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Journal of Phycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885670/telomeric-localization-of-the-arabidopsis-type-heptamer-repeat-tttaggg-n-at-the-chromosome-ends-in-saccharina-japonica-phaeophyta
#1
Q F Yang, L Liu, Y Liu, Z G Zhou
Telomeres generally consist of short repeats of minisatellite DNA sequences and are useful in chromosome identification and karyotype analysis. To date, telomeres have not been characterized in the economic brown seaweed Saccharina japonica, thus its full cytogenetic research and genetic breeding potential has not been realized. Herein, the tentative sequence of telomeres in S. japonica was identified by PCR amplification with primers designed based on the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence (TTTAGGG)n , which was chosen out of 3 possible telomeric repeat DNA sequences typically present in plants and algae...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885668/characterization-of-gambierdiscus-lapillus-sp-nov-gonyaulacales-dinophyceae-a-new-toxic-dinoflagellate-from-the-great-barrier-reef-australia
#2
Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Arjun Verma, D Tim Harwood, Mona Hoppenrath, Shauna Murray
Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) which bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in ciguatera fish poisoning endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step in order to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to ciguatera fish poisoning cases occurring in this region...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885652/intercellular-translocation-of-molecules-via-plasmodesmata-in-the-multiseriate-filamentous-brown-alga-halopteris-congesta-sphacelariales-phaeophyceae
#3
Chikako Nagasato, Atsuko Tanaka, Toshiaki Ito, Christos Katsaros, Taizo Motomura
Despite the high number of studies on the fine structure of brown algal cells, only limited information is available on the intercelluar transportation of molecules via plasmodesmata in brown algae. In this study, plasmodesmatal permeability of Halopteris congesta was examined by observing the translocation of microinjected fluorescent tracers of different molecular sizes. The tip region of H. congesta consists of a cylindrical apical cell while the basal region is multiseriate. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD; 3, 10, and 20 kDa) and recombinant green fluorescent protein (27 kDa) were injected into the apical cell and was observed to diffuse into the neighboring cells...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878825/mismatch-of-morphological-and-molecular-identifications-in-native-and-invasive-subspecies-of-codium-fragile-bryopsidophyceae-chlorophyta
#4
Phoebe R Armitage, Wendy A Nelson, Judith E Sutherland
Several subspecies are defined within Codium fragile, including the invasive C. fragile ssp. fragile, first reported in New Zealand in 1973. An endemic subspecies, Codium fragile ssp. novae-zelandiae, is also found throughout New Zealand. The two subspecies exhibit morphological and molecular variation, although these have never been evaluated together. We compared variation between subspecies at locations in Auckland, identifying subspecies using rps3-rpl16 DNA sequence data, and assessing gross morphological differences, anatomical utricle characters and morphometrics...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878814/giant-kelp-vegetative-propagation-adventitious-holdfast-elements-rejuvenate-senescent-individuals-of-the-macrocystis-pyrifera-integrifolia-ecomorph
#5
Pedro Murúa, Dieter G Müller, David J Patiño, Renato Westermeier
Recent findings on holdfast development in the giant kelp highlighted its key importance for Macrocystis vegetative propagation. We report here for the first time the development of adventitious holdfasts from Macrocystis stipes. Swellings emerge spontaneously from different areas of the stipes, especially in senescent or creeping individuals. After being manually fastened to solid substrata, these swellings elongated into haptera, which became strongly attached after one month. Within 4 months new thalli increased in size and vitality, and developed reproductive fronds...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878810/improvement-of-phytoplankton-culture-isolation-using-single-cell-sorting-by-flow-cytometry
#6
Dominique Marie, Florence Le Gall, Roseline Edern, Priscillia Gourvil, Daniel Vaulot
Flow cytometry provides a tool to physically sort single algal cells in order to obtain clonal cultures. During sorting, cells are submitted to physical stress factors such as high fluidic pressure, exposure to the laser beam, electrostatic charges, deflection through high voltage fields and collisions with container surfaces. All of these can damage the cells of interest and success rates for initiation of cultures from flow-sorted cells are generally very low. We found that the addition of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in the culture medium into which cells are sorted drastically improved the success of initiation of pico- and nano-eukaryotic phytoplankton strains...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870065/photoacclimatory-and-photoprotective-responses-to-cold-versus-heat-stress-in-high-latitude-reef-corals
#7
Stefanie Pontasch, Paul L Fisher, Thomas Krueger, Sophie Dove, William Leggat, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Simon K Davy
Corals at the world's southernmost coral reef of Lord Howe Island (LHI) experience large temperature and light fluctuations and need to deal with periods of cold temperature (< 18 °C), but few studies have investigated how corals are able to cope with these conditions. Our study characterized the response of key photophysiological parameters, as well as photoacclimatory and photoprotective pigments (chlorophylls, xanthophylls and β-carotene), to short-term (5-day) cold stress (~ 15 °C; 7 °C below control) in three LHI coral species hosting distinct Symbiodinium ITS2 types, and compared the coral-symbiont response to that under elevated temperature (~ 29 °C; 7 °C above control)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859237/the-tetrapyrrole-synthesis-pathway-as-a-model-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-euglenoids
#8
Bryan Lakey, Richard Triemer
The history of euglenoids may have begun as early as ~2 bya. These early phagotrophs ate cyanobacteria, archaea and eubacteria, and the subsequent appearance of red algae and chromalveolates provided euglenoids with additional food sources. Following the appearance of green algae, euglenoids acquired a chloroplast via a secondary endosymbiotic event with a green algal ancestor. This endosymbiosis also involved a massive transfer of nuclear-encoded genes from the symbiont nucleus to the host. Expecting these genes to have a green algal origin, this research has shown, through the use of DNA-sequences and the analysis of phylogenetic relationships, that many housekeeping genes have a red algal/chromalveolate ancestry...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861900/abiotic-influences-on-bicarbonate-use-in-the-giant-kelp-macrocystis-pyrifera-in-the-monterey-bay
#9
Sarah Tepler Drobnitch, Kerry Nickols, Matthew Edwards
In the Monterey Bay region of Central California, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera experiences broad fluctuations in wave forces, temperature, light availability, nutrient availability, and seawater carbonate chemistry, all of which may impact their productivity. In particular, current velocities and light intensity may strongly regulate the supply and demand of inorganic carbon (Ci) as substrates for photosynthesis. M. pyrifera can acquire and utilize both CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3(-) ) as Ci substrates for photosynthesis and growth; given the variability of carbon delivery (due to current velocities and varying [DIC]) and demand (in the form of saturating irradiance) we hypothesized that the proportion of CO2 and bicarbonate utilized is not constant for M...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809349/genetic-and-morphological-variation-in-an-ecosystem-engineer-lithophyllum-byssoides-corallinales-rhodophyta
#10
Laura Pezzolesi, Annalisa Falace, Sara Kaleb, Jazmin J Hernandez-Kantun, Carlo Cerrano, Fabio Rindi
Lithophyllum byssoides is a common coralline alga in the intertidal zone of Mediterranean coasts, where it produces biogenic concretions housing a high algal and invertebrate biodiversity. This species is an ecosystem engineer and is considered a target for conservation efforts, but designing effective conservation strategies currently is impossible due to lack of information about its population structure. The morphological and molecular variation of L. byssoides was investigated using morphoanatomy and DNA sequences (psbA and cox2,3) obtained from populations at 15 localities on the Italian and Croatian coasts...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809344/morphological-and-genetic-diversity-of-beaufort-sea-diatoms-with-high-contributions-from-the-chaetoceros-neogracilis-species-complex
#11
Sergio Balzano, Isabella Percopo, Raffaele Siano, Priscillia Gourvil, Mélanie Chanoine, Marie Dominique, Daniel Vaulot, Diana Sarno
Seventy-five diatoms strains isolated from the Beaufort Sea (Canadian Arctic) in the summer of 2009 were characterized by light and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) as well as 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains group into 20 genotypes and 17 morphotypes and are affiliated with the genera Arcocellulus, Attheya, Chaetoceros, Cylindrotheca, Eucampia, Nitzschia, Porosira, Pseudo-nitzschia, Shionodiscus, Thalassiosira, Synedropsis. Most of the species have a distribution confined to the northern/polar area...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809340/identification-of-a-new-to-science-cyanobacterium-toxifilum-mysidocida-gen-nov-sp-nov-cyanobacteria-cyanophyceae
#12
Paul V Zimba, I-Shuo Huang, Jennifer E Foley, Eric W Linton
Cyanobacteria occupy many niches within terrestrial, planktonic, and benthic habitats. The diversity of habitats colonized, similarity of morphology, and phenotypic plasticity all contribute to the difficulty of cyanobacterial identification. An unknown marine filamentous cyanobacterium was isolated from an aquatic animal rearing facility having mysid mortality events. The cyanobacterium originated from Corpus Christi Bay, TX. Filaments are rarely solitary, benthic mat forming, unbranched, and narrowing at the ends...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779759/discovery-of-a-resting-stage-in-the-harmful-brown-tide-causing-pelagophyte-aureoumbra-lagunensis-a-mechanism-potentially-facilitating-recurrent-blooms-and-geographic-expansion
#13
Yoonja Kang, Ying-Zhong Tang, Gordon T Taylor, Christopher J Gobler
To date, the life stages of pelagophytes have been poorly described. This study describes the ability of Aureoumbra lagunensis to enter a resting stage in response to environmental stressors including high temperature, nutrient depletion, and darkness as well as their ability to revert from resting cells back to vegetative cells after exposure to optimal light, temperature, and nutrient conditions. Resting cells became round in shape and larger in size, filled with red accumulation bodies, had smaller and fewer plastids, more vacuolar space, contained lower concentrations of chlorophyll a and RNA, displayed reduced photosynthetic efficiency, and lower respiration rates relative to vegetative cells...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779746/yihiella-yeosuensis-gen-et-sp-nov-suessiaceae-dinophyceae-a-novel-dinoflagellate-isolated-from-the-coastal-waters-of-korea
#14
Se Hyeon Jang, Hae Jin Jeong, Øjvind Moestrup, Nam Seon Kang, Sung Yeon Lee, Kyung Ha Lee, Kyeong Ah Seong
A small (7-11 μm long) dinoflagellate with thin amphiesmal plates was isolated into culture from a water sample collected in coastal waters of Yeosu, southern Korea, and examined by LM, SEM, and TEM, and molecular analyses. The hemispheric episome was smaller than the hyposome. The nucleus was oval and situated from the central to the episomal region of the cell. A large yellowish-brown chloroplast was located at the end of the hyposome, and some small chloroplasts extended into the periphery of the episome...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767210/morphology-and-phylogeny-of-a-new-wall-less-freshwater-volvocalean-flagellate-hapalochloris-nozakii-gen-et-sp-nov-volvocales-chlorophyceae
#15
Takashi Nakada, Masaru Tomita
New strains of a wall-less unicellular volvocalean flagellate were isolated from a freshwater environment in Japan. Observations of the alga, described here as Hapalochloris nozakii Nakada, gen. et sp. nov., were made using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy. Each vegetative cell had two flagella, four contractile vacuoles, and a spirally furrowed cup-shaped chloroplast with an axial pyrenoid, and mitochondria located in the furrows. Based on the morphology, H. nozakii was distinguished from other known wall-less volvocalean flagellates...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754547/diatom-growth-responses-to-photoperiod-and-light-are-predictable-from-diel-reductant-generation
#16
Gang Li, David Talmy, Douglas A Campbell
Light drives phytoplankton productivity, so phytoplankton must exploit variable intensities and durations of light exposure, depending upon season, latitude, and depth. We analyzed the growth, photophysiology and composition of small, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and large, Thalassiosira punctigera, centric diatoms from temperate, coastal marine habitats, responding to a matrix of photoperiods and growth light intensities. T. pseudonana showed fastest growth rates under long photoperiods and low to moderate light intensities, while the larger T...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734501/species-concept-and-nomenclatural-changes-within-the-genera-elliptochloris-and-pseudochlorella-trebouxiophyceae-based-on-an-integrative-approach
#17
Tatyana Darienko, Lydia Gustavs, Thomas Pröschold
The genera Elliptochloris and Pseudochlorella were erected for Chlorella-like green algae producing two types of autospores and cell packages, respectively. Both genera are widely distributed in different soil habitats, either as free living or as photobionts of lichens. The species of these genera are often difficult to identify because of the high phenotypic plasticity and occasional lack of characteristic features. The taxonomic and nomenclatural status of these species, therefore, remains unclear. In this study, 34 strains were investigated using an integrative approach...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734500/the-variable-routes-of-rafting-stranding-dynamics-of-floating-bull-kelp-durvillaea-antarctica-fucales-phaeophyceae-on-beaches-in-the-se-pacific
#18
Boris A López, Erasmo C Macaya, Fadia Tala, Florence Tellier, Martin Thiel
Dispersal on floating seaweeds depends on availability, viability, and trajectories of the rafts. In the southern hemisphere, the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica is one of the most common floating seaweeds, but phylogeographic studies had shown low connectivity between populations from continental Chile, which could be due to limitations in local supply and dispersal of floating kelps. To test this hypothesis, the spatiotemporal dynamics of kelp strandings were examined in four biogeographic districts along the Chilean coast (28°-42°S)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716922/coalescing-red-algae-exhibit-non-invasive-reversible-chimerism
#19
Bernabé Santelices, Alejandra V González, Jessica Beltrán, Verónica Flores
Chimerism is produced by the somatic fusion of two or more genetically distinct conspecific individuals. In animals, the main cost of fusion is competition between genetically different cell lineages and the probability of original cell-line replacement by more competitive invasive lines, which limits its natural frequency (3-5%). In red and brown seaweeds, chimerism is widespread (27-53%), seemingly without the negative outcomes described for animals. The rigidity of cell walls in macroalgae prevents cell motility and invasions...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711971/future-warming-and-acidification-effects-on-anti-fouling-and-anti-herbivory-traits-of-the-brown-alga-fucus-vesiculosus-phaeophyceae
#20
Stefanie Raddatz, Tamar Guy-Haim, Gil Rilov, Martin Wahl
Human induced ocean warming and acidification have received increasing attention over the past decade and are considered to have substantial consequences for a broad range of marine species and their interactions. Understanding how these interactions shift in response to climate change is particularly important with regard to foundation species, such as the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This macroalga represents the dominant habitat former on coastal rocky substrata of the Baltic Sea, fulfilling functions essential for the entire benthic community...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Phycology
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