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Journal of Phycology

Peipei Zhao, Wenhui Gu, Aiyou Huang, Songcui Wu, Changheng Liu, Li Huan, Shan Gao, Xiujun Xie, Guangce Wang
Iron is a limiting factor in the modern ocean, which is a major factor that controls the phytoplankton biomass of the ocean, and iron fertilization of the ocean could lead to blooms dominated by diatoms. Thus, iron plays an important role in controlling the distribution of diatoms. In this study, we measured the growth rate and photosynthetic activity of the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured under different iron concentrations and found that it grew more rapidly and had a much higher photosynthetic efficiency under higher iron concentrations...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Udo Nitschke, Philip Walsh, Jade McDaid, Dagmar B Stengel
The biogeochemistry of iodine in temperate coastal ecosystems is largely mediated by macroalgae, which act as a major biological sink and source of iodine. Their capacity to accumulate, retain and release iodine has been associated with abiotic and biotic stressors, but quantitative information is limited. We evaluated the seasonal iodine retention capacity of eleven macroalgal species belonging to different systematic groups, collected from two sites in Ireland. Iodine accumulation and retention were then further quantified in Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata in relation to I(-) concentrations in seawater and temperature...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Jichang Han, Lin Zhang, Pu Wang, Guanpin Yang, Song Wang, Yuhang Li, Kehou Pan
Although hypotheses have been proposed and developed to interpret the origins and functions of introns, substantial controversies remain about the mechanism of intron evolution. The availability of introns in the intermediate state is quite helpful for resolving this debate. In this study, a new strain of diatom (denominated as DB21-1) was isolated and identified as Luticola sp., in which multiple types of 18S rDNAs (obtained from genomic DNA; lengths ranged from 2,056 bp to 2,988 bp) were obtained. Based on the alignment between 18S rDNAs and 18S rRNA (obtained from cDNA; 1,783 bp), 7 intron insertion sites (IISs) located in the 18S rDNA were identified, each of which displaying the polymorphism of intron presence/absence...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Xiaofei Yin, Andreas Ziegler, Klemens Kelm, Ramona Hoffmann, Philipp Watermeyer, Patrick Alexa, Clarissa Villinger, Ulrich Rupp, Lothar Schlüter, Thorsten B H Reusch, Erika Griesshaber, Paul Walther, Wolfgang W Schmahl
Coccolithophores belong to the most abundant calcium carbonate mineralizing organisms. Coccolithophore biomineralization is a complex and highly regulated process, resulting in a product that strongly differs in its intricate morphology from the abiogenically produced mineral equivalent. Moreover, unlike extracellularly formed biological carbonate hard tissues, coccolith calcite is neither a hybrid composite, nor is it distinguished by a hierarchical microstructure. This is remarkable as the key to optimizing crystalline biomaterials for mechanical strength and toughness lies in the composite nature of the biological hard tissue and the utilization of specific microstructures...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Timothy J Entwisle, Joshua R Evans, Morgan L Vis, Gary W Saunders
A new genus, Ottia, and family, Ottiaceae, are proposed within the Acrochaetiales to accommodate the uniseriate red algal endophyte of batrachspermalean taxa previously named Balbiania meiospora. Prior to this study Balbiania investiens was transferred to its own family and order (Balbianiales) based on comparative DNA sequence data and a distinctive reproductive morphology. However, the second species described in this genus, Balbiania meiospora, continued to be treated as a species of Audouinella (A. meiospora) pending further investigation...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Monica Orlandi Paiano, Andrea Del Cortona, Joana F Costa, Shao-Lun Liu, Heroen Verbruggen, Olivier De Clerck, Orlando Necchi
Little is known about genome organization in members of the order Batrachospermales, and the infra-ordinal relationship remains unresolved. Plastid (cp) genomes of seven members of the freshwater red algal order Batrachospermales were sequenced, with the following aims: (i) to describe the characteristics of cp genomes and compare these with other red algal groups; (ii) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among these members to better understand the infra-ordinal classification. Cp genomes of Batrachospermales are large, with several cases of gene loss, they are gene-dense (high gene content for the genome size and short intergenic regions) and have highly conserved gene order...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Catherine A Pfister, Samuel P Betcher
Primary producers respond to climate directly and indirectly due to effects on their consumers. In the temperate coastal ocean, the highly productive brown algae known as kelp have both strong climate and grazer linkages. We analyzed the demographic response of the kelp Pleurophycus gardneri over a 25-year span to determine the interaction between ocean climate indicators and invertebrate infestation rates. Pleurophycus hosts amphipod species that burrow in the stipe, increasing mortality. Although kelp performance is generally greater with more negative values of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and colder seawater temperatures, Pleurophycus showed the opposite pattern...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Alicia Del Hoyo, Raquel Álvarez, Francisco Gasulla, Leonardo Mario Casano, Eva María Del Campo
The history of group I introns is characterized by repeated horizontal transfers, even among phylogenetically distant species. The symbiogenetic thalli of lichens are good candidates for the horizontal transfer of genetic material among distantly related organisms, such as fungi and green algae. The main goal of this study was to determine whether there were different trends in intron distribution and properties among Chlorophyte algae based on their phylogenetic relationships and living conditions. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence, distribution and properties of group I introns within the chloroplast LSU rDNA in 87 Chlorophyte algae including lichen and free-living Trebouxiophyceae compared to free-living non-Trebouxiophyceae species...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Rebecca Mueller, Jeffrey T Wright, Christopher J S Bolch
The palaeoceanography of southern Australia has been characterized by fluctuating sea levels during glacial periods, changing temperature regimes and modified boundary currents. Previous studies on genetic structuring of species in southeastern Australia have focused mainly on the differentiation of eastern and western populations while the potential role of Bass Strait as a region of overlap for three biogeographic provinces (Peronia, Maugea, and Flindersia) has been largely ignored. This study aimed to explore the likely roles of historic and contemporary factors in determining divergence patterns in the habitat-forming intertidal seaweed Hormosira banksii in southeastern Australia with a special focus on postglacial dispersal into Bass Strait...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Marianela Zanolla, María Altamirano, Raquel Carmona, Julio De la Rosa, Virginia Souza-Egipsy, Alison Sherwood, Konstantinos Tsiamis, Ana Márcia Barbosa, Antonio Román Muñoz, Nikos Andreakis
The mitochondrial genetic diversity, distribution and invasive potential of multiple cryptic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the red invasive seaweed Asparagopsis were assessed by studying introduced Mediterranean and Hawaiian populations. Invasive behavior of each Asparagopsis OTU was inferred from phylogeographic reconstructions, past historical demographic dynamics, recent range expansion assessments and future distributional predictions obtained from demographic models. Genealogical networks resolved Asparagopsis gametophytes and tetrasporophytes into four A...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Apurva Gupta, Devendra Mohan, Rishi Kumar Saxena, Surendra Singh
Commercial cultivation of Spirulina sp. is highly popular due to the presence of high amount of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and other valuable chemicals like carotenoids and γ-linolenic acid. In this study, the pH and the concentrations of nitrogen and carbon source were manipulated to achieve improved cell growth and C-PC production in NaCl-tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis. In this study, highest C-PC (147 mg · L(-1) ) and biomass (2.83 g · L(-1) ) production was achieved when a NaCl-tolerant mutant of S...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Daniela Gabriel, Stefano G A Draisma, William E Schmidt, Tom Schils, Thomas Sauvage, Clio Maridakis, C Frederico D Gurgel, D James Harris, Suzanne Fredericq
The tropical alga previously recognized as Gibsmithia hawaiiensis (Dumontiaceae, Rhodophyta) was recently suggested to represent a complex of species distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific Ocean and characterized by a peculiar combination of hairy (pilose) gelatinous lobes growing on cartilaginous stalks. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on three genetic markers are presented here with the inclusion of new samples. Further diversity is reported within the complex, with nine lineages spread in four major phylogenetic groups...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Rodrigo Tomazetto de Carvalho, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Wladimir Costa Paradas, Angélica Ribeiro Soares, Gláucia Ank Guarino, Raoni Moreira Ferreira Passos, Gilberto Menezes Amado Filho, Marcos Farina, Leonardo Tavares Salgado
Approximately half of the Padina (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) species mineralize aragonite needles over the adaxial thallus surface, where mineral bands are interspersed with non-mineralized regions along the thallus from the apical to basal end. However, this calcification pattern and the related algal properties are not well understood. Therefore, this work was performed to elucidate a potential role of cell walls in the inhibition/induction of mineralization in the brown alga Padina gymnospora. In a comparison of specific thallus regions, differences were identified in the cellulose distribution, microfibrils arrangement and thickness, distribution and abundance of phenolic substances, and physical differences among the surfaces of the thallus (deformation, adhesion, topography and nano-rugosity)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Pilar Garcia-Jimenez, Montserrat Montero-Fernandez, R Rafael Robaina
When applied in vitro, methyl jasmonate is sensed by the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricate, substantially and visually affecting its carposporogenesis. However, although there is some understanding of the morphological changes induced by methyl jasmonate in vitro, little is known about the genes that are involved in red seaweed carposporogenesis and how their protein products act. For the work reported herein, the expression of genes in red seaweed that encode enzymes involved in the synthesis of methyl jasmonate (jasmonic acid carboxyl methyl transferase and a putative methyl transferase) was monitored, additionally the genes involved in oxidation (cytochrome P450 and WD40), jasmonate synthesis, signal transduction, and regulation of reactive oxygen species (MYB), and reproduction (ornithine decarboxylase) were monitored...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Frances M Van Dolah, Gurjeet S Kohli, Jeanine S Morey, Shauna A Murray
Dinoflagellates are prolific producers of polyketide compounds, many of which are potent toxins with adverse impacts on human and marine animal health. To identify polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, we assembled a transcriptome from 595 million Illumina reads, sampled under different growth conditions. The assembly included 125,687 transcripts greater than 300 nt in length, with over half having >100x coverage. We found 121 transcripts encoding Type I ketosynthase (KS) domains, of which 99 encoded single KS domains, while 22 contained multiple KS domains arranged in 1-3 protein modules...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Cristiana Callieri, Stefano Amalfitano, Gianluca Corno, Andrea Di Cesare, Roberto Bertoni, Ester M Eckert
Planktonic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus are ubiquitously distributed in marine and fresh waters, substantially contributing to total carbon fixation on a global scale. While their ecological relevance is acknowledged, increasing resolution in molecular techniques allows disentangling cyanobacteria's role at the micro-scale, where complex microbial interactions may drive the overall community assembly. The interplay between phylogenetically different Synechococcus clades and their associated bacterial communities can affect their ecological fate and susceptibility to protistan predation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Urban Tillmann, Mona Hoppenrath, Marc Gottschling, Wolf-Henning Kusber, Malte Elbrächter
One of the most common marine dinophytes is a species known as Heterocapsa triquetra. When Stein introduced the taxon Heterocapsa, he formally based the type species H. triquetra on the basionym Glenodinium triquetrum. The latter was described by Ehrenberg and is most likely a species of Kryptoperidinium. In addition to that currently unresolved nomenclatural situation, the thecal plate composition of H. triquetra sensu Stein (1883) was controversial in the past. To clarify the debate, we collected material and established the strain UTKG7 from the Baltic Sea off Kiel (Germany, the same locality as Stein had studied), which was investigated using light and electron microscopy, and whose systematic position was inferred using molecular phylogenetics...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Kenneth Neil Mertens, Haifeng Gu, Vera Pospelova, Nicolas Chomérat, Elisabeth Nézan, Pieter Roger Gurdebeke, Kara Bogus, Henk Vrielinck, Myriam Rumebe, Claire Meteigner
The resting cysts of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum leve from a natural reservoir in Gujan-Mestras (Gironde, France) were described in this study. The incubated urn-shaped cysts gave rise to cells of P. leve. Morphological observations through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, particularly of the periflagellar platelets, combined with large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences obtained through single-cell analysis confirm their affinity to the species P. leve. The cysts were characterized by a specific shape and the presence of an anterior plug...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Phycology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Phycology
Mariana Cabral Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Phycology
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