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Journal of Phycology

Huan Qiu, Jun Mo Lee, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya
Red algae (Rhodophyta) putatively diverged from the eukaryote tree of life >1.2 billion years ago and are the source of plastids in the ecologically important diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates. In general, red algae contain the largest plastid gene inventory among all such organelles derived from primary, secondary, or additional rounds of endosymbiosis. In contrast, their nuclear gene inventory is reduced when compared to their putative sister lineage, the Viridiplantae, and other photosynthetic lineages...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Hiroshi Kawai, Takeaki Hanyuda, Gao Xu, Makoto Terauchi, Masahiko Miyata, Sandra C Lindstrom, Nina G Klochkova, Kathy Ann Miller
We confirmed the monophyly of the Agaraceae based on phylogenetic analyses of 6 mitochondrial and 6 chloroplast gene sequences from Agarum, Costaria, Dictyoneurum and Thalassiophyllum species as well as representative species from other laminarialean families. However, the genus Agarum was paraphyletic, comprising two independent clades, A. clathratum/A. turneri and A. fimbriatum/A. oharaense. The latter clade was genetically most closely related to Dictyoneurum spp., and morphologically the species shared a flattened stipe bearing fimbriae (potential secondary haptera) in the mid to upper portion...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Robin L Taylor, Craig J Bailey, D Wilson Freshwater
Identification of Cladophora species is challenging due to conservation of gross morphology, few discrete autapomorphies, and environmental influences on morphology. Twelve species of marine Cladophora were reported from North Carolina waters. Cladophora specimens were collected from inshore and offshore marine waters for DNA sequence and morphological analyses. The nuclear-encoded rRNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) were sequenced for 105 specimens and used in Molecular Assisted Identification (MAI)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Jorge Dinamarca, Orly Levitan, G K Kumaraswamy, Desmond S Lun, Paul Falkowski
Under nutrient deplete conditions, diatoms accumulate between 15 to 25% of their dry weight as lipids, primarily as triacylglycerols (TAGs). As in most eukaryotes, these organisms produce TAGs via the acyl-CoA dependent Kennedy pathway. The last step in this pathway is catalyzed by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that acylates diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce TAG. To test our hypothesis that DGAT plays a major role in controlling the flux of carbon towards lipids, we overexpressed a specific type II DGAT gene, DGAT2D, in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Danilo E Bustamante, Boo Yeon Won, Kathy Ann Miller, Tae Oh Cho
Morphological, anatomical, and molecular sequence data were used to assess the establishment and phylogenetic position of the genus Wilsonosiphonia gen. nov. Phylogenies based on rbcL and concatenated rbcL and cox1 loci support recognition of Wilsonosiphonia gen. nov., sister to Herposiphonia. Diagnostic features for Wilsonosiphonia are rhizoids located at distal ends of pericentral cells and taproot-shaped multicellular tips of rhizoids. Wilsonosiphonia includes three species with diagnostic rbcL and cox1 sequences, W...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Annalisa Caragnano, Daniela Basso, David Storz, Dorrit E Jacob, Federica Ragazzola, Francesca Benzoni, Eric Dutrieux
This study presents the first algal thallus (skeleton) archive of Asian monsoon strength and Red Sea influence in the Gulf of Aden. Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, Ba/Ca were measured on Lithophyllum yemenense from Balhaf (Gulf of Aden) using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Mg/Ca ratio oscillation was used to reconstruct the chronology (34 years). Oscillations of element rates corresponding to the algal growth between 1974 and 2008 were compared with recorded climate and oceanographic variability...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
María García-Portela, Pilar Riobó, Francisco Rodríguez
The presence of the benthic dinophysoid dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata has been reported in the Canary Islands (eastern central Atlantic) in live field observations and on fixed macroalgae samples from intertidal ponds (26 sampling sites from El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote islands). In vivo Sinophysis cells were typically pale pink colored. Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed a small characteristic narrow hypothecal cut that matched the original description of S...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Paulette Peckol, Alysha B Putnam
Members of the genus Ulva are widespread and abundant in intertidal and shallow subtidal areas but there are conflicting data regarding susceptibility to herbivory. While some studies have documented that Ulva spp. were favored by a diversity of marine herbivores, other work has revealed herbivore deterrence. We investigated grazing and growth rates of the littorinid species, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata, when offered Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca and Chondrus crispus, highlighting distinctive vulnerabilities to toxic effects of U...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Anurag Kirti, Arvind Kumar, Hema Rajaram
Anabaena sp. PCC7120 possesses three genes coding for single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) protein, of which ssb1 was a single gene, and ssb2 and ssb3, the first gene of their corresponding operons. Regulation of the truncated ssb genes, ssb1 (alr0088) and ssb2 (alr7559) were unaffected by N-status of growth. They were negatively regulated by the SOS-response regulatory protein LexA, as indicated by the (i) binding of Anabaena LexA to the LexA-box of regulatory regions of ssb1 and ssb2, and (ii) decreased expression of the downstream gfp reporter gene in E...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Rachael M Wade, Alison R Sherwood
The sacoglossan sea slug species complex Plakobranchus ocellatus is a common algivore throughout the tropical Pacific, including the Hawaiian Islands. Plakobranchus ocellatus is kleptoplastic - it sequesters and retains algal chloroplasts - a characteristic that can be exploited to molecularly characterize diminutive bryopsidalean algae that are typically difficult to locate, collect, and identify. Previous DNA barcode analyses of both P. ocellatus and its kleptoplasts have been conducted primarily in the western Pacific and have only minimally sampled the most eastern populations in the Hawaiian Islands...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Kendra A Turk-Kubo, Hanna M Farnelid, Irina N Shilova, Britt Henke, Jonathan P Zehr
A recently described symbiosis between the metabolically streamlined nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A and a single-celled eukaryote prymnesiophyte alga is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical marine waters, and is thought to contribute significantly to nitrogen fixation in these regions. Several UCYN-A sublineages have been defined based on UCYN-A nitrogenase (nifH) sequences. Due to the low abundances of UCYN-A in the global oceans, currently existing molecular techniques are limited for detecting and quantifying these organisms...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Katariina Natunen, Jukka Seppälä, Riikka-Juulia Koivula, Jukka Pellinen
With the fluorescent stain Nile Red (NR), phytoplankton lipid accumulation can be monitored quickly and in situ. In the light of recent results in phytoplankton diversity research, there is also a need for cell- and species-specific lipid measurement techniques. The objective of this work was to investigate, whether cell-specific phytoplankton lipid accumulation could be monitored with the image-based particle analyser FlowCAM(™) and NR staining. Applying Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a model species, we compared the FlowCAM method to two established lipid quantification methods: spectrofluorometric NR fluorescence measurement and total lipid analysis by gas chromatography...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Alison R Sherwood, Monica N Dittbern, Emily T Johnston, Kimberly Y Conklin
Airborne algae from sites on the windward (n=3) and leeward (n=3) sides of the Ko'olau Mountain range of O'ahu, Hawai'i, were sampled for a 16-d period during January and February 2015 using passive collection devices and were characterized using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the UPA marker. Amplicons were assigned to 3,023 OTUs, which included 1,189 cyanobacteria, 1,009 heterotrophic bacteria, and 304 Eukaryota (of which 284 were algae and land plants). Analyses demonstrated substantially more OTUs at windward than leeward O'ahu sites during the sampling period...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Przemysław Dąbek, Matt P Ashworth, Andrzej Witkowski, Chunlian Li, Thomas G Bornman, Vítor Gonçalves, Jinsoon Park, Jong Seong Khim
The family Cymatosiraceae, composed of two subfamilies (Cymatosiroideae and Extubocelluloideae), are elongate, non-pennate diatoms and are commonly reported in marine planktonic and benthic assemblages all over the world. The combination of the gross bilateral symmetry of the frustule and radial symmetry of the valve poration, distinct pore fields at the valve apices and DNA sequence data place this family in the controversial diatom class Mediophyceae, sister to the pennate diatoms. The relationships of the Cymatosiraceae within the Mediophyceae, and the monophyly of the two cymatosiroid subfamilies, have become less stable with the addition of new DNA sequence data...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Q F Yang, L Liu, Y Liu, Z G Zhou
Telomeres generally consist of short repeats of minisatellite DNA sequences and are useful in chromosome identification and karyotype analysis. To date, telomeres have not been characterized in the economic brown seaweed Saccharina japonica, thus its full cytogenetic research and genetic breeding potential has not been realized. Herein, the tentative sequence of telomeres in S. japonica was identified by PCR amplification with primers designed based on the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence (TTTAGGG)n , which was chosen out of 3 possible telomeric repeat DNA sequences typically present in plants and algae...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Anna Liza Kretzschmar, Arjun Verma, D Tim Harwood, Mona Hoppenrath, Shauna Murray
Gambierdiscus is a genus of benthic dinoflagellates found worldwide. Some species produce neurotoxins (maitotoxins and ciguatoxins) which bioaccumulate and cause ciguatera fish poisoning, a potentially fatal food-borne illness that is common worldwide in tropical regions. The investigation of toxigenic species of Gambierdiscus in ciguatera fish poisoning endemic regions in Australia is necessary as a first step in order to determine which species of Gambierdiscus are related to ciguatera fish poisoning cases occurring in this region...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Chikako Nagasato, Atsuko Tanaka, Toshiaki Ito, Christos Katsaros, Taizo Motomura
Despite the high number of studies on the fine structure of brown algal cells, only limited information is available on the intercelluar transportation of molecules via plasmodesmata in brown algae. In this study, plasmodesmatal permeability of Halopteris congesta was examined by observing the translocation of microinjected fluorescent tracers of different molecular sizes. The tip region of H. congesta consists of a cylindrical apical cell while the basal region is multiseriate. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD; 3, 10, and 20 kDa) and recombinant green fluorescent protein (27 kDa) were injected into the apical cell and was observed to diffuse into the neighboring cells...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Phoebe R Armitage, Wendy A Nelson, Judith E Sutherland
Several subspecies are defined within Codium fragile, including the invasive C. fragile ssp. fragile, first reported in New Zealand in 1973. An endemic subspecies, Codium fragile ssp. novae-zelandiae, is also found throughout New Zealand. The two subspecies exhibit morphological and molecular variation, although these have never been evaluated together. We compared variation between subspecies at locations in Auckland, identifying subspecies using rps3-rpl16 DNA sequence data, and assessing gross morphological differences, anatomical utricle characters and morphometrics...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Pedro Murúa, Dieter G Müller, David J Patiño, Renato Westermeier
Recent findings on holdfast development in the giant kelp highlighted its key importance for Macrocystis vegetative propagation. We report here for the first time the development of adventitious holdfasts from Macrocystis stipes. Swellings emerge spontaneously from different areas of the stipes, especially in senescent or creeping individuals. After being manually fastened to solid substrata, these swellings elongated into haptera, which became strongly attached after one month. Within 4 months new thalli increased in size and vitality, and developed reproductive fronds...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Dominique Marie, Florence Le Gall, Roseline Edern, Priscillia Gourvil, Daniel Vaulot
Flow cytometry provides a tool to physically sort single algal cells in order to obtain clonal cultures. During sorting, cells are submitted to physical stress factors such as high fluidic pressure, exposure to the laser beam, electrostatic charges, deflection through high voltage fields and collisions with container surfaces. All of these can damage the cells of interest and success rates for initiation of cultures from flow-sorted cells are generally very low. We found that the addition of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in the culture medium into which cells are sorted drastically improved the success of initiation of pico- and nano-eukaryotic phytoplankton strains...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
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