bleaching Event...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Phycology
William J Henley, Michael Cobbs, Lucie Novoveská, Mark A Buchheim
Dunaliella, a commercially important chlorophyte, is globally distributed in saline habitats. Morphological species have not been definitively reconciled with phylogenetic analyses. Considerable genetic diversity continues to be discovered in new isolates, especially from soil and benthic habitats. Twenty-nine new isolates from Great Salt Lake, Utah, many from benthic or supralittoral habitats, were phylogenetically analyzed using ITS1+5.8S+ITS2 in comparison to a broad sampling of available sequences. A few new isolates align in one branch of a bifurcated monophyletic D...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Nataliia V Annenkova, Dag Ahrén, Ramiro Logares, Anke Kremp, Karin Rengefors
Recently radiated dinoflagellates Apocalathium aciculiferum (collected in Lake Erken, Sweden), A. malmogiense (Baltic Sea) and Apocalathium aff. malmogiense (Highway Lake, Antarctica) represent a lineage with an unresolved phylogeny. We determined their phylogenetic relationships using phylotranscriptomics based on 792 amino acid sequences. Our results showed that A. aciculiferum diverged from the other two closely related lineages, consistent with their different morphologies in cell size, relative cell length and presence of spines...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Phycology
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