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Journal of Phycology

Blake D Ramsby, Malcolm S Hill, Daniel J Thornhill, Sieuwkje F Steenhuizen, Michelle Achlatis, Allison M Lewis, Todd C Lajeunesse
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium associate with a broad array of metazoan and protistian hosts. Symbiodinium-based symbioses involving bioeroding sponge hosts have received less attention than those involving scleractinian hosts. Certain species of common Cliona harbor high densities of an ecologically restricted group of Symbiodinium, referred to as Clade G. The relationships of these unusual Clade G Symbiodinium with Foraminifera, sponges, and black coral (Antipatharia) are rarely studied. Nonetheless, analyses of genetic evidence indicate that Clade G likely comprises several distinct species...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Kazuya Takahashi, Øjvind Moestrup, Minoru Wada, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Nguyen Van Nguyen, Yasuwo Fukuyo, Mitsunori Iwataki
A new marine woloszynskioid dinoflagellate Dactylodinium pterobelotum gen. et sp. nov. collected from a southern Vietnamese estuary was described on the basis of LM, SEM and TEM, and molecular phylogeny inferred from rDNA sequences. This species had the smallest number of amphiesmal vesicles (5 latitudinal series) in woloszynskioid dinoflagellates assigned to the Suessiaceae and Borghiellaceae. The eyespot was of type B, composed of osmiophilic globules and brick-like material, located in- and outside the chloroplast, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Elena Fabro, Gastón O Almandoz, Martha Ferrario, Uwe John, Urban Tillmann, Kerstin Toebe, Bernd Krock, Allan Cembella
In the Argentine Sea, blooms of toxigenic dinoflagellates of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex have led to fish and bird mortalities and human deaths as a consequence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Yet little is known about the occurrence of other toxigenic species of the genus Alexandrium, or of their toxin composition beyond coastal waters. The distribution of Alexandrium species and related toxins in the Argentine Sea was determined by sampling surface waters on an oceanographic expedition during austral spring from ~39 to 48º S...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Michael J Braus, Linda E Graham, Thea L Whitman
The branched periphytic green alga Cladophora glomerata, often abundant in nearshore waters of lakes and rivers worldwide, plays important ecosystem roles, some mediated by epibiotic microbiota that benefit from host-provided surface, organic C, and O2 . Previous microscopy and high throughput sequencing studies have indicated surprising epibiont taxonomic and functional diversity, but have not included adequate consideration of sample replication or the potential for spatial and temporal variation. Here we report the results of 16S rRNA amplicon-based phylum-to-genus taxonomic analysis of Cladophora-associated bacterial epibiota sampled in replicate from three microsites and at six times during the open-water season of 2014, from the same lake locale (Picnic Point, Lake Mendota, Dane Co...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Tamsyne Jade Smith-Harding, John Beardall, James Gordon Mitchell
Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) act to improve the supply of CO2 at the active site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO). There is substantial evidence that in some microalgal species CCMs involve an external carbonic anhydrase (CAext ) and that CAext activity is induced by low CO2 concentrations in the growth medium. However, much of this work has been conducted on cells adapted to air-equilibrium concentrations of CO2 , rather than to changing CO2 conditions caused by growing microalgal populations...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Todd C Lajeunesse
It has been 55 years since Hugo Freudenthal described Symbiodinium microadriaticum (Dinophyceae), the type species of this large and important dinoflagellate genus found commonly in mutualistic symbiosis with cnidarians, other invertebrates, and certain protists. However, no type specimen was designated by Freudenthal, thus S. microadriaticum was invalid, as was Symbiodinium and every species subsequently assigned to the genus. The original culture was lost, but since 1977, a different culture, CCMP2464/rt-061, had been considered to represent S...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Aaron A Heiss, Alaric W Heiss, Kaleigh Lukacs, Eunsoo Kim
Glaucophytes are a kingdom-scale lineage of unicellular algae with uniquely underived plastids. The genus Cyanophora is of particular interest because it is the only glaucophyte that is a flagellate throughout its life cycle, making its morphology more directly comparable than other glaucophytes to other eukaryote flagellates. The ultrastructure of Cyanophora has already been studied, primarily in the 1960s and 1970s. However, the usefulness of that work has been undermined by its own limitations, subsequent misinterpretations, and a recent taxonomic revision of the genus...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Bruna Buch, Mariéllen Dornelles Martins, Luis Henrique Z Branco
Several new genera originally classified as the genus Phormidium, a polyphyletic and taxonomically complex genus within the Oscillatoriales, were recently described. The simple morphology of Phormidium does not reflect its genetic diversity and the delimitation of a natural group is not possible with traditional classification systems based on morphology alone. Therefore, this study used morphological, ecological and molecular approaches to evaluate four populations morphologically similar to Ammassolinea, Kamptonema and Ancylothrix (simple, curved and gradually attenuated at the ends trichome), found in subtropical and tropical Brazilian regions...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Ligia Collado-Vides, Alain Duran, Elizabeth Armenis, Valéria Cassano, Deron Burkepile, Andrew A Shantz, Laura Palma, Jhoana Díaz-Larrea, Abel Sentíes, Mutue Toyota Fujii
As marine tropical ecosystems deteriorate and lose biodiversity, their communities are shifting to being dominated by a few species, altering ecosystem's functioning and services. Macroalgae are becoming dominant on coral reefs, and are frequently observed outcompeting corals. Turf algal assemblages are the base of energy flow in these systems and one of the most abundant types of macroalgae on coral reefs, but little is known about their biology and diversity. Through molecular and morphological analyses, we identified the turf-forming species Laurencia cervicornis, and by studying seasonal recruitment and the impact of herbivorous fishes on its abundance, we describe its survival strategy...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Schery Umanzor, Lydia Ladah, José A Zertuche-González
Intertidal macroalgae can modulate their biophysical environment by ameliorating physical conditions and creating habitats. Exploring how seaweed aggregations made up of different species at different densities modify the local environment may help explain how associated organisms respond to the attenuation of extreme physical conditions. Using Silvetia compressa, Chondracanthus canaliculatus and Pyropia perforata, we constructed monocultures representing the leathery, corticated and foliose functional-forms as well as a mixed tri-culture assemblage including the former three, at four different densities...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Anchittha Satjarak, Linda E Graham
The wall-less green flagellate Pyramimonas parkeae is classified in clade I of the prasinophytes, a paraphyletic assemblage representing the last common ancestor of Viridiplantae, a monophyletic group composed of the green algae and land plants. Consequently, P. parkeae and other prasinophytes illuminate early-evolved Viridiplantae traits likely fundamental in the systems biology of green algae and land plants. Cellular structure and organellar genomes of P. parkeae are now well understood, and transcriptomic sequence data are also publically available for one strain of this species, but corresponding nuclear genomic sequence data are lacking...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Tania Hernández Fariñas, Lourenço Ribeiro, Dominique Soudant, Catherine Belin, Cédric Bacher, Luis Lampert, Laurent Barillé
Suspended marine benthic microalgae in the water column reflect the close relationship between the benthic and pelagic components of coastal ecosystems. In this study, a 12-year phytoplankton time-series was used to investigate the contribution of benthic microalgae to the pelagic system at a site along the French-Atlantic coast. Furthermore, all taxa identified were allocated into different growth forms in order to study their seasonal patterns. The highest contribution of benthic microalgae was observed during the winter period, reaching up to 60% of the carbon biomass in the water column...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Jun-Woo Kim, Neil M Price
Thalassiosira oceanica (CCMP 1005) was grown over a range of copper concentrations at saturating and sub-saturating irradiance to test the hypothesis that Cu and light were interacting essential resources. Growth was a hyperbolic function of irradiance in Cu-replete medium (263 fmol Cu' · L(-1) ) with maximum rates achieved at 200 μmol photons · m(-2) · s(-1) . Lowering the Cu concentration at this irradiance to 30.8 fmol Cu' · L(-1) decreased cellular Cu quota by 7-fold and reduced growth rate by 50%...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Joseph L Richards, Thomas Sauvage, William E Schmidt, Suzanne Fredericq, Jeffery R Hughey, Paul W Gabrielson
Interspecific systematics in the red algal order Sporolithales remains problematic. To re-evaluate its species, DNA analyses were performed on historical type material and recently collected specimens assigned to the two genera Sporolithon and Heydrichia. Partial rbcL sequences from the lectotype specimens of Sporolithon ptychoides (the generitype species) and Sporolithon molle, both from El Tor, Egypt, are exact matches to field-collected topotype specimens. Sporolithon crassum and Sporolithon erythraeum also have the same type locality; material of the former appears to no longer exist, and we were unable to PCR amplify DNA from the latter...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Feng Liu, James T Melton, Yuping Bi
To further understand the trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes or mtDNAs) in the Ulvophyceae, the mitogenomes of two separate thalli of Ulva pertusa were sequenced. Two U. pertusa mitogenomes (Up1 and Up2) were 69,333 bp and 64,602 bp in length. These mitogenomes shared two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 28 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 29 protein-coding genes, and 12 open reading frames. The 4.7 kb difference in size was attributed to variation in intron content and tandem repeat regions. A total of six introns were present in the smaller U...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Merinda C Nash, Walter Adey
Magnesium content, strongly correlated with temperature, has been developed as a climate archive for the late Holocene without considering anatomical controls on Mg content. In this paper, we explore the ultrastructure and cellular scale Mg-content variations within four species of North Atlantic crust-forming Phymatolithon. The cell wall has radial grains of Mg-calcite, whereas the interfilament (middle lamella) has grains aligned parallel to the filament axis. The proportion of interfilament and cell wall carbonate varies by tissue and species...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Daniel Gonzalez-Silvera, Sandra Pérez, Nathalie Korbee, Félix L Figueroa, Antonia D Asencio, Marina Aboal, José Ángel López-Jiménez
Under natural conditions, Chroothece richteriana synthesizes a fairly high proportion of fatty acids. However, nothing is known about how environmental changes affect their production, or about the production of protective compounds, when colonies develop under full sunshine with high levels of UV radiation. In this study, wild colonies of C. richteriana were subjected to increasing temperature, conductivity, ammonium concentrations and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and UV radiations to assess the potential changes in lipid composition and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) concentration...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Matheus C Carvalho, Pedro Bastos de Macedo Carneiro, Fernando Gaspar Dellatorre, Pablo Ezequiel Gibilisco, Julian Sachs, Bradley D Eyre
Little is known about the bulk hydrogen stable isotope composition (δ(2) H) of seaweeds. This study investigated the bulk δ(2) H in several different seaweed species collected from three different beaches in Brazil, Australia, and Argentina. Here, we show that Ulvophyceae (a group of green algae) had lower δ(2) H values (between -94‰ and -130‰) than red algae (Florideophyceae), brown algae (Phaeophyceae), and species from the class Bryopsidophyceae (another group of green algae). Overall the latter three groups of seaweeds had δ(2) H values between -50‰ and -90‰...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Kenneth G Karol, Robin S Sleith
Studies of the colonization and spread of invasive species improves our understanding of key concepts in population biology as well as informs control and prevention efforts. The characean green alga Nitellopsis obtusa (starry stonewort) is rare in its native Eurasian range but listed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as an aggressive invasive in North America. First documented in North America in 1978 from New York, U.S.A., it has since been reported from numerous inland lakes from Minnesota to Vermont, and from Lake Ontario and inland lakes in southern Ontario, Canada...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Yang Guo, Hao Zhe Wang, Chun Hui Wu, Hui Hui Fu, Peng Jiang
Ulva spp. dominates green tides around the world, which are occurring at an accelerated rate. The competitive nitrogen assimilation efficiency in Ulva is suggested to result in ecological success against other seaweeds. However, molecular characterization of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation has not been conducted. Here, we describe the identification of the nitrate reductase (NR) gene from a green seaweed Ulva prolifera, an alga which is responsible for the world's largest green tide in the Yellow Sea...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
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